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X~Pr3FR s?r POSSIBLY TR~i9 PROBABLY., g3t3R3?~T#! . SrlSR CAIN " not $' rt?JsB~?PdL ' ~~?ia, pI?Q ( p Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 it F' MA? VIEEPORT yr xf 'y'; . c ?. tu: ? i.: roauct .oxl 'P-0 .t, s'w' :avki PLA?z?T: Horitar 3 r' a .rrante a "o NOT N CA NNOT 07 ao-: ? a " rv : VIM?. 'TV P F r c t U t r r naff W can ! F J " a 7x S~3 La -',P f WS '3 '+N& [ir s. S s n roMC: 11 r+a~^r,ra p. JLti K/' E'l;Y ox.'.R"$.^. `"he v gF > r ~: 3. a ;f~ r tbrough the di . vem r 194'7 a r d ; b o ' . i ; ,1+i2 b e ~;; 1 k u,J~,%,o : a sn l ' R State iG recatvtag tis year: + na 1y r c . .. ~z a ha: ? m it r. c receiving ~ the beet o ? tr > 111 -TIA, Y`,d tom: ;" 13 n ~ ~ n Irk an.x' ~ f...C? T ,, (p1:R Ql,`~ ~l. a ~ea';5f !t ii tm . ii :'m.', '1,'.7 a' g- ,._ >c' X9''V, i'; .a t b9. x~ v ; : ~f; ;, 7 a::d < .r , ?a t 0t fa rr, o ; a t mt the go a m's wit. the ; `ya';~ fi j?;~~r 7104 yot a rn x 4 , , , 7r' ,N r 1,94?) ? O r" i.yuna t7la Pd ~ t P"tt I~V~ ~ "~ :k"ogSR w X tIL'. A7dt'a1,fS F4 " rv ?;?: rU~ .E.;~.., t Y^i'23 .., a;~,G,i "" 4 eiP3,rf11 F ,a~eT~a~ 'f alp .' 4?. S"9sxl:.P+.1 1 4~~"T "1 r~ C.1 1 .. 3 i K G i r f r F E.l~ } z s * 1r ~ r s3 J: a ~ )7 fT ~.' ,t' .1~5 1 ~ . o ~ 1 4 X rN' . h ~5 3 g9 A'f ~+ ' +8 ,_. k'1t 4.fA in .a of 3-947 Grain-Daliver, t pa a?? ri n t A ,,.~i9.f R'a.1.~1(.~,!il,~~ C +J n d i b a' t? ~ C, r, n a. n G bE~ ?'J . a CaT G;t6?,'.A e'S?+d ..lens. > 'd'!fo , ?k8wa? ;12 Of Aul, r , "?-rcti'r' o., o . ' A~ ~a-omr,ea::d n?.oa a < ., n.a+a+ a,...r n~?.e,-'xun-a n. y n T a.77 ?r' s"~ 5 R~"~ L tti J~ ~'r~i2 f ~+1 r ~ tu.~a~`' st ~ .e.9?'fdL~! 75 1., ; F~37.`:af Wi iT.,. 1,f t ,d-~{,.., NAYk n r. n a , o a o n a a. a a n a n o a o o a o ,. a e a e RESTRICTED COVJ+ 6RF13FO JMP6SSI6r.Y TRUE wl'.411.f ?. 3 W _ 71111 MO. OF ENO A, SUPPLEMENT TO REPOT NO.. o u o o n n o n n e a a?+ e r a e o. a i s r n c r c :. o 0 0 o Y. o 10 , Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 REEREMCECEPUR ~~BRGRY Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RES JL(~TED 004-:56 must be intensified, the first commandment being good accomplishment of wheat storage.C" (8 September 1940 General descriptions of the benefits of the harvest sidestep the function of State grain stores. !or examples "A good harvest has been produced practically everywhe in the country. This makes it possible to complete the State grain procurement plan ahead of schedule, open the designated public funds'in the collective farms, and increase the pair per collective fare work da7... " (PRAVDA, 26 September 1947) 5Th. incomes of collective farm peasants this year, thanks to the good harvest, have increased considerably in comparison with last year, ,, , This year, every able bodied collective farm worker averages' from 300 to 550 workdays daring the season, while crack collective farm workers numlmr as many as 500 more workdays., "The produce paid out for these workdays will not only be quite enough for personal requirements, but ants will be able to sell part of them in town markets On tht 'I erxl farm in eas Ukratne,, every farm worker received , grams of bread per workday and much other produce, ,. On the 'Stalinc collective farm in Usbekistan, each member received 4 (kgw,) of grain, much butter, meat, tea, and considerable quantities of manufactured goods--the latter being in payment for the cotton given to the State," (TASS, in Russian at Dictation Speed to the Provincial Press, 11 Noveabor 1947) In addition, tjte Soviet radio does not disclose the location of grain collecting centers or the ultimate destination of the stores tuts accumulated. The extent of information monitored on this aspect' of the procurement program is limited to the following typical ?desdription of the process# $Ukrainian workers (in their letter to Stalin) state] 'We delivered our grain on time, As trucks and other means of transport were provided, those were taken to State stores, The grain was at the collecting centers on schedule and was thence taken away to its destination." (Kiev, in Ukrainian, 21 October 194?) Nor is further information tbas far to be gleaned from references to rail or river transport, Occasional mention is made of grain barges, but the direction of shipment is not disclosed. While special emphasis is given to wheat production and procurement, the grain crops also mentioned in connection with the procurement program are corn, millet, and rye. The breakdown according to crops is nowhere given; but the frequency of general, non- statistical references to wheat production suggest that the Soviets are concentrating particularly on that crop in their program of overall expansion of grain-producing areas With regard to the expansion program itself, frequent references are made to increase in cultiated area. since 1946, The total increase in the 1947 harvest area, ,waver, is no014F-die to conflicting statistics, listed belows 1947 Harvest Area Qo!gared With 1946 Broadcast Source 8,000,000 more hectares J Leningrad, 8 September 1947 6,000,000 more hectares TASS, to the Provincial Press,, 17 October 1947 5,000,000 more hectares by 20 September TASS, to North America, 20 September 1947 Statistics are also given regarding the increases in area sown to winter crops in comparison to 1946, On 14 October, the 091 Statistical reau of the State Planning Commission reported that, 3,800,000 more hectares had been seeded by 5 October. While the crops are unspecified here, a clue is provid In a scowl broadcast the following day, which states that 3,800,040 more hectares have been sown to wheat and a in the southern regions of the USSR, as compared with 1946. A Vosoow broadcast for North America, 4 October, however,, lists the total increase in seeded area over 1946 as one hectare equals RRSTRICTSD RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RE5-- i D TED I3s 's7 9,000,000 hectares. USSR Machine Tractor Stations, finally, are rerorted by PPAvDA (24 October) to have placed '52,600 ,,000 more hectares under cultivation. The following, tables present the grain--procurewpat statistics for the individual regions of the USSR as announced in Soviet domestic broadcasts of September, October, sod November, 1949. RESVILICTED RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 GA!d:A'T7 T"iT~ is For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED 4) H o , N t'i n :J 41 Y+ a 4) 4) o m r-i cw 21 0 C) 0 r-{ GP 4, C" 04 C) C; +y ~. V4 C` -J 1CA V~ {~ u CA u 0 ;'a ri co 4y: to ~p Q W t t .ri w H J7 O~ p H Q s:s 0 is M4 4> W 4-, 0 0 r ti cc b 0 0 cif 1t~ c,, O w w t0 si' a~ LI: H V- V" OD H c0 50~ 0 0 0. 