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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
December 15, 2016
Document Release Date: 
September 10, 2002
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January 3, 1951
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' zzzi 0 0 C?1 ? 25X1A9A Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 T - --- ? Approved For Release 2002/11 1: THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF THE OFFICE OF TRAINING THE BEGINNINGS Creation of the Office of Training: The Director of Cen- tral Intelligence asked Matthew Baird to come to Wash- ington in October 1950 and proposed that he join the Agency in order to establish a career corps within it. This mission involved two separate approaches: (1) selection of employees already on board for such a corps; and (2) re- cruitment of young men and women who would enter the Agency as internes, prepared for a period of rigorous train- ing before assignment to any task. When, however, Matthew Baird assumed his duties on 3 January 1951, he found his responsibilities broadened. He had been appointed Director of Training. On 19 Jan- uary 1951 a special regulation assigned him these specific functions in support of his mission: selection of qualified employees from all sources for career development and initiation of Agency training operations as need arose. The Assets: The new Director of Training was a mem- ber of the Office of the DCI. In the DD/P Office at this time was a small but firm Training Division dating from OSS days. Under the joint staff direction of both OSO and OPC, it had built up a curriculum of orientation and operational courses, and at this period was deep in several projects that entailed training of large numbers of people in paramilitary and political warfare techniques. The Director of Training had no immediate interest in assum- ing control of this group; it was capably managed. In the DD/I Office there was no training organization at all. The immediate problem of the Office of Training was to establish a concept of what a career service in intelligence was, to provide a means of selecting people for a career service and select them, and to erect a structure of courses that would support the fundamental concept. To do this it had no personnel and no precedent. What pre- vious training had been done within the DD/I Office had been largely external: attendance at an external language school or enrollment of small numbers in the schools of the Military Services. The Early Development: On 3 January 1951 when the Director of Training took office formally he had a staff of two, a stenographer and an assistant. A month later he had only five members, but he had already begun to develop a training organization. The Office of Training offered the first CIA Orientation course in February; in May it began to offer professional but unclassified training Approved For Release 2002/11/0 : IA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 to people awaiting full clearance and established the first Clerical Refresher course; in June, in cooperation with the Office of Personnel, it began to train clerical workers awaiting clearance. At the same time, the Office was busy on its chief mis- sion: the creation of a Career Service Program. The Office _ established standards and the means of selection of young college graduates who would become the Junior Officer Trainees. Next, it was concerned with a career plan to identify about 30% of the people on board and permit special training for them. Finally, it had the task of pKo- viding the mechanisms for the operation of the career plan: courses, rotation, and on-the-job training. The first class of Junior Officer Trainees was assembled ,ad put through its first training course, the Basic Orien- tation course of 14 weeks, in July 1951. By fall the first of these trainees were entering on office training; some of them went directly to operations. The Offices to which they were referred accepted them gladly; the high abil- ity they displayed and their drive and energy were exceptional. In recruiting these young college graduates, OTR faced the hurdle of the draft; young men who had been deferred from the draft till after their college careers were being picked up for a two-year tour of duty. By agreement with the Services, OTR arrived at a plan whereby its new re- cruits eligible for the draft had the opportunity to enter Officers' Candidates School, receive commissions, and serve from six months to one year in the field. They finished their period