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January 1, 1954
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Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Rai- Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A961700140003-3 of Events 1848 Communist Manifesto of Karlrx 818- fl-TrsTTIZZrIg7r 3) Triedrich 1861 March 3 -- gnantipstion Edict 1864 First International (First International Work inm IiiMation) with headquarters first in London and .8 en in New York. 1876-1894 Karl Marx's CAPITAL the basic exposition of his theory. 1874 South Russian Libor Utile/a established in Odessa under ZASLAVSKI. 1876 A secret society called Land and Liberty" -- the spearhead of the so-celled 10?pulist Mbvement ("going among the people"). 1879 Jan. 4 -- Fleet general meeting of North Rnesied,yorkers Un on, organized by STEFAN KBALTURIN and VIKTOR OBNORSKY. 1887 Jan. 12 -- Clandestine pUblicatinns of the program of North Russian Workers Won. Assassination of Alex. II. Labor Liberation MOvenent organized Social Democratic Circle of St. Petersburg organized under 2LACOYEV. Organization of Social Democratic circle in Kharkov wider MELINKOV. May 13 -- First celebration of May let in St. Petersburg. Orgenization of Union of Struggle for Liberation of Working Class -- headed by Lenin and comrades. Dec. 20 -- Lenin and leaders arrested. Feb 11 -- Lenin exiled to Siberia for 3 years. Oct. 7 -- Jewish workers BUM Detablished in Poland and Lithuania. Union of Russian Social Democrats abroad established. March 13-15 -- First congress of Party in NInsk. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A0131700140003-3 1900 Lenin returns from exile; Dec. 24 first issue of =A 18km-contained the first editorial by Lenin called "Current 3;i7 of our Movement". 1901 Mirth -- First issue of magazine DMA (4a "Morning Star") 1902 Feb. First issue of Lenin's "What to do?" April 5-10 BriOSTOK conference Sept. 15-16 PSIKOV conference for pre on of second Congress. 1903 July 30-Aug. 23 -- Second Congress of Party called to Brussels and transferred to London.' 1904 Feb. 8 -- Outbreak of Russo-Japanese Wax-, Hoy -- First issue of Lenin's "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back. July -- Conference of 22 Bolsheviks in Geneva and organization of "Bureau of Majority Committees." 1905 Jan 5. -- First issue of daily mVPICRED ("Yo r separate oynization of the Bolshevik center. of Port Arthu Jan. 16 -- Strike at PUTILOV Plant. Jan. 20 -- General Strike_ in St. Petersburg. Jan. 22 Attack on wokkers mho were trying to petition the Czar at the Winter Palace. arch 10 -- Surrender at NDUEN. April 25 -- 10 --- Third Congress of Party in May 27 -- Naval disaster at TSUSHIMA. July 6 -- General strike in NOscow. Sept. 20-22 -- anternational conference of ell Social Democratic Lebow organizations of geographic Russia for elaboration of general tactics to be applied in BUM= -- Bum. girst exapple of attempt at "united front" tactiosj?s- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 1911 1914 Approved Por Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A0,01700140003-3 2Fti :7ccurity Informaan UCZ. 20 -Strike at Micacow-Mt railway. GoL 26 -- j.T7 ipportangFirst session of St. Petersburg So Let at Workers Duties. Dec. 16 -- Arrest of the Above de1eates tn St. Petersburg. Dec. 2-30 --- Conference in TAMERFORSE, Finland. Dec. 22 - Jan. 1 --Armed insurrection in Moscow. Mirth -- Liberal STOLYPIN Made Prime Minister. April 23 -- Fourth CT "Unification"Congress of Party in Stockholm. by. 16-20 -- First All-Rushian Conference in Finland (Start of a purely Russian party). NOw. 25-D00.5: -- First conference of pasamilitary and combat organizations of Russian Social Democratic Libor Party LPRINe in Tammerforse. NOY 13-June 1 -- Fifth Sondog assembled In Copenhagen. Z:ke 5 which originally econd all-Russian Conference in Relsingfors 2140% Third all-Russian conference in Finland. Jan. 3-9 -- All-Russian conference in Paris. Jan. 28-Feb. 18 -- Plenary session of Central Committee or imp in Paris -- also known as the "Paris plenum". Ana. -- Consultation of members of Central Comm. of =LP in mom (near Cracow) also known as "August" or "summer Conspiratory Meeting." August Bolshevik faction in DU) A votes against war credits. August 8 -- Arrest of Lenin in MOWY-TARO in Galicia. Sept. 1 -- Publicatinn of Central COMM. of ISDLP manifest -- "Concerning imperialist War" in Me. 33 issue of "Social Democrat NOWOzine". .3- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Fer Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A041700140003-3 Itov. 4 --Arrest of Bolahealk f t on of F Petereburg. in St. 1915 March 5-16 -- First conference of In Berne, Switzerland. April 2-4 -- Second session of the .917 Feb. 28 -- Strike of 25,000 workers in Petrograd' March 3 -- Strike at the PUTILOV works. March 8 -- Celebration of Women's Day. Meetings and .of the war. demonstrations demanding the overthrow of the Czar and cessation March4:- Strjks of 200,000 workmen in Petrograd. Street fights with the police. An attempt to build barricades- March 10 General Strike in Petrograd. Soviet of Workmate Deputies elected. Printing offices of the 1101,032 VREMIA" looted by crow. Shooting in varioua parts of the city. Members of revolutionary organizations arrested. March 11 -- Machine guns and barbed wire in the streets of Petrograd. Czar's decree ordering the dissolution of the DUNA, Government. Bolshevik's manifesto on the formation of the Previsional March 12 -- Revolt of three eliteiment Czar's g- mlaisters arrested. ForMation of the Duna committet* Format o sof the Provisional Government with Prince Lvov as Read. April 11 -- All-Rusaian Conference of Soviets. April 16 -- Return of Lenin and 32 exiles from abroad. as War Matter. May 18 --Formation of the Coalition Government. Kerensky June 16-JUly 6 --- First al1_fisjan Congress of Soviets. ilberaa Party, resign. uly 15 -- ambers of the Oovernmen belonging to the Cadet ons abro of RSDLP (a) Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A09t1700140003-3 July 16-17 -- July- Days" Armed demonstrations of workmen and soldiers demanding "The overthrow of the ten Capitalist Misters" "All power to the Soviets", "Cessation of the wee etc. Provisional Govt. mdbiliteszthe Cossacks and the officer Training Corps. Aly 19 -- Ruisian lines broken at TARROPOL. July 20 -- Provisional Govt. orders the arrest of n Zinoviev, and Samenev (the first two escape-the third is arrested) July 21 -- larremehy appointed Premier. Nov. 7 -- October Revolution Nov. 6-9 -- Second Congress of report the Conference ratifies and the laud decree. The Uinta Powers the conclusion of a general lets. After Le '1 ret on peace and war propcses to the belligerent armistice. Nov. 11 Decree of the 8-hour working day. Dec. 2 -- Flight of the generals Earnilov, Manikin, and Alekseev to the Dan. Dec. 15 --Armistice signed Brest -Litonek. Dec. 31 -- Finland declares her independence. Jan 2 -- Council of People of Finland. Commissars recognize the independence Jen. 14 -- Attempt on Lenine life inTetrograd. Feb. 8 -- Introduction of the Gregarian calendar. Feb. 9 .- Trotsky at Brest-Litonak refuses to accept Germany conditioes or peace. Feb. 1 Beginningof Gerian invasion. March 3 - Brest-Litonsk peace treaty signed. Nisch 6- Seventh Congress of the Bolshevik Party. Change of name to that of the Russian Communist Party (Bnishevik) from old Russian 8ob4a1 Democratic Labor Party (Bolshevik -5- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 1919 Approved.For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362K001700140003-3 March 19 -- Moscow becomes the capital of the Russian Soviet Republic. July 16 -- ixecubion of Nicholas Romanov. August 3 -- Landing of American troops at Archangel. August 30 -- Second attempt on Lenin's life by Kaplan - a iran Social Revolutionary. Sept. 4 -- American troops land at Vladivostok Sipt. 14 -- Metric system introduced. 30 -- Soviet Russia declared a. military camp. Third International organized April 9 -- Xolchak starts a general offensive ae tern front. June 13?Entente recognizes Kolchek as Dictator of Russia. iihne 14 -- Kolchak recognised by Allies as Supreme Ruler of Russia. Mirth 8 --? Tenth Pasty Congress approves NEP Nov. 5 --Asinesty to the soldiers of the While Arties proclaimed. Soviet-Mongolian Treaty of friendship signed in Moscow. Dec. -- First All-onion Congress of Soviets Jan. 21 --- Death of Lenin Feb. 2 -- Rykov elected Chat Commissars of the USSR. Great Britain recognizes Soviet Russia de Lint. (In Feb. and March she sea followed by Italy, No , Austria, Greece, Sweden -- Then in May by China, June by Denmamk -- Oct. 26 by Treace). of the nr'i I of Pe 1 Approved For For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Far Release :,CIAARDP78-03362A041700140003-3 'MO Informatioa 1925 Dec. -- 14 Congress changed the name from R- ssian Comemniet Party !Bolshevik) to All-Untbou C.P. (b) also known aa CPSU CO LA 19 Congress, Oct. 1952, changed to CPSUI 1526 (Several trade agreements in earlier years) April 24 -- Soviet-German neutrality pact signed in n. Sept. 7--Germany enters League of Nations. 1927 Nov, 12 Trotsky and Zinoviev expelled from the Communist Party, 1929 April 23 --The maximum program of the Five-ear Plan is ratified by the Council of People's Commissars, 1932 Threat of war with Japan. 1933 Ritler comes to power. Jan. --Central Comm. of the Party adopted a decision to organize itical departments in the m.chine and tractor stations serving e to ective ferns. Same 17,000 Party workers were sent into the countryside to work in these political departments and to aid the collective farms. "This assistance was highly effective". Nistory of the CcemaJ.nist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolshevik)" edited by a commission of the 04.0., of the CPSU (B). Nbecow, 1950 Purge of the Party ranks. Nov. 17 -- Dejure recogniti by U.S. 1934 Sept, -- Russia joins League of Nitt10110- 1935 May -- Treaty of mutual assistance against possible attack by aggressors signed between France and USSR; sim,Altaneous treaty usaR and Czech. 1936i939 Russian intervention in Spain. 1936 Nov. -- Adoption of a new constitutIon. 1937-1938 Pur of Trotskyite Center", Radek, Soko1niko,, Piatokoy. Bukharin, Rykov, Yagada. -7- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362=1700140003-3 1936 September --CheMberlain, Daladier, itler In *zilch; not only is Russia not invited, informed beforehand of the conference. 1939-19QWar wits Finland 1939 August -- Ten Year Non-Aggression Pact with Germany. Sept. -- Soviets enter Poland. 1940 June -- Soviet occupation of Baltic States and Moldavia 1941 April 13 Ten Year non-Aggression pact with japan. May 7 -- Stalin assumes position of Chairman of Council of People's Commissars. Mhy 10 -- Rudolph Hess lands in Soo and. June. 22 -- Germany attacks Russia Trinoshenko Budenny, Voroshilov not prepared for new type of warfare. Oiln1 meet n is not even Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Fear Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 N, riiy Informatrol A. Marx and Htgels: the Communist Manifesto Karl Marx - born 18L1, in =CRS (Rhineland) where French infltnce was stronger/ than elsewhere in Germany.. Descended from a long line of rahb but his father waa a lawyer. When he was 64ear8 old the -family became Christian, and he was brought up as a Protestant, thouah he early Abandoned religion altogether. B14 rabbinical ancestry is important for two reasona'. Tirst, he derived from it his peculiar aense of authority; and, seeeeOly, it was responsible for that messianic element which plays so important a, pert In Jewish thought. For Jewish thought has never been other-worldly" and, an NICOLAS BREDIABV poinLo out, It has always insisted upon ,the duty of establishing an era of peace and happiness in this present werld. It is no accident that so many of the Communist leaders fza Marx a day onwards have been Jews. a atwdent, nhilosaphy was a large element 4n German nevitable that he was much influenced by Hegel, the t in vogue le Berlin. Also he was influenced by Basence or Christiantty" ig78417which sought to is no more than the reflection of man's material needs. *flitch let was man isst" (Man is what he eats"),1 joined the staff of the BRIMS= ZEITUNG in X= and appointed its editor. In 1843 the Prussian Govt. use Marx editorially opppeed the Otmt.'s new aria--studied Socialism - met PROUD:HON, BAXVHIN bitterest enemy), Bagels. son of a cotton-spinner with factories in We tphalia and armed Rh= from an academic thinker into practical fields, firstAaand study of Britiah labor conditions on which 845) his classic "Conditions of