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December 9, 2016
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August 25, 1999
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April 10, 1963
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Approved For Release 2000/08/28 : CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 TAB Approved For Release 2000/08/28 : CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 20 LI CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 10 April 1963 MEMORANDUM FOR: Deputy Director, Support SUBJECT : Selection and Acquisition of IBM 7090 Computer This paper is in three parts: Part I - Reasons for Selecting the IBM 7090 Computer Part II - CIA Tasks for the IBM 7090 Computer Part III - Immediate Steps to Procure and Install an IBM 7090 by July 1963 Part I - Reasons for Selecting the IBM 7090 Computer for CIA's Scientific Computing Requirements 1. Summary Many of the Agency's scientific computing applications may be characterized as follows: large-scale tight real-time constraints short deadlines relate to external computing activities involve advanced levels of decision theory. GflUUP 1 F c uded from automatic Approved For Release 2000/ ?CIA-RDP78-03942A000 tb04O 1 deofassitocad Approved For Release 2000/0 ; F[A-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 The most immediate of the Agency's scientific computing support needs are those of the DD/R. The DD/R has requested an initial operational capability of August 1963. To achieve a scientific computing production capability within the next few months, it is necessary to choose an appropriately configured computer with large proven reliability, a computer already pro- grammed by a large number of scientists/mathematicians, and, most important of all, a computer having extensive software in the fields most significant to the Agency. The IBM 7090 meets these specifications in far fuller measure than any other machine on the market. II. Hardware Considerations A. Minimum specifications (with some possible trade-offs) should be as follows: Arithmetic rather than character type. Minimum add time of 10 microseconds. Minimum of 25k word memory. (Less memory throws many matrix programs onto auxiliary storage, thus blowing process time.) (Most of the externally-generated source data which CIA will use in its various scientific computing applications will have been generated on 36-bit word ma- chines. If CIA processes these data on other than 36-bit word equipment, dis- crepancies will occur between CIA results and the results obtained on the original 36-bit word equipment.) Approved For Release 2000/ ETcIA-RDP78-03942AO001 Approved For Release 2000/0 I1A-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 -3- 4+. Indirect addressing (real-time consideration). 5. Floating point. 6. Tape transmission speed of at least 50,000 characters per second. (Real-time considerations might raise this to 100-300 numerics per second.) Several large-scale computers (not to count such very large-scale machines as STRETCH, LARC, and CDC-6600) meet the above specifications; e.g., Burroughs-B5000, CDC-16a4, Ma-1800, IBM-7o44, PHILCO-2000,1 UNIVAC-1107, CDC-3600 and IBM 7090/9)+. B. Reliability The basic engineering of 1962-63 models of the above computers probably is top level. However, in an operational environment the reliability of a computer system will also be determined by (1) the compatibility of the central pro- cesser with its on-line peripheral gear, (2) the extent to which the reliability of all component parts has been proven through extensive and varied usage, and (3) experience and competence of the maintenance engineers. (1) The IBM 7090 system contains only IBM peripheral equipment. Thus, maximum compatibility is assured. (2) The IBM 7090 alone does about 60% of all scienti- fic computing in the world and consequently is by far the most thoroughly checked out scientific computer available. Approved For Release 2000/ E f IA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/0- IA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 -4- 25X1A 25X1A (This is a particularly important consideration when an early operational capability is required. Other less seasoned computers, although having features perhaps indicative of the next computer generation--such as, the Burroughs B5000 with its list, stack, and Polish notation features--are not acceptable as initial computers in a "crash" environment. Such machines should be analyzed carefully for possible subsequent incorporation, however, into an operating center.) (3) As for maintenance, there are more experienced main- tenance engineers for the IBM 7090 than for any other machine. Also, the earlier workhorse for scienti- fic computing, the IBM 704, is basically an IBM 7090 prototype. Thus, not only do more trained engi- neers exist, but the average scientific computer experience level per IBM 7090 engineer is greater. C. Special Hardware Considerations for CIA The IBM 7090 is an excellent data processor and is an ideal complement to the- IBM 1410 which is now servic- ing many CIA computing requirements. The IBM 7090 can run IBM 1410 programs through an available simulator WITHOUT REPROGRAMMING, and can share