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July 3, 1962
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Approved For Releas000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185 JPRS: 14,373 3 July 1962 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE Bui fding T-30 Ohio Dr., and Independence Ave? S. W. Washington 25, D. C. Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 pproved For Releas 00/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000106%0017-6 FOREWORD This publication was prepared under contract for the Joint Publications Research Service, an or- ganization established to service the translation, and foreign-language research needs of the various fed- era r government departments. The contents of this material in no way rep- resent the policies, views, or attitudes of the U. S. Government, or of the parties to any distribution arrangements. PROCUREMEN T."''6F JP.R,S, REPORTS Ali JPRS reports are listed in Months CatarogyLof U. S. Government Publications, avot fable for 3.00 per year (includ- ing an annual ind x) from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Scientific and technical, reports may be obtained . from: Safes and Distribution Section, Office of Technical- Services, Washington 25, D. C. These reports and their prices are fisted in the Office of Technical- Services semimonthly publication, Technical Tronsiations, available at ,12.00 per year from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Photocopies of any JPRS report are available (price upon request) from ; Photodupfi cation Service, Library of Congress, Washington 25, D. C. Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Release.~000/09/11: CIA-RDP78-03185A00010QW 0017-6 JPRS : 14,373 OSO : 6897-D THE SING-SOVIET DISPUTE s repo?: t corit s b articles orl Siric oviet relations Telected f:.-t m 8penish-language Latin American publiications. Detai ..pd scuree information is given under the individual atiicie headings," Page I. Communist Chinese Pamphlet Underscores Russo-Chinese Dispute II. Relations Betreen the USSR and China Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Releasaa;000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100WOO17-6 COMMUNIST CHINESE PAWMT UNDERSCORES Russo -CRITbRU, DISPUTE [Follows-hg is the trabsiat?oti of an att?dle bar Eduardo Castillo Wong , in the Spanish-language publication EJ-.Universal (The Universal),. 25; M6y 1%2.3 A little book about de.TStalinizatipnpnblished in-Peking to oppose this policy proposed by the dictator of Moscow and make fun of It--a. pglicJvhich Red Chind -..does _n.,t v ant to adopt under any circumstance -- has been successful.. The little, book or pamphlet to which I an referring is circulating widely in al]:-countries in various languages; apparently editions'have been published for every one of the countries in the red orbit, including the USSR, and also, it is clear, for countries of the free world. In one way; the scandal, about this pamphlet dates from 28 March, when the Roman newspaper 13. Messaggero. (The Messenger) inserted a very informative item dated Moscow,under.the headline, "A Book Published in Peking that Praises Stalin's Work." It is a 14-page pamphlet with the title, Josef Vissarionovich Stalin, Our Great Leader and Teacher. We could not call it a great literary work, a model of political literature, or a venomous lampoon. Its value lies in nothing more than that it publicly exposes the intensity and rancor of the fight between Khrushchev and Mao Tse-tung. The pamphlet, published in Peking by the government office "Publications in Foreign Languages," appeared first in the Russian language. In this way it took on the character of a direct message to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Almost as an official document, the pamphlet was addressed. under a suitable envelope to the principal leaders of the Communist Parties of the USSR and Its allies on the occasion of-the 82nd anniversary of Stalin's birth.. We read in the pamphlet . printed. in English which reached us just a few days ago that "on the 21st of December the loyal members of the Communist parties and all the workers' associations celebrated the anniversary of the birth of one of 'the greatest representatives of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and of the Soviet state itself, a man who was a great Marxist-Leninist." Our readers will understand from. the tenor of the above-quoted statement that it is a question of.a very.`effusive, very vehement homage by the present heads of the Chinese nation to the semi-god that.the iconoclasts of Russia have knocked down from his exalted niche. Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Release 2000/09/11 :CIA-RDP78-03185A0001 0017-6 CPYRGHT The author and editors. of the. pamphlet;, . recapturing the Stalinist glory, make the following statement: "Stalin dedicated him- self wholly to the cause of,the proletarian revolution.arid was an implacable eneny of imperialism. -A-vigorous ohampion, he assumed the defense of his socialist couiitty at all times:,'an&. devoted his maximum efforts to the expansion of N1axism-Leninism throughout the entire world, while at the sa,no' - time he gave aid;' witboat an7 restricting conditions', to all the groups. that.Yo'ked for the liberation of sub- jeot peoples. Stalin was also a defetac er of uni'vers'al peace." Td dispel the notion that Stalin's worshipers are blinded by emotion, the pamphlet admits that. that leader committed errors, but it .r d that thear not be taken into consideration because "in spite of his greatness and his extraordinary genius, Stalin was not a demigod, nor did he make any attempt to be taken for any such thing. We Communists also make. errors .. " Stalin had no lesson to go by in.or'der to,avoid errors since he was carrying out plans without any precedent wl1altsoever in the life of peoples. He could, have no teacher be&tauee his work lacked any previous history. It was in Russia that the dictatorship of the proletariat was introduced for the first time., Those who. accomplished this feat had no models to imitate, nor could they be evaluated by reference to former, leaders. On the other hand., the Chinese pamphlet severely criticizes the way Khrushchev has been carrying on relations with the West because, according to the Chinese, the cause, of the,socialist bloc is endangered by his tactics. Mao Tee-tung's Reds do not approve the policy of coexistence nor any other action that weakens the world struggle for the liberation of countries "subjugated by capitalist .imperialism." But what incenses the authors of the Chinese pamphlet the most is the terrible HIhrushchevian propaganda denouncing the errors of, Stalin. The Moscow dictator started his campaign against the powerful Stalin at the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, and at the 22nd one he reached the height of audacity. The Peking government disallows any intention on the part of Moscow to find a solution to the. problem of disaramment. The Red Chinese do not want peace, nor do they want.,tolerance, nor do they mean to compromise with any capitalist government. To them the present President of the United. States Is nothing more than a vile "fascist." China has been helping the weak countries to liberate themselves from the Western powers and accuses Khrushchev of acting with too much modera- tion in this matter. Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Releas?.Z000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000109WOO17-6 CPYRGHT The Chinese supply arms and aiiiunition to the Algerians; they grant legal recognition to the pro-isional government and do other. things on behalf of the Communist oate, while the Soviets only inter- vene later on in order not to &tir up do Gaulle'e ill till. Indeed, the China of Mao appears to be resoled, in spite of any information to the contrary, to oppose Nikita Kbrushchev very courageously. 624+x+ -3- Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For ReleaseQaOO/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A0001001jO017-6 II. RELATIONS BEEWFEN Tt tJSR AND MINA [Following is the translation of an article by Carlos de Barbibar._in.,the Spanish-language newspaper El'. Mercurio ' (Te Merury), Santiago, Chile, 30 May 1962, page 3.] -The information and propaganda services of Communist China. have distributed in the western world and in the "neutralist" world, at least, an interesting 10-page pamphlet with an attractive red cover page featuring the portrait of Stalin. The title could not be more challeng- ing to his successor and ex-accomplice Nikita Khrushchev, especially after his second defamatory attack on the Caligula of the Kremlin at the recent 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. In fact, in the upper part of the cover page appears': In commemoration of the anniversary of'the birth of Josef Vissarionovidh Stalin". And, in order that there may be no doubt, on the lower part is added: "Our great leader and teacher, 1879-1953"; while on the back cover we see an illustration -- much more "corny" even than'the portrait--which represents a parade of the toughest Russo-Chinese leaders during some official reception, headed by Stalin to the right of Mao Tee-tung, in back of whom Molotov, Chou En-lai, and others of both bands or coteries are walking. Printed in the People's Republic of China by its publishing office "Editions -in. Foreign Lr..?,nguages, Peking, 1962", the pamphlet -- with a fine sense of propaganda -- confines itself to a