the Working-Class in was the only fftend with whom Marx never quarreled; Marx rth. vas ejelled from Paris at the request of the Prussia Brussels. Here with Engels assistance, he conducted various bodies, including a group of German the Just", which later became the "Communist up the "Communist Manifesto the best Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release: CIA-RDP78-03362A1701700140003-3 "A specter is haunting Europe". This e nouncaaent was made by the vritere,Khrl Marx and Friedrich Dials, in their %knifes of 1848. This book was published as the platform of the "COmmunist , a vorkingmen's association, first exclusively German, later on international and under the political conditions of the Conttmuilt;before 1848, unavoidably a secret society. At a Congress of the League, held in London in iovether, 1847, Marx and Engels were commissioned_to prepare for pdblication a complete theoretical and practical party progrmm. Drawn up in German, in Janpary 1848, the manuscript was sena to the printer in. London a few weeks before the French revolution of February 24th. In France and Germany Mem took part in the revokutions of 1848, but i Hey 1849 he was expelled from Prussia and never received permission to return. In fact, he made it the more difficult to -Obtain such rmissionbyemet unwisely renouncing his Prussian citizenship, with the result that when Prussia 20 years later became the center of the first workers movement, his influence vas comparatively weak. Henceforth, he lived in London, supported by the charity of Engels until the latter, on his father's death in 1869, was able to settle on ahrx a fixed income of -4- 350 a year. Passed his time in research and writing and organising revolutionary movements and pursuing the many fends to which these activities led. He died in 1683; Engels pronounced over his grave an oration in, which he declared that his mark in the field of social science was equal to Darvin's in that of natural science. Engels himself died in 1895. He left all his property to Maix's children. The First Uternitional 1864 - 1816 In the summer of 1862 a party of French workers visited London to the International Exhibition and were entertained by a party of ish workers to what The Ti described as 1 a very excellent and taatial ten" at the PiremmeonA; Ite)1 in Great Queen Street. This party was to have *portant consequences. In July 1863 a group of 3ritieh trade unionists organized a meeting in support of the Polish revolutionaries and the French sent over a delegation; on Sept. 26, 1864 a second meeting, at which French, German, Italian, Swiss and Polish welshers were represented, was held at St. Martin's Hall to consider a :Aritish proposal for cooperation against the practice of importing cheep foreign labor. It was now decided to found an "International Federation of Workingmen" which was "pledged to destroy the prevailing economic systen", and an executiee committee was formed, of Which Marx was a medber. The constitution was drafted by him -- concluding with the tail-piece of the Communist Mianifesto -- "Workers of All Lands, Unite"; -10- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362Z01700140003-3 Froa 1666-1869 the ?irSt interns.tionai he'd annual conresaes either in Switzerland or Ee1git. Marx and Smola did not attend them; Marx had no love for such gathering' while Engels expressed himself is 1867 - "Nothing is ever decided at a Congress; they are all rat envie. The First International grew in nultbers; by 1870 it had a regular dues -- ming membership of 800,000. Even ually destroyed by the Commune (the greatest of the many revolt of the Parisian workers, begun )ardh 17, 1871), which cost 20)000 /ives. Marx had predicted the failure of the Commune. The final dissolution of the First International was due to Marx's controversy with Michael Bakunin (1818-1876), who repudiated all authority, God or man. Marx, a German, believed there should be order and system, even in & revolution, Bakunin founded his awn "International Social-Democratic Alliance" -- finally the First International was dissolved at the Congress of Philadelphia, 1876. d International dissolution of the First International, Marx mode no sttet to found another, believing that its reputation had. been made by the Canuna end thus had fulfilled its end; it was "stronger dead 1871 to the fall of :Bismarck, conservative forces Yet Socialise grew in Germany 'where, at the elections of 1690, ilia Social Democrats headed the poll. ailed in England, although E.M. EINDMAN vas in sympathy with , his "Social Democratic Federation" became anarchistic. Len society had no use for Marxism. In 1889 two congresses were held in Paris; one attended by Marxists, the other by non-Merxists. On July lhth, the centenary of the capture of the Bastille, the two groups combined under the joint chairmanship of LiEBENECET and Edouard VAMILLABT. This "Second International held Congresses every two or three years up to World War 1. It formally adopted Marx's basic principles -- the class struggle, international unity, proletattmn action, and the socialization of the means of production. But Capitalism was changing its Character; the worker was getting a "better deal' -- and accordintly the Second. International bean to "soft-pedal" the above principles of Marx by demerAing reform of the existing order rathdr than destruction of it. It was a period of International peace -- this "revisionist" attitude was exemplified in of EDOUARD BEESTEIN,a leading German Social Democrat and editor of the SOZIAC - DEMONEAT. In hiseWlE IS WISSENSORAFTLICRER SOZIAL/SMUS AGLI (1901) he declared that Social Democracy "should find the courage to Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362AGE1700140003-3 it from a philosophy Which bass in fact , long been illing to dhow itself for what it really is -- a t party of reform". D. 24 Vienna Intoirnational After the founding of the Third International, t would not affiliate with it but had withdrawn from the Second Inte in disgust formed themselves into the "TIMD-MD-A-ULF INTERNATIONAL Le 1921. In May 1923, in Hamburg, 620 delegates from 30 countries met in conference of the Second and Vienna Internationals and decided to disione the Second and Vienna Internationale and to form in their place the "LABOR AND SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL" (L,S.I'). This body continue* in existence until 1 s in Bus5ta A. Cl ase in Russia. of large-scale Industry in Russia and the formation must be referred to the 18th century, although at r of factories and mills yes still extremely small. engaged. in sanufacturingmilitegy supplies for the vernment was a landlords' government, but it had ale Chant capital the development of -which had at that . The workers employed in these factories were serfs, ". They were legally bound to the factories. La factories employing free labor. These grew out c or Imdnstry and merchant capital. In 1825 (rear of the uprising) the industrial workers in Russia numbered 210,000 "poesessional" laborers, 66,000 serfs employed in nobles' factor ree laborers). The 1861 emancipation facilitated capitalist in 1860 there were 5601000 workers in Russia but by 1862 increased to 870,000. (Author does not mention the Northe of 1861!) of 0 tb the 161 edic was extremely vague but evea upper strata of the peasantry were more OZ less ma rm of 1t...61 (Wake), while the vast bulk of the poor peasants were apathetic to its propaganda. -T Approved For Release 'f'CIA-RDF'76-02362A001700140003-3 Approved Per Release, CjAARDP78-03362AQQ1700140003-3 Security information, These L4J were Liovers or the famous anarchist papilla. whose influence on the Russian rev movement was tremendous. The rebels declared that it was useless to appss.1 to the people with abstract, socialist propegmnda, which they were unable to understand. The people, they argued, are practical and draw their revolutionary ideas only from the economic realities that survouncl,them. Bakunin preac anarchist revolt; in the middle seventies attempts were made to carry on agitation amoag the masses with the purpose of arouaing revolts based on local MOOS of discontent with the hope that such revolts would spontaneously develop into a genera/ insurrection. It came to be realized that only a centralized and closely-knit utionary or would be Able to deal a aortal blow to Teariam idea which in Western Europe had been advocated by the Jacob Ins uista, was adopted by mom, who advocated his views in Alarm) a paper publiahed outside of Russia. His ilmizatian was formed in 1878, in the shape of ZENLIAI VO reedom). A quarter of a century later Lenin admitted in Is To Be Done" his "profound respect" for the organizers and loaders of Z1jai V?a and recommended that their experience in organization should be taken as an example. The chief aim of Ulan i Volya was to lead the terrorist movement. At first their targets were 4in4iv dual sdtrs of tsarism", but soon the terrorism acquired independent political significance. Eventually became necessary to choose the node of operation-comparatively futile agitation or terrorism with the definite goal of wresting political concession frau the Government. These two currents of opinion resulted, after abitter struggle, in the formel split of the organization after a congress held in MEE= in 1679. 3. The advocates of terrorism fod an. independent organization known an BABADEAXA VOLIA (The Peollieta W efforts were primarily directed against the Tear. Attempt after attempt was made on his life (Alex /I); finally killed Earth ' I by a, bomb thrown by the terrorist GHINEVETHEY The police rounded up some of the most acti terrorist organizers, executed them and by 1884 the Narodnaya Volya orgenization was completely smashed. -13- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved POT Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Those who believed in ecncentrating on terrorism with the aim lug political control created a separate group known as CUM (Black Redistribution). This group, led by Pumuscv, =ft MISCHA AND IONAT(W, having acquainted themselves with the lass enmement of Western Europe, began graduar4 to incline This evolution of views le* to the formation of a new group r 18830) known as the wamancl,pation of Labor" group. The new on was the first Mhrxian orgaaization in Ruesia to express a on of capitalism, the village commune, the disintegration of anomie for,, the growth of class antagonisms, and to point out the histnrica1 rOle of the proletariat. The group expressed itself i literary form, pUblishing a 4-volume work The Sociel-Demcorat and save Nnaelan translations of the works of Mb= an bagels. 5. First Revolutionary Working Class Orgenizations 46 In 1875 several workers' circles in Odessa tram-formed themselves into a complete organization known as the "South Russian Workers' League" led by Zaslavsky. b. In 1878 s.new orgamization appeared in St. Peterabu as the "north Russian Workers League". The leaders were Victor Obeorsky and Stepan Xhalturia, both workers. The latter sebsequenti become a terrorist and,was the organizer of the explosion in the Winter Palace. C Both groups believed that the working class should conduct a political struggle to win political freedom in order to acilitste the fight for Socialism. u in Russia by Marx and Engels first appeared everalluxopean countries, and a jug of the Paris workers against the tory of all hiaherto existing society process of development and from a aeries of production and exChange. That development is is leading to the division of society more and more in two opposed classes - the bourgeoisie and the and other ideas were at first the possession of the utionaries who formed the Communist League. In 1.864 kingmen'a Asseciation (First International) was Marx was the genius who continued and cmpletc ogical currents of the nineteenthCu... vely by the three most advanced countries iloagohy, classical English political economy and Fren th French Ravolutionary doctrines". Approved For Release : Cl*RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Fer Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 2. The "Bmancipa of Labor" group, the first Socia1-Dcratie group in Russia, had done much to spread Marxist p opaganda in the Country. Meanwhile there had grown up in Russia a sUbetantial proletariat -- especially in the industrialized urban areas. in the 1890's the strike movement gained impetus, especially in the Donets Basin Modz, Warsaw, Bigu, laroalave, and St. Petersburg, So effective were thee' strikes that on June 2, 1897, Witte, Minister of Finance issued a law which fixed the legal working day for adult workers