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Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 FORM NO, REPLACES FORM 10-01 I AUG 54 Declass Review by NIMA/DOD Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703 A01900 1?O tLi 1 l~Vk Russia's first moon-mini........... 3 vol. 103. No 20. Week ending November 21, 1970 K,R 15 VIf \\ Changes at FEx CI nES' the top 'in Rolls-Royce Report, page 22 n I I Comment, page 12 Miners started returning to work this week as their unofficial strike collapsed. Lord Robens, head of the Coal Board, has blamed the strike on Communists. Harold Jackson investigates the extent of Communist influence in British industry on page 8. M r K's memoirs- are they genuine? Victor Zorza, page 13 American justice - a tour of courtrooms. with Adam Raphael, page 6 Catastrophe in Pakistan - The challenge for Pakistan For East Pakistan it is tragedy, as usual. Simple tragedy, with tens of thousands dead: complex tragedy, full of ironies and human sloth and sicken- ing fatalism. The world can and must respond to the simple challenge, pro- viding relief and expertise and some of the money to make the Ganges Delta safe. But only Pakistan can tackle the complex issues. Pakistan asks for help, but in the deepest sense, she must help herself. For 23 years of freedom, the rulers of West Pakistan have allowed the list- less millions of the overcrowded, un- dernourished East to languish. Paki- stan has been the Punjab-wittier, cleverer, fatter. The Army, the Civil Service, and the landlords together have contrived to bleed away what scanty wealth the East produces, leav- ing the victims of the delta as ex- posed as ever. It has not always been a cynical process. There is dire poverty in the West as well. But no impartial observer, looking especially at the wasted years of Ayub Khan, can pretend that Bengali anger is misplaced or much exaggerated. Few in the East wanted war with India in 1965, and the cost of that bizarre military excursion would have paid for dikes clear across the Ganges. World Bank studies have shown what needs to be done, but little has moved beyond rhetoric. Pakistan as a united nation has failed to respond. The con- trast between the concrete delights of Ayub's Brasilia, Islamabad, and the shanties of the delta is sharp enough to gladden any Maoist agitator; but it remains valid, for all that. This cyclone, particularly, comes at a bitter time-three weeks before the first election in which East Pakistan is to have one man, one vote, and thus, probably, the making of the new Prime Minister. Few are truly hopeful for democracy, but the likelihood of Shaikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League as dominant partners in a governing coalition does mean that the centuries of neglect could be coming to an end, however briefly. The new tragedy underlines the need and the opportunity. Many commenta- tors expect a democratic Pakistan to crumble into feudal or cynically oppor- tunistic factionalism-Rahman and Mr Bhuttq's Left-wingers, Maulana Bha- shani's Chinese-style "Socialists"; squabbles to bring Yahya Khan or some tougher soldiers back from the sidelines. But soldiers have never faced up to the appalling human ant- hill of Bengal; soldiers and martial law may stifle strife, but can never reflect the mass concern to guard East Paki- stan from the elements. Perhaps once again (as in August) natural disaster will postpone polling; perhaps democracy, in all its trivial and gimmicky aspects, seems irrele- vant to the enormity of the carnage. The first and right problem is simply saving lives. But later there will be a second choice. Pakistani forgetful- ness and acceptance of more tragedy or Pakistani determination finally to stem the floods. A challenge to new parties, new leaders; a challenge, literally, which will make or break a country. Did King Hussein meet the Israelis? Eric Silver, page 4 what can Yahya Khan do about it? Page 5 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 The Manchester Guardian Weekly Week ending November2l, 1970 Vol. 103, No 20 Editor JOHN PERKIN Asst. Editor IAIN WILLIAMSON The "Guardian Weekly" draws on the services of the British morning newspaper the '"Guardian," published daily in London and Manchester Arab World: David Hirst Australia: Geoffrey Tebbutt Belgium: HenriSchoup Canada: Clyde Sanger Communist Affairs: Victorlorza Eastern Europe: Jonathan Steele France: Nesta Roberts Margot Lyon Germany: Norman Crossland India: Inder Malhotra Israel: Walter Schwarz Italy: George Armstrong Japan: Stuart Griffin LatinAmerica: Christopher Roper Netherlands: Rienkldenburg New Zealand: Ian Templeton Pakistan: S.R.Ghauri Rhodesia: Peter Niesewand South Africa: Stanley Uys Spain: Bill Cemlyn-Jones Tanzania: David Martin Turkey: Sam Cohen UnlledStales: AlistairCooke Richard Scott Adam Raphael Jefferson Morgan Zambia: Christopher Parker Roving correspondents: Harold Jackson Michael Lake Martin Woollacott Hella Pick Marcolm Dean Jonathan Steele Di ptomatic and Commonwealth: Patrick Keatley Defence: DavidFairhall Education: Richard e Victor Keegan Industry: Labour: JohnTorode Literary editor: W. L. Webb Parliament Norman Shrapnel Planning: Judy Hillman John Arddl Francis Boyd Ian Aitken Mark Arnold- Forster Peter Jenkins Science: Anthony Tucker Welfare: Ann Shearer Features: Peter Preston Dennis Johnson HarryWhewell TerryColema n John Hall Miscellany: Eric Silver The Arts: Merete Bates Neville Cardus CarolineTisdall Edward Greenfield Derek Malcolm Richard Roud Philip Hope-Wallace Saleroom: Donaldwintersgill Sports: John Arlott Richard Baerlein Albert Barham Michael Carey Brian Chapman Alan Dunn David Gray David Frost John Rodda John Samuel Eric Todd Pat W ard-Thomas Business: Anthony Harris Subscription prices (Air edition): 1 year 2 years United s $18.00 CanadaCAN $19.50 $3600 Editorial correspondence to the Editor: Manchester Guardian Weekly, 164 Deansgate, Manchester M60 2RR, England Please mail the Manchester Guardian Weekly for one year to: I enclose: Manchester Guardian Weekly, 20 East 53rd Street, New York, N.Y.10022 DP78B05703A000400100001-0 British Sir,-The acquisition of the British-owned motor- industry by Lancashire's lordly whizz kid and his team of supersalesnten was vaunted as the opening of a new age for the British motor industry: BLMC was to be the imperial gem of a newtrade imperialism. But just as Lancashire cotton imperialism collapsed in paranoic megalomania-how could we prefer Empire-made cotton goods? -so also would the motor industry appear to he collapsing. Lord Stokes says we must be nuts to buy foreign: protection by patri- otism is to replace protection by tariff. No credence can be given to his view. We buy foreign if, within our area of choice, the foreign buy appears best. British motor vehicle technology is undoubtedly ad- vanced, but the quality of the finished product remains low. The theoretical technology is of no avail if it cannot be applied effec- tively on the production line. The excuse that component parts are to blame is no excuse, unless BLMC renounce responsibility for v. foreign cars A soundly-built car, even if based on a rudimentary technology, is worth all of Lord Stoke's exhorta- tions. It is to the end of good quality throughout the whole of the BLMC range that. BLMC management should apply them- selves. Or in other words supply us with a choice that is viable rather than with insults. In the 1970s the market is not going to be home and export: it will be a single entity. All areas must he supplied with the product, service facilities. 'Ind spares. But even now distribution in the UK seems haphazard. Criticism of BLMC by franchise-holders is re- garded as hostility and incurs threats rather than assistance. Several franchise-holders are de- monstrating their kick of faith in their future with BLMC and are opting for imported manes. They feel that they will be involved in a trading partnership which is coo- structed for the benefit of the customer as well as themselves. It is on two fronts that BLMC fail down: on their product and on their marketing. The analogy With cotton is perhaps complete. There is even trouble down at t'mill.