brief introduction followed by a series of quotations of what the main "de-Stalinizers" of today. said about Stalin at a time when none of them dared to utter a word, considering his temper and greatness, for very compelling reasons of "personal safety," as Khrushchev himself explained to the astonished 20th Congress of the aforesaid Communist Party when the abuse of the idol started. As the reader will understand, the "introduction" is the least of it, and the small printing points it out in this way. The delightful part of it is the following anthology, very much in the style of the pamphlets printed so successfully-in Santiago by the Congress for the Freedom of Culture, which are completely out of print today, entitled This is the Way thy Saw Stalin and Khrushchev vs Stalin,. in which the ex worshipers of t11. monster were presented in a ridiculous light on this subject. Here is a small sample of the slanted Chinese pamphlet: By Khrushchev: "Long live our master and leader, the greatest genius among humanity, who is leading us victoriously to Communism!" (Khrushchev's speech at the 18th Congress of the CPSU, 1939);."Long live the wise leader of the Party and people, the inspirer and organizer of our victories, Comrade Stalin!" (By the same N. K. at the 19th Congress, 1952). II Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Release a 000/09/11: CIA-RDP78-03185A0001`00010017-6 CPYRGHT By i-iikoyan: "Comrade Sta . -, rrat only has perfect command of the whole literature of Marx, EAGe' l d M `Lei n... but he also enriches Marxism-Leninism w .-t,h great dtscov'erie. 3. coritin ies developing the Marxist-Leninist theory." (Published in Rab ;sosko Delo, Sofia, 1 July 1950) By Ulbricht: "Stalin was a wise commander who made every important decision and solely by himself :Led the nation to victory over fascism." (Neues Deutschland, 19 March 1956)? And so on. How will this heavy-caliber explosion come back to roost on Khrushchev and the present official position of the CPSU among the "bonzes" [high priests of the party--translator] and the activists. of their various fifth columns in the world, to which they are basically addressed? Will it contribute toward strengthening the good feelings of those who thought that to be a Stalinist constituted the highest honor and hierarchy, as a certain great prophet said? Naturally, we do not know. However this may be, it will be well not to allow ourselves too many illusions about this new, well-known evidence of the ideological conflict between the Soviet Union and the China of Mao Tse-tung. Further- more, there is no reason to minimize it either. Let's have a look at how this questionable, cautious appraisal is Justified.. First of all, it is evident that no Communist, however visionary he might be, would have dared to..predict between 1920 and 1930--once the dream of imminent world revolution stirred up by the Kremlin was dissipated--the development assumed by the sect since the last general conflagration, in which the Soviet regime would have been destroyed without the sacrifices and efforts of the Western world to help it, in addition, of course, to the heroism with which the Russian people responded to the call to a patriotic war--not in the name of Marx or Lenin, of course, nor of the Soviet Revolution, but in the, name of old Mother Russia, the holy Russia of Dostoievsky and the czars. In fact today, with the Western world. strictly on the defensive for a good many years, and with the Communists now in possession of one-third of the earth, it is logical for many Communists to believe that the realization of their dream of universal superiority is within reach of their iron determination. However, at this seemingly propitious stage in the preparation for, their final, definitive triumph, the deep conflict existing between Communist Fussia and China is becoming glaringly acute since the very -5- Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Releas,J000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A00010QUO017-6 CPYRGHT "heroic" epoch of. the . latter :so admirably depicted.: by. ,Malraux. Events are flowing as if, the Marzist -prophecies that were iu `ulfilled within national boundaries, and insofar as the old imperialisms were' conce~ne&, were now going to be fulfilled in the Communist universe. The rivalries proclaimed for the Western imperialist camp (Lenin said), are actually occurring in the "Eastern" camp, where affairs are becoming entangled to the point where a division is observed between: the two new imperiali+ms: Moscow on the one hand with. her. European "satellitgs,"'minus the Albanian satellite; and on the other hand, Peking, with the Communist Asiatic countries ,:'-us Albania, with both contending fore influence over the Communist