at hours. But the strikes continued. The Social Democratic beton to engage in mess agitation, especially under the leadership of Lean in SU Petersburg. First Congresses of the Russian Social Desiocratic Labor Party. Sold inhlinsk Nhreh 14, - it sat for only 3 darn and confined itself to fozingelecting a central committee, ami.rmsolvingto issue a manifesto. The delegatet had just shout returned to their hones when they were siemataneously arrested. The Second Congress, which met in London in July and August 1903, adopted the Party program, and passed a nuMber of resolutions on questions of tactics. Division of opinion on a nuMber of political and organizational questions split the Congress into a majority (Bolsheviki) and a minority (Menshevik* The history of the Bolshevik Party as such maly begins from the Second Party Comgress. The Congres was attended by 44 delegates representing 26 orgenizetions. Among the 4 delegates were 4 workers; the rmmainder were intellectuals. The Menshe supported the Cadets (Constitutional Democrats); at the Third Party Comaxmns held din 1905, the entire delegation consisted of Bolsheviks. D. The Sivolu. f 1905 The Russo-Japanese war rendered acute the discontent of the workers. The crisis diverted economic strikes into the channels of the political struggle. The general strike which broke out In the Baku oil fields in December 1904 was the signal for we golitical action all over the country. "Woody Sunday" (January 9, l905 forced the government to Appoint an investigative commiseion which included representativSs from the workers. The revolution of 1905 could triumph , declared the Bolsheviks, only by overthrowing the tsarist autocracy by means of armed insurrection, primarily in the main industrial centers, and with determined support of the peasantry. The )ensheviks declared that it was necessary to emit until the masses themselves rose spontaneously. -15- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Far Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 g)rmatti.4-$ In the Third Party Congress in 1905 a resolution was adopted which denounced the stand of the Mensheviks. Of great importance was the devis on in the sphere of Party organization. The three central bodies set up by the Second Congress were replaced by a single body - the Central Committee which was endowed with plenary powers in the intervals between Congresses. Simultaneously with the Third Congress, the Menshev held their First Conference which rejected all measures of technical preparation for armed insureection. In October 1905 a strike began on the railroads in Moscow, whence it spread to the whole railroad system of the country. Transport and large-scale industry were brought to a standstill. The Tsarist government was forced to issue the Manifesto of October 17, promising the people civil liberties, and an extension of the rights of the state Duna find the electoral law. The October strik vas the first stimulus for the formation of Soviets of Workers' Deputies Which Image the leading organs of the revolutionary struggle of the working class and were the embryonic organs of revolutionary power. At the end of 1905 the Bolshevik* and Mensheviks constituted in fac two separate parties. But, at a conference of Bolsheviks and Menshevik* held towards the end of 1905, it was decided to summon a "Unity" Congress at the beginning of 1906. This Unity, Fourth, or Stockholm Congress was held in April 1906. The two antagonists, Lenin and Phekhanov argue -- the Congress accomplished little but to emphasize the schism already in existence. At London the Fifth (or London) Congress found the Bolsheviks slightly outnumbering the Menshevik* (105 to 97). Very soon after the London Congress the Second Duca was dissolved. The Party was ruthlessly suppressed; ten years elapsed before the next Party congress was held. Among the Bolshevik delegates to the London Congress were: Lenin, Stalin, Kemenov, Zinoviev, Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Phekhanov, Axelrod. The majority of the arrested deputies were condemned to penis] servitude and exile and regained their freedom only upon the outbreak of the Revolution of March, 1917. In the interim the Central Committee functioned, first in Finland, later in Switzerland, The Menshevik% leaders went *broad also, mainly in Geneva. Z. The Pre-I917 Period. 1. In the autumn of 1910 demonstrations took place in connection with the death of. the former president_ of the First Duma, MUROMTZEV, and of the famous writer, Leo Tolstoy, A general strike of studeats broke out at the beginning of 1911, in protest against the repressive measures taken by the government, and spread throughout the Whole of Russia. In January 9, 1912, for the first time after many years, political strikes broke out in St. Petersburg, and other cities. May 1, 1914 was again marked by general strikes in St. Petersburg and other industrial centers. In July the strikes and demonstrations in St. Petersburg tended to open street fighting. But Russia mobilized the same month! -16- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A-001700140003-3 anWhile, at the SUth (Prague) Conrerence, the Bolsheviks officially. established their own Party; it "was a big step tovards the final aonsolidation in Russia of a revolutionary proletarian party of a new type, a monolithic militant organization, cleansed of opportunists and of the factionalism, which, according to Lenin, was a Characteristic feature of the Social-Democratic Party at a certain period (from 1903 to 1911)". 1914-1917 The Bolsheviks insisted that the proletariat must retain its arms and turn them against the bourgeoisie, and the imperialist war, a war in which the proletarians were being compelled to destroy each other, must be transformed into a civilvar for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie. This idea was not expressed in September 1915 at the conference of Socialists in Zimmerwald in which the Bolshevik Party participated. Lenin and his followers tried again at Kienthal in April, 1916, with little success, but did create a group which established the Third International. The Muth 1917 Revolution The February ,reg Revolution was a revolt of the masses of the people headed by the proletariat; it was a revolt of the workers and soldiers against the tsarist government and against the imperialist war. Lenin arrived in Russia on April 4, 1917, just after the All-Russian Conference of Soviets terminated. In his "April Theses" Lenin emphasized the fact that the war was an imperialist war to which the Party would not offer the slightest support. Lenin put forward the slogan, "All Power to the Soviets". Of the eight to nine hundred delegates only a little over one hundred were Bolsheviks. Popov asserts that "although the Bolsheviks were in a minority, the atmosphere of the Congress was impregnated with Bolshevik ideas." (!) In July there were mass arrests of the Bolsheviks; Lenin had to flee_ the country. The November 1917 Revolution On October 24 (Nov. 7), Xerensky delivered a speech to the Parliament in which he promised to extirpate the Bolsheviks root and branch. On the night of Oct. 24 the Provisional Government attempted to have the premises of the Bolshevik newspppers occupied by troops. But that very night dud during the following day, troops and detachments of the workers! Red Guard, practically without firing a shot, took possession of the chief strategic pointS of Petrograd. On the eveiing of October 25 the Second Congress of Soviets met and established a Soviet. Government headed by Lenin. -17- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Fox Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A0V 700140003-3 IV. Provisional Govt. -- Revolution of March 1917 The Taardoa was not so much overthrown as it simply collapsed of its own inertia and its own incompetence. The point was simply reached in the winter and wing of 1917 when the Tsar had no base of support. The result was that he fell and was replaced by the so-called Provisional Government, and the process constituted the Second Russian Devolution. We shall outline briefly a few of the events which led to the establishment of the Provisional Govennment. In the winter and spring of 191/ the desertion of soldiers from the front lines, largely under the influence of Bolshevik propaganda, was very extensive. Disorders and strikes began to spread throughout the country. The Soviets began to reappear in various parts of the country. In March there were serious food riots in Petrograd. The rioters were Joined by a regiment of the Imperial Guard. Together they forced several of the prisons in the city and freed many political prisoners. The Duma proceeded to appoint a provisional government committee. The Social Democrats, however, refused to participate. Instead the Socialists fommed a Provisional Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies, and called for elections in the factories and barracks of Petrograd. On March 12 the Petrograd Soviet Committee was proclaimed to be in existence, and it proceeded to elect its officers. Chkheidze, a Social Devolutionary, or SR, was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. The vice chairman was Alexander Derensky. We may note the basic difference between the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats. The SR's were socialrots who based their approach upon the peasantry and found their support primarily in the peasantry. The Social Democrats, both Bolshevik and Menshevik, based their approach primarily upon the industrial workers. The Tear abdicated the crown on March 15, He abdicated in favor of his brother, the Grand Duke MAchael; but Wheel, it rapidly became apparent, was not at all anxious to take over the crown, and within a few days he too, stepped out of the picturi. Prince, Georgi Lvov, a Constitutional Democrat, or Cadet, a middle-of-the-road party, formed the first provisional government cabinet, a cabinet which included Alexander Kerensky as the Minister of Justice and the cabinet mother furthest to the left. Fundamentally the program of the provisional government called for two things. It called upon the people to fight on, to continue the war against the central powers; and secondly, the government proposed that all basic questions with respect to the future nature of the Russian state be left to a constituent assembly Which would be convened in due course. Unfortunately, thi* constituent asserbly was never convened under the Provisional Government. -18- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 And so we have during 1917 a very peculiar situation in PetroVdd. We have substantially two governments: We have the official government, that is the Provisional Government, vhiCh we not popularly established since it was drawn from the meMbership of the then-sitting Fourth Data, the frandhise for Which had:been quite limited. On the other hand, we have the Petrograd Soviet of Workers* Deputies; later it was known as the Soviet of Workers: and Soldiers' Deputies. Thia was a popularly elected organ, at least as far as the workers and soldiers of Petrograd were concerned; and it rapidly became the real source of nover. The peasant, accustomed to having orders come from above, was ready to accept the decrees of the provisional government and the constituent asseably. One village even sent to Petrograd for a portgmit of the new sovereiga Bevolutsia! An indication of the real power of the Petrograd Soviet lay in the famous Army Order No. I, which was issued by the Soviet on the 14th of MarCh, the day before the actual date of the revolution. This order had four sections. It told the Arey, first of all, that soldiers committees were to be established in all units; second, that each attachment was to Obey the Soviet in political matters; third, that orders of the Military Commission of the Duma were to be followed only if they did not contradict the orders St the Soviet; and finally, that all weapons were to be under the control of the soldiers* committees. The provisional government refused to approve this order, but it went into effect anyway; and the soldiers' committees were formed. This em. llowed by mass desertions, instigated again by Bolshevik propaganda. Within two months there were 2,000,000 deserters footing the rear. The first decree of the Provisional Government, issued under pressure from the Petrogred Soviet, proclaimed, among other things, first a general amnesty for all political, religious, and military prisoners; second, freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freed= to form unions and ateeestrikes. Third, the abolition or-all