of military service within CIA. The results were very satisfactory: the Services were pleased to have the extra officer talent; the Junior Officers received valuable military experience; CIA was able to recruit young men it otherwise would have had to forego. Career Service Plan: On 3 July 1951 the Office of Train- ing submitted to the Director of Central Intelligence a "Proposal for the Establishment of a Career Corps in CIA." It established the outlines of the Junior Officer Program and proposed methods for the selection of a career corps from those who were already members of CIA. The Junior Officer Program was accepted as a pilot plan for a career service. The Agency did, however, object to the idea of an exclusive corps selected from present members. A spe- cially appointed committee worked through task groups for a year and in June 1952 presented for the DCI's ap- proval a more inclusive plan, administered by Office Career Service Boards, that permitted application for the career service after three years of duty. Language and External Training: Fundamental to the idea of a career service is knowledge of language and area. Before the creation of the Office of Training, the Agency had tried to satisfy this demand by assignment of students to outside institutions, but had run into difficulties with security. The Office of Training formally explored the means of external training, worked out secure government and private contacts, and began an increasing list of assignments to selected institutions. Since this process was expensive and potentially dangerous from a security standpoint, OTR began very early to establish its own Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 means of instruction in preparation for increasing num- bers of students and widened demands for many lan- guages. It was offering instruction in four languages in the spring of 1952; by fall of that year it had established its own language laboratory to supplement its own courses and to provide for private study by students. The Office of Training also took under its control all contacts for external training, establishing quotas at service schools, publicizing opportunities, and widening its contacts slowly and carefully. Centralizing the function of external training made possible the establishment of standards of admission and evaluation of both course and student. Clandestine Training: The Training Division of the Of- fice of Special Operations had been in existence since the end of the war. It had developed under its own chief a small staff of instructors, and offered a limited curricu- lum, that consisted of an Orientation Course, a basic Operations Cotyse, and a course in Advanced Operations. The school struggled with such difficulties as getting sufficient classroom space and qualified instructors. The pressure of operations was at this time great enough that training was frequently ignored in favor of getting a man overseas. In 1949 this Training Division also undertook training for the recently created Office of Policy Coordi- nation. This Office foresaw requirements for training in and Paramilitary work. It evolved successively three projects, each of which demanded the training of large numbers of recruits and the acquisition of field or safehouse facilities. The Office of Training became involved in these projects when in the summer of 1951 the Training Division of DD/P became part of OTR under its own Deputy Director, and with a large autonomy in its own administration. Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 THE MIDDLE YEARS Organizational Changes: The year 1953 was one in which functions were clarified,-sfrengthened, and combined. The Assessment and Evaluation Staff, heretofore divided, became a single staff serving the whole office. This staff could now broaden its base of operations, conduct more effective research, and extend its standardized system of evaluations across the board. The new employee of CIA began to pass through a series of tests and assessments as he entered on various phases of his new career. They were designed to reveal the innate bent of the subject and direct him to the positions where he could best serve. Supporting Services: This year, too, saw the develop- ment of a series of supporting services that lent intensity to the instruction in courses and improved the means of communicating information. The Office of Training had its own. autonomous library with a research section avail- able to prepare bibliographies on subjects suggested by instructors and ready to secure for them the