parties of the countries free from..their domination and the governments of the "third world," with clear preponderance, for the time being, for Moscow. Naturally, it is not a question of any irreparable rupture, at leas.t~.not in the present situation.. Whenever they deem it-advisable., there will,be joint new statements about the indestructible'union of the socialist camp and.the substantial unity of doctrine, purposes, etc. But there is already much evidence that-:the famous monolith has ceased to be one, and instead.has made way fora conglomeration in which,.in addition to., the two aforementioned basic sources,,. Yugoslavia shines her own light on one side, while Poland occupies a special, less clear but also distinctly colored, position. Then there are the positions of other Euro Asiatic countries of the two. young empires, although less percepti- ble still.. For the 1time being,there is no room for doubt about the clear superiority of the-USSR in the whole conglomeration, because of,her in- d.ustrial development,her military power; and-the additional economic' strength which her c.entral;European colonies represent, even if the demQeraphic difference of the. whole in the face of Red Chine, and her dependencies is so great. However, one cannot have any doubt either about the deep concern of'the Kremlin before the specter of an industrial- ized China with, .n her turn, possession of real nuclear arms. The fact is so evident also to better informed observers that there is no lack of those who believe that the impressive number of nuclear-tests recently carried. out. by the USSR had:as..a principal objective, even more than to demonstrate her yrxesent strength, to keep very: much ahead of what China is. capable of becoming in a few years in the sinister art;of mass destruction, and that this'was well worth, facing the general unpopularity of such tests. In this respect, different reports about the present situation appear to confirm that there are now four reactors in operation in China (in Peking, Harbin, Chungking, and Siak), which as yet are incapable of producing the necessary plutonium for a single atomic bomb a year. However, perhaps one of them may soon carry out its first experiment of Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6 Approved For Release 1'000/09/11: CIA-RDP78-03185A0001 0017-6 the kind, which, if isi etti; w1 cause evident psychological excitement in the kre t o is !Dt41. as in the` USSR, which, 'it -has appeared certain for sd time, does' not promise China any'assistance on this specific point. That historic fact, which could be very close at hand, will, whether one likes it or not, represent a decrease in Moscow's prestige in the :Communist world as a superpower., muster, and guide of the world; and will mean the introduction of a new factor of disturbance -ox at least of.complicatioz:i -- in the grave problems, such as disarmament (to cite merely the main one), which they have not as yet been-able to resolve properly. Could, it be that that moment -- predicted in one form or another by so-many prophets - is drawing near when the interests of the USSR and those. of Communist'China do not coincide? Furthermore, will there be an essential incompatibility between the interests of the Muscovite neo-imperialism and the interests of international Communism, a hypothesis which, appears' to be anticipated in the new book of Djilas -- doned the Chinese.. Spanish, and. Yugoslav revolutions at the most pro- pitious time for spreading Communism in these several countries? If we add (as it can be assumed Djilas will do'if he goes more deeply into the subject) that the Greek, French, and other Communists were also left to their fate or held back when they thought they were going to- be able to realize their dream, the conclusion as to the fundamental deviousness of Soviet policy in this respect is inescapable, because evidently in general it appears to encourage socializing, democratic revolutions only to take possession of them?immediately'.afterwards and pervert them, as it did in Cuba and as it is now attempting to do in Venezuela. However, at the same time, when it is geopolitically cornven- ient tm this policy, it checks revolutionary movements led by its own Communists, seemingly under more favrorable conditions, to seize power by violence. These dramatic contradictions, whioh':riow make any constructive democratic revolution of a socialist nature a trifle less than impossible in the world, prove that what come first in the Kremlin are Russian imperialist interests. Will the law be fulfilled when these interests clash head-on with those of Communist China if China attempts seriously to frustrate them? 624+x+ - END - Approved For Release 2000/09/11 : CIA-RDP78-03185A000100010017-6