social, religious, amd racial tistinctions. Fourth, the calling of a constituent asseably. Fifth, a people's militia was to replace the police. Sixth, elettion* to be based on universal suffrage. SaVeraLh; troops that took part in the revolution ihould remain in Petrograd and not be transferred to the front. Eighth, soldiers to have the same publie rights as civilians when not in active service. The Soviet did.not wish to seize power only because it feared reaction amoog the liberal and conservative elements. The Soviet preferred to maintain the Provisional Government, i.e., nominal authority as a. bait for other social groups, controlling it and checking its authority at w#11. -19- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 ? Lenin returned returned to Petrograd from his place of exile in Switzerland on . April 16th. With him be brought other leaders of the. Bolsheviks, and with him he almolbro4ht his famous April Theses. The April Theses contained three points.: (1) immediate peace, (2) immediate distribution of land to the peasants and the seizure of the factories by the workers, (3) "all power to the Soviets." Lenin was returned to Petrograd in a sealed railroad car, which traveled across Germany with the permission of the German Imperial staff. The Germans were happy to see this man returned to Russia because they knew that he opposed to take Russia out of war with the Central Powers at the earliest possible moment. had net been back long before the effects of his return became On Mhy 3rd, the Bolsheviks demonstrated in Petrograd under the with Miliukov!" Miliukov VMS then Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Lvov government, favored continuing war. On May 17th, a new cabinet was formed which excluded both Miliukov and the Minister of War, Guehkov. Lvov remained the premier but Xerensky, Minister of War, was now the real Chief of government and shortly became the premier. On June 16th, the first all- Russian Congress. of Soviets convened in Petrograd; the BeasheWiks found themselves in a distinct minority. They called for a revolution but were turned down. In July, Xerensky personally directed an offensive Winst the Austrians on the southern front. The offensive initially succeeded, but then failed and the Russian forces were once again thrown back. This had the effect of further ddmoralizing the Russian people. A very peculiar affair occurred on July 16th to 18th - peculiar to the extent that the workers and soldiers of Petrograd got even Ahead of the Bolsheviks in their movement for immediate revolt. Lenin, seeing that the tttempt, while in his opinion ill-timed, could not be halted, determined that the Bolsheviks would provide leadership, and hoped that the attempt slight be deflected. The Boleheviks were successful in deflecting the revolt, but, as Lenin feared the government immediately counterattacked, arresting a number of political leaders, including Leon Trotsky, who had now returned from exile abroad and was playing a major part in the events it Petrograd. Lenin wee forced to go into biding into Finland. While the government had momentatily avoided being overthrown, its situation became progressively worse. Under the burden of war, the national economy continued to disintegrate. There was great turmoil in the coantry-side, where the peasants were failing to reap the harvest; the demands of the factory workers were impossible of fulfillment; the railroad system was widely disrupted. Taxes fell off 1/3 in the first month of revolution. Internal loans of Prov. Govt. did not sell well. printed money. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved or Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 On July 30, Kornilov had been appointed by Kerensky to replace Brusilov Commander-in-Chief of Army. Differences of opinion had who bad Ilestablished the death to establish it at the rear. n between the Coomander-in-Chief, Kornilov, y at the front; and Kerensky, who hesitated lornilov had demanded of the government return of military discipline and the death penalty for desertion. Kornllov was surrounded by political ;- opportunists, Re intended to get rid, by annihilation, of the Soviet, by military force. Ks tried to win the cooperation of the provisional government; but if, at the last moment, he found that he couldn't get their cooperation be intended to get rid of both the provisional government and the Soviet. This was further complicated When a direct split was made evident =August 27, at a National Political Conference, attended by Kornilov. Kornilov wee applauded by the conservative membera. The socialist half of the delegation applauded Kerensky. Kornilov, in agreement with the Provisional government moved the Third Cavalry Corps toward the capital in anticipation of a Bolshevik revolution on the announcement of measures to secure discipline in the Army. A further complication was brought about by VA. Lvov, Who attempted to play the part of an intermediary, representing to each that he had full authority to Speak for the other. Kornilov received the impression that Kerensky was prepared to have over to him, Kornilov, dictatorial power in Russia, while Kerensky would be satisfied with a place in the government. Kornilov agreed. Tbemalvov presented to Kerensky the proposal as an ultimatum from Kornilov. tether 8, Kerensky called Kronilov for conflmmation of the report that. delegated Lvov to convey information of his plans and purposes. Kornilov affirmatively, neglecting to ask Kerensky what Lvov said to him. Kerentky, on SepteNher 9, dismissed Kornilov as Commander-in-Chief. rnilov, on Septetber 10, issued a proclamation to all Russian citizens refusing to give up his: poet and asked for support against the Provisional Government. At the same time he ordered General Krymov to move the third Cavalry Corps against Petrograd. Kerensky meanwhile joined forces with the left gropa of the Petrograd Soviet and ordered the Petrograd garrison to prepare to fight General I/7100v. -21- Approved For Reletase,4Ct,A7RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 r Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 ???? ProVadandn. by the Bolsheviks in the ranks of Krimov's forces had an important effect, and Bolshevik railroad workers deflected a number of Krimov troop trains. When the two faeces met, some distance outside of Petrograd, there WS* MDT, fraternization than fighting. Xerensky ordered Krimov to report to Petrograd. Krimov did so, and committed auleide the next dAy. Kronllov was arrested. In appreciation for the assistance given to him by the Petrograd Soviet, adcmber of the Bolshevik leaders, including Trotsky, ware released. (1) EMMA. econoL1s1iy backward (2) Poor lines of communication. Germany was b1ocka (3) Government proved itself as incompetent and corr.' (ti) Great military disasters. Alba Peopliv very patriotic, gradually lost enthusiasm but the Czar only listened to the self 1i advice of individuals ia his immediate government circle,- interpreted all demands as unpatriotic or groundless. With his Approval, the government inttrferred in every poasible way with the activities of the DUNA. so was ft a. 1854 and 190!, By 1916 internsa discontent ci in the ierge cities, had swell alarming proportions. The food situa Narph 1917 on had become critical. 1) Bad roi atorte in Petrograd - demonstrations of protest accompanied by riots Soldiers went over tbithe peopie - deserting the government. Drums, in session at the time, although daily expecting disseautio by the Government, vas &lamed by the street riot in the capital - resolved to act to save the situation. Organized a temporary provisional government, and sent A deleistion to the Czar demanding his abdication. Political Partieg- ?RI tp% 7-4 /VE3 erotic Labor Party (Workers) --22-- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved NM Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A061700140003-3 903- Menshevik - Minority Bolshevik - Majority 12 - Russian Socialist democratic Labor Party 1895 - Social Revolutionary Party (SR) (Peasantry) (1) Some came from the militant gro Constitutional Democratic Party (professors, liberal landowners, merchants) Wanted a strong middle class party. of the le" Nicholas /I abdicated for himself and hie son (Msrch 15) and was pu arrest. Revolution of March 1917 was scconp1iehed within a week. The rest of the country, and particularly the army sUblm tted to the new authority. Only a little bloodshed. For s.wtile the government was in the hands of the non-socialist Constitutional Democrats, but in July passed to Alexander Berensky a brilliant orator of moderate socialist views. Cove A diffic US. (2) Russia tired of war. (3) A 'bourgeois control - property rights to be respected. 23-- Approved For Release: CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 V. Revolution of November 1 1 Xi.. or the Bolsheviks Came forward at this critical period May return ed from' exile. Urged withdrawal from the war Rented a social revolution and not mercLy a politicalo "Bread, land, peace." (5) Instrument for such a revolution Soviet of Workmea's Peasants* and Soldiers' its" which had been organised throughout the country on the model of the Petrograd soviet. Revolution - ROvedber 7, 1917 Drove Kerenally from Petrograd 2 A bloody affair Riots, asaaasinations sod measures just as autocratic as any in which the Czars had indulged. Nev government - ? tan Socialistic Federated 2epUb1ic of Soviets" July 1, 918 - Czar, Czarina, brutally: shot to death. First step - arranged an armistice with the Central Revers. March 1918 -Brest-Litovsk Allied asaistance to White Russia ro-Cza followers. Naar countries, including U.S. refused to recognize the new gave As the year 1917 And most significantly Lenin felt were assenti on, the strength of the Bolthevika co tin dto grow. strength rapidly devoloi*d althe two bodies which to successful Bolshevik revolution. These bodies were the Soviets and the Army Committees which created under Arley Order "BuMber One." had been Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved-Epr Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 alined that Bolshevik dominance of these two elements was essential to success. The two great slogans of the Bolsheviks during 1917 and at the time of the November revolution were "Peace, Bread, and Land" and, secondly, "All power to the soviets." The first slogan was particularly well chosen appeal because it was "Peace and Bread and Land" that wante& of view of mess ople of BeSaife most Trotsky, 'who had been released from prison following the lornilov affair, was elected in October as President of the Petrograd Soviet. This was a development of major importance to the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks also controlled the Military Committee of the Petrograd Soviet. On November 4, the Petrograd Army garrison was ordered. by the Soviet to ransfer its allegiance to the Military Committee of the Soviet and it did so. On November 6, Lenin returned to Petrograd from his biding place in Finland, and, with his return, the revolution was under way. November 7 is the traditional date of the Bolshevik Revolution. During the hieht of November 7, the principal government buildines were occupied by the Bolsheviks. Pesters announced their program: (1) immediate peace negotiations; (2) partition of large estates; (3) control of all factorkes by the workers; (4) creation of a Soviet government. The fighting in Petrogriut was over by November 0. In NICOCOw the fighting lasted somewhat longer. In Petrograd, the fightiug was climaxed by the assault on the Winter Palace and the Admixalty by the Bolshevik forces. In their attack they were supported by the Cruiser Aurora, which was anchored in the river Neva, end by the guns of the Porteess of Peter and Paul. However, these two sonrees of fire were of little help since the Aurora fired mostly duds and the guns of the Fortresa fired all over the place with very little accuracy. The last military unit to defend the Provisional Government was a women's battalion. This battalion had been formed during 1917, under Nerensky s direction, in order to shame the men back to thetr places at the front during the time of MOSS desertion. In Moscow a few thousand military cadets defended the Kremlin unti3 about November 14. Xerenshy, after attempting unsuccessfully to recruit tropps, fled and took no further part in the struggle between Belsheviks and their opponents. We come now to the matter of the formation of he new government viks and with it we find Russia in what is known as the period of War em or the Period of Militant Communism. -25- Approved For