0 0 0 -0 c 8~ 0 0 O co 0 C. C+: w':J c V) c- v Iv ri IW f' 4? it J:3 fl) 0 0 o e r O +~ O o O O +3 440 a 4> 4)43+> A+>+>4>4-3 Pi A+> a) sr. O~ w H tell 9- H 0 ) tv 0. H Ca Q H H V) NJ C.'. ?-1 0 o n U o o +a U c o +> +1 _ o o e u a 43 o 43 a s +) C. +-1 0 0 0 4> P4 P4 43 4a 10 4-1 43 1:'14 43 Q. P 4J V 0 0 V '0^ G? V^ 0 v 0 v j.0 v 4) 0 0 v 0 t.7. 0 0 C 4) O 0 Z 0 `0 W 0 M F:. 0 W 0CC')n l4 t')N m CD CQ In P-f~CV '4 rr4C' cl 'b C7 't7 t7 tU Z3 ~-41 4A ?4' c`7 I ? 4a> 4) 4 m 4) CD 4) 0 0 c~ --+ . C, 0 r o Y ...1y;yyy< b c H a~ u, r~~u s r-t o a ;~4 V1 Y1 ? 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C :! t t 1t ! t f t r-4 wb 0 '.4. x 4- k, m 1 v~^ ~ ..~ / 0 43 nn pp 14M *4 y4 G7 Q,- - .,; r? k -4 .r4 rt f-i rt ,C d c. b a1 Q IY m 1 O SG 0) vv O r+ NQ 0 (A .S4} 4t 93 tc 431 O NIS v-4 w c Ey r t R m ca t ~~C 0 :? s. ca (0 E-4 L o .4 RESTRIC D RESTRICTED U 44 U u`^G9' Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 rg I 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 4 A - a C W to 0 i 0 0 Cqq~ t3 0 c' V' t~3 cd r-f O Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 R9IRICTED 11 ~e'1 C'A p 'N ti'1 U 0 d 0 0 0 ti 0 .o O 4-4 O f. W U a g w Q ~ a " ~ ~' a a ac Q w a r. to C- CO 4A d C, 1"1 4a 0. 7~i T P. 4) i) 8 R O 0 H O O e 0 0 t ~j?11 - 1 ri 1 i3 v 3- VP A+ O ? Q'?? 9C co 0 M r .4 r-4 `."_' 1-4 O E tYr ,. b (A t1} .e r-a U) r4. R "'RICTED /3-17 4tC7 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 1 ESTRIGTED a ?aw 54 o 0 4& 10 42 C. 4.' 440 p. .pz a C2 o 0 is o o o .434' p. +'+31 42 8046888 to Cl I en t. A U 0 ? 4-3 a+: o aV o a 4.1 o y 0 080 00 o"zoc Z 0 C. CN c;7 '-I Cal i+ 0 01 Co. C v r? 0-4ri czrlC.N i-I C' C.. 07 ' \ r t r s t s t t t s z 500 ' C 00 A w A . W m w o. an 4 a '0 0 0 O~C7Ocs~ C 000 p o r 0OCO''OC`WJ000 o ? C. ft w 0 a ? a a t~:ClP1t9M ri G1Ct) 0 FF,21 rmpooa oor'cst'C Oc%o.-Itoto co q& a F 00 cl, cft 9-4 'r0 - Ca v A ++m 7 c) c? C. K: s-I +? W e~-1 O t r1 0 O C: k a w a p. cs a- +3 ; P. z A C, P4 X 0-1 H i r4 4' - 4+ o) iC1 C i s t t t t elm aC ' 08 C? OpQ O LJ 0 ~: 0- C) V 0 0 L4 4 ty) td3 (D 0 43 0 Q 00 ra v' r: u: ? w a a a o a Q w Or CZ 17 c. ct: p !]~ G~ tr 0 C Ol C C 4) 0 C) P 0 ~ o a. w (0 I0 to ,b' O 0 0 p. gal :-I, 'CO 14 W O $. 0 C3 3 ai Q 0 .0 0 .0 43 o, 43 a 6 o U 4a 1 t t t t t t t r t r t p C? a W4 Zm k rt as w4 rl I. .O W O 44 0 R? k ti co O k, ni O ,54 t s t x a " o 0 a+1 ~~ O 0 .R A ri f~ O STRIC EO i ~ v + v a- 4Ct 43 0! G? 07 4' to C) 00 0 t0 V k b c? z1 ~ b N :4 Si C 0) N 0 4A d) o 0' l~ O a ? 5 I V4 4"1 IA.i Qi uv'SmPT a 1n Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED RESTRICTED g TAB11 Areas Re outing Specific Pled sx/in Excese of 1947 rain. c ivii Plan, Chkulov Oblast (Province or Region) Groxny " Kuibyshav " Ulyanovsk , 7eliki Luki " Bashkir ASSR BirobiJan AR Th ryat-Mangotian ASR Chuvash ASSN Tatar ASSR 64,000,000 pounde2/ 3"6009000 " 25,300,000 2196000000 n 19o800e000 54,0000000 " 3,6000000 " 2l06000000 M 18,0000000 " 108oO00,000 DATE OP RE- PORTSD PLEDGE 14 Oct. 3 Oct. 30 Sept. 27 OCte 11 Oct. 7 Oct. 17 Sept. 7 Nov, 27 Sept? 19 Sept. ' hitom r Oblast (Province or Region) ?"2000000 " 27 Oct? Latvian SSE 2200009000 Uzbek SSR Samarkand Oblast (Province or Region) 149400,000 30 Sept., Tadzhik SSR 54,(Vo,, XX) N 6 Oct. 1/ This table Includes those areas reported as having pledged to deliver a certain quantity of grain in excess of plan0 but whose fulfillment or non-fulfillment of pledge has not yet been reported in monitored Soviet broadcasted It was felt,, however, that the pledges '!arranted a separate table in view of the Control Commission established by the Communist Party of the USSR in March 1947 which provides for "continuous check on competition results." Plf-Aged by collective fame. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED RESTRICTED 00-P-36 UKRAl1 B ACHIBVffiMEATS /35 Yfl7 "The Ukraine, as is well known, is one of the principle agricultural regions of the country, It In enoa&h to recall that in the pre-war years, it raised one-fourth of the entire Soviet Union grain crop and 70 percent of the Union's sugar" This quotation from a PRAVDA editorial, "The Ukraine Ras Fulfilled the Grain Procure- ment Plan Before the Deadline," broadcast by the Soviet Rome Service on 12 October 194?, indicates the importance accorded by the Soviets to this year's Ukrainian agricultural production and underlines the significance of innumerable prior broad= caste directing "self-criticism" and exhortations to the Ukraine's rural population., Assessing the final results of the Ukraine's 1947 efforts, the above-quoted PRAVDA editorial considers that since the Ukraine was "devestated in such a barbarous manner,.,., if today the Ukraine reports the re-term fulfillment of the State grain rocarema thi ca a on mean -that the cu lure o t aine Republic. !Oln firm stars on is ee , t t the Ukraine's Bolsheviks achieved Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party and Comrade Stalin's directives, Such praise, repeated frequently since 12 October, It a far cry from PRAVDA's earlier (9 August) reminder that "in the Ukraine, until recently the organization for crop harvesting and grain deliveries suffered from grave defects." The Ukraine's success, says PRAVDA (12 October) is "first of all, the result of the tremendous assistance extended by the Soviet State, the Bolshevik Party, and personally by Comrade Stalin, to the collective and Soviet farms of the Ukraine, In a year difficult for the, Ukraine, the Soviet State We generous aid to the peasants,. It directed to the Ukraine a lavish stream of ~oodetuffs and of seeds, thousands of new machines. This State aid became the powerful springboard which launched the Ukrainian farmers to victory, The Ukraine's example shows what great successes may be achieved when Party orgabizations launch millions of people on the task of overcoming difficulties in the conquest of a rich harvest,," Although the tables on pages 6? 