- Yours faithfully, A. Robert Ellison University of Keefe Students' Union. Sir, -Recent writings and argu- ments about the considerable increase in Continental car sales in Britain seem to have skated round a key point without men- tioning it. The sales policies of home manufacturers have given considerable stimulus to foreign car sales. Their main distributors in every town are rapidly becom- ing their sole distributors. The smaller garage men are losing their local agencies. This small incentive bought their loyalty and their interest in giving a good maintenance service to their neighbourhood customers to sell the replacement and preserve the good reputation of the cars they sold and cared for. Many of these disfranchised former agents refuse to decline: they are in a com- petitive rush to pick tip foreign agencies. -Yours faithfully, J. E. Battye. 134 Wetherby Road, Harrogate. then buying- Democracy and Quebec Sir, -As a Canadian I was like 80 per cent of them F ench- pleased to read Stephanie speaking, disag with Williams's letter published beside separatists, a minority group the sweeping denunciations of the among them, t stru adr ark by r group from Bristol Gardens. The lack of support two letters sent me back to re- savagely violent methods to force read Adam Raphael in the issue their opinions upon the majority. of October 24. His report is, I The French-speaking Government think, a very fair and fairly com- of the iProvince of Qseb c, to phis feet fro t plete one. The present situation arises violence, requested aid from t he out of the struggle, in the Province Federal Government. of Quebec, between those who. The other provinces of Canada recognising and accepting as valid have refrained from active inter the various grievances of the ference, believing that this is, at people, believe that these can be this point, a matter for the pehl righted within the framework of of Quebec to settle. The only confederation, and those who opposition hati~ol come f omspe he believe that only separation can -mainly pol lication o do this. When the provincial elec- affect to see in the app tion showed that a very significant the War Measures Act aTthre t majority of the voters, something to their political liberty. Waste not, want not Sir, -Dr Anthony Harris sets out (November 14) to tell us what is wrong with our body economic. And suddenly, bang, in the middle of the diagnoses, there it is: the indication that the good doctor himself is not very well. "It is essential not to take action to check growth, but rather to stimulate it ... the purpose of a freeze is to check price move- ments, not to control demand." "Growth" of what? "Demand for what? For more vehicles to add to road congestion and other problems; for colour TV sets; for plastic trinkets; for Concorde air- craft; for moon rockets; or for what? My parents and grandparents in their day believed in "waste not want not," in "cutting your coat according to your cloth." What is wrong with that, I)r Harris? -Yours etc., Norrie Ward. 3 Britannia Road, Morley, Yorkshire. What incentive? Sir. --By stating, as he did during his interview oil '' panorama," that those families who will be worse off as a result of the Barber pack- age should overcome their diffi- culties by changing their pattern of expenditure, does Mr Heath really mean that: spite of the fact that Mr Trudeau stated at the beginning that it would be retired as soon as Parlia- ment could draft it less drastic measure to control the situation. This is presently being done. If to be democratic one must sit passively and allow a turbulent minority to ride roughshod over the majority and its elected repre- sentatives and dictate what tbc) shall think and do, then I suppose we are now being undemocratic in Canada. There are a few people here who seem to think so. But most of us have other ideas.- Yours very truly, Hamilton, Ontario. The tax on knowledge Sir,-How reasonable the pro- posal that there should be a charge of 2s 6d to enter national museums and art galleries sounds. This seems little enough when today 2s 6d will only buy a large packet of cornflakes. But having spent a marvellous week in London taking our children (aged 4, 5, 6, and 8) to the museums and art galleries we realise fully the value of the privilege we have just had with- drawn. With a charge to enter, say, the Tate we would have to weigh up our priorities very carefully in the context of our family budget.-for an hour-long visit (which is enough for a start) one would have to think twice and perhaps be forced to decide that they were after all a trifle young to appre- ciate all they might see. To impose charges would widen the gap between those that go and those that never have, to the detriment of society as a whole. There is no better way to enrich the life of the nation than pro- viding the facilities for everyone to know and enjoy their heritage This is another petty econon~t, the effect of which is not mediately apparent-how c-tn we expect future generations to care for their nations treasures if they only belong to those who can afford to look? The estimated "benefit" front this exercise will be ?1 million: the cost to the corning generations will be enormous. Beryl and Brian Mason- 8 Cound Close, Wellington, Salop. Sit. -Fur 16 years I have held a reader's ticket for the British Museum. serious there, , day in, day out, winter and summer, so far as earning my' living allows. This ticket is one of the most precious possessions of my life. It is not true to say it is free; I pay rates and taxes- Most Most London national munbamm are together at South Ktin to o0 Families visit one exxpes ee n for to the other three. small families, for four museums, could be very burdensome. Even- ing course fees are to be raised. Serious users of museums do not treat their visit as entertainment; they go to learn and worship beauty. The nineteenth century saa victory in the fight for the un- stamped press, the free and public library, the abolition of the taxes on knowledge. Is the latter part of the twentieth century going to put fetters on the mind and reimpose the taxes on knowledge? How feeble a flame is liberty, how it gutters.-Yours faithfully, (Miss) G. Hawtin. Wimbledon, London SW 19. my family's standards and welfare. Alan Legg. Old Marston, Oxford- Doomwatch Sir,-1 am astonished that the BBC should jeopardise its tradi- tion of political impartiality. On page 67 of the current issue of the "Radio Times" is published a picture of Mr Heath having won the election. Also shown are scenes from five inter- national catastrophes. - Yours faithfully, I) II. Stokes. 74 Gaynes?ord, Basildon, Essex. (a) I should refrain from buying the milk for my two young chil- dren for which I will no longer recieve a welfare voucher; (b) my wife should refrain from taking the Pill when the cost of its prescription is increased and run the risk of an unwanted addition to our family; (c) We should both resist the temptation to pay regular six monthly visits to the dentist? If he does not, then I ant truly at a toss to know how I can possibly gain an incentive from the measures to work harder when, in fact, they cause a real increase in my cost of living or table deterioration in an unaccep nth Africa-evolution or .at revolt* t? So e light Df the Sir,-Surely it is a fine rage Pro- fessor Blacking is in over the pro- posed sale of arms to South Africa (Weekly: October 31) . But the blood in his eye is really no excuse for his misuse of English words. There may be some validity in the catch phrase "black power" in the American political context: or even in the early enthusiasms of the OAU before it began to fall into disarray alter personal powe- struggles and the quid pro quo manoeuvres now evident in the Middle East. In the South African context, the phrase is meaningless. There are 21.3 million people here: 14.9 million "blacks," 3.8 million "whites," 2 million onus ai elicit economic changes "browns" (Coloureds), and 0.6 1-;11- cy . t l tee, radical new million Asiatics (mostly Indian now taking p and Malay) . Of the 14.9 million economic alliances will have to be blacks, Lit least 12.0 million are formed to aver anisunpiecedented Zulus, Xhosas, Tswanas, and inflationary adiit links be Sothos, who will nut welcome Yro- broadening of U g fessor Blacking's careless treat- tween black and white in Africa ment of their ethnic pride. The 2.0 (and thus "dialogue) ales'e I art million Coloureds have been bred of a new emerging l: to Western European culture and heady than assegais. knobkerries, tradition for 300 years and are demonstrations, and nail bombs mostly upper blue collar workers but, then, evolution (persuasion) moving fast into white collar jobs: has never made newspaper head- ce'tainl_y they are no possible part lines has it? -Youu s laithfullY, . of a black power group. South Africa and the (_'onunon Ma shalitowlr, Market need cause no concern: Transvaal. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 THE WEEK In what might finally he recorded as lie worst natural disaster in history, a cyclone and tidal wave struck coastal areas and offshore islands in the Bay of Bengal. By midweek, official estimates put the death toll at around 60,000, but the "Pakistan Times," published by the Government Press Trust, said the figure could reach a mil- lion. More than two million people across a wide area of East Paki- stan were affected by the floods, and half that number are thought to be left homeless and without proper food and water supplies. The fertile region to the south of Dacca has attracted one of the most dense populations in the world, and relief organisations said that the loss of crops and cattle could lead to acute short- ages. But a more immediate threat is that of cholera and typhoid epidemics spread by polluted water. Reports said bodies were still floating in streams and rice paddies, in spite of efforts since the weekend to put them in com- munal graves. The largest island, Bhola, was said to contain 50,000 dead; another island, llatiya, wits submerged under l0 feet of water. India was one of the first countries to promise aid, worth .?27,000. The British Government committed ?30,000 for immediate relief, and voluntary organisations donated another ?'20,000, Mr Nixon promised I1S aid amounting to tt millions. The Lockheed TriStar airliner made a successful maiden flight, powered by Rolls-Royce RB 211-22 engines. Rolls - Ito yce itself an- nounced a loss of ?48 millions for the first half of the year, chiefly provision for escalating develop- ment costs of the engine, which has run into trouble with the original carbon - fibre turbine blades. Rolls-Royce negotiated a fixed price contract with Lockheed in 1968, and now the British Government has stepped in with ?12 nril!ions in aid on top of tie ?47 millions already granted. The move goes against the Govern- ment's stated refusal to bail out ailing industries, but too much was involved both in prestige, eventual dollar earnings, and penalty clauses for it to stand idly hy. The decision to grant Govern- ment aid was criticised by the Conservative fundamentalist, Mr Enoch Powell, who said he would have let the firm go bust; all it would do would increase inflation- ary wage demands. Mr heath replied to critics of his economic policy during a major speech in London, arguing that the strategy on which the Government had embarked was it long-term one. lie said previous administrations had been diverted from their long- term aims by short-term difficul- ties. The unofficial strike by coal miners showed signs of breaking, as a number of collieries went back to work. Lord Roberts, chairman of the National Coal Board, blamed the strike action on Com- munists: this was denied by the miners' leaders. Lord Rohens's term of office is due to expire shortly but he is expected to be reappointed, with a rise of ?2,500, bringing his salary to .?20,000 a year. There was good news for the Government in the trade figures for October a surplus of ?27 millions. Exports were a record ?719 millions, compared with ?724 millions in September. The Israeli Cabinet, including the Prime Minister, Mrs Meir, ap- peared this week to have shifted their ground in the attempts being made to break the impasse on the Middle East peace talks. Mrs Meir called in the Knesset for the creation of conditions mak- ing possible the resumption of contacts with Egypt and Jordan through the UN mediator, Dr Jarring. In Syria, the Defence Minister, Mr Hafez Assad, was firmly established in power after a bloodless coup against his civilian rivals. The Russian author, Andrei Amalrik, was sentenced to three years in it labour camp after stand- ing trial at the Urals city of Sverd- lovsk accused of writing articles criticising Soviet domestic and foreign policy. But in Moscow there were further signs of a grow- ing struggle for civil liberties. Three leading scientists, including Dr Andrei Sakharov, "father" of the Soviet II-bomb, formed a conr- mittee for human rights, and sent details of its aims to Western correspondents in Moscow. Mstislav Rost-opovich, the cellist, openly criticised the official con- trol over the arts and literature, and complained of a Soviet press campaign criticising the Nobel literature prize winner, Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Archbishop ,soothes Moslems by Stanley Uys in Cape Town The Archbishop of Canterbury explained to South Africa's upset Moslem community on Tuesday that he. had not meant to link Islam with Communism in remarks he made last week. Dr Ramsey had said that resumption of arms sales by Britain to South Africa might be seen by Africans as symbolic of upholding Mr Vorster's regime, and might cause them to turn away from Christianity and towards other creeds "like Islam and Communism." The Archbishop is on a three- week visit to South Africa in con- nection with the centenary of the autonomy of the Anglican Church in South Africa. On arrival in Port Elizabeth, Dr Ramsey said he had the "friend- liest relations with Islam, both in England and other places where I have been. We share with Islam a belief in God." Dr Ramsey told reporters he had merely mentioned two things that were different from Christianity. Questioned about allegations that the Anglican Church prac- tised apartheid in South Africa, I)r Ramsey said that in a country where the races were separated, it was not easy for any Church to practise integration. It was his impression that the Anglican Church was doing its best to achieve integration. Asked why clergy of different races were paid different stipends, the Archbishop said this was a difficult and complex matter, and he did not have all the facts. s Russia's moonrover by Anthony Tucker Lunokhod-1, Russia's moon crawler, this week became the first vehicle to travel across the lunar surface. It represents a technical level yet unapproached in the American moon programme. The crawler was shown on Mos- cow television to be about ]Oft long and 5ft wide. Power comes from batteries which are recharged by solar cells. The Soviet space base at Baikonus is guiding it around the moon's surface by radio, but be- cause of the inevitable delay in response time over the double journey of 240,000 miles, an auto- matic switch off has been incor- porated should the crawler pitch or roll above pre-set angles. It is not clear what equipment the crawler is carrying. It. rolled down automatic ramps from Luna- l7 two hours after touchdown at 4 37 BST on Tuesday on the Marc Imbrium. This initial journey of about 20 yards was followed by slow manoeuvres, but included the de- ployment of a French-built laser reflector which will be used, as the Apollo equipment has been, for accurate measurements of lunar distance and oscillation. Signals picked up at Britain's Jodrell Bank radiotelescope were complex and could include infor- mation from an on-board surface analysis system, but with Luna-16 experience of drilling and scooping, it seems very probable that Lunok- hod-I and its followers will be capable of collecting material that is seen by TV and selected from earth. If the quality of television is high, this could be a more effective way of selecting samples than by sending highly skilled, but non- scientific, men to the moon. And because of stringent payload limitations in the present Apollo programme, which restrict land- ings to regions close to the lunar equator, the Russians may be the first to sample materials from the lunar poles where there may be sub-surface permafrost. The latest Russian landing, based according to Tass on the standard Luna platform and there- fore intended for return to earth, was farther north than any earlier landing, and required