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November 17, 2016
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August 24, 2000
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PDF icon CIA-RDP78-06365A001000050023-2.pdf615.33 KB
Approve J r~Release.2O00/09/08: CIA-RDP78-06365A001000050023-2 WHAT DOHS I T .:OS .a. J`0 DEVELOP A UNIT OF ASSISTED > ~ ific ~' r tc .. .. '?:d 'our house plau, ~.!'::i.'C'?.T'? and c._aa r r ~~e.~. 1 -ooai AMERICAN 11C)I/ I1 )''-~ PI., P~slt,,-?TI F UL,, etc. a or paid a far fF e ,t yl ? I e oot to : ? J ld ! r:lc process, of hav,inf--f 2ui architect for such ,, ,u w'lJ know -why I used the word e?x ,)a stirs p If, like a , YOU !+1 know exactl j what J;t' nZ Y ' i:k~ t wai 1' S s- t? i t a of ~4 ~ t ~ .,yf.., lN , Then yCJ lZ've pain 3 r ^a r -? i7t; ,>pc 2u ho-des, da~r' 5. t 4 iL 7 ''Nne cOiitiac?o:t? or t s y . f 17,;z wcan he 1121 .:ilfiri5 .?41. `s3.?? :9 ra j4)~,~ be most sped c Z to 7.,:: hose n ",?f _Y Elf ri , CI3c iseri tl.s, fi 0 t.~1 cs;, appliances an 1 a o :s.. o, other detail. Only then does the contractQr? Come up with the sho 'ii t= ._, coact of $20. 00 per 4l;are a Nat T>:7 s? 4 - anx uxaa vv w,. d. XAi~.A.t $'. Zr% pZ r:fe? tl ''~e ~tan o f ' y ? y g ~ e ;wz~ s on o 11oU uch doea it cost- to write or dlvi.''elop 4 Uhsif od Instruction (PAD,, Only ii: is NO lea.: m e .scorn licat-_d 3 The t, 4 ss onal programme has to contend With six tar Wore v-r fables w:.t c'- I-o not pl.a ie the, building contractor, : shall da e s ss sort_ off: :henz') U3 tw 642 4M t eaching anti developrii r ?z tisrte reqU7r?ed+- to arrive at detailed course ohjec;:-es ..i'.k' te'-i.oinal behavior. objectives ~Awa,ll. affect the cost of r t of PAT? Bu't. this =ecujrem'eit i i so ~Jc.:i3.c to 2e'unt fling that it. should not properly be costed again t the e azethod of teaching ermplo'yed., . A, reco n:ized 11 sponr for' conducting courses of instruction, a aul:xifi of PAL It sho-iAd be undertaken byr'all ins ruc- "grle r has rtesscribed thi's basic step: 50023-2 Approved For Release 2000/09/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050023-2 % / C-O-N-F -I-D-E-N-T-I-A-L50 ' The purpose of this first step in identifying the objec- tives sought is to obtain a list of the kinds of behavior which the course seeks to develops This means an actual listing of such goals as: the things the students are expected to understand as a result of instruction, the skills they are expected to acquire, the interests they can be expected to develop, the values it is hoped they will appreciate and the habits it is expected they will form. This listing is basic to planning an.evaluation program. One cannot select appropriate measures until he knows what it is he is trying to appraise. " And yet experience shows that while most teachers know what they want to teach, a surprising number become vague as to precisely what the student must learn if the desired behavioral change is to take place; i? e. , what must the student learn in order to perform at maximum efficiency upon completion of a course? The answer to this question must precede any study on why the student has difficulty in learniwhat he is taught. The point in all this is that management will have to take into account the time factor, and therefore the cost, involved in deter- mining meaningful course objectives. Only after this has been completed can one begin to develop a unit of PAL Variable 2 When students are paid to learn as in most Government training courses (versus instruction given in academic institutions where the students nay, to learn), the biggest single cost of training (or in our case the use of a unit of PAI; is the salary paid the student while he learns. Take the case of the Introduction to Intelligence Course. Approved For Release 2000/09/06: IA~RDPL8: 63 5g0110A00~50023-2 Approved For Release 20/09/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO010000550~023-2 .O--N-F._:I..,D-E-N-T-I-A-L It can be seen therefore that if the use of PAI units in the Intro- duction to Intelligence Course could cut the total time of the course by one 8 hour day, the saving to the Agency would be over $26. 500. 00! But the point brought out here is that the variable of number and grade of students strongly affects the cost of a unit of PAL Entire Programmed courses or units of PAI will vary in cost depending upon the difficulty of the subject to be programmed. The building contractor can tell you with considerable accuracy the difference in the cost of roofing your house with a certain ply asphalt shingle as against roofing it with redwood shakes (shingles, to you!). But we can only estimate the difference in the cost of developing an hour of learning for a unit of PAI in Mandarin Chinese as against a similar unit of PAI in a clerical typing course. The commercial developers of off-the-shelf PAR courses are for the most part silent on costs of development, perhaps because this is a "trade secret" or because they do not wish to disclose their methods of bookkeeping ! If the Program developer is an Agency staff or contract employee the cost of a unit of PA! will dominantly depend on the salary of the developers R. W. Walker' of the Martin Company of Denver, Colorado? said, "The qualities