8, and 9. give most of the:. re ;evbsnty Ukraine agricultural statistics culled from Soviet broadcasts, the following are also worth noting, Cultivated area has reached'82 percent of the pre-war level. "Tractor and other agricultural machinery operations (were carried out) over an area greater by 30 million hectares than last year's." "The Kharkov Regions, delivered to the State 12 million more w.;oods of grain than it had delivered in the most prosperous pre-war years," The plan for sowing winter wheat has been accomplished by 108.6 percent. "The Ukraine has sown 1,272t,00O acres of winter wheat than it did last autumn." (It is also reported that "the sown area of 194? is 8 million hectares greater than over before,,") RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED RI~SPRICTFD .. 11 /3c'i' SOVIET APPRAISAL OF CU'21CWT & FUTURX AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS Along with the collection of grain, Soviet radios give attention to the procurement of sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, cotton, flaw and sunflower seeds, butler, milk, and the development of the livestock industry, Finally, preparations for winter seeding and the spring harvest round out the p!.cture of Soviet agricultural programs for the fall months of 1947. Soviet evaluation of these programs, found mainly in PRAVDA, provides information about the actual perforaaenco of assigned agricultural tasks. The pattern of these editorial criticisms is invariabler A eulogy`to the greatness of the Soviet system, as illustrated by overall success in a given program., introduces a warning to regions where assignments have not been handled satisfactorily, It is worth noting that "Party officials" are generally held responsible for failures; only in rare instances are the farmers themselves cri ti Vized0 aq Grain Procurement and the 1948 Grain Oro a PRA?-DA states on 17 October that the succetsc: grain procurement program itt ispu ab eo and that "the program for the post-war upswing of the agricultural economy," as outlined by the February plenum of the Communist Parts is being realized," While "party officials" in the Omsk, Novosibirsk, and Kurgan regions of Siberia are denounced for "complacency" as evidenced by deliveries "seriously behind plan," the general tone of this and other references to grain procurement is one of satisfaction. The Party organae criticism of the fulfillment of the winter sowing plan, particularly of wheat, however, is more severed Several regions are criticized for lagging, Further, PRAVDA reveals that "the most important plenum instruction, is not being carried out,_., In a number of districts, the area assigned for winter wheat cultures is being planted to different cultures." The areas cited in this instance include the Ukraine, Kuban, Stavropol, Rostov, Crimea, Voronezh, Kursk, and Moldavia, (27 September 1947) Evidence of Indifference to preparations.cor next yearts crop is also found in connection with the creation of reserve seed funds,Z,' Reserve seed funds, PRAVDA explains,, are to be created by every farm "in the amount of 10 to 15 percent of the estimated needs, in accordance with the agricultural artel statute," However, several regions, including those previously praised for outstanding grain deliveries, have failed to establish funds. If this negligence continues, PRAVDA warns, these areas will be penalized, for only those "which secured their own seeds, without resorting to Government seed loans, shall be considered has having succesofull.y realized their grain-procurement and other agricultural plans." A still more serious violation of Party instructions is uncovered in PRAVDA', concluding remarks on this subjects "Every kilogram of the seed reserve is designated for sowing purposes only. There is evidence... that the seed funds are often improperly used. Those guilty. of doing that, pi well as persons instigating such acts, must be called to account. Such is the immutable Soviet law which safeguards the interests of the collective farms," '(26 September 1947) Finally, in connection with fallow-plowing and crop rotation, PRAVD& reveals another instance of inadequate long-range planning8 "The collective farms of the country have done a little more fallow-plowing than last year, but the plowing tempo" cannot in any way be considered satisfactory, .. In a number of districts, crop rotation is delayed through the shortage of perennial grass seeds, whereas the collective farms could have secured their own grass seeds. The trouble is that insuf''icient attention is paid to the mowing.,. of grass. This rteults in an enormous waste of seeds." (27 September 1947) b. Milk and Butter Procurement; The fulfillment of milk and butter delivery schedules PRAVDA remarks, occupy ee a most important place" in the Party?s program "to speed up the production of mast consumption goods,, so as to raise the living standard of the workers.;" The organ notes with special satisfaction that "among the regions which have fulfilled this program in an exemplary manner. are found regions whose farm economy had been barbarously devastated by the German agressors.," But, "while, in the country as a whole, the butter deliveries are considerably ahead of similar deliveries in 1946," PRAVDA reveals a weakness in Communist discipllnea "An appeasing attitude towards persons who violate the State discipline has led to the Vladimir region being now among the last in respect to milk and butter procurement. Here and there,- attempts are made to side-step In August;-the Council of inisters of the US and the Gentra1 Committee of the All- nion Communist Party issued a decree liquidating the State Seed Fund and instructed Party members to make certain that reserve seed funds are created in every collective farm. (See.SURVE OF USSR RADIO BROADCASTS. 15 August 1947, No. 8, pi. H 5.) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RET4CTED r3SV*''j milk and butter deliveries by substituting for these products others, less valuable., i9 PRAVDA orders local officials to correct this condition by conducting "a check in every farm (as to) how milk and butter deliveries are being medea to stop the squandering of milk brought in from collective and state farms, to increase the control over the ,ctivitiee of State procurement organs, and to enforce the,tax paying discipline among the persons who deliver milk." (27 October 1947) c. Livestock Breedings; "winter is approaching. The most important period for the live- stock breve `is comic,," PRAVDA reminds on 1.4 October. "The failure to fulfill the livestock-breeding plane by one or another station may be ascribed mainly to the failure to provide the necessary conditions for wintering the stock," In the editorial from which it is quoted, PRAVDA indicates the emphasis given to livestock breeing in Communist agricultural planningx "Recently. the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR established high awards for the workers of the industry, By thlesat,,the Soviet Government proved that the livestock industry is one of the decisive, vital branches of the national econonW." That the industry as a whole is still behind pre-war levels, however, is a licitly recognizedsr "The February Plenum of the Communist Party,,, outlined plans (which) contain a broad program for the restoration and the further development of the socialist livestock industry.," ... In 19 , -the pre-war level.. must be reached and i urpasseed." In addition, "it must be stated frankly that in a number of regions the livestock industry is still-in the stage of a second-close industry, As a result, they are deftniteljr lagging behind the general level of development achieved by the industry es a whole." "Daily propaganda" among livestock workers is ordered as part of the overall campaign to "popularize" the government awards. d< The Cotton Crop: Cotton pickers of Uzbek and Kazakh are reminded that October is a "44ecisivr month in the program for "upswing" in cotton production., The cotton harvest this year Is "fine," PRAVDA says, according to a 4 October Moscow broadcast; In Uzbek, the"main cotton-growing Republic," it is "as good as the outstanding cotton crop of 1941," As usual, however, P?AVDA notes that arty of is is s are negligent in their organization of the cotton-picking work, "The tempo of cotton-picking in the (Uzbek) is intolerably slow." Leaders failed to "mobilize reserves" and thereby neglected preps -stion for Late- ripening plants. For these same reasons, "Kazakhstan, too, is legging behind.," In order to overcome the lag and catch up with the r'ork that wps done," PRAVDA orders "a five-day collection campaign for the picking and delivery o* the raw-cotton0,,.u To prevent love and spoilage of raw cotton, wc.rk must be organized in such a manner.that all the picked cotton is immediately rushed to the State delivery centers,," on Potato and Vegetable Procurementg Among the faults PRAVDA finds,in the vegetable procurement program are numerous instances" of waste because of negli+eence. Collective farmers are guilty of leaving the vegetables too long in the fields, where they are endangered by frost; rural administrators neglected to provide storage space; and machine tractor stations failed to provide transportation, Railway managers, finally, are criticized for fail,1ng to provide enough cars, or for sending such poor care that they cannot be used,, (O September 1947) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED :RDSTRIC1.11D TABIX 4._ -- Areas Praised or Criticized by PRAYY for Specific Phases of A,rticul?tural Program ~.w?ws+^ ^ ~~n^^~~ ? r w .?ar w ^^^rrrw., + Praise - Criticism I AGGG?fIC[jLTU 41 PEASE Cotton nutter & Livestock in(,;; crop 1 Winter Seed Find Deli I?;i11: ueliv. Development rota on S # S `SR Cheliabiusk Kalur,a Rurgan Kursk Kostroma Krasnoyarsl: Poscow Novosibirsk Omsk Orel Penza Rostov Ryazin Smolensk; Stavro-,:o1 Tambov Tula Volor'dF- Voroiaeth Yaroslavl Crimes A-SSR Ukraine SSR Belorussian S:iR Karelo-Yin. SSR Esthonien SSR Latvian SSR I4oldavian SSR Georgian SSA Armenian SR Azerbaijan $R Kazakh 5SR Uzbek SS"ic Tadzhik S:;R Kirghiz c 00-F-36 13S-y87 110 1 Below 1946 t s 9 RLSri ilC'1']w ) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 I w..r.wJ .w war Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED RESTRICP1D AGRICIIL'ITi.P. ATID COW1 U 'IST DISCIPLINE Some of the most graphic illustrations of the importance accorded grain collection (as well as food collection programs in general) in Soviet planning be found in the variety of disciplinary measures that are pied to.ensure the delivery And storage of the Stales s full quota of 'arm produced Sianult&ne ?~.sJ~ with reported wide.. spread. agricultural succssses_ domestic broadcast material indicates that the Party is still meeting with a certain amount of recAlcitrance and nonscoopera+tion from eegw,euts of the rural population, and that, in addition, the bureaucracy attached to the collective farms has not operated with desired dispatch and efficiency in pro- moting achievements of Moseowts objectives, These indications are especially evident in broadcasts emana ing from local Soviet transmitters and addressed to regional Soviet audieuoes,l To counteract this recalcitrance, apathy, and bureaucracy, the Party heft used and is using four main tectics2 (1) rigid enforcement of existing regulations, and extension of legislative regulation; (2) creation of new control bodies, both Party and non- Party; (3) reorganization of rural leadership, and (4) constant use of propaganda and the establishment of individual and group incentives for high achievement. a The A ricultural Artal Statuteb early in September, as the grain procurement program got under way, t Soviet press and radio issued thinly-disguised warnings to , 9i all agricultural workers and supervisors in the form of reminders of the penalties for violation of the agricultural artel statute? The function of the statute is explained as follows "The artel statute (is) the fundamental law of the social structure in the