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September 8, 1952
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Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY STATINTL COUNTRY: USSR SUB3ECT2 INDICATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITIES Monitored Broadcast DATE 29 July - 11 August 1952 CPW Report No. 47-A -- USSR (29 July - 11 August 1952) CONTENTS AGRICULTURE ............. 2 PARTY ACTIVITIES 5 FCR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 Approved For Release 200i634FaVDP78-04864A0003000 - 2 - AGRICULTURE 74-1 STATINTL Discusg,ion of agricultural etatute violations accounts for a substantial part of the output on agriculture. Although, as one paper puts it, the interests of the State are identical with those of the collective farmers, statute violations have not yet been stamped out. In a long RADYANSKA UKRAINA article or. the subject (31 July), scientist R dchenko discussee agricultural crimes from the Marxian viewpoint, and says that one of the explanations for the mentioned felonies in the rural areas are "the surviving private-property attitude" (privatno-vlasnytski perezhyt)y) among the farmers and the political immaturity" (politychea nezrilist) of the officials. (What the scientist does not make clear, however, Is how such private-property ideas could have survived among farm workers, the majority of whom were born or educated under the Soviet regime.) Radchenko aleo hints at a "similarity of interests" between the State and the individu 1 collective fermers, a circumstance which should theoretically eliminate statute violations, but he does not pursue the theme. On the other hand, he inveighs ageinst the liberal attitude toward criminal farmers which, he says, encourages further crimes: "Unpunished statute violations set a very bad example for other farmers" (Bezkarne porushuvannya Statutu podaye duzhe poganyi pryklad inshym kolgospnikam). The extent of the theft of public property in the Ukraine may be judged from the example of Zhitamir Oblast alone, as cited by Radchenko. The foilow- ing properties, it is revealed, have been recovered and returned to their rightful owners between 1 January 1951, and 1 July 1952: Ukrainian versien: 140.9 hectares of land, 1,350 head of various types of cattle, 10,988 fowl and 10 buildings. Reclaimed also were large quantities of lumber, produce, fodder and over 360,000 rubles In cash. Zemli-e140.9 ga, pogolivya khudoby riznykh vydiv--1.350 golly, ptytei--10.988 shtuk, budivel--10. Povernuto bulo bagato lisomaterialiv, riztrekh produktiv, furazhu I groshey ponad 360 tysyach Icrbovantsiv. CPYRGHT Shady collective f re, operations in Sumy Oblast are discussed in a Sumniy dispatch carried by RADYANSKA PRAVDA on 2 Aagust (not broadcast). What unscrupulous leader- ship and mismanagement can do to agriculture, says the author, may be seen by comparing the operations of the two neighboring enlarged collective farms, Ilyich and Lenin, in Lipova Donna Rayon. The Ilyich farm with 2,100 hectares of Land managed to get an income of 1,031,000 rabies in 1951, while the Lenin farm which owns an area of 2,150 hect res was barely able to account for 302,547 rubles during the same period. The re son for this discrepancy is very simple, says Sumnly: in one farm the statute is rigidly observed while in the other the officials are running amok. Public pastures are used for privately-owned cattle, and certain socialist properties are in the habit of vanishing without a trace. In a third collective farm, the Kirov, the chairman is said to "have drowned his authority in vodka" (vtopyv u goriltsi sviy avtorytet), and the result is evtn a smaller income than in the above-named farms. But the drunken chairman, the article concludes, is still in power and still "issues orders" (daye komandu). CHERNOMORSKA MAUNA (7 August) Insists on severe punishment for those "who infringe the basic law" of kolkhoz life. The interests of the State, says the paper, "coincide" with the general welfare ol the people, and only utter ignorance of the country's social structure may explair the theft of collective farm property which undermines the vilelity of the kolkhoz system. There is no reference to any specific places or organizations, but the paper's editorial strictures appear to apply to Odessa Oblast as a whole. The official attitude toward the continuing incidence of agricultural crime is expreszed in a quotation from Stalin who said that UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/01414-PUAIR5P78-04864A000300030004-1 the thief who steale the people's property and undermines the interests of the national economy le the same a ape- and a traitor, if not worse. STATI NTL A summarized RADYANSKA UKRAINA eeitorial (7 August) says that whatever the object of concentration is at any given moment, the Soviet people must always bear in mind that the agricultural statute is "the mmovable cornerstone of the Soviet ystem." The protection of socialist property must therefore take precedence