the SAME 1301 disc file. (Solving of real-time problems within predicted future con- straints may well depend on such sharing to provide'manipu- lation of pre-computed tables.) Approved For Release 2000/(~ ffiff IA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/0 68IIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 III. Software Considerations Software may be divided into four categories: (A) Systems Programs, (B) Manufacturer's Library, (C) Users' Libraries, and (D) Customer's Library. As for systems programs, the IBM 7090 has the most sophis- ticated and thoroughly debugged programs of any large computer in the world. In the other three software categories, IBM 7090- type programs comprise about 90% of all available scientific software in the free world. Many hundreds of man-years of pro- gramming effort are available to the Agency if an IBM 7090 is acquired. And the machine costs for debugging and testing these programs can be considered equivalent to the labor costs. Thus, the IBM 7090 gives the Agency free access to millions of dollars of software. --In short, the software resources of the IBM 7090 are so great relative to comparable machines as to overwhelm any and all other considerations, given the nature of the Agencyrs needs, present and anticipated. Most scientific programming in the U. S. is done in some version of FORTRAN (sometthttes intermixed with symbolic machine code) which is the most used algebraic compiler language for the IBM 7090. Most unbiased students of machine scientific com- piler languages consider FORTRAN somewhat inferior to ALGOL or ALGOL-type languages such as NELIAC, JOVIAL,- MAD, etc. Academic circles commonly use ALGOL as the standard form of algebraic expression and communication. Yet when they actually run their Approved For Release 2000/08EC1~-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/080 R-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 -6- problems on the machine, they use FORTRAN. Thus, de facto, FORTRAN as used on the IBM 7090 must be accepted as the scienti- fic man-machine language standard, at least for the immediate and intermediate future. A. Systems Programs To reiterate, the IBM 7090 Systems Programs posture is without compare. These programs are too numerous to list. One example: the IBSYS Executive Processor monitors debug- ging and production and supplies all utility programs FORTRAN IV; COBOL, and 9PAC (Report Generator which sorts before generating) are included in the IBSYS package. B. Manufacturer's Library The SHARE library contains approximately 1200 programs (mainly scientific) which will run on an IBM 7090. Most of these require modification to run on other machines. C. Other Users' Libraries 1. NSA has the largest library of stream processing pro- grams in the U. S., most of which are for the IBM 7090. Subroutines and techniques from this library are avail- able and will be used in the Agency. Also, NSA has automatic ELINT processing programs for the 7090 which can be used in support of OEL, DD/R. 2. DIA has 7090 trajectory analysis programs of possible use to OSI. CIA also has extensive intelligence files which are created, maintained, and retrieved by 7090 programs. Approved For Release 2000/08/2ffgRff RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/OQY- IA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 25X1A 25X1A 5X1A 25X1A 25X1A 4. NASA, STL, NORAD, and SAC have 7090 programs of present use or possible future use to OSI and to other Agency components. cessing. The 7090 version has had extensive use. -(used only on IBM 70'+/709/7090) which is used for string processing and symbol manipulation. _ is probably the most powerful existing compiler for re- search in machine translation of natural languages (of interest tom. 6. 25X1A Naval Electronics Lab (NEL) has written NELIAC, which is a self-compiler and fast. This language and its trans- lator, accepted only in limited circles, has had two years of shakedown on the 7090. NELIAC, while no great improvement over older languages, incorporates some advanced features and will probably be used more exten- sively in research environments in the near future. Few, if any, machines other than the IBM 7090 can be consid- ered to have seasoned production reliability in this Approved For Release 2000/08/28 : CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 language. SECRET Approved For Release 2000/0 fA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 -8- 25X1A 25X1A 25X1A 8. WECEN (Air Force Weather Central, Omaha) has a vast collection of IBM 7090 programs which concern orbital, trajectory, and geographic-space analysis. Some of these programs will produce answers for the Agency and in many cases, modifications or extractions will give adequate initial answers. 9. has programs similar to WECEN (plus extensive tracking programs) which feed data automatically into an IBM 7090. Since most of these programs were written under U. S. Government contract, they are presumed avail- able to the Agency. D. Customerrs Library (CIA) 1. OSI/DD/I - External contractors are using 7097090 pro- grams in support'of OSI's scientific interests. Pro- grams written in Project _ for OSI have been written for the 1+10 and the 709/7090 (all of which can be run on the 7090 without change). 