village, (It) determines the objectives and tasks of the agricultural artel, ownership and use of the land by the collective farms indefinitely, and the regulations governing the administration of the artel., Clearly expressed in the statute is the socialist principal coordinating the interests of the collective farmers with those of the people as a whole and the State. ,,, The statute is the immutable law of the.collective farm life, and no violation of it will be tolerated by our State, as the violation of the statute hampers the cause of socialist construction," (Khabarovsk, 19, September 1947) Listeners are reminded that in September 1946, following disclosure of "flagrant violation" of the statute at that timed the Communist Party and the USSR Council of Ministers tightened the statute still further by issuing decrees which "gave the necessary instructions on the preservation of agricultural property and wealth." (Poltava, in Ukrainian, 4 September 1947) In addition, a "Council for the Affairs of the Collective Farms, under the Government of the USSR" was created "with a view to the establish- ment of firm control over the agricultural artel statute," (Khabarovsk, 19 September 1947) b, Past and Present VI illation* of the Artel Statutes An illustration of Communist disciplinary action is g ven in a Moscow brow cast o 9 September 1947 which, in its description. of reforms accomplished in Kuilryshev since September? 1946, carries an implicit warning to any region which fails to complete the 1947 grain procurement plant "The Stavropol district, the largest in the Kuibyehev region, had a poor reputation, In the attempt to justify their poor showing, the local leaders were shifting the blame to 'weak cadres,' slack of peasant carts,' etc. .to Instead of strenf;thenirtg the collective farms, the local district leaders She reel Soviet r o at Ismail, broadcasting primarily to listeners in the Territory "liberated" from Rumania and now incorporated in Ismail Province, Ukrainian SSR, is particularly noteworthy in this respect, Monitored broadcasts studded with warnings And threats referring to such things as the need for "reenforcing discipline,5 the "shameful lagging behind of our Province" in the grain-delivery plan, and "resorts reaching us that peasants harvest unripe corn" suggest considerable difficulties in meshing' this "liberated" area into the Soviet scheme of things. Occasionally, individual "comrades" are mingled out for admonition; as, for example, the two who "created difficulties and refused to loan their carts for collective work. They also refused to obey Regional Committee.orders, These men preferred to use their carts for transport of passengers, This must and will be punished. Instructions are strict as regards the use of carts for transport of the harvest and must be obeyed to the letter" RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RE!5aT,sNF..p ED OCI-f---46 15 - 13.,9wYY7 engaged in pilfering their properties And failed to prevent a variety of other abuses" The district leaderehin was accordingly punishedg "Hut great changes have taken place in the district within the past year, The Party organization have done much towarl the elimination of statute violations. The lands? properties, and cattle.,. taken from the collective farms unlawfully, have been returned to theme the democratic foundations for the administration of the artPlu have been established, the statute violators have been relieved of their poet-, and severely punished," Party members are placed in strategic positions$ "Occupying an average place in the region early in the year, the district has fought its way upward and is now in the front ranks, The district-Party Committee (decided) that the majority of Communist collective farmers are to be districuted in the most (backward) sections.... It was decided to 121&ce the Communists in the sectors where the fate of the harvest is etermined. This made it pofsib a to strengthen t e existing primary,Party organizations and create additional ones in 13 collective farms. Labor discipline in the collective farms has become more ri,jid and absenteeism e~ c less frequent, he back-ward coI eat ve arms were put under special surveillance by the Party...,' The same measures, PRAVDA reveals on 19 September 1947, were also necessary in other unidentified regions, In its description of reforms accomplished or the *benefit" of collective farmers, the Party organ implicitly confirms non=Soviet reports to the effect that a parasitic bureaucragr had tended to develop in Soviet collective farms, "In one year, collective farms have received back 5,?80,400 hectares of common land, 44,500 draught cattle, 45,000 horned cattle, 123,000 other livestock, and large sums of money. 496,000 people of the surplus administrative and service ersonnel have been dismissed, In addition, 203eon a with no connection to collective a a pro uction were taken,of ay. Much has been done to res'#ore he democrat le Found foundations o t e collective farm administration. Turning to the present eceneo PRAVDA and other sources quoted over the Soviet radio give evidence that "corruption" and mismanagement within collective farms and local party organizations is still serious enough to require attenti-m from Moscow. The following excerpts describe current conditions,, It would be harmful and uncalled for to abate the struggle against violation of the statute. Facts tell that the struggle has not been completed everywhere, There are still case,,, and not individual cases at that, in which working days are irregularly spent, where collective farm lands are.carelessly guarded, and 'Internal farm d amoeracyre eoted, It mast be remembered that this is not a short-term'campaign, but a daily observance of the requests placed upon us, Violation must be prevented not only now but in the future." (PRAVDA, 19 September 1947) "Many collective farms do not keep books to account for the grain and this provides numerous loopholes for its disc earance in a variety of directions." (PRAV DA, 14 September 194 "There are still more o le,. who are not averse-to making money out of national ai co- pro rt o re are still some a s of Factories, collective fame. operatives who fail to. treat socialist property with due care. The struggle against individualist, anti-social tendencies, against a selfish attitude to the State and commonly owned property is of particularly great importance, now that the Soviet people is working on the new Five-Year Plan, ?To be tolerant of theft and graft,' said Stalin, .whether used against the State, collective farm, or cooperative property-to hoodwink such counter-revolutionary monstrosities means to help undermine the Soviet order.