a consider- able adjustment of lunar orbit be- fore it could be made. Pledge on Cuban base by Adam Raphael, Washington, November 17 Russia has assured the United States in secret talks that it has no intention of basing nuclear sub- marines in Cuba. Although Russian ships, including a submarine tender and rescue tugs, are still in Cienfuegos Harbour, these as- surances, which are understood to have been given by the Soviet Ambassador, Mr Dobrynin, to the US Secretary of State, Mr Rogers, have satisfied the Administration. A State Department spokesman Mr Robert McCloskey, made no, public reference to the talks in the daily correspondence briefing today but declared that the Ad- ministration was confident that "an understanding'' existed. The statement corresponded closely to one made by the Ad- rninist'ation on Friday except that the first left out the indefinite article and referred specifically to "understanding" based on the Russian statement in Tass on October 13. This denied that Russia had any intention of build- ing a base of "its own" at Cien- fuegos. Pentagon and State Department sources said the movements of Soviet ships near Cuba were still being closely monitored by air reconnaissance, but much of the steam appears to have gone out of t he crisis today. The Cienfuegos affair, most of which has been conducted by sec?rct diplomacy, is likely to re- main a mystery unto one of the principal participants decides that the time is ripe for disclosures. What induced Russia to test the validity of the 1962 understanding by its construction work at Cien- fuegos and the deployment of its submarine support ships is still not clear, nor is it known what pressures the US may have brought to bear to persuade the Soviets to cancel their plans - if indeed they intended to use Cuba as a refuelling base for their Y- class submarines patrolling the Caribbean. The US Defence Department said yesterday that Russia con- tinues to snake progress on de- velopment of the MIRV missile the nuclear-tipped multiple re- entry vehicle and it could thus be assumed that this would lead to perfection. The spokesman said no Russian MIRV tests had been carried out in the Pacifier test zone recently marked out by Moscow. Such tests would be viewed as possible stumbling blocks in the strategic arms limitation talks between the United States and the Soviet tluion, in which the two Powers are striving to limit de- ployment of nuclear offensive and defensive weaponry. If Washington believed Moscow had perfected a MIRY, it would affect the arms balance tinder discussion at the Helsinki talks, defence experts said. Bribes scandal grows by Norman Crossland in Bonn A political scandal that started here with allegations by a Free Democratic MP that he had been offered bribes to join the Oppo- sition has developed into a con- fusion of recrimination that must surely damage the reputation of politicians generally. The role of the MP, Herr Geldner, appears only marginally less questionable than the methods used by Right-wing supporters to persuade him to defect. There is always the fear here that this kind of affair might tempt people to support an ex- tremist party. My butcher said to me this week: "Just look at that lot in Bonn, engaged in some gigantic fiddle while we have to work for every pfennig." Such reactions usually benefit the ex- tremists. The "Stuttgarter Zeitung" said that the affair was no comic, political whodunit, but the big- gest scandal in West Germany's parliamentary history. Many aspects of the story were still obscure, but it had been proved that to some people Herr Geldner's defection from the Free Demo- crats was worth ?50,(00. Herr Geldner had gone to the lengths of announcing his switch to Herr Strauss's party, the Christian Social Union, to the Speaker of the Bundestag, and lot' weeks had been misleading his colleagues. Herr Geldner, a master baker from Bavaria who has not shone as an MP, had signed a contract to work in an advisory capacity for four years - at about ?12,500 a year -- for it Herr Beyer, the owner of a paper mill in West- phalia. Herr Beyer was a founder member of National Liberal Action, a Right-wing offshoot of the Free Democratic Party. It is now clear that the two men had been close friends for years. Herr Beyer is denying that he was trying to seduce Herr Goldner away from the Free Democrats. "He was going to make business contacts for me," he said. "Ile's not just a master baker these clays, but a profes- sional politician." Herr Strauss, whose party comes out of the affair badly, has been trying to turn the tables. He said this week that the Christian Socialists had never offered any- body any money to defect from another party and that it had no connection with National Liberal Action. (It is well known that the chairman of NLA, Herr Zoghnann, has been having political discus- sions with Herr Strauss recently.) One theory was, said Herr Strauss, that Herr Geldner had at first been seriously toying with the idea of leaving the Free Demo- crats, but had changed his mind at the last moment.. "What's been going on here can only be de- scribed as a bit of underworld." According to Herr Strauss, the Free Democratic Party had offered highly paid posts to persuade two Right-wing defectors, Herr Zoglntann and Herr Starke, to resign their seats instead of going over to the Opposition. They had refused. Herr Strauss alleged that the Free Democrats had wanted to replace the rebels with Mem- hers who would be loyal to the coalition Government. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 ) Guardian Weekly November 211970 Syria's secretive coup The military wing of the ruling I3a',ithist regime appears to have triumphed in Syria over its civilian rivals, and opened the door fot- inajur changes in i country held for our and a half years in the fight grip 01 party dictatorship. fast week there took ptacc what has heen described as a ''coup without communique No I-" This is the first broadcast which Arabs, after a coup, make to their supposedly delighted people. But for two days the Syrian radio, true to the ultra-secretive ways of Ba'athisln, had covered events far and wide, but none in Syria itself. More than one Syrian came to Beirut last weekend to find out what is going on in his country. However, it does seem that Lieutenant-General Hafiz Al-Assad the Defence Minister and head of the military faction, has struck with unprecedented vigour against his rival Major-General Salah Jadid, assistant secretary-general of the party, and his extreme Left- %%'ing civilian supporters. Reports, such as they are, agree that General Jadid, with several henchmen, is in the Mezze prison, which the Ba'athists were once going to replace with a people's pleasure park. But this is an old conflict and experienced observers hesitate to say that General Assad intends this time to oust his rival for good. He has seemed on the point of doing so, and has then retracted, many times before. The latest round was triggered off by the tlo6.-,~: T"'''l'In or rather the dispute arlsfng eat o1 Syria's intervention, and, less directly, by the death of President Nasser. But these events merely accelerated what was corning any- way- Tile duality of power, with the army at odds with the party, was becoming intolerable. For three weeks an emergency session of the party leadership has been de- hating the problem. If General Assad had not acted himself, a powerful group of officers wounded in their military anwur- propre, might have acted without him. For them the last straw came last week when General Jadid and his civilian henchmen bluntly by David Hirst in Beirut called on General Assad and the army to toe the party line. As the army's prompt reaction showed, they were in no position to enforce this call. How far will General Assad go? The Ba'athist regime is, in essence, a minority regime, founded on the solidarity of the sub-Shiite Moslem sect, the Ala- wites. They represent about nine per cent of the population, who have an historic grudge against the Sunni Moslem majority. Gen- erals Assad and Jadid are Alaw- ites. If General Assad gets rid of General Jadid, he is in danger of setting Alawite against Alawite. That is why observers believe that, even now, the two, knowing that ultimately they will stand or fall together, can reach some fresh compromise-though a compro- .