over every other aspect of agricultural activities, and all the efforts of the Party, Komsomol and trade union organizations must be directed toward "educating" the farmers in that spirit. There is no further amplific4tion of this point. An article by Chernichenko and Ryaboalyach carried by PRAVD A on 30 July (not broadcast) lists six Ukrainian oblasts where grein losses are still unchecked. They are: Kirovograd, Poltava, Kiev, Odessa, Voroehilovgrad and Nikolayev. Losses, says the article, have already been incurred through the flattening of the grain crops by the elements (polegshiy khleb, literally "downed grain"). This situation could have been remedied to some extent if all the harvesters were equipped with stalk-lifting attach- ments. But this, says Chernichenko, ie not being done and the losses continue to multiply, amounting in some place to 100 pounds per hectare. Grain losses are also said to be sustained in transit where the grain is not sufficiently guarded. Another source of agricultural weakness ip the mentioned ()bleats is the inefficient utilization of the combine harvesters. Technical defects keep a large number of them off the fields while the productivity of those in operation is often below average. In Odessa Oblast, for example, the average output per combine is SO% of the prescribed norm, while in Kirovograd Oblast the daily performance is even lower-only 4.2 hectares per machine. Odessa Oblast is also the object of criticism by RADYANSKA UKRAINA of 1 August. The first in the Republic to begin harvesting, the oblast is now reported to be among the slowest, with only 39.3% of the total grain crops harvested by 25 July. Unfortunately, says the editorial, Odessa is not alone in the Republic. Kirovograd, Nikolayev, Stalin?, Kiev and a number of other unnamed oblasts are not much better. Although between 75% and 90% of the cultivated area is to be harvested by machinery, under the 1952 plan, the actual performance in the mentioned ()blasts is not anywhere near those figure. In Kiev Oblast, for example, the combine-harvested area amounts to 11.7% of the total, 1r Vrovograd 17.1% and in Stalin? q0.8%.Tdle machine", ieerfietent utilization ot working equipment and failure to prevent grain losses by employing stalk-raising devices (koloaopidiymach) have combined to produce a situation requiring drastic mesaurea: CPYRGHT Ukrainian version: It is a sad fact that ... only 33.6% of the grain cultures have been harvested in the Ukraine, despite the fact that harvesting was started al- moat thret weeks ago. Khiba ne povchalnym ye toy fakt, shcho po Ukraini zibrano tilky 33.6% posiviv koloskovykh, khoch zhnyva vzhe tryvaynt mayzhe try tyzhni. Criticism of familiar technical breakdowns. idle machinery and excessive grain losses is contained in a KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVEk editorial of 5 August. Every combine operator must know, the paper insiets that harvesting without grain-catching devices or above the prescribed height from the ground will entail incalculable losses. None of these regulations is said to be followed by many collective farms in Aktyubinsk Oblast. Reference is made also to cases when the harvested grain is dumped on the ground Which has not been prepared properly for it, and much of the grain deteriorates before it is removed. A short report from Stavropol (5 Augurt) says that the krai Party Committee had to call a special session to devise means of fighting TINCIASSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/NapkW1178-04864A000300030004-1 STATI NTL against grain losses throughout the Krai. No further inia)rmation is offered on the point except for the remark that le addition to The "struggle against grain losses," something will have to be done ale: eout intensifying the harvesting tempo in general which is till much too slow. STAVROPOLSKAYA PRAVEA (5 August) says that the irresponsible attitude of the management toward equipment and work in general is responsible for "the serious delays" in harvesting in a number of rayons, particularly in Novo-Alexandrovekiy, Voroshilovsky, Dmitrievskly, Krylovskiy and Blagodarnenokiy. That is more, the rayon Party leaders are not taking decisive action" to improve the utilization of harvesting facilities. The paper urges the setting up of "a daily control system" (aistema pcvsedneanogo kontrolya) whereby the performance of every man and machine could be sepervieed. RADYANSKA DONETSHCHINA states (7 August) that despite the decision of the Ukrainian Communitat Party that the lane set aside for winter crops be plowed up not later than 30 days before the start of the autumn sowing campaign, a number of rayons in Stalin() Oblast have not yet advanced beyond the initial stage of preparations. There is very little time left before the autumn sowing, says the paper, but the leadership of Pervomaiskiy, Yamokiy, Selidovskiy and Krasnoarmeiskiy rayons seems not to be aware of it. Socialist competition for high-quality plowing has not been