* (PRAVDA, 1 October 1947) "All damage to crew or kolkhoze property must be punishe0according to our statutes. A. working day wrongly employed, sabotage of material, theft, or attack against the aemocratic character o our organization, are rrenses, Q. consi erect great o cry reach of statute must Be pus s e ie mast a particularly stressed to . agricultural crews,." (Poltava, in Ukrainian to the Ukraine, 4 September 1947) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RED, rtg1TED C? Comr.naiat Control Groups and Party Activities: Over and above the me+-qures s4opted with reference to the artel statute, the Party has further strengthened its control over s ricultura:t production through a commission which supervises collective farm competitions and which is "held re,aponsible for holding of pledges and competition terms," As described by Radio Ismail, 16 September, the "Central Control Comiesion decided in March 1947 to create control commissions so as to have a continuous check of competition results." Such commissions "comprise the collective an state far-vs, and regional deptirtments of an agricultural character," Party members ere regularly instructed to implement Party decisions through propaganda. Also, in addition to "popularizing" or "explaining" Government programs to the 'workers, Party members are utilized in setting standards of productivity. During the grain procurement campaign, for a:ample, broadcasts frequently cite the "outstanding" achieve- ments of individual Party members, or of individual Party members, or of individual Party crews. dt. Miscellaneous Regulations Governing collective Farms? A question and answer program broadcast by tile Soviet trensmsi ter a email lustrates the net of refuletions which circumscriber, down to minute details of routine work, the actions of Soviet farmers;. And with reference to the development of an agricultural bureaucracy, this program, quoted in fall below, is of particular Interest; " eetiona Which is the correct way to sow grain cultures an individual lots? ,Anever: Article Two of Agroerew statutes specifies that sowing is discouraged on Uac ots which should be used for specific Kolkhoze purposes. The golkhoseve general aim is the increase of agricultural production and distribution of corn .sufficiency per working day, Free spaces like individual lots should be left for vegetable gardening and orchards, The decision of the Sovnarkom (Council of Peoplees Commissars) and of the Bolshevist Party Committee specify delivery of harvest produce; potatoes should be delivered according to the sowing program (and) proportionally to surface and number of individual lots. (Decisions of April 1116, 1940). ' iestion: May Kolkbozes, which possess small individual lots, ask for an Increase o ou pu of other lots for Kolkhozee particular purposes? Answers This may be done by repartition of lots so as to re-establish normal surface allotted to such purpose by Agrocrew Law, Such rearrangement is in- dependent of the number of workers or peasants in the Kolkhoze; no interference with collective wealth will be tolerated, " estiont If the Solkhoze grounds comprise buildings constructed by different organizations, may Kolkhoses demand purchase of such buildings? Answer: When a ]Colkhoze-owned lot is returned to the Kclkhoze after having been used for a certain time by other organizations, the purchase of constructions on that lot may be negotiated. If negotiations fail, buildings must be demolished, by the organization which constructed them, " estion: What are surface provisions for lots to be granted to tractor-drivers, doctors, and specialists working and living (in the) Kolkhoze as well as to Agronomes and.,.. attached to the Xoikhoze? How is the fund of individual lots influenced by this distribution? An seer: Under the 1945 Sovnarkom decision, veterinaries, doctors, tractor-drivers, agronomes and specialists are entitled to 25 hectares, including housing surface, This lot is granted from the Kolkhoze lot fund, If the lot includes pasture, or surface habitually used for corn culture, permission must be obtained from Soviet Ministries end will be granted only in special cases, "tjaestiont May Invalid Holkhoze memberq and old folk be drafted for active work, par cu arly on individual lots, to achieve the attnimum working norm? Answer: Invalids and old folk still capable of work may be employed on nd viduals lots, Old folk, over sixty, and invalids of first and second categories must not be evicted from Kolkhozes and may work If they wish and are fit, Working day norms are only demanded from able-bodied Kolkhoae members, "Gieationi May Solkhozes lend hayfields to other Kolkhozes? Ans!