Release : CIA-RDF'78,03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 On BOveOher 7, the day of the Revolution, the All Russian Congress of Soviets, dominated by the Bolsheviks, met in Oetrograd and approved the Belshevik Coop. On Lenin's motion, the Congress passed decrees for: (1) the Conclusion of peace, (2) the Nationalization of all land, and (3) the Formation of a Council of People's Commissars. Lenin vas dhosen to be chairman of this first council:1 Trotsky became Commissar for Foreign NAtfairs; Bykov was Commissar for Internal Affairs; Lonacharsky was Commissar for Education o and Stalin -- was dhosen CommIssar of Nationalities. The new government found itself fated with a great deal of hctiIitf bn part of the old governmenta3 bureemeracy. reach of the bureaucracy did not that the Belsheviks could long stay in power, and, as a matter of Oact, they were joined in this *pinion by sevelal of the Boltheolk leaders, who felt that the best they could hope for was to set a revolutionary exampie for the meet advanced industrial nations of the Mast. Through persuasion and liquidation, however, the bureaucracy was progressively brought under the control of the new Wove ament. In the previnces, power was rapidly switehed from the polOtieal Commissars put there by the Provisional Government, to the Soviets whch became dominated ' by the Bolsheviks. The BelshevIks sent out agitators and armed eupporters to **cure control of the Soviets. In Deceeber of 1917 there vas created the Cheka, which is anabbreviation of he Russian for"Extraordinary Commission tor the Suppresaion of Counter Revolution". There followed upon the creatiot of the Cheka the Red Terror, during which the Cheka turned its vengeance upon all enemies of the nevoits e and liquidated thoueunds upon thousands, including a nueber of workers'. The formation of the Cheka was in line with Lenin's policies, aenounced in the statement; "No dictatorship of the proletariat is to be thought of without terror and violence." His selection of Felix Dzerjinsky as the head of the Che ka was ideal for his purposes. One can only say that be vas cold-blooded to a degree that is uhbelieveble; for example, at the meetings of the Sovnarkom it was Lenin's custom to exchanoe notes 'with his colleagoes. On one occasion he sent * note to Dzerjinsky asking, "How many vIcioos counter-revolutionartes are there in the prisons7" Beerjinsky replied, "About 1500." In February or 1918, there was created the Red Army which, under TootsOy direction defended the new reolme during the civil war which ensued. The new regtme employed food rationing in order to insure political controto Those Oho supported the state end were engaged in productive labor received their food rations o those who did not, received no food ration and were subject to starvation. -26- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 field did 1 befo with =Am in pure revolutionary action i many fields. In the -a equalized and the factories were turned over to result, by and large, was chaos. The skilled worker good. plant supervisor end the workers In many calms roduct of the plant. inance the Bank System was abolished and it was some time with a new state banking system. The result vas severe stion's financial affairs. clared itself against religion and in the provinces, urrdered. On HOveaber 20, 1914 Lenin called General tmkhonin on the t4IepbGae and ordered him to treat for an Armistice with the Central Powers immediately. When Dukhonin refused, Ensign grylenko was sent to the front to replace Dukhonin. Eryletto as am ensign was the eql.iivalent of a 2nd Lieutenant or a Warrant Officer. When Xxyleviko arrived at the front, KUI-&onin was murdered and mutilated by his own troops. anuary of 1913, the t nhevic.e convened the ion ed c n the ssseinbly had met, Lenin iscovere& iucb to . p- 0 the Bolsheviks were in a distinct minority. Finding this sttuaton intolerable; he dispersed the Constituent Assembly by force, one and ons-half days after it had met. In doing so, he did precisely what the Czar done Vheo he was dissaaisfied with the action of the Dumas, the naly difference being that Lenin employed force. Leon Trotsky was sent to Brest-Litovsk in White Russia to negotiate with the representatives of the Central Powers for an Armistice. Trotsky was perhaps a poor choice. He was a devotee of permanent revolution. He ben.ieved that the revolotion havIag been succesefol in Russia, revolt vould follow in rather short order in the great industrial cations of the Vest. Therefore, Trotsky chose the occasion of the aegotations at Breat-Litovsk to propagandize to the peoples of this West over the heads of their leaders. The Germans, and the Austro-Hungarian representative* listened to Tretaky for a while and then left in disgust. th his fenous statement,"ether War nor Peace." 1011 where they could have but the Germans dId not aree with him and the forces Powers once e begAa to move to the East, thrusting on into, ...tne, the Baltic States and White Russia. Lenin realized that peace ely was absolutely essential to the preservation of his revolution. fore acted to persuade the :Arty that Russia must sign at any cost. Approved For For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Fer Release i:TIA-RDP78-03362AW1700140003-3 iriiv Information ?Trotj' atZr -Litovet vire wery rice for peace. With or arl,ew and Sokolnikov was The treaty ,presented to "tented to Trotsky t-Litovak on Mirth 3 o by an e h provided oltation of Ruua bi Gezany. Under the ot irtusaly Ti of the trrttory which she tiers s'alee the time of Peter th Great. Taken State*, Poland, and the Ukraine, and imately Finland. Rut of eoura ermzny met her Waterloo on November :1 O i1U ith that the Treaty of Brea Litovsk became essenally inapplicable. a. brief consideration of the r two reaeone. (1) The Boisheeike calculated to achieve max: appeel,it waa a party pt and it was ruthlese 1.n the applicetion of that hat the Bolsheviks rapidly achlevei the opposition of and center and much of the 1eft. (2) Secondly, 7 reluctant, to see Russia withdrawn from the war A to displace If possible say use an YeZiM* which soaght f that sr. We shall not endeavor to describe all of the campaigno of the war in great detail. In Zeneral, it was a war foeght over a vast area, ruthleas Ire Its nature as civik vers are wont, to e. There wee great loss orlife, runnine. into the many millions aonst b oth ivillem and military 2opulations. It was, in many Jnetabnes, a highly war - typified by a eituat;..on n litir2h the Bolsheviks woeld take a town mornina, the Whites vould retake it In the afternoon and the Bolsheviks perhaps be back in the avenin. There were, however, relatively static fronts folelbt over en the more ciaakeiesi sense. The Allies gave substantial ascletance to the White lroraes of military suppliee. In add?.ioa, in some areas there were he Allied Forces and thoee of the Reds. the form a between The BeatheviLS held the oente, of Oreat Raai. Proper, that le the area of hb000wo LeningrAd And sov;.roes. The White Forces were arraeed a6ainst the Reds alme; the Circumference of this eisa. The Bolsheviks were long hard pressed bat Lea out, eventually were eble to 4o over to the eounter-attack and the civil war had eklbstantielly ended by late 1920. Approved For Release : CIA4151413-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 it41104 the struggle in the civil war was t of 1920 vhich ul t4nte1y resulted in defeat for signing of the Treaty of Riga. The question arise s why did the Bolsheviks win? They did win against great odd*. Several reasons maybe given. First, from the point of view of tactical advantage, tho Bede held interior lines of communioation. They were to fight most of the war along a relatively abtreviated front and they held the area beet wavered by communication facilities. A second major reason was T o truly brilliant orenization and direction of the Red Army. Starting v from scrod& he vas able in short order 66 organize an effective fight-'ng force. Thirdly, the Ike tended to be united thr the ressru AllantEL n a common eart4--Wieal in such oases. Fourth, with their eftective propallanda, they were able lyx and lsige to win and retain the support of the z24.491 and the workers. Fifth ,:led propegan6 in t61 ranks of the Whites was in many cases quite omirivw and in many cases resulted in nuithers of desertions. Sixth, and very important, there was a distinct lack of cohesion in the ranks This was due primarily to the great divergence in the politiegaiWofthe various White elements. In political point of view, the Whites ranged from Nbnarthists to Social Revolutionaries, and it was exceedingly difficult to get effective cooperation between such diverse groups. Finally and also verY important, after the signing of the Armistice in the West, in November Of 191, there was a fall in Allied interest in Supporting the White Forces, although Allied assistance to the Whites did not resat its peak until mid 1919. There- after, Allied aid progressively declined, We are now brought to a consideration of the state Russia at the * r4 of the Civil War. Russia had suffered very severkly from the effects of World r I compounded by the destruction of the Civil War. With the end of the Civ ii War at the clog* of 1920 inflation was raopant. The deficits of the government MOTO very great. The industry of the country was 5/6 dissipated or destroyed. The transportation system, never adequate, was now hopelessly shattered. Private trade, having been outlawed, was taking place through illegal Channels. The government had wrecked the basis for foreign trade by its confiscation of foreign property. In summary, the country vas living on its depleted reserves and those reserves were very badly depleted, Policy find the commencement of the era in Soviet development known as New Iconcedc Policy or XEP. This period runs from 1921 to 1926. 1920 to 1926. During the period 1930 to 1921, there were up-risings in the Ukkaine and the Northern caucauses. 29 Approved For Release : C1A-RbP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release 1A-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 unitive expeditions which were sent order to collect the badly needed grain kers La the city as bitterly resented this effort partial reverscn to free enter serious that the plans of the were to remain in power. The 1913 level of production. ulture the former practice of the government - taking - wee now replaced first with a crop tax and then a money because it was found that the peasants had simply not since the government would take it anyhow.. Now the surplus 2tt after the te could be sold in the free? market. The purpose was to give incentive for u1tivatjon, This led to the introduction of free trade which was established in .7)24 Of 1921. feriae.* Trade however remained a SOverneent monopoly and has been such to this date. In the field or industry, heavy industry was largely operated under state truati. Light industry on the other hand was alma over to free enterprise. Conceasions were made to foreign capital to commence its influx. In the field of finance, the currency and banking systems were reestabli In late 1921, the State Bsnk or Gosbank with branches throuhout the country vile ostablithed. Abroad, the MEP WWI largely misintampmated, it being held that the Bolsheviks were conceding that Socialism did not work and that they must revert to capitalism. The BST' was merely an emergency measure to avoid copplete diameter for the Reds. A inabstantial measure of state control and supervision was still involved in the MEP and the party definitely planned to revert to full state control at the earliest possible moment. 11/411A 2421-71?. 1920 Allies abandoned the blockade. 1922 Jape withdrew their forces frac Basteru Soviet Russia bad shown her ability to $ujir 0- at great costs. Wholesale execution of suspects and hostages by BolehevIki. -30- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 lonme (2) By 1 In many industries product pre-war output. their p Peasants -- disillusioned pi3Lenin sponsored a compromise Confiscated lands were Had to surrender their crops Pestered the smaller plants workers to private control to national ution. " of the to known es he, Pcomemic Policy. employing no more than lc 20 Permitted the peasants to sell tMir gra Or roitt. Obtained capital by extending concessions to rozeignrs. Communist Party (as the Be1shaviki named themselves) in 919 become more popular. Lenin died in 1924, his desperate experiment was on the road UCCOMI. Let regime in the most interesting sec t in the tury. August 8 or 1913, Lenin was bad1y wounded in an ass&aaizstion attempt bye Social Ro1uttrr, Dora Xap1in There followed upou this attempt similar atteepts on etharBolshavik leaders, :Reber of wilam v*ze i11ed. A Reign of TOroor followed as the Choke rather indiscrimately rounded up thousands of individuals, many of *wavers executed almost on the spot. The Bolsheviks later admitted that many of them ware undoubtedly innocent but that the important thing was to girt the guilt?' parties however many innocents might die. In May of 1922, Lenin had his first cerebral stroke. In linrch of 1923, he had a second one and OG January 21, 1924 he had his third and final stroke resulting in his death. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved .For ReleaseirCiA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Oir ' owed by a virtual deification of the men - largely undo on of Stalin. This vas undoUbtegy contrary to Lenin dently figured that this was convenient from the'point the basis of Stalin's etrentht Row vas dictatorial control of Party aid Country? that Stalin early achieved. We have spoken e of Rationalities in the first Scronarkom. intimate contact with the various non-Great Bus an the country. This save him a broad association and influence. 1MNft of the Workers' and Peeples" Inspectorate. As suah, ation with extensive paver of inspection in aal enterprises and thus was able to extend his re and peasants. Thirdly, he was an original member from the outset was a member of the organ which most powerful element in the Party. Finally and became General Secretary of the Party. This tal inportance to him in insuring his rise to , he created, all echelons of party officials from when the Party Congresses met, they were, in short of Stalin supporters, Stalin to. to busying himself vs matters and in so doing, insures that be created station in the Party which supported him. It is interesting to note the techniques that Stalin employed in the high Catmeils of the Party during the inter-Party strucigle of the 1920s. Stalin tended to sit back and listen to the statements of the others, Observe carefully the reaction of the various nelbers of the Party Organs and then speak last, suing up in a manner that he was confident would win the approval of the majority of the moribers. This technique he employed effectively to defeat Trotsky and the others time and time again. During the 20's Stalin and 3003arin and Rykov stool for a relatively lenient policy toward the peasants. Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kszaanev were in opposition to this position; they were for a more foreeful approach and were called the Left Boltheviks. The Opposition also fought the autocracy of the Polit-lureau within the Party. decline o, the so-called oppositionists, once under w, progressed In April 1925, Leon Trotsky was switched from the War Commissariat to the position of Commissar of National Etonopy. In October 1226, Zinoviev recanted, apologizing for their Opposition and Agreeing to came et against the Staliniet majority in the party. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Xt is interesting to Zinoviev end again to apologise in an effort to be reinsta DI implacably to his position. WI i 921, Trotaky was expel ty to denounce Stalin before r 1927, Troteky and 24:Doyley st element on the occasion of the Bolshevil: revolution. v vee willing time and Trotsky would never recant Committee when he bad the at to do so. in Moscow against of the tenth For this peror1a4ee both Trotsky and expelled Arca the party. A month later, n Decenber 1974-, all of leaders mem* expelled from the party. In January 1928, Trotsky was Ata. In early 1926, Ramenev and Zinoviev agein askedperdon and yen minor positions in Central Retia. /n the summer :of 1920, JOT yore readmitted to the party sse simple members. In eatigy brought beak from Alma At and deported to Turkey. Why was at this time Presumably because Trotsky was so well known le that Stalin felt that it was politically not expedient to such a personality. Strom Turkey, Trotsky prooessded to pUblieh position, a jouros1 -which set forth the view of those Sialinist position. the conflict between Stalin end Trotsky is desert!).e as the lints theory of socialism in oma country, se opposed to t revolution. In reality, anuch more significant basis perhaps be found in the difference between these two fladboyant, dynamie, and aggressive; Stalin patient The one man, Trotsky, concerned with policy; the other, tetly building up under him a party hierarehy upon the time came. Which hecc of Sovtet R is's foreign rei1ons dun 2,92O' ye we shall f description of the ;activities of the Comintern, the , during this period. In March of 1919, the First In Namoow. As a result of the work of thia Congress, shed in Hungary and Bavaria. in 1919. However they did not last 9201 the Second Congress of the Comintern was head, and the major dets ion reaei was to concentrate on propegandatetivities. raving the 1920 6 the Comintern mat vtth little suss in the Middle lest shad India, due primarily to the opposition of the religions of these areas. lielarbevik atheism simply did not go over eau with the Moslems and the Hindus. Rader Stalin'a direction, the Comintern supported the EUomintang in China during the period 1926-1927. Initially the collaboration of the Chinese Commmoists with the Inomtmtmg wee suecesafw. However, in 1921, Chisuag-Kal-Shek broke with the Communists and attsebed then. This episode was quite embarrassing to Stalir Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 ApprovecLFor Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 posed coOlaboration with the Kumintang. Stalin had at. ported it. is perhaps most significant during the 1920's as a groat obstacle shment by the Soviet Union of good relations with other nations. the lack of success of the Comintern played a major part in turning mary interest inward towards the development of the Soviet Union utsards towards the promotion of external revolution. The Five Year Plan With the arrival of 1926 and the conclusion of the NEP we come to the period of the first Five-Tear Plan. The basic objectives of the first rive-Year Plan were, first, the vapid expansion of Russia's capital goods complex, and secondly, the collectivization of agriculture. In the field of industry, the slogan of the day was 'overtake and pass America!" This objective, of course was hardly accomplished, but was perhaps well-deeigaed from an inspirational point of view. The task that faced the government and the party in staging the first Five-Year Plan was a tremendous one. Essentially, it was a matter of =Inverting a peasant economy to an industrial economy. During the plan, there was tremendous waste, in both product and apower. At one point in the plan it was estioated that 40 per cent of the national product consisted of waste material. 4he people suffered to a tremendous extent during this period. rectories were built bedlam housing was put up, with the result that the workers envied in the construction activities often lived in caves, In rude huts, or in the Open. The peasants pulled into the factories, not used to mechanical processes were often the victim* of the machines they operated; end industrial casualties were at a rate. The costs of the products were phenomenal at the outset. Consumer goods were cut to the bone in the effort overnight to create an industry substantial for the future. For the most pert, the new industry was concentrated east of the Ural Muntains in the belief that these mountains could act as a protective barrier in the event of future invasion from the west. There was substantial accomplishment during the first rive-Tear Plea, Mout sccompIishment at a tremendous cost and a treeendous waste. Eventually, the plan was shortened to a Four-Tear period and was declared at a close in 1932. But at this point, the plan had fallen far short of fulfillment. An interesting development during the period of the first Five-Tear Plan was the charge of wrecking, or sabotage, lodged against many thousands of workers in the factories. If a simple peewit brought to a factory to work dropped a piece of machinery and broke it by accedent, he could be -- and often was charged with sabotaging the rive-Year Plan. He was tried, and in maw cases sentenced to extensive periods of penal servitude. And from this began the vast slave labor system Which the Soviet Union possesses today. iniormailog Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Eor Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A1101700140003-3 eld of agriculture, the basic Objectives were to break the rich so-celled kulaks, "kulaks" being the Russian wort for "fist," and its origin in references to the hard-fisted landhord. In reality, we might question whether the so-called kulaks were really rich peasants, a rich peasant at this time being defined as one Whose annual income was roughly $80 to $100 per annum, the middle peasants being classified as those with incomes of approximately $50 to $80 per annum, and the poor peasants being those with lesser incomes. The agricultural plan sought to create collective farms, and "Sovkhoz0" state farms, in Oder to achieve greeter efficiency in agriculture, along with meehanization of agricultural efficiency, but also to release vast numbers of peasants from the farms for employment in the factories. A very discriminatory tax and levy system was imposed in order to force the peasants onto the new farms and 'break the kulaks. The situation was. teemendously cOmpliested by the failure of 'soviet industry to deliver anything like the required nuMber of tractors, coMbines, etc. The peasants fought bitterly against the attempt to collectivize them, with the result that there was open and videsealt warfare in the Ukraine and the northern Caucasus. In many cases it was difficult for &peasant to determine whether he was a rich peasant or a middle aeasant. If he had two cows, he was afraid that he might be regarded asa kulak; therefore, in many cases the peasants would kill one or both of their cows to be sure that they would not fall into the kulak category. The result of this wee a tremendous dekline in Soviet income, and a very severe famine in the agricultural areas that resulted in the loss of millions of lives. Many kulaks were liquidated and at least a million others were deported to slave labor in Siberia. In the midst of all this suffering in the countryside, in March 1930 there appeared in Previa Stalin** famous article 'Dizziness from Success." In this article, Stalfa indicated that it was very unfortunate that all this had occurred, that it was really quite unncessary, that the party workers...Oust have misunderstood their instructions, that the peasants were to be persuaded Of the desirability of going to the state farms and the collective farms, that they were not to be forced. What Stalin was doing was playing an old Russian game - the gime of the leader, be he Tsar or Party General Secretary, telling the masses that he - ths leader was for them; and that their suffering was the result of the bungling and the criminality of the middle mdn, the bureaucrats. The ;arty leadership had clearly instructed the party workers to do exactly What they had done. However, there was some amelioration of the collectivization program. -35- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved or Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 The secondViva-Year Plan was gotten under way in 1933. The canoed continued to be on the devklopment of heavy industry. There was, however, outset a somewhat greater production of consumer goods. Shortly, however threat of Germany to the vest and of Sap= to the east, the consumer goods were once again sacrificed, this time to the development of the armaments industry and the production of arms. There was someahat better order in the second plan, but there was still considerable ifiefficiency and confusion. In 1935, a development of considerable interest was that of Stakhonoviam. Stakhonoviam takes its name from a miner in the Don basin by the name of Alexi Stakhonov. Stakhanov discovered that by rationalizips the performance of his mining crew he could achieve sUbstantially greater production of coal than could the other crews in Wain.. The director of the mine tookafairly dark view of this realizing that mass production was achieved not by individual, sporadic high level performance, but by a smoothly coordinated process of production. The party, however, found in Stakhonov what they had been looking for and from Stakhonoviem there developed a great spped-up program, one of the devices most hated by truly free labor. Stakhonov was made a Hero of Socialist Lehi= and vas paraded about the country to exhort workers in various lines of endeavor towed up their production by processes of nationalization. Under this program a worker who could give an outstanding performance was amply rewarded under a progressive rate system; but the worker Who was a little old, or a little sick, or a little weak, end Who fell behind the daily normal of production would see his wow fall rigidly to the point where he could starve to death. It various forms, Stakhonoviam continues in existence in the Soviet Union today. In the third-Five-Tear Plan, which was under wpy in 1936, the overWhelming concentration was on the production of armaments as the Soviet Union raced to prepare for wax again at great sacrifice to the consumer economy. The third plan was aut abort in June of 1941 by the German invasion. (2) (3) (4) Five-Tear Plan Stalin decided to spend. 