^w, .: . I ` h General Jadid will certainly come off worse. Both want to preserve the Ala- wite character of the regime. Both have the traditional minority fear of pan-Arabism. General Assad would, if lie could, end the c'on- flic't without deposing General Jadid. But if he cannot it is be- cause their differences now out- weigh their common convictions. General Assad. out of conviction or c'irc'umstances, has always seen the need to disguise the regional character of the regime in pan- Arab apparel. Now that President Nasser, the always menacing focus of pan-Arabism, has gone, General Jadid, the rallying point of the anti-Nasserists, has lost some of his raison d'etre. The more that General Assail asserts himself the readier Syria will be to follow in Egypt's footsteps. It is not true that because General Jadid was in favour of intervention in the Jordanian civil war and General Assad was against it, General .Jadid is more uncompromisingly anti-Israel than General Assad. General Jadid wanted to inter- vene because, ever since he was supplanted as the Syrian strong man, he has seen the Palestinian resistance, and especially the Syrian-hacked Saiqah organisa- tion, as his main chance for re- building his power. General Assad is now said to he curbing Saiqah but this is less a move against the Palestinians than against his rival. Whichever way Egypt. leads General Assad will try to follow- towards peace, if Egypt leads that way, or towards war. Either way, a victory for him must be at the expense of Israel, because it means a new chance for inter- Arab collaboration-and Israel has always thrived on Arab discord. HIRE A CAR IN BRITAIN from MORLEYS of Kingston MORRIS, FORD and FIAT Vans, Saloons, Estates and Automatics VOLKSWAGEN DORMOBILE Motor Caravans Let us meet you on arrival Winter from ?9 per week Summerfrom ?17 per week NO MILEAGE CHARGE INSURANCE INCLUDED Period Hire discounts up to 15% Brochure and quotation by airmail from 76 Cambridge Road Kingston-upon- Thames Surrey, England or Povey Cross Motors near Gatwick Airport Horley, Surrey, England Cables: "Karhire", Kingston THE MARRIAGE BUREAU - HEATHER JENNER, 124 New Bond SL London WI, 01-1129 9634 E1)1NB[]Rf;H 1131-661 2699. RRISTOI. OBR2 68442!. LANCASHIRE 03915 24005. RIRNIINGIIAM, Ilerrford 5276 EAST ANGLIA 66053-2879. KENT nail St. 255 MANCHESTER 061236 2:121. Jewish Branch 4.526086. Manchester Mariago Rure+m extends an invitation to propk' abroad who wish to he neu-ricd- 6), rfic txrsunally to. Mi-s K Keene, 1TM13, Cohvyn ('harrtbers. 24 Mosley Street, Math Kesler 112 3AY. Lancashire. England Tr lrphon e 001-236 6719 GK,I KIiwshr G.-lLLE:It Y, 84 Sloane 1::?nue. London Sw:t ouch M011 Fri. 10-6. sat. n1-5. ii,-ccnl paintings by ST;ANIS1. FIt1?11aE:1.. until:3E Derctu!rcr. Ring of truth about Hussein-Alton talks by Eric Silver Official spokesman in Amman and Jerusalem have denied re- ports of a secret meeting between King Hussein and the Israeli deputy Prime Minister, Mr Yigal Allon. The balance of opinion among correspondents in Israel remains, however, that the story is true. Reports of the meeting, said to have taken place in the desert north of the twin Israeli and Jordanian towns of Elath and Akaba, have been rife in Jerusa- lem for the past week. The Israeli censors were still refusing this week to allow foreign correspondents to report what they knew or believed about the alleged meeting. Listeners in Lon- don heard Michael Elkins, the BBC correspondent in Jerusalem, deliberately defy censorship. He was joined in this by two other foreign radio journalists. "Since the story has been pub- lished," Elkins said by telephone to the BBC, "Leading correspond- ents - I among them - have decided to challenge what seems to us totally unjustified censor- ship. The meeting between King Hussein and the Israeli deputy Prime Minister did take place. It is not the first meeting the king has had with Israeli leaders." There have been previous re- ports from Israel of clandestine meeting between Israeli and Jordanian representatives since the 1967 war - in Switzerland and in Jordan (the river bridges are open and anyone with the right permit can cross the "order with- out attracting undue attention). If King Hussein did indeed rendezvous with Mr Alton it implies that both sides are anxious to explore the prospects of a separ- ate accommodation between Israel and Jordan. The King would evid- ently feel that at this stage he could not trust the task to a subordinate. The Jordanian civil war and its attendant upheaval of loyalty are too close for such com- fort. It would also suggest that the king's intentions are serious and that he feels an unusual sense of urgency. Hussein cannot have forgotten that his grandfather, King Abdulla, was assassinated for contemplating agreement with Israel, and that his death followed a secret meeting with Mrs Golda Meir, who was smuggled into Amman disguised as an Arab woman. The dangers would be no less now than they were when Abdulla was killed in 1951. What might have tempted Hussein is the lull in his conflict with the Palestinian guerrillas, and an appreciation that for the time being at least their position is weaker than at any period since the war. The change of regimes in Cairo - and more recently in Damascus - might also have given the King a sense of having more elbow room than usual. Whether or not the desert meet- Ing did take place, the publicity it has now received must have put an end to any hopes of early pro- gress. Perhaps that is why this week's denials were so categorical and so bitter. Soya bean, hay been. by Alistair Cooke, New York, November 13 After 20 years of so of keeping his car to the ground, the 1)ic't Conscious American got to his feel today and wished a plague on the whole medieval profession. Obediently, old DCA has gone from blackstrap molasses to cottage cheese, from meiraca1 to yogurt, froni the drinking titan's diet to high protein Without alcohol. Buffeted by one dogma after another he has trusted to one certain sheet-anchor: poly- unsaturated fats, because the one certified villain in the past dozen years has been cholesterol, right? Study after study, survey piled on survey. convinced us all eons ago that fatty meats, butter, carbo- hydrates. milk, were the surest recipe for hea rt disease. Ten years ago, the clinics could hardly hold the invasion of ex- pansive businessmen submitting to cholesterol counts and emerging with the dire resolution to avoid from then on all bacon, milk, cream and cakes and to put in a weekly order for soya bean and other vegetable oils. The rush of females was deterred only by the odd dis- covery that women don't have to worry about cholesterol until after the change of life, Now 60 years after an obscure monograph demonstrated a sure relationship between the intake of tats and hardening of the arteries, the American Heart Association arrived in Atlantic City and began its annual show with a performance by Pearce and Dayton, a couple of blasphemers from the University of California ,it Los Angeles, who nlay set >,I% ' - bl? to 1 : I?, .r :,, .. back 60 years and, conversely, rr- c'civc the dairy industry's next citizenship award. '1'llcsc heretic's have been work- ing for eight years on 846 elderly muds who had gone on consuming the old meal and potatoes, apple pie and ice c'rcanl, high saturated. .III-American diet. The Messrs Pearce and Dayton were alarmed and intrigued by the further finding that many of the old men who popped off with cancer had been on the polyunsaturated diet for only a few months Post hoc propter hoc seemed to sug- gest that a quick retreat from bacon to soya bean was the surest path to the grave. This amunlnc'etnc'nt threw the attending heart specialists into confusion and self-defensive pos- tures. for many of them have earned their eminence on their religious dedication to the poly - unsaturated doctrine. A heart man from Massachusetts tossed off the whole thing by remarking that "these old men were soon to die, if they weren't going to die of heart disease, it had to he something else. Cancer was a logical alterna- tive." An expert from the National Heart and Lung Institute had done sonic studies, admittedly much shorter, which did not confirm