~ _er Hayfields may be loaned to'other Kolkhozes for moiring under the June 1947 decision of the Sovnarkom,, Permit concerns only unused fields. A loan can be granted only to Kolkhozee needing hey and after general discussion by Wolkhoze workers end with the Regional CommittegOs approval.. Government enterprises and Kolkhozee can receive such aid under the above Ministerial Council decision and through decision of Kolkhoze v'orkersO meetings, R iRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED EMSTRICTED / 3-S"Y8'7 "Queatiosas Is a Kolkhoze allowed to exact payment for use of pastures by ne g box olkhozes? Answer: The Sovnarkoe and the Bolshevik Partyts Central Committee decided at the uinO T2p.1939 meeting that Rolkhozes and Government enterprises should allow cattle grating on their pastures following definite agreement with neighboring enterpriser' Payment should be agreed upon and should be used for upkeep and irrigation expenses of pastures, " stions Are children of Kolkhoze workers--under 21- and children under tutorship entitled to individual lots? Answer: If a .certain Kolkhoze family consi-3ts solely of children under 21;, Kolkhoze mus lot them an individual lots This may be done under the supervision of local and district committees or of educational committees, *Oge stions Are Kolkhoze authorities empowered to diminish lots assigned to f`ilies, especially in cases of people it for work? Answer: Lots will remain distributed according to their abilities, Such is the ec a on of the Central Party Committee of Uay 270 1939. Kolkhoze authorities can take decision only at the general meeting when a membGr0 who has felled to complete his assigned work through laziness or similar reasons, will be definitely expelled from the Kolkhoze, The meeting must include minimally two-thirds of the crew members to have a quorums M cation: Can expelled members receive individual lots? Answer: Expelled Kolkhoze workers cannot hope to receive any surface or individual o1ot~rom the fund." RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED RESTRICTED 00-F-116 MISCELLANEOUS AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS / 3,~rY 1*7 The following Soviet radio broadcast excerpts are included because of their pertinence to current and future Soviet agricultural projects and programs, a. Research and Parperimantations "0n the Kola peninsula on the shores of Lake Imandra the, polar section of the all-Union Horticultural Institute is conductive, fruitful experiments on a large scale. .,~ Much experimental and practical work has been done in Polar agriculture, The scientific workers of this station together with the founder, Academician Bikhfeld, have proved the possibility of agriculture in the far north in spite of the assertions to the contrary of the bourgeois .scientists. During the last 24 years this station has produced and stabilized a new species of frost--resisting and quick-?ripening potato plants yielding an abundant harvest of cabbage, carrots, radishes, beets, various gras4es and cereal .plants. New methods of cultivating, the regions and the sandy soil in the Arctic have been successfully evolved. Seeds of these big new plants are now being distributed for crop cultivation throughout the province of Murmansk and Archangel to the Komi ASSRa to Kamchatka,, and to other points in the Arctic, The collective and state farms of the Murmansk Province have during the sprint, of this year established nurseries for soft fruit-bearing plants such as currants, raspberries. and straw-- berries, .. It is expected that the cereal crop will yield this year not less than 90 poods per hectare and potatoes 30 tons per hectare." (Soviet Home Service, 3 September 1947) "In view of the extension of its activities, the Academy of Agricultural Sciences has announced new vacancies for members and corresponding membersq $:.ts vice president. Vassilo kossolov, told a-TASS reporter. In connection with the extension of the Academyss work, 39 new regular members and 60 corresponding members will be added to its present composition. Scientific research will cover a still wider range of agricultural problems. The Academy of Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1929, is the highest research institution in this field. It has twelve research institutes headed by prominent Soviet scientists...,." (TASS, in English Morse to North America, 10 October 1947) "The USSR Ministry of Agriculture has established a near research station for perennial crops in the Kuban Yalleyo' Zte director, Professor Alexander Derzhavin, has been working in this sphere for 17 years. The perennial rye developed by Professor Dershavin for 3 years running has been yielding 14 centners per hectare on collective farms of the Stavropol territory, Professor Derzhavin has also developed a perennial wheat hybrid. Now he is developing perennial oil and fibre crops. The establishment of the experimental station will make it possible to evpand this work considerably," (TASS, in English Morse to North America, 18. October 1947) "The USSR Ministry of Agriculture to tatting up on the basis of the best machine-tractor stations of the USSR 26 exemplary and experimental machine-tractor stations. They will introduce in the collective farms the experiences of Soviet agricultural science. They will be equipped with the best machines, Experiments will be continued with the help of scientif:i- research institutes and experimental agricultural centers, Complete mechanization of all field works will be introduced. The exemplary and experimental machine-tractor stations will be set up in the Northern Caucasus, in the Volga area, in Siberia, in the central areas of the RSFSR, in the Crimea, in the Ukraine, in Belorussia, Kazo.kh_,tan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan? Georgia, Kirghizie, and Armenia, These machine.-tractor stations will become centers of advanced rriculture and rsrxll set an example to all collective and state farms in achieving high and stable harvests of isll crops." (TASS0 in Russian at dictation speed to the USSR provincial press, 25 October'194?) b, Irrigation, "By decision of the Soviet Government, within the next 5 or B years about one million hectares of ner,foresta will be planted by the collective and state farms of the central Russian belt. This measure is designed to increase the crop yields in the main grain- growing centers of the Soviet Union--the Orel, Kursk, Voronezh and Tambov regions--which within the last 54 years were 12 times stricken with draught, The forest belts will protect the rivers and lakes from drying up and the fields from dry winds, and in winter time will help to retain snow on the fields. Along with the planting of new forests, a program of construction of artificial lakes and. irrigation systems has been launched here, In the next 5 or 6 years, 575,,000 hectares in these regions will have artificial irrigation,.` (TABS, in English Morse to Worth America, 27 October 194?) RESTRICTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RESTRICTED /3 S'' ? 