2. COMMO/DD/S - ADPS has just completed 711- hours of pro- duction runs on a 7090 at NSA for COMMO's radio propa- gation job. This task will require hencceforth two hours of 7090 time weekly. The 7090 programs for this applica- tion are on hand, of course. Other identified COMMO problems not yet programmed will borrow heavily from the 7090 subroutine library at NSA. Approved For Release 2000/08/2 IRDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/,t7 25X1A 3. DD/P - The programs for a special DD/P application are now being written in FORTRAN-II...which is compatible with the IBM 7090. 4. DD/R - All programs existing outside the Agency but being studied now for the DD/R applications can be run on the IBM 7090. (They have been written in either FORTRAN or 7090 machine code.) All DD/R programs con- the IBM 1410 are written in FORTRAN and will also run on the IBM 7090. Approved For Release 2000/0IA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 200 : CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 -10- part II - CIA Tasks for the IBM 7090 Computer I. DD/R Two 7090-type projects have been identified to date: (1) Operational support to OSA. (See special channels memorandum from the DD/R to the DD/S, dtd 14 April 1963, citing critical need for 7090 support to this effort.) (2) Experimentation with general-purpose computer proces- sing of ELINT data for OEL using programs developed at NSA. OSI has the principal requirement within the DD/I for 7090 support. the AD/SI is anxious to set up in-house computing capabilities to (a) cut back on production-type computing now being done under external contracts and (b) provide more immediate and flexible computing support to OSI analysts. The major areas of DD/I interest are: 25X1 B III. DD/S There are four 7090-type areas of interest presently identified in the DD/S: Approved For Release 2000/ EItIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/8 CTCIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 (1) Predictions of Useful Radio Frequencies (COMMO) 25X1A 25X1A 25X1A 25X1A Radio Propagation Graphs and Charts supported) (2,) Randomizing Suitable Frequencies (COMMO) (3) Cryptographic Support (COMMO) (4) Engineering support to COMMO Laboratory,M (COMMO) IV. DDP Project- is being programmed under external contract in FORTRAN-II, an IBM 7090 language. Although a small scientific computer will be used during the laboratory development of Project - IBM 7090 support to this project is feasible and may occur after techniques and procedures have been set. Approved For Release 2000,E TCIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 Approved For Release 2000/g IA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 25X1A 25X1A 25X1A Part III - Immediate Steps to Procure and Install an IBM 7090 by July 1963 1. Approval and Authorization Agency management must approve priority acquisition of an IBM 7090 and authorize ADPS to place a priority order with the IBM Corporation now. 2. Equipment Order ADPS must determine suitable hardware configuration and place a formal order with IBM for priority delivery in July 1963. The IBM Sales Representative has indicated that the IBM Corporation can deliver a 7090 to CIA in July 1963 if the order is placed with IBM by 30 April 1963. 3. Space A suitable site in the Headquarters Building for the Computer Center must be designated. This Center will house the 7090, the X1410/1401, and the Project computers. These machines will be operationally interdependent artially excepted) MMOMM Computer Room 5,750 sq. Tape Library 700 Supplies 400 Operations Personnel 600 Key Punch Room 1,200 IBM Service Engineers Room 350 9,000 sq. ft. 25X1A The present Computer Center (1410/1401) now occupies Rooms GE0418, GEO41 A, and GE0430A, totaling 2700 square feet. The site for the Computer Center must be designated by early May 1963 so that site preparation (false floors, power, air conditioning, etc.5 can be completed in July 1963. 4. Personnel Because the ADP Staff can draw on skills already on board to staff in part for this major extension of CIA computing capabilities, only twenty-five additional ceiling positions will be required. Approved For Release 20 8M : CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 IMF Approved For Release 2000MBPM 1 CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1 - 13 - Programmers 20 IBM 7090 Operators 5 25 ceiling positions (Systems analysis, additional programming, data preparation, and management skills will be drawn from on-board skills.) Budget FY-64 funds must be earmarked for this acquisition as follows: IBM 7090 . . . . . . . . . . $ 750, 000 Supplies . . . . . . . . . . 50)000 Site Preparation . . . . . . 75,000 Personnel. . . . . . . . 225,000 (25 G $9,000) 1,100,000 25X1A 6. Hardware installation Installation in the Computer Center of the IBM 7090, and relocation of the~L41O/1+01 (already in Headquarters Building) should be completed in July 1963. 7. Recruitment and Training ADPS will continue its recruitment and training of skills required for scientific computing on the IBM 7090. 25X1 D Approved For Release 2008, Chief Automatic Data Processing Staff CIA-RDP78-03942A000100010002-1