materials they needed. It had its own visual aids section to prepare charts, graphs, demonstrations for class work, and an audio-aids section, with a staff to maintain the language laboratory machines, to monitor the showing of films of all types, and to handle debriefings. It had begun to develop its own training films to drive home the points of instruction in doctrine and techniques and was getting ready to make full length films on types of operations never filmed before. It could therefore demonstrate, to neophytes #ctual conditions of operation which otherwise they would have to experience in straight transition from theory. Career Service Program: In this year also the Career Service Program was launched in final form. The JOT Program was now operating as a complete pilot plant. The Junior Officers were now kept on OTR slots until they had had full preparation for an Agency career. They took basic courses, were assigned for periods of on-the-job training to various offices, returned for additional formal instruction, and when finally assigned were trained in depth as well as breadth. In-Service Training: In-service training had also taken on a new significance. With the establishment of the Career Service Program, OTR began an Agency-wide pro- gram to explain the administrative base for the new Service. After a long series of seminars given at all levels of supervision, it began to offer in 1953 two courses in Management Training. Its Clerical Refresher course and its Clerical Induction training had begun to raise the ,level of clerical work and also form the basis for promo- tion. OTR had, finally, developed various other courses basic to intelligence: courses in Intelligence Writing, and in Intelligence Briefing, in Effective Writing, in Reading Improvement. The Field Base: The most significant advance took place, however, in training for the Clandestine Services. When requirements for paramilitary training vanished, the Of- fice of Training seized on the opportunity to advance its Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET 5X1A Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 separate schools and set up three staffs ministering to them and supporting the Director. The Office's Catalogue of Courses now could present four articulated curricula, with prerequisites for each course stated: Through the Basic -School it could offer a single orientation course for all newcomers to the Agency and then progression either through the Operations School or the Intelligence School. The Language and External Training School could serve all Agency employees. Spe- cial courses assigned to appropriate schools now provide types of orientation work of Agency-wide significance; others indoctrinate members of the IAC Agencies. OTR is undertaking Departmental Briefings for members of the IAC, briefings for dependents going overseas, a review briefing on CIA structural changes for those returned from overseas. It offers an introduction to the theory of Com- munism in its Basic Orientation, a full length intensive course in the revolutionary theory of Communism and the mechanisms by which it works, and a course in oper- ations against Communist organizations. It has a pro- gram for briefing important State personages on the mission of CIA abroad before they leave for overseas, and special courses for members of the Armed Forces. For Agency people, OTR offers a course which gives them a knowledge of CIA war plans and the relationship of CIA to the Services in time of war. It offers a full schedule of language courses and has the facilities for getting instruction for Agency members in rare or unusual tongues. It has also begun to offer area courses. ACCOMPLISHMENTS The Operating Plant: The Office of Training is now so organized and so manned that it can meet the routine demands levied upon it and yet remain flexible enough in its approach so that it can reply to unusual requests, or concentrate on the type of training demanded in an emer- gency. It has an unused physical potential which could be used for the training of the pro- posed Action Cadre, for concentrating all tutorial training for indigenous people, or for becoming a wartime training center. Such an expansion of training would demand new facilities and an increase in the training staff, but the basic methods of instruction, the core of a curriculum for these expansions, and the nucleus of a trained faculty already exist. The Office of Training could work toward a new goal assigned it without trial and error or costly experimentation. At Headquarters, the