the Pearce-Dayton findings. However, to spread alarm on the distaff side, a Canadian heart specialist added the news that female rats fed a diet high in polyunsaturated fats tended to show also a high in- cidence of cancerof the breast. The meeting ended with a cauti- ous retreat. by the medical direc- torof the American Heart Associa- tion. The association, he said, had never made a big point of increas- IPR 11n1y'tlfl6'Itnr'ltf d fats. The u...i %% as to reduce the Sattn:dcd fats Colt out the milk bacon, butter, etc, but don t take on the suspect polyunsaturateds. men. Those of them who stayed were offered forguessing what hap- with a diet low in saturated fats, pens to a man, young or old, who and high in polyunsaturated fats. takes in no fats at all. Boredom, showed indeed half the incidence languor, lassitude, and coma, that's of heart disease found in those what. Well, if you don't die of heart whose vices were versa. But they disease or cancer, it has to be also showed double the death rate something else. Starvation is a from cancer of those stick-in-the- logical alternative. Birth control ban stays by George Armstrong in Rome The Pope again condemned birth opinions held in international control, and again created some organisations which extol planned confusion with a hedging qualifica- birth control which, it is believed, tion on the ban, in a speech to will bring a radical solution to the delegates from the 119 member problems of developing countries. nations of the United Nations' "We must repeat this today: the Food and Agriculture Organisa- Church, on her part, in every tion (FAO). The AO) rile domain of human action, en- (in these days of courages scientific and technical press officers and speech advisers) progress, but always claims of the multiplication of errors in respect for the inviolable rights interpreting a Papal pronounce- of the human person whose went thus continues. Whatever primary guarantors are the public outsiders Inay read into this authorities. week's speech, it is improbable that the Pope has changed his "Being firmly opposed to a birth mind on birth control for Roman control which, according to the Catholics, or for anyone else. just expression of Pope John XXIII, The controversy which resulted would be in accordance with `the from the cloudy phrasing of his methods and means which are tin- 1967 encyclical, "Popularum pro' worthy of man,' the Church calls gressio," when even the then head on all those responsible to work of FAO thought the Pope had with fearlessness and generosity given his for the development go-ahead for birth con- of the he whole e trol in developing countries, is not Ivan and every man. This, among worth reliving. other effects, will undoubtedly The Pope said on Monday: "Cer- favour a rational control of birth tainl_y, in the face of the difficul- by couples who are capable of ties to be overcome (in solving freely assuming their own destiny." the world's food problems), there It could be noted that he attribu- is a great temptation to use one's ted to Pope John the rejection of authority to diminish the number "a'' form of birth control. The of guests rather than to multiply phrase "couples who are capable the bread that is to be shared. Of freely assuming their own We are not at all unaware of the destiny"is the real puzzle. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703AO00400100001-0 The death toll in the East Pakistan flood disaster is likely to be among the highest the world has ever known-certainly more than 40,000, possibly as much as half a million. A twenty-foot wave, blown by a cyclone in the Bay of Bengal, swept over the low-lying and densely populated islands at the mouth of the Ganges. Here KALIM SADDIQUI looks at the political obstacles in the way of flood prevention schemes. Food, famine, and flood A labyrinth of channels and thousands of little islands form the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta that opens into the Bay of Bengal, east of ('aleutta. This Mater landscape provides the million` who live there were three things flood. food, and famine - all equally familiar. In much of the area the land is so flat and low that the only bar- riers encountered by rivers are their own overloads deposited in a previous year, or the levees built by over-zealous villagers. The delta land is seldom more than 150 to 200 feet above sea level. The sea habitually accepts the waters from the Ganges and the Brahtuapotra, but on the odd occasions it rebels, turns the tables on the delta, and one tidal wave perhaps 20 or even 50ft high destroys everything that man had managed to build with his bare hands since the last great wave. This delta land supports 80 per cent of the 70 million people of Fast Pakistan, making it the world's highest density area with about 1,200 people to a square toile. Mercifully, however, only three to five million people are di- rectly exposed to the danger from the Bay of Bengal. But these people are among the poorest in the world, with a per capita annual income of as little as 200 rupees. (The average per capita income for Pakistan as a whole, including the more de- veloped. richer West Pakistan, is 418 rupees, or about ?30 at the high official exchange rate.) The last tidal wave, sweeping about 15,000 people and 50,000 head of cattle out to sea, struck the sauce area on May 11, 1965. Most families there own a boat in much the same way as Westerners own a car-boats which capsize and sink easily. As the bodies are washed hack on to land, many of the survivors are mopped up by cholera and typhoid. The rescuers and the Govern- ment teams usually arrive too late when there is little for them to do. fhey find the problems of the area so daunting that-on past experi- ence-they shrug their shouiuerS and go back to their air-conditioned offices in Dacca or Islamabad-un- til the next tidal wave. Then the usual fashionable story is heard -- "all communications haver been disrupted by the cyclones." All they can do in the meantime is fly in helicopters and aircraft, look down upon the desola- tion, and perhaps drop food wherever they see any remaining evidence of life. The fact is that these areas have no modern forms of communication to be disrupted. In the best conditions one often has to wait a week to catch the next boat to one of the islands. Geography, however, is not the only or the main problem of the area. Throughout history Bengal has been the marginal land of the empires that have risen and fallen on the Indian mainland. Bengal has always been ruled by it remote authority, and the para- dox is that this authority has never been more remote than since independence in 1947. This need not have been necessarily so if local and provincial democratic governments had been allowed to develop, not disrupted by domi- nant groups led by the Army in West Pakistan. Examine some of the contradic- tions. The British introduced jute to East Pakistan but partition left the jute mills in Calcutta. Paki- stan has built huge new jute mills in Fast Pakistan but the agricul- tural price policies pursued by chit government have merely trans- ferred the exploitation of jute growers and peasants to entrepre- neurs in Dacca and Chittagong. Much of the relative prosperity of West Pakistan, and particularly of its urban centres, has been built tip on the surplus of East Paki- stan's jute-based foreign trade be- ing transferred to pay for in- dustrialisation in the West wing. The annual transfer of resources from East to West is about 250 million rupees. The cumulative loss to the area since 1947, and in particular since the army rule be- gan under Ayub Khan's hegemony in 1958, is stupendous. Sino-Soviet competition in The visit of President Yahya Khan of Pakistan to Peking, which ended last Saturday, shows again the crucial position that Pakistan occupies in great power diplomatic and strategic calculations, in spite of internal instability and fears that the country may disintegrate. Pakistan, more than most States, lives by her foreign policy and has become adept at using world con- flicts to extract sustenance for her own survival. In the Eisenhower- Dulles era Pakistan became an outcast in the growth of nonalign- ment, when she joined SEATO and Cento in return for, as the former dictator Ayub Khan