organized, the hourly work schedule for machine operators has not been introduced and "large-scale political work" among the farmer a is not even contemplated. Such a situation, the paper concludes, will not be tolerated any further, and it "strongly urges" the appropriate officials to do something without delay. RADYANSKA UKRAINA admits (8 August) that the problem of winter crop sowing is still awaiting solution "in the majority of ()blasts." Large-scale planting is scheduled to begin in Chernigov, Sur, Kiev and Keerkov Chlasts within a few days but only part of the winter crop area has been plowed up. Cnernigov, which was the first oblast in the Republic to begin winter planting, can account for only 27% of the plowing plan. Lagging behind in their winter plowing also are 'Cher on, Nikolayev, Odessa and "some other" oblasts of the Ukraine. In rest of them technical unpreparedness is said to be the chief obstacle to better progrees, but "thoughtlessness," "lack of initiative," and "irreaponsible attitude" and e;Jailar descriptive phraseology is repeatedly used in the paper's criticieua CPYRGHT Many tractor e ere idle or work only one shift per day. The koIkhoz draft animal. stock is not being.utiliaed for plowing. Radio di cu:sion of other ageicilteral activities, such as fodder procurement, cotton picking, vegetable gathering end others is reduced to a minimum. Mention of them is made in context or the current geein harvesting. KRIMSKAYA PRAVDA (5 August) lists four rayons where the fodder situation is so bad as to jeopardize the progress of the cattle industry in the coming wietea. In one of them, Krasnoperekopsk Rayon, the haymowing plan has been fulfilled by only 16% and the silaging plan is being "carried out most unsatisfactorily." One of the reasons for this near-chaotic situation, as the paper terms it, is that many h ymowang machines "remain out of action" with an indifferent management just looking on. Another is that many machine-tractor stations "fail to carry out the terms of their agreements with the koliebeaea ...." A broadcast from Rostov (9 August) quotes MOTOT as declaring that the stockpilingeof fodder in the oblast leaves much to be desired. In Romanovskiy Rayon, for example, the hay- mowing plan has been fulfilled by only 40%, and still less progress has been made in coping with the ensilage stor ge plan--33% of the target. A "particularly bad job" is being done :lso by Orlovskiy, Morozovskiy and several other rayons. A report from Tashkent (8 August) speaks of the appeal made to Uzbek women by Mnskanova, deputy chairman of the oblast Executive Committee, to speed up cotton picking and save some of the crops Irem deteriorating in the fields. In some districts she says, the cotton crops are "backward in development" and the situatien is becoming alarming. Without referring to the nature of the failings, Mnskanova appeals to the cotton farmers to "correct the mistakes which have already been allowed UNCIASSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 Approved For Release 2002/0V144 STATINTL AMbib78-04864A000300030004-1 to occur." KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVD A asasr4s editorial/y (9 August) that the struggle for cotton in the southern ?blasts of the Relic has "recently slackened." Crop maintenance in South Kazakhstan arl Dzhambul ()blasts appears to exist largely an paper: irrigation schedules are not followed, most of the cotton plantations are overgrown with weeds while crop-maintenance brigades are being used for other work. The "premature drying off of the cotton crop" (prezhdevremennaya podsushka khlopchatnika), says the paper, "threatens to inflict serious losses" to the kolkhozes and the State. Following are excerpts from some of the other broadcasts On agriculture, in chronological-order, received during the period under review: July 3O-The work of the advanced koikhozes, however, cannot hide the law rate and bad quality of harvesting work in most of ... the oblast. This applies above all to Tyshkivskiy, Malovyskovskiy, Dobrovelychkovskiy and Rivnyanskiy rayons (KIROVOGRAD- SEAYA PRAVDA). - July 31--In a number of rayons in our oblast, the practice of conducting work in. separate tages is still persisting. In these rayons the utilization of machines ... labor power- and other resources is very unsatisfactory (CHERNOUCRSEA KO(UNA). August 1--In a number of places the Bolshevik struggle for the preservation of the fruit crop does not make itself felt. The struggle against fruit pests is organized in an unsatisfactory manner ... (KRYMSKAYA PRAVDA). Auguat 6--as. the director t of the lagging sovkhozes must became fully conscious of their personal responsibility for providing vegetables, and must,immediateIy correct the existing situation (SOTSIALISTICHESKIY DONBAS). August 6--,Some koikhozes of the Oblast have not organized properly the tobacco harvesting campaign. One of the most serious reasons for the lag in tobacco harvest- ing is the poor organization of labor harvesting with