of the most successful programers include an above average intelligence, perseverance, detail-consciousness, ability to emphasize, creativity, flexibility and management identification. '?Martin Company, Denver Division, " PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A OUaDE FOR MANAGEMENT, by Gabriel D. Ofiesh, 1965, page 292, Approved For Release 2000/Q9/M 1#-F1D]57kO-ip6 &( Q'I~QQJ050023-2 Approved For Release 2.009/09/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050023-2 My "ideal" programmer, for what its worth, would have taken a Ph. D. in Logic, have an interest in the phenomena of learning behaviors. not be antagonistic to change, per se, know thoroughly his subject specialty, be able to write clear English and have been a dedicated teacher-'though not one who had become overly enamoured by the sound of his own voice! Either of these definitions could well describe an Agency Super- grade, in which case the cost of PAI would be high. Or it could equally well describe some of the highly qualified women Career Trainees whom I've seen go through the CTP in the last several years, in which case the cost would be lower. Variable 5 The cost of training the "in-house" programmer and the terminal behavior skills achieved by the "graduate" programmer will appre- ciably affect the cost of developing a unit of PAI? but not be a recurring costa Obviously great care must be taken in selecting the "candidate" programmer. He can't be "good old honest Joe" who has been mar- ginally successful are a lecturer or an instructor. To develop good PAI units requires a skilled programmer, just as a well built house requires skilled artisans. The skilled programmer should be thoroughly conversant with his subject specialty. If, in spite of this, good old honest Joe is selected to develop a unit of PAl in the clerical typing course but must first be taught how to use a typewriter, this added training burden should not be a cost factor charged against this development of the unit of PAI r There are two ways to train the candidate programmer-- externally and internally, and each will have varied cost factors. The candidate .programmer can be sent outside the Agency to any one of a score of good programmer training courses varying in length from one week to six months. Or, ideally, he can be trained in-house by an expert program instructor in classes of 5 or 6. This training would be a combination of formal class instruction and supervised on-the-job PAI writing, Over-all elapsed training time, approximately six months. At the end of.this period the graduate programmer should be ready to work on his own.. But we all know that this in itself is a variable, Will the graduate programmer really be able to work on a unit of PAI without some supervision after six months? Some will, Approved For Release 2000/09/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050023-2 C-0-N-FGI-D-E-N-T-I-A-L, Approved For Release 2000/09/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050023-2 v c; 0-N-F-I-D-L,,N-T-1-A-W but good old H. J. --?~? And how rapidly does the programmer work? Does he work happily with power tools or has he resisted change and is comfortable working only with hand tools? Variable 6 No unit of PAI, whether developed internally or contracted for externally, should be accepted by management until it has been thoroughly tested and validated on a sample of the Agency population. And of course this constitutes another cost variable. The County Building Inspector has got to get his cut! A good programmer will normally test his program each step of the way against the stated course objectives or desired terminal behavior. Testing is an inherent cost factor of any acceptable unit of PAL But be sure it has been accomplished. Though testing will add to the time cost of a program, you simply haven't got a program unless it meets the course objectives. Validation is something else again. This tells you whether after passing the above test the unit of PAI is the most effective and efficient method of accomplishing student learning. It is entirely conceivablew that the conventional classroom method of instruction may be the most effective and efficient means of achieving student learning. The use of closed circuit TV, films, or improved use of visual display tech- niques or various combinations of all the above may be more efficient and effective than PAl. You can't be sure until you have validated your unit of PAI against your stated objectives. Validation can be accomplished internally where feasible but it is time consuming and therefore costly. And supervisors don't take kindly to having their employees experimented on! More important, if validation is to be done internally,, it must be undertaken by a team of experts--instructors, behavioral psychologists, and statisticians. Also, this team must be completely ob ective, without bias or preju- diced Else you won't have true validation.. External validation should assure objectivity and professional treatment. It can, however, be expensive if conducted by a consulting firm. Where units of PAI are contracted for externally, validation is Approved For Release 2000/0/0 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050023-2 -N