put it, "un- limited aid." The nonaligned have not for- given her and Pakistan was not invited to the nonaligned Summit meeting at Lusaka. Yet it is Yahya Khan who has an audience in Peking before all the rest. In the controversy over arms for South Africa and the presumed Soviet naval threat in the Indian Ocean, Pakistan's recent military arrangements with Moscow may be causing anxiety in the West as well as in Peking. While Pakistan is still formally an ally of the United States in SEATO, she is suspected of having it secret defence treaty with China, and it secret agreement to let the Soviet Union develop a naval base at Gawadar, west of Karachi. In return for building the base, the Russians are expected to have facilities for servicing their vessels cruising in the Indian Ocean. This puts Pakistan in the envi- able position of being the only Afro-Asian country with simul- taneous defence arrangements with China, Russia, and the US. The Pakistani army, navy, and the air force are equipped with arms and material from the three super- Powers. The US decision to lift the arms supply embargo imposed during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war, was clear acknowledgment that the US was in danger of losing the initia- tive there to China and Russia. Communist supplies were large enough to replace all US equip- ment in the Pakistan defence ser- vices within a few years. When the Pentagon first hinted in May that it would consider lift- ing the five-year-old embargo, Pakistanis reacted from a position of strength. A Foreign Office spokesman in Islamabad "wel- comed" the impending change in US policy but said that Pakistan Karachi had "diversified" sources of sup- plies and was no longer dependent on America. The Pentagon in the end opened its arsenal without the Pakistanis having to beg. Another fact is that the Soviet Union is linked with Pakistan by a modern road completed in July through Afghanistan into Quetta. This road can be extended to link up with the naval base at Gawadar. For the moment, the Russians are likely to use this road link to supply stores, fuels, and food to their ships as a substi- tute to the long sea haul to Vladi- vostok. The area is so remote that it will be safe against espionage. China, too, has its land link with Pakistan since the opening of the old "silk route" through Northern Kashmir and Tibet. This road, which is not to be compared with the modern highway the Russians have built, is being used for mule- borne trade alone. But its military and strategic potential is widely recognised. Some Chinese military aid to Pakistan is believed to have come this way. India has protested to Russia and the US on their arms supplies to Pakistan. But neither Russia nor the US has felt able to leave each other or China a clear field. Compared with these resources the cost of flood control measures in East Pakistan is small. The World Bank, which has been study- ing the problem for some years. has identified 20 multi-purpose projects that will largely eliminate the problem at an estimated cost of around $800 millions. Compared with what Pakistan spends on the import of foreign cars (mainly Japanese and Get,- man), refrigerators, air-condi- tioners, and other consumer goods, this bill takes a new perspective. Pakistan has contracted foreign loans of over $5 billions, paying al- most 20 per cent of its foreign ex- change earnings in interest pay- ments. In any ease, no determined Government can be short of inter- nal currency resources. These inay not build the kind if dams, barrages, and dikes the World Bank proposes. Yet it system of dikes based on outward islands w at leant soften the bluek could be achieved without any ex- ternal grants. It is a failure of will more than of money. But the World Bank cannot raise the 800 million dollars required because death and destruction on this scale is not a political issue. To settle the explosive Indo-Paki- stan dispute over the Indus water, the World Bank and the Western Powers managed to make "a billion dollar investment in peace." But there is at last some evi- dence that the present regime is taking the problem more seriously. In every speech that General Yahya Khan has made he has mentioned flood control as it top priority. The only action he has so far announced is: "Under my in- structions the Planning Commis- sion have already taken the initia- tive to mobilise foreign assistance. from all friendly countries to finance this programme. I am con- fident the international com- munity will not fail us in financing this programme, which is of such crucial importance to the future of East Pakistan." But the President does not see the urgency of the problem in national terms. Mobilisation of in- ternal resources to solve the prob- lem, or at least make it less hazardous, does "fit went to be on the regime's agenda. Yahya Khan added: ''We intend to set up a Special hand for this purpose to which contributions will be invited from friendly countries and inter- national financial institutions and to which Pakistan itself will make a suitable contribution." Whether or not the world com- munity responds to Yahya Khan's appeal remains to be seen. What is certain, however, is that some more of the remaining hopes of an orderly return to civilian and democratic rule in Pakistan have been swept out to sea. by Kalim Saddiqui India's stake in Pakistan's col- laboration with Russia is even greater than her conflicts with Pakistan. In recent years India, too, has granted the Russians hunkering facilities in the Anda- man and Nicobar Islands. Russia has also been allowed a supply depot at Visakhapatnam ostensibly to handle her naval aid to India. But geography is against India. Only Pakistan can provide a land outlet to the Russians to the warm waters of the South - a dream of all Russian rulers since Peter the Great. If Soviet naval ambitions in the Indian Ocean area are what Britain fears them to be, the Pakistan connection is far more important for the Soviet military planners than anyhing India can offer. This will have its inevitable political consequences, though for the moment the Pakistanis will be satisfied with a Soviet-built steel mill at Karachi and other econ- omic aid. All roads on the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent ultimately lead to Kashmir. Since 1966 the Soviet Union has modified its former stand of unqualified support for India's contention that Kashmir had become an integral part of the Indian union. Soviet diplomacy now takes it much more neutral stand in line with the Western Powers and would not be expected to use her veto in the Security Council to bail out India as she did in the 1950s. The growing warmth of Soviet- Pakistan relations has no doubt been noted in Peking as well. That famous handshake between it Chinese and an Indian diplomat in Cairo recently may have been a Chinese way of warning Pakistan not to get any closer to the Soviet Union, or China may mend her Himalayan fences with India. The Sino-Soviet competiton for influence in Pakistan also poses a problem for the West. Before any new warmth can be put back into the West's relations with Pakistan, the Pakistanis will need to be assured that they can expect more positive help towards the solution of the Kashmir and Farrakka Barrage disputes with India. While the Kashmir dispute re- mains unresolved the Pakistanis will find themselves increasingly sucked into the Communist sphere of influence just as they were into the Western umbrella in the 1950s. If this happens the Soviet naval threat in the Indian Ocean area, which is at present perhaps mini- mal, could grow. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703AO00400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Wild bunch on the bench Adam Raphael describes the perverted justice meted out in some American courtrooms So much is heard about the problems of crime and violence in the I'oited States. They are analysed and agonised over to such an extent that even those most frightened switch with relief to almost any other topic. Yet little is said about the often appal- ling standards of justice in a society where judgeships are, more frequently than not, political plums awarded for past favours rather than on any basis of merit. The Chicago conspiracy case was a travesty of what a trial should be, hut it shucked Americans a great deal less than it might be- cause they have grown ac- customed to some very tough forms of justice. The District of Columbia, in which Washington is situated, has one of the worst crime problems in the nation. It has also probably some of the worst judges. The DC Court of Appeals, for instance, has, just published a blistering opinion criticising General Sessions judge Edward Beard who, during the course of a narcotics trial, asked for a show of hands among court- room spectators on the guilt or innocence of the defendant. "When one indulges in the kind of dialogue, which as here, results in calling lawyers 'butchers' and mocking it defendant at sentencing by taking it vote among courtroom spectators on whether they believe he is telling the truth, it is time for some serious reflection on past con- duct and positive effort at self- control," said the Court of Appeal. It is doubtful, however, if Judge Beard, who has been on the General Sessions bench for 17 years, will take this criticism to heart any more than the two previous occasions in the past 18 months in which he has been reprimanded for improper court- room conduct. In one case he got furious with a young prosecutor. "This city is a desolate place." he said, leaning over the bench point- ing at the young lawyer, "and it's your fault. You don't know how to try a case. You prosecute felonies as misdemeanours and some cases you don't even prosecute. If some- one rapes a woman in Bethesda, they really give it to him. When was a rapist last electrocuted in the District of Columbia? You tell tile. " In another case, two defendants CHRISTMAS FLOWERS IN UK Cut flowers delivered anywhere in the United King- dom for Christmas or any other specified dates. Chincherinchees - Beautiful white flowers, with an incredible vase life of many weeks, imported especially from Africa. (Available December ugly.) Price - 30 stems 2g/6d ($3.55) - 50 stems 39/6d ($4.70). Mimosa - Cheerful bright yellow flowers from the Mediterranean. Specially treated for extra long length of life. (Available December only.) Price - 2 large bunches 25/- ($3.50)-3 large bunches 35/- ($4.15). Carnations - In glorious mixed colours. Numbers varying according to season. Price - Gift boxes - 25/-($3.00)-35/-($4.15)-50/-($6.00). A Year's Supply of Flowers - A monthly delivery of seasonal flowers including roses, freesias, mimosa and spring flowers. Price - f 9.0.Od ($21.60). 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If Judge Beard was an isolated example, such conduct could pos- sibly be laughed off as gloriously eccentric, leaving the idiocies to be reversed on appeal, but unfortun- ately he is not. An extremely detailed study by a practising lawyer, Mr Harvey Katz, was published by the "Washingtonian" magazine this autumn and estimated that nearly it third of the judges of the General Sessions, now to become the ma'or district court hearing both misdemeanours and felonies, were totally unsuited to sit on the bench. Two of the worst were fortunately forced to retire this month under a new court reorganisation plan but the damage they have done in the past is enough. Take Judge Thomas Sculley, whose usual verdict. "the court finds him guilty-leniine see his record" had rung through DC courtrooms for more than a genera- tion. In recent years the judge had become so hard of hearing and so uncertain of what was going on that he had handed over control of his court for all practical purposes to his clerk, Charlie Driscol, whom everyone referred to as judge. On one famous occasion ".Judge" Driscoll dispensed with 87 landlord and tenant cases while the real judge was out of the court- room for six minutes talking on the telephone. The judge, however, with per- haps the most notorious reputa- tion was judge Mill an Kronhciiu Jnr, who was also finally forced to retire this month. In the United States v. Barnes, Kronheim found the defendant not guilty of robbery and then ordered him to return the money he had "stolen" from the complaining witness. In another case recently.Judge Kronheim first convicted a man for attempting to Guardian Weekly November21 1970 locked up any longer so I will not appeal the case. ' Judge: "No, we can't bargain about a substantive right like that. Now step back, sir." (At this point the defendant was taken crown to the cells. ) Judge: ''Get him back agar-, a ill you please? (The defendrytt w3S brought hack.) Judge: "I put him a probation only because they r.cvmmended it. It was against my better judgment. I'm going to revoke that and give him 360 days con- currently . . . let )le have that probation report again. 't'his is lilt fourth time he has been in trouble. I was going to give hire a break, but apparently that is not possible. All right, step back. Call the next case." The way such men o k ^li illt, y, or for that matter Beard, Scalle even Carswell, whom President Nixon tried vainly to elevate to the Supreme Court, are appointed to the bench invariably is it result of political patronage. Kronhc?ini, the son of a wealthy alcohol dis- ' :t .' h; ntrihuted hand- somely to Tr?un,an's presidential c:u)p: ign. is a fAir cxanlph \1 Liu he was appointed in 1949, his only qualification for the bench was 1,,u' undistinguished years spent as a lawyer forhis father's business. Sip long, therefore, as judicial appointments are made in this way, without regard to merit or cxpericncc, su long is the quality of justice in the United States likely to be as variable as it is often strained. by Norman Crossland East is, east, West is west The other morning I had to be at Cologne/ Bonn Airport -- early. It was barely half past six as I approached the Cologne autobahn, but there was already so much traffic about that the sen ii 'vi rig headlights on the labyrinth of roads below, beyond, and around the looked like a crossfire of tracer bullets. The Germans were o1l to work, and these uric lnttst ly Bonnet's, rushing out to ('oIogn1, or Dusseldorf, or deep into the Ruhr. The scene reminded nit' of a conversation I had with a Polish engineer last week as we drove IC roilavti along the aulobahtr trout in the direction of the Fast German lwrdci-- if(' looked it the speedometer, smiled, and remark- ed that his old car began to tremble when it reached a speed of 85 kph. "But it gets there all the sank", he said. Ile told me that during a holiday in East Germany he had looked at West. German television, and from the advertisements had a pretty good idea of tlu materialism of Western society. "There are cer- tain things you can get over there, of course, that we would like to have," he said, "but really--politics apart-we don't really envy you. It seems to me that your lives are Address .................................................................. I City . State ............................ -P ..................... pickpocket but then reversed him- self as soon as fie learnt the man had had no previous convictions. lie also enjoyed using shock tactic's; in a traffic case the judge convicted the defendants and then with a menacing voice bolted forward in his chair "to sentence you to death." When the defendants recovered the sentence was thoughtfully reduced to a fine. To gel the real flavour of Judge Kronheim, one has to look at it case in some detail. The tran- script of Fleming v. United States indicates that he has hill(, time for those who cross []till in Court. Judge: "The imposition of sen- tence is suspended. You are placed an probation for a period of it year. All right." Defendant's attorney: "Your honour, I would also like to aulm!! the court's finding ... I would ask the papers reflect that a motion was made to note an appeal." Judge: "In this case:'" Attorney: "In this case. yes." Judge: "All right. There will be IS?'.oun1- r;,l Attorney: "Well, you were going to susprtld his seutcnce so I he- liove he will bt' out lice today, but I',mulct still like to appeal the finding." Judge: "No, they don't go on probation until alter the finding of the Court of Appeals. Step back.., Attorney: "Then I won't- let 111c make this representation. In light at Ihat. Your Honour, I would not \ianl h., see this defendant far too Frantic. What's the point of it all.' Vault only die of a