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November 17, 2016
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August 24, 2000
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Approved For Release 20~ 9/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO0100005000225-0 .Almost 2000 years before the invention of the printing press )..rates was teaching on the streets of Athens. Socrates wrote nothing himself and taught solely through the medium of verbal i_ri.terchange between teacher and pupil. His pupils, Plato and Xtex ophon, and the printing press enable us today to evaluate the eatitees of Socrates as a teacher, it is perhaps a futKle exercise to speculate on what attitude Socrates would have taken toward the printing press had it been invented 2000 years earlier, As a non-textbook writing teacher. would he have feared the competition of the printing press? Well never know; but wFre can surmise that because he was not only a great teacher but also a man of great wisdom, he would have wet-, coned the new medium.,, We're on surer ground when we state that even though. Socrates might: have feared the possible competition of he printing press, he could not have stopped its evolution, The Frenchman, Nicholas Joseph Cugnot, is generally credited with inventing the first selfpropelled vehicle in the year 1769. And what a host of fear necroses this first "automobile" produced! Not only physical fear, but we can assume also, fear of competition from aorne farsighted but misguided horse breeders. Whatever the source of the fear, it grew to such proportions that so august and presumably intelligent a body as the British Parliament passed the Red Flag Act U) 1336,, One of the provisions of the law made it illegal for a self- vehicle to proceed at a speed in excess of four miles per -uour ! The p revisions of the Act from which its name was derived required that all self-propelled vehicles be preceded in daylight by a man waving a red flag and at x~:';,.ttitrxe, a red lantern ! The Red Flag Act was not repealed until 169-6! We can only 'nest at the effect this 60-year ban had on the development of the -nodern automobile, Obvic:uausly it hindered but it died not stop the evelopment... Some of us believe that the automobile is here to stay.. ay horse breeders of race horses, polo ponies, cow ponies.. hht.#nters, show horses- thoroughbreds, quarter horses,, Arabs? etc, y.: e among the successful members of our affluent society., In they viral analysis, the only creatures who had good cause to fear the advent of the self -,propelled vehicle were the city dwelling English Siar rows who through the bounty of the city dray horses had neither to toil nor spin very hard for their dinners. Approved For Release 2000/09/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050025-0 pproved For Release 2009/08 : CIA-RDP78-06365AO01000050045-0 ..Alexander Graham. Bell's telephone in 1876 was greeted with hues and cries. Diverse church groups Joined to denounce it as an "ungodly instrument, ?t Teenagers of the 19th century were forbidden e,o use the telephone for fear of electric shock or "insidious infection" ! Alas, progress! The Wright brothers in 1903 managed to keep their aeroplane in the air for only 12 seconds on their first flight., Unfortunately the biographer of Henry Ford, Sr. is silent on whether the developer of the Model T feared the ultimate competition of the airplane. In our own time, we can remember how alarmed were the makers of phonographs and phonograph records over the competition of the radio, In turn, the manufacturers of the radio feared the advent of television. But today all three media are flourishing. And in the sixth decade of the 20th century teachers and training .dministrators are confronted with Programmed Assisted Instruction ;PAI) and Computer Assisted Instruction 'CAI, Whither? Approved For Release 2000/09/08 : CIA-RDP7?6-06365A001000050025-0