7 . "Great artificial irrigation works were carried out thie year In the Latvian Soviets- The irrigation netrork, destroyed b the Germans, has been re.stabliahed over 90,O OO hectares, Furthermore. 25,00 0 hectares of pasture have been recovered," (Moscow, in Sperish, 10 September 1947) "Work is in progrese in Belorussia for the draining of 30a0O0 hectares during the pre,,ert year. Four provisoes of t),64 Republic have already completed their annual assignments of drainage work. Lands recently drained and worked by collective fame have produced during the present year abundant harvests," (Soviet Hone Service) "The USSR and RSFSR Ministries of Agriculture are embarking on carrying out in practice the plan approved by the Government for organizing irrigation in the central blaeksoil provinces, those or Korzk, Toronesh, Orel, and Tambov. By (1950) there will be irrigated here 575x;0 hectares of land, By the end of the Five-Year Plan,, irrigation will be completed on at area of 4720000 hectares, ,.,..iv the vallo 's of the numerous small rivers of the central Russian uplands, several thousand reservoirs will be created from which water will be fed to collective fare fields by pumps and other hydraulic instruments,.,, Apart from the many minor irrigation eystess o* the collmeatite farms, the USSR Ministry of Agriculu,re will construct a number of major installations in the central blacksoil sane," (Soviet Some Service) "A sixty-kilometer irrigation canal.., completed in Stavropol region,,,. It will permit reclaiming of 100 thousand hectares of land in 8rasnodar and Stavropol regions," (Soviet Rome .Service. 26 August 194?) "The state irrigation engineers working in the Kura Arak valley have completed their capital construction works, Thousands of hectares have been drained and are under cultivation by collective farms, New irrigation canals stretching for 60 kilommetera have been completed, Two new machine-tractor stations have been established and houses for the workers and farm buildings have been completed, A new hydroelectric power station has been ?steblish+ed on the River Tura. W the end of the year, over 300 canal locks will be eomnlete and another 1,,000 hectares of lend will be drained, Similar works are in progress in the northern arras of the Muden steppes, One hundred kilometers of irrigation canals are being, completed. and ?Ktrove will be enlarged by 4,,000 hectares of fertile land." (Soviet Rome Service, 3 September 1947) "The centuries old hope of the Uzbek people for adequate irrigation is about to become a fact, Welt year, some 250,000 acres of cotton plantations in the 2 khara and Samarkand regions will receive five times as much water as this years" (Soviet Rome Service, 15 September 1947) "Moscow, September 12--Larrge scale work is conducted in the USSR for reclamation of new lands fqr agriculture. Thousands of hectares of swamps are converted into fields, orchards and plantations, This year over X?000 peasant families will move to reclaimed territory of the Colohle lowlands in Georgia. In !elorussta, several big war ruined melioration networks have ,bean restored this year, and 506003 hectares of swamps drained once more. Next year these lands will be planted to orchards and grains, -Four million hectares of marshy lands are to be drained within 15 years in Pelorusgia, This year, reclamation of Danube lowlands will be completed and over 30,000 hectares will be used for sowing. About 1,000 hectares of svammmps have been reclaimed in Kirghizia and collective farmers are harvesting the first ootton axop there, War.oraveged reclamation systems are being restored in the Russian federation," (BASS, in English Morse to Worth America, 12 September 1947) "a.. cotton growers of Bukhara and Samarkand regions (of Uzbekistan) are completing the four-kilometer long dam spanning the tremendous latte 8urgan canyon, ,.. 2509000 hectares of cotton plantations will be supplied five times more water than this year. 60,000 collective farmers from 8 regions of Uzbekistan have come to the banks of the Syrdarys River to complete the construction of the Farkand hydro-power station, one of the biggest in the USSR. .,.the first power generating writs have been assembled, (and) high tension (grid) stretches toward Tashkent. The large dam barred the flow of the Svrdaraa,, Only the (deviation) canal is yet to be completed," (TASSr, in English Morse to Worth America, 26 September 1947) co Misceflaneousa "The machine and tractor depots of the Soviet Union have fulfilled their yearly plan, There are more than 79500 depots of this kind in the country, hiring out tractors and other farm machinery to the collective farms at a noderete price, The Nazis destroyed all the machine and tractor stations in the areas they overran. At present 2,000 of thoso stations have already been restored, (Moscow,, in English to Worth America, 18 October 1947) RES TRiCTED Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 Approved For Release 2007/07/25: CIA-RDP78-04864A000100040009-6 RSyyT~ ;RICTED q )3sod 0- T 67 "95O z2ew machine tractor stations are t' be erected during the current ]!Bare-ye,x Plan. 326oOCO new tractors e;,nd 121,000 harvea r i; r combinee will have been built by the end f' the Fire-Year Plena D y 19&) the entire acre: ;e will be plowed by traacecru,;" (Soviet Home Service) "Dur'ivr the present year th leading machine-tractor stations of the USSR will ba ec!iipped with radio stations. Over 150 machine-tractor stations already have recei inrrn and r;rans- raitttnLd stations gs-rm'.Uti,ng thin to :seep; in touch with their sectors, The electri 'ication departs eot of the tfinistr,,r of Agriculture of the USSR has Issued thousand" of sets to the machine- tractor stations, '."Sari statio-ois *ill "have a radius- of communication o? ren- ",1 40 kilometers, During the pre:aent year radio corarmurrieatioa will be intros=ucer3 ethozgl~! another i00 machine"-tr?a.ctor stations," (TAM, in Ru gian at dictation speed to the USSR provincial press, 3 Deceyiber 1947) "Kiev--Within, the current year,- 211 rural electric stations have been built in t'ae ?a i.ra;o By switc`-iing rar,r1 po ier ~