20 billion dollars to speed up Russian industry - ectric power mineral output new factories tractors, cars railway equipment, planes, etc. Coordination - Each factory to be given a quote. Workers very enthusiastic - hoped to achieve all this in 4 years. Goal of Russian indust - 133% increase in 5 years. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362AA01700140003-3 4:6 A State planning commission kept especially those who failed. (4) Communist leaders boasted how superior this was to capitalism 8) A progressive socialization of agriculture - creation of "State farm*. to super- cozity the more energetic and farsighted f pros ed, increerntng the.r acreage, hiring helpers, and emerging of property, so that ten years atter the great estates of the nobles lad been confiscated, a new clams of landowners vas in process of formation. ALnst these well-to-do peasants of ERAKS, the Government opened a campaign intimidation and suppression Collected their harvest -3.9 1940, less than 4 of the harvest was listed as raised on private farms. tied 1 villages per, movie cc. library, hospital, recreation. an officially terminated 31, 1932. couraging but no consumer goods. 1; YLannea. for complete socialization of agriculture by 1937. ase in crops. (3) Double the output of basic industries d tDer.aae in electric power. *5) 6working day. (6) Mr* consumers goods. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 5 1933-1937 lan- 1938-1941 th 5-year plan 1945-1950 th year plan - 1952- 3rd 5- or the Eet Army - February 23, 1916 as a "volunteer" force by a decree of the Soviet of hie new army to bit "class-conscious" - working class. uitment began June 29 -- ages 18 to 440. By the end of" 1918 the Ii Axrn nberei 300,000 men. Of the officers, 20,000 were of the old Any. To vetch these, Ciese.ra as guardians of the revolution" were asstnsd. Planning of military opera on* continued with the commanders, but. all orders had to be countersigned by the respective commissar. This duality of command was bed. The political commissars were hated and the use of them was Sholiahed in November 1942. Demailization after 1921 1921 - Reduced from 5,300 000 to 1,400,000 1922 - Further reduced to 800,000 1933 - Reduced down to 612,000 culty in formulating a comprehensive miiitar olicy. (1) A large standing army or A citizen army of territorial mtlitii Decided to compromise tending army reduced to 562,000 in Field Strength 29 Inf. Edvs. 12 Cast. Dive. Enlistment Basic arms 2 yesrs Aviation - 3 years Coastal defense Frontier guard Navy -4 years Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved .or Release : CIA-RDP78-033624001700140003-3 Small permanent cadres sibject to the aa 1itrtt terims as the regu army. Alternating contingents of men serving, a total of frot to 11 months over a period of five years. .1.11M 141 Two type* First -as limit 35 Second - age limit 40 After 1924. - command courses for commanders. New military schools - 3-4 years curricula- Different schools for branches of service. Rigorous discipline Nis4ority of "old army" officers mustered out. However, in high staff and command positions. weakness Red Army Lack of modern technique end equipment. and tactics rejected definitely the idea of the supremacy ure war as s. war of movement and maneuver, with possible teed positional warfare in certain sectors. 5y plan If 1928 began to supply the tanks and planes necessary. Int 1934 the 1ed. Arm.ys mechanised forces and aviation were qualitatigely equal to any in Western Europe". Army now ready for numerical expansion. (1) Mirth 1934. -Army and levy reorganised into the Commissariat of Defense with sweeping powers over the armed forces. 2 1938 -A Supreme Stilitary Council set up, headed by Stalin. Standing army raised to 940,000 men In 1934. in 1935 - raised to 1,300,000. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Eor Release : CIA-RDP78,-03362AQ91700140003-3 40r Red Army. 395,000,000 ries - 54000,003,000 - 340000,000 000 1939 - 34,000,000,000 A voluntary military organization for defense training nukhered 12 ,000 by 1939. 1242 -(march) Raised reserve status Army nulbered 2,000,000 Tank forces had increased by 108% since 1930. Aviation by 130%. Artillery arm, the most powerful in Europe. Divisional artillery - All rifle divisLons (of the ,iangular type) were increased from 13,000 to 18,000 men! As result of battle test 1938-1939 in border war with Japan 1939-1940 - Finnish war Sargon L Timothenko-- been drastic danges i training methods - May 1940. 'improvement of tactical leaderehip of platoons, companies, battalions Eradication of routine training methods. Large scale maneuvers abandoned. Tactical field exercises - no longer than ardivsion at a till*. Re-create the realities at the modern battlefield. Separate training of different arms was Abolished, since teamwork and flexible cooperation of all arms were considered the foundation of modern tactics, with infantry and artillery recognized as the mainstay of the battle team. Night cat Prolonged operations inaextreme cold. Troops toughened by intensified physical training and 'long marches over difficult terrain. VII. Constitution of 119''',6 In 3.936 a new constitution was approved in the Soviet Union, the Stalin Constitution, or the Constitution of 'Victoriols Socialiam, as it was called. It was held that the enactment of this Constitution to replace the earlier one of 1923 marked the arrival of a classless society in the USSR and the substantial realisition of socidadn. In reality, the society into which this constitution was born had a gradation into classes reasonably unique in western history. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved ,.or Release : CIA-RDP7,8-033624,01700140003-3 Suffice it to sar fQr the moment that While there were many featurea in this constitution Whi paper appeared to be highly democratic, therftwere others which were highly undemocratic, and when the constitution had gone into effect, it rapidly became apparent that the Soviet Union remained as much a totalitarian state as it had been before. The for had been changed; the reality continued. We will now consider briefly the great purges of the 1930's, the purges Which fins317 enabled Stalin to eliminate all possible opposition within party, government and armed force04 It all started on Decelber 1, 1934, when Serge Kirov, party boss in Leningrad and a personal friend of Stalin, was assassinated by a former mesiber of the Komsomol, the Young Communists League of the USSR. Stalin went immediately to Leningrad and personally interrogated the assassin. The young man denied any accomplices, but Stalin had just the excuse that he needed. There followed a reign of terror in which, once agein, thousands were rounded up, including many to party leaders. The accused were examined for two years. The first great trial took place in August 1936, with Kameaev, Zinoviev, end eleven other leaders in the dock. They were tried before the military collegium of the USSR: Supreme Court. They were charged with the murder of Kirov, 0. plot to assassinate Stalin and other Soviet leaders, the overthrow of? the Government and the destruction of the Five-year plan, and. the promise OC the return of the Ukraine to Germany in return for German support of the new government. Most of the accused were found guilt 0 and several were ezectted, including Shmenev and ZIMOVielf* Thu*, the end of Stalin's two former cohorts in the triumvirate that succeeded Lenin. In January 1937, there occurred the trial of the 174 inducting Karl Dadek Piatekov, and Sokolnikov. The Charges against them were that they plotted to overthrow the government and that they had maintained contact with Germany' P01 n,and Japan. Most of the accused were executed. sari Radek was sentenced to 10 years and has never been heard from *ince. In Jtine 1937, 7 of the top generals in the Army includingtbe Chief of Staff, Marshal Ttashachevsky, were tried by secret court-martial and all SO them executed. In March 1938, there occurred the trial of the so-called "bloc" (011144tiste and Trotskyites." There were 21 accused, including Bukharin, RykOv end Togoda? 'Yagoda was the former Chief of the 00pu and had been responsible for some of the earlier purge trials. Now his turn came. Most of the accused were executed, including Rukharin, Rykov, and Togoda. No ftiend, no cdhort, np acquaintance of any of the accused was safe-. Anyone vho had had contact with the accused was contaminated in the Party's eyes. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 ApproveVor Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 the gmmut of the party, the The total number accused The sentence of death against Leon T ed that time,. Trotsky was living on the outskirts of Mexico City. Renard appeared on the scene, claiming to be a loyal Fourth International, Eventually, Madam Trotsky husband and within a few minutes, Nonard had struck It became clear that *card vas actingsa an agent of been possible conclusively to prove this. Renard 18 prison term in the Mexican penitentiary, vbare he has of cells fa to provided for by "some unkncern soueee. orld War I .939 sod by England 1924 zed by U.S (de facto) 1933 tern Pact 1937 Germany - Its - Japan war on Japan 193,-1939 League of Nations 1934 *tdM the Republicans in Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Franc* rebels Government loyalist Rationalists Republicans said; are fifty or a hundred years behind the advenced countries. We must this distance in ten years. Either we do it or they crush us." World War U - 1939-1945 In I941 ten years were up. Hitler in 1 ?The enemy (Russia) is already broke 10-year non-aggression pact with Germany. September 1 1939 - Germany invaded Germany. Russia moved in on the other side. will never rise Approved For For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 August 3 lath= (60,(X10 sq. Became members of the IESR th 6 Jirne 26, isdio Besserabia ;forth Bukomima from R-tastin `.111111, equarc miles of Finland. on These gains added Shout 100,000 sq. miles - 10)000,000 Russia - a revisionist State is is a restoration, not expansion. All this territory save Korth Bukomina had for art of the Russian Mire 19)J. Sere vas a groat danger to Germany - no buffer States between her and Russia. Germany - vented Russian oil, coal ildher, minerals, vhast. Germany vas &raid of Russia. Vast Evesian plains offered au 1deL ield for Blitzkrieg tactics. German tactics in Poland. ted a two-front var by concluding a ten - April 13, 1941. - Stalin and MOlotov visited Berlin vpreme summand. - liehrmacht captured 1 -R prisoners k - Kiev - Odessa - Kharkov - Rostov Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved fan- Release : CIA-RDP78T03362A001700140003-3 yielded rritory for time efore Leningrad -Moscow Smatopol i forces a the rear. Crimes") Against International Lau eraan tank orces Ouderian - Hitler ounter-attak in the winter n vtntr fighting and transportation problems. factories in the Ural region 1,000 miles from the combat zone. describedonce Britain &Russia as the "great intangibles" Britain of the Channel. Russia because of its vast area. the attack South. worth 1,000,000 men to either side. fell. through which the oil was shipped. Held out 4 assaults. in the winter. Russians had lost: 20% of its oil 30% of its population 40% of its coal and machine tool industry 50% of its richest wheat fields livestock l943.l91si4. Russian counter-offensive Spring of 1944 .? Germany defending her own Hastern front ablaze frit& Finland to Zest EvOsnia. Ofitneingr engulfed by of Russian armies. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 H Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Soviet Contributton 4/5 of the total German casualties in tilled wounded and must casualties of the lestern front. tom contribution WO, of Western front. Allied air forces "softened up many "rod the clock bombing." Zeatern front - 200-300 divisions In first three years of the var 5,300,000 killed and prisoners 39,000 planes 49,000 tanks 48,000 sums Add *bout 24 for the rema.tnder of Destroyed by Germans 1,710 towns and cities 70,000 villages 6,000,000"buildings 31,850 factories 9*,000 collective farms 7,000,000 horses 170000,000 head of cattle About 3/4 of a million sq. mi. of Russia laid waste by the war. Last shots tired on Western Front May 13, 1945. As agreed upon - Russia declared war on Japan exactly 3 months after the capitulation of Germany -August 8, 1945 *Yalta). Soviet aria groups converged on the center of Mhnch million men lost in battle the war. Jap anw - Lost 80,000 925 planes 369 tanks 2225 field guns 48 ceners3s. Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Epr Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A,001700140003-3 Med Armylest only 8,219k UeS, supplied Russia with $U ,ii (British !spire - 30 bi asporia Lamily - U.45.A?14. World War II Russia - 625 Combat Divtioa.8 inth field. LS. - combat divisions iu the field. $2 wounded. of Lend Lese4 - 2 billion) Russian Division - 10,000 men UrEt Division - 15,000 men neatens claim to hex, taken 6,000,000 pei But on lily 4, 1945 Amid: 3,160 000 German Psiw Chancellor Adenauer says 1,500,000 Ger. POT 'lost% Jape claim 370,000 Jap PO/ swiwiaxY Post War Problem Stalin - 106 ted U. States UAL Ragland Prance China Russia 6 non-permanent - elected for 2-year ternational police force. thority is almost exclusively more.I. surrendered -- Russian trooliv-rnerlin and Balkans. what Churchill feared) of a 'rev War' ." - -46- Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approveqfor Release : 9IA-RDP78-03362a001700140003-3 Russian fox Vischeslov. by Stalin and Commissar of Fore Peace making machinery set tAP in Dori August 10, Stalin -Attlee - Truman (Chime and France not consulted much) Weaties were not submitted to the UR before they were signed. The "Council of Foreign Ministers drafted the terms. Peace terms were imposed on the defeated. 1Verything vent slowly - the foreign ministers couldn't agree. MieenVhile "elections? were held in the conquered and 'liberated lands. Peoples of these areas usually voted to please their occupying force. In Poland, Czechoslovakia, iftmania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia -Russian influence wus dominant. ComewUmewas voted in! NOrwsir, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgiz, the British and American zones of Germany, and Austria, Italy, Greece - the Communist vote was small. POst was plebiscites in general indicated that the 40lopo000,000 Stropean people vest of the Soviet frontier preferred to work out their social and economic problems by some middle road rather than by the extreme form of collectivism which the Coommist leaders had established in Russia. In the year following Germany s surrender the l'Council of Foreign Ministers met over 200 times - London, Woscov, Paris, Mew 'York. end of 1946 they approved treatOes for Italy, nland. The ttits frog these countries of:Occupation - 250,000 soidere japan - South Korea - Philippi Russia 21)0,000 Morth Xeres =- Nnnchurla 47- 1 ific Island ulgaria, Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 ' ApprovedZor Release : CIA-RDP78-033624,001700140003-3 States - Singapore urea na (trouble) ila (trouble) A year after all the figiting was over, more than 3,000,000 Russian.. British, and America= soldiers were still (1,500,000) in (lemony and Austria. 1946 Soviet forces 800,000 British 380,000 U.S 305,000 foreign soil. About half an Mtional 800,000 tn Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary , Yugoslavia, Albania. "Truman Doctrine - U.S. to support peoples resiettngattempte4jut ion by outside pressure. So Congress appropriated $OO,OOO,OQO to aid Greece and Turkey. Plan - 1949 Red's answer to the North Atlantic Pact. A military alliance which include, eastern Germany LAMM, and China and all the satellites - planned by Mblotov. Uhification under a central Moscow agency of all military, economic industrial, and financial resources. Ultimately a single system of communications and currencies. Creation of an intercontinental Eurasian army - under the direct control of the Soviet General Staff and staffed by Russian officers and political Commissars. a we top the Red Army on the Rhine? l s, sae Beller in January 3, 1950. 1 Re claims our op military leaders believe we and our allies can. 2 Can. J. Lawton Collins, Army Chief of Staff - 'We inti under the North Atlantic Security Pact and the European Ar iss A.1.4 Program to hold Western Europe. We do not intend to have to take it after it has Vim lost to the invader." Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approveci.For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Joint Chiefs of Staff) be atope4 o1d for at least 120- days after she launches her This is citi1c& of time we seed to put the at aitSEl air and sea plan into operation. Great Britain Belgium Rol)asui Luxesbourg, Norway, Turkey, Iran, Korea Zurope. nmark? Italy, Iceland Portia1, Or Philippines ped with American arma. can cont on 10500 1000,000. cued at the Rhine, Rues Russian Air Po ee - 1,0OO p1ee ?000 are the latest Jets) 12 tactical air 4 10,000,000 men up. She has 500 B-29 type bombers capable of carrying atom bombs. ilperimenting with a 1,700 mile an hour guided rockets it flies at 60,000 feet. Miagbe the Masi= will Bk u into fracL Germany mule a great b1untr in eager accagplices in Russ a. B*Pecifill7 Ukranians Volga Tartars Azerbaijan Armenians Georgians Sorth Cancas.ans -49- . At that time she had millions of Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved-For Release_;,CWRDP78-033624901700140003-3 are t.e i4ures on Sovie propaganda sourcas but from the secret files of the Fox June 29 - July 7 Pocket or Minsk 320,000 July i6 - Smolensk 300,000 Aug- 5-8 - Uman 103,000 Sept. 24 - Elev. 000 Oct la . grygmak Vyamma '7 p000 surrender or more than 2,000,000 soviet forces were fighting on their own soil o be the aggressor. Prisoners of war collective system. Ukraniees 3alts * - then geniune vo mateers paid, fed and clothed rman troops. sible De pJ.ace at a advent when the t a nation which they knew uiv or die under the Russians even Great Russian* used as basis Hitler bundered. on every point - in handling the Red Army, the peasants and the minorities. Ritler in '941 was confident that he co.1d beat Stalin by purely military means.. By 1942 there were 200,000of these vO1untet?, By 1943 there were 600,000 Soviet citizens in the Carman armyy. 8c of these Of eouxie, were coerced. Nhybe there are poiseibilities here. Fres Air /nt. RePol Sr 19147 ThEMUT OF RUSSIAN 1XPAASION DURINGLA NTLTrcy In a recent New Timea article entitl "American Expeneio , Past the Soviet wriioer A. 1r-1144M accused the United States of territorial to the extent of ten time the size of the original thirteen colonies. connection, it is interesting to examine the extent of Russian expansion in I than a century; Since 1853 Russia has acquired a total of 764,300 sq. miles. (A11 area figures in this report are given to the nearest hundred sq. miles.) Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approvgd For Release : CIA-RDP78-0342A001700140003-3 eq. miles of the 280 000 eq. miles added sputa because those territeries were obtai nts or unilateral actions. Between 1853 end 1914 the Russian Elopire acqu red a total of 953,400 sq. miles. The Crimean W.r (1853-1856) put a. stop to expansion in Europe and even caused the temporary loss of Bessarabia between 1850 and 1378. In Central Asia and the Far Sast, homever, Russia expansion reached its peak dtring this period. In Central Asia, Turkestan (650,000 sq. miles )i was conquered between 1667 and 1091 from local regimes, with some minor cessions from Persia and Afghanistan.. Meanwhile exploration and settlement or the Pacific coast resulted in the annexation of 26fi,G00 eq. miles. North Sakhalin vas incorporated in 185: Between 1858 and 1860 China signed treaties recognizing Russian possession of areas north of the Amur and along the Pacific Ocean in what is known today as the Primoraky (Maritime) Mrai. South Sakhalin (1875) and Port Arthur (1896) were both acquired during this period but were lost again in 1905 when they were yielded to japan by the Treaty of Portsmouth. In addition to the major annexations in the above areas, the Russian Empire consolidated its hold on the Caucasus by the Incorporation of Circulate in 1864, and the cession of Mars and Datum by Turkey in the Treaty or San Stefano (1878). These acquisitions (22,000 sq. miles) oompleted the conquest of the Caucasus which had begun in the early 1800's. Finally, exploration of the Arctic reunited in the formal annexation of the island of Severnaya Zemlya (14,600 sq Mil.O.in 1913. The area of Russia had been roughly 7,691,600 eq. miles in 1853. (The territory of Alaska (today 566,400 sq. miles ), which was discovered by the Russians in 1741, was sold to the U.S. in 1867.) On the eve of the World War, following these annexations the Russian :Enpire comprised 3,64:5 oloo sq. miles In the years idiately following the Revolution of 1917 the territorial domain of Russia was diminished by 469,300 sq. miles. Finland, lethonia, Latvia, and Lithuania declared their independence. Ears was ceded to Turkey, Bessarabia returned to Rumania, and a large area was lost to the newly created Poland. Postwar Soviet Russia had an area of 8,1750700 eq. miles. The only exjlension of territory before 1909 was the formal annexation (announced in 1926) of all islands in the ArItic which fall within the triangle described by the lines of longitude 32u4'31". nest and 168049 31" West, the Borth Pole forming the apex and the northern coast of Russia, the base of the triangle. Figures for the area involved have not been issued by the USSR. Except for this adittion, the borders of Soviet Russia remained static until 19391 Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 Approved Per Release : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3 At p P ? i USSR has expanded ? A 455, sq. miles. Since 1931 the under direct Semlet controls 280,200 sq. miles have been added to Soviet of 260, sq. miles has been brought territory and 400 sqa miles are leased or jointly ocoupied. The net gain in aequisitioms sines 1853 is 764,300 sq. miles. Territories which were formerly part or the Evasian empire, and coeprising 196)400 sq. miles In all, haw, been regained. These include Betonia, Latvia* Lithuania, Bessarabia and Bokovina, and South Sakhalin, ea well as large parts of pre-war Poland and Fieland. In Md ition, the Xbenigeberg area, the Wanscarpathian Ukraine, Tannu TUva and the Mails* (totaling 89,900 sq. miles 0 have been brought within Russian boundaries for the first time. Not officially part of the USSR, but temporarily under Soviet control are Porkkala Udd it Finland and Fort Arthur In Manchuria, roughly equaling 400 sq. miles. Oftly pert or these recent additions have been ierntorally recogni d The new areas have been acquired in a variety of ways and the validity or Soviet claims to them varies in degree. Annexation of the areas from Finland: and Poland and of the Ttansoarpathian Ukraine from Czechoslovakia, a total of 95000 sq, miles, hasalready been recognized in treaties with the countries invemed. A fifty-year lease of Porkkala Udd is pxevided for in the Treaty of Peace with Finland. The USSR has not aoqulred sovereignty over Port Arthur but has aa agreement vith China providing for Joint maintenance of a milliary base in that area for thirty years. t ion of the remaining 184,900 aq. mil gtjll awaits tion and confirmation in the forthcomiag- teeaties with and Japan. Provisional occupation of the Bbenigeberg area was arreaged in the Potsdam agreement and of South Sekhalin and the BUrilex in depends directly upon the peace treaties. the Yalta agreement. Permanent title to these axass totaling 24,400 sq. miles, aequisitions of the Baltic States Besearabia,4 Tunnu-Tuva, totaling 1604500 sq. mum, are the result of unilateral actions covered in the case at the first two by prior agreements with Nazi Germagy alone. The annexation of Tannu TUma was evidently aeccomplighed by peaceful miens and followed a vote in the TUvian council for Incorporation, Mbne of those annexation* has as yet bean recognised by the Uoited Statee, although only the legality of Soviet incorporation of thit 34ltie States has so far been questioned. -52- CONFIDENTIAt Approved For Rele se : CIA-RDP78-03362A001700140003-3