Office has in its Intelligence School a not fully utilized capacity for training in the principles and techniques of national intelligence. From its earliest years, the Office has held to the idea that this type of in- telligence, new to the United States, needed the support of a professional school similar to the Graduate Schools of the learned professions, or to the National War College of the Armed Forces. Only through such a school can a common doctrine be established and taught, the new profession be given the dignity it deserves, and its practi- tioners secure the satisfactions of professional men. It has laid plans for a University of Intelligence that shall provide neophytes with an understanding of the Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET 25X1A6B 25X1A6B SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 basic tenets of the profession, give courses that will enable practitioners to improve their skills, and hold seminars for the advancement of doctrine and the development of greater efficiency in practice. The Junior Officer Trainee Program: In its JOT Program the Office of Training has to a large extent realized its ideal of making training integral to a career, since it can hold the Junior Officer on its own rolls until it judges he is competent enough for permanent assignment. Under this system of training the Junior Officer may remain unassigned for from six months to two years while train- ing courses alternate with on-the-job training. Under this system, too, the Office can develop the true specialist; it has found that the long period of academic work that is necessary to acquire special knowledge of an area and its languages is particularly suited to the young Junior Officer and it is holding some of them two years in the program for this purpose. Moreover, in its Junior Officer Program the Office is aiming at creating an intelligence officer with as wide a horizon as his capacities permit without sacrificing depth in his area of projected assignment. Relation to Career Service: The Career Service Plan proposed by the Office of Training and as exemplified by the JOT Program was exclusive, dependent upon severe selection and hard training. This plan had prototypes in the academic world, the business community, and in the Military Services particularly. The plan adopted by CIA differed markedly from that of the Office of Training be- cause basis of selection was very wide. That plan is still in the formative stage of completing selections and its real impact upon the Office of Training cannot yet be determined. When the whole stage of selection has been completed, the Agency faces the need for planning the careers of those selected; in this planning, training should play an important part. At that time, when the career boards of the various Offices must determine the criteria of promotion, and set up programs for the development of talent, the Office of Training should receive a new influx of students. In the Junior Career Development Corps, the Office of Training sees a parallel to its JOT Program that is already having its effect upon training courses. Relation to Agency: For the first four years of the existence of the Office of Training, the Director reported directly to the DCI. This placed what was essentially an experimental device, the new Office, in an advantagous position for growth and development. Early in 1955, upon recommendation of the Inspector General, the Office was brought under the Deputy Director (Support). The arrangement provided it directly with logistical support but permitted the independence necessary for working with the Offices of the Agency in its task of clarifying doctrine and disseminating that doctrine through its schools. Conclusion: The Office of Training has been entrusted with a mission perhaps unique: training the personnel of a large Agency under conditions of tight security in techniques heretofore usually imparted tutorially or only Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 to small groups. It can report that in the past five years should indicate a growth of a common understanding and enrollments in all of its courses * totaled 34,455. This a common language throughout the Agency. * Exclusive of National Intelligence Orientation and CIA In- troduction. Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET 5X1A Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 Next 5 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01 KIM A78-0146t0k240070001:2. INTERNAL U SOFEXTERNAL NO.OF STUDENTS 250 200 150 100 50 MONTHS OF 0 EXTERNAL WINTER MONTHS AND INTERNAL LANGUAGE TRAINEES, 1951-1955 ? ? ? ? ? ...:?:?:,..:?:?:?:?:?:-:-:,:.:?x:x.x.:.:?x.:.:?:::-:????