both hands is practically not practiced at all (KRYKSKAYA PRAVDA). PARTY ACTIVITIES The Party organizations of the Western Ukrainian oblests do not show gre t enthusiasm about training and promoting losaispsasple to posts of Party leadership, says RADYANSEA UERAINA editorially on 30 July. Nor are they too eager to advance women to executive positions. Such an attitude, says the paper, is frowned upon by the Central Committee of the Ukr;inian Communist Party, which on previous occasions has emphasized the importance of training and selecting Party and other leaders from among the local population. Oddly enough, the paper provides no inkling of the reasons behind the prev lent reluctance to promote local people, though it is somewhat more specific about the reported discrimination against women: Ukrainian version: There are many shortcomings in the matter of promoting local women cadres. The Party organiza- tions are still not attaching enough Importance to them, are not enlisting their active participation in social and political life and are afraid to promote them to leading positions. Bagato nedolikiv u vysuvanni miatsevykh zhino- chykh kadriv. Partlyny organizatsii shche malo pratsyuyut z nymy, ne zaluchayut ikh yak slid do aktyvnogo gromadsko-politychnogo zhyttya, boyatsya vysuvaty na kerivni posty. UNCLASSIFIED . Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/001PaAtiR78-04864A000300030004-1 STATI NTL In Drogobych Oblast alone, the editorial aeeerie, the ovesteelming majority of officials have come from other' parts of the country, and all the local population has produced are six Execetiee erieteittee secretaries and nine deputy chairmen. A similar situation is noted also in Seanislav, Ternopol, Volhyn and Rovno Oblasts. A hint th t the ideological element may have something to do with the lack of confidence in the population of the recently-annexed areas is contained in the paper's rebuke to overzealous local ofeiciale who ehave no desire to treat the local people with patience" (nemayut bazhannya teapelyvo epovozytysya" s rtYmy). What the local CPYRGHT population in effect needs is a larger dose of proper orientation: Ukrainian version: We must constantly raise the political and Ideologic el level of our work with the cadres, by training them in he spirit of flaming Soviet patriotism, socialist internationalism and love for the Great Ruesian people .... We must encourage a feeling of hatred for ... Ukrainian bourgeois nationaliete ... an irreconcilable attitude toward Rny manifeetatione of hostile ideology. Treba nevpynno pidnoeyty riven ideino-politychnoy roboty z kadrmmy, vykhovuyeeby ikhv dui polumyanogo radyanskogo patriotyzmu sotsialistychnogo inter- natsionalizmee lubovi do velykogo roaiyskogo narodu pryshchepluvaty kadram pochuttya nenavysti do ... akrainskykh burzhuaenykh natsionalistiv neprymyrenne etavlennyst do 'bud-vakikh proyaviv vorozhqy idetelogii. More attention to local people by the Party in Lithuania is urged also in an unsigned PRAVDA article of 5 August (not broadcast). It has been revealed at a recent session of the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Commenist Party that, just as in the Ukraine, far too few women are promoted to responsible Party. Soviet or agricultural posts. Nor is the local youth given a fair chance to participate in the political and social life of the Republic. As is the cast in the Ukraine the paper counsels moderation in the treatment of local women and youth who are said to require more political enlightenment in view of the continued manifestations of bourgeois nationalist tendencies. It is also pointed out that some of the Lithuanian Party and Soviet officials themselves, as in Shaulat Oblast for example, "are showing slow ideological development" (slabo rastut v ideinom otnoshenii). Passing reference is made also to the "grave Shortcomings in the teaching of the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism" (krupnie nedostatki v prepodavanii o nov Marxizma-Leniniema) in the Republic's universities as well as in the Academy of Sciences. This theme, however, is not pursued beyond the quotation of the vaTee assurances of one Party official that all the mentioned shortcomings will be remedied. The current Party election-and-reporting meetings (otchetno-vybornie sobeania) are the subject of editorial discussion by RADYANSEA UERAINA (5 August) and PRAVDA (II August). Violetions of intraparty democracy, a noted in certain parts of Voihyn and Pelt va Oblasts, says RAITANSKA MAMA, will inevitably lead to the deterioration of all other Party ectivities. The leaders who persistently ignore the voice of the Party masses, it declares, have no place in the Soviet scheme of things: The incorrigible bureaucrats and haughty adminis- trators Who have broken away from the Party masses, who are deaf to criticism ream below and are crudely violating the spirit of friendship and intraparty democracy must not be allowed to hold leading posts in Party. organizations. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 20021WW3.NEWDP78-04864A000300030004-1 Ukrainian version: - 7 - STATI NTL Nepopraeni burokrety I zarozumili administratory, yaki vidirvalys vid partiynykh mas, ne pryslukhayutaya do krytyley seyzu, grubo porusbuyirt kolegialnist, vnutri- partiymn. demokratiu-ene pormni buty dopushcheni do kerivrykh partiynykh organis. CPYRGHT Criticism from below, says PRAVDA, ie the most effective weapon of dealing with Party bureaucrats, the sworn enemiee of the organization. To discourage such criticism "would be t ntamount to destroyeng the independent activity" of the Party committees. The election-and-reporting meetings, says the paper, have revealed numerous instances of intraparty democracy violation, on the one hand, and unwarranted Party interference in economic affairs, on the other. Cited in this connection is the case of the Oktiabr Rayon Party Committee (Sverdlovsk Oblaet) whose officials appear to be more interested in running someone e e's basinese than in tending to their own Party affairs. (The names of the officials in question are not mentioned.) A Kuzmenko report from Zianchurinsky Rayon, Chkalov Oblast, (4 August) speaks of complicity between local Party and other officials to suppress criticism from below by branding any complaint against high-handed administration as "intrigues against the leadership" (klyauzy na rukovodevo). The chairman of a collective farm in the mentioned rayon, who had "compromised himself" during his previous tenure of off ice, insisted on being renominated for the same post. Voted down by the majority of the Communists at an election-and-reporting meeting, he enlisted the aid of his friend, the first ecretary of the rayon Party Uommittee, who overruled the votes and had him "reelected* as kolkhoe chairman. Strange as it may seem (kak ni stranno), con- cludes the dispatch, the Chkalav Oblast Party Committee -which is well aware of the incident His not reacting to the erode violation of intraparty democracy." Coriect Party leaiership (praviinoye partiynoye rukovodstvo), according to Kuznetsoe's article in PRAVDA (7 August, not broadcadt) means effective supervision and guidance without direct interference Thi iF 3aid to apply equally to economic administration and in the field of art ene M1191c. The Odessa Philharmonic Society is mentioned as a case in point: lack of proper Party supervision has resulted in the deterioration of its orchestral) choral and concert ^Lail performance. The unsatisfactory level of the society's activities, says the author, may be explained by the fact that the Odessa Party "has lost sight" of thin form of social endeavor. Criticism and self-criticism, for example, which are the sine qua non of progress anywhere "are not popular" (ne v pochete) among the Communist and non-party members of the society. Characteristic of the relations among the varioue actors, musicians and literary critics of the "filarmonia" are "overlooking one another's faults and whitewashing grave failures and errors" (vzaimnoye amnistirovanie i zamazyvanie krupnykh promakhov i oshibok). This situation, however, is net beyond repair, according to Kuznetsov; it merely requires a more discriminate approach to the Soviet intelligentsia on the part of the Party. Only wise Party guidance, it is pointed out, will help the society eliminate "cheap and vulgar performances" rtizkoprobnie i poshlie proizvedenia) from its repertory, and will make it unnecessary for the actors to indulge in "uncalled for extemporizations" (otsebyatina). Listed below are some of the other shortcomings in Party activities mentioned in broadcasts during the period reviewed: 30 July--In Sevastopol, Kerch, Dehanaoy, Primorskoye and other rayons shortcomings exist in the preparation and carrying out of eLection-and-reporting Party meetings. (KRYMSKAYA PRAVDA) 31 July--Some Party committees and primary Party organizations are assuming functions outside their field of activity, belonging to administrative organs ...(CHERNOVORSKA KOMUNA). UNCLAaSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1 Approved For Release 2002/04/32WZITIMP78-04864A000300030004-1 - STATI NTL 1 August?The first secretaries of the rayon Party committees must personally supervise the rayon preSs and watch the quality of the :a.:?-wspapers (KAZAKEISTANSKAYA. PRAVDA.). 6 August?Certain prop gandists have not understood the importance of the study circles of a higher type ... they have not been able to organize studies according to the recommended works of Lenin and Stalin and the 1Short History of the Bolshevik Party." (Skobeltsyne, in Ukrainian) 8 August?In some Party organs the leading Committee officials are not taking an active part in the solution of important problems. Some Party leaders are trying to avoid personal responsibility. This is a wrong attitude to take ... (NA.DNEPRYANSKA PRAVDA). UNCIASSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/06/28 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000300030004-1