-?????:, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . ..... .. ............... .:?:.:?:-:-:,:,:?:?:?:?:,:?:,x?:?:?:-:::::::::-:-?????????????? ?.9::::0?4::::,:::::-:S::::::+:::::-:.:::35.):?:::::.:.?:.::::: . ? .......... ...... ? ? ... :??????.? ? ? ? ? ? ............? ............,,....... ? ? ? .. .?:?:::::?-?:,):?:?:?):?:-:.:.:?:?:?:?:?:,..x.?:.%?:????:??????? - ? ? ? --? ? ? ? ? ? - ? ? -- ? ::::::::::::::::::::-? 5. ?:::::::::::::::::::::+x,*:::::::::: '? ? ??:::-:...ii. :A?K"::???? ............. ???? :::-::::::::::::::::::::::::::?:?:?:-:?:-:::::?: :??: ?:?:?-??:??:?. 1....... .00., ... ?05. . x ? .:0 .............. :k:. t, I I 1 \.. ii ,. ... N. /.. ." .. I\ I 1 ....... V V.. i I 1 I ..:?:::::-::.::?:".:.::.::?:?::::::i:i::::::.: I \ \ .......... ..... .4f--\ ff.mi?r:: .. \.......-A ''...........:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: . . . . . . . . . . \ .......................... . ,...............?....?,......?.... ,............ ...................................,.... :.:?:?x.:.:.:?:?:?:?:?:?:-:?:?:?:::.x.?:-:::::::::?:?:?:?:?:?:?:?:?: .:?:::::t::::::::::c:::::::::?)??-?-?????:-:?:?????,?-?,'w? ?C,:'?"' t::::::::44::-...It?3 1 1 \ ?...... .... 1 .????? ., 1 / 1 I I 11111I --'wgIIIIIIIIIIr 1 lt1 i 1 \ \ / \ 1 1 1 THE YEAR JULY S 1952 1953 1954 Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET 1955 AFRIKAANS ARMENIAN BENGALI BURMESE DANISH GEORGIAN HINDI HUNGARIAN INDONESIAN MONGOLIAN SLOVAK THAI UKRAINIAN ARABIC PERSIAN POLISH PORTUGUESE SERBO-CROATIAN URDU VIETNAMESE BULGARIAN CHINESE CZECH DUTCH FRENCH GERMAN GREEK ITALIAN JAPANESE KOREAN ROMANIAN RUSSIAN SPANISH SWEDISH TURKISH SECRE I Approved For Release 2002/11/01: CIA-Re-71E r3RAQ?3?P?02N SORED EXTERNAL ONLY TAUGHT INTERNALLY LANGUAGE TRAINING* ? MINNSIESSENAMM:MEGESEEREEMOk 4:51WAMW:33 *KOMMir,' ? Rear---mgmaggENREEIN M.ESSONENANNE"::Eiiii]io MilinNaroPMEMENW MENIMIMIMiMpi.WWWMPRIMMIO z4.WINIERR UMWMERNWSNIPM tAIMOrm7nmmt ,vnitOcuomov ? :::::WRWMIMM.-Eig%,A,:x4m. OnsaMMOONNIMIIIM MgigiaMMOBWWWW WiNMEMOSS..." *WOROWI?F.MM ittiMEMBONAMMOM MUMOMMOMegga =MWROMMWMUR4g ROMOMMINEMMt EMEMPIMEMOMM NatagigNMS=4 ISSMIMMEMINOM .?VKINVASSAMO:MiiiM01:. mmAgaggwwftem MUOMMOMMNEMM mommmgmommu gAI*IMMOMMINWRWig MgEMOMMEIMUMW 1951 Approved For ad17. 2002/11/01 : CWA31378-06365A0012JA3401-2 * NO.S OF STUDENTS AND COURSES IN EACH LANGUAGE NOT INDICATED SECRET 1955 5X1 Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 Next 8 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/11/01: CIA-RDP78-06365A0O000AN D E STAFF LABORATORY Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 t altar Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 LANGUAGE LABORATORY Approved For Release 2002/11/01 :_CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 Approved For Release 2002/1: IA,RDP743-06365A017120007000-2 figft7 SCHOOLS OF OTR ???? r????? .0010 am. .10a. mom. ????? ????? ?????.? ????? ????1 ????? ( INTELLIGENCE M?????=11M 25X1 A6A 00/C REFRESHER READING ANALYSIS READING IMPROVEMENT (FRENCH)I ??????? N.? oe AREA AND LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SCHOOLS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS EXTERNAL TRAINING AFRIKAANS HUNGARIAN RUMANIAN ARABIC INDONESIAN RUSSIAN BULGARIAN ITALIAN SERBO-CROATIAN CHINESE JAPANESE SPANISH CZECH KOREAN SWEDISH DUTCH NORWEGIAN THAI FRENCH PERSIAN TURKISH FINNISH POLISH URDU GERMAN PORTUGUESE VIETNAMESE AREA BASIC COUNTRY SURVEY - BURMA BASIC COUNTRY SURVEY - GERMANY REGIONAL SURVEY - ARAB STATES/ISRAEL REGIONAL SURVEY - ECON.DEV./S.E.ASIA REGIONAL SURVEY - WESTERN EU1OPE AMERICANS ABROAD I PHYS.& ECON.GEOGRArril - uoon TECHNICAL TRAINING LANGUAGE AND EXTERNAL TRAINING SCHOOL ADVANCED READING IMPROVEMENT =MM. READING IMPROVEMENT INTELLIGENCE WRITING . I INTELLIGENCE BRIEFING SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE WORLD COMMUNISM INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES AND METHODS 1 I I I EFFECTIVE WRITING ADMINISTRATIVE REFRESHER INTERVIEWING AND REPORTING INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES CLERICAL COURSES MANAGEMENT COURSES ADMINISTRATIVE COURSES BASIC ORIENTATION INTELLIGENCE SCHOOL Approve BASIC SCHOOL CLERICAL REORIENTATION CIA REVIEW DEPENDENTS BRIEFING CLERICAL ORIENTATION CIA INTRODUCTION ORIENTATION COURSES OPERATIONS FAMILIARIZATION OPERATIONS OPERATIONS SCHOOL 01-2 25X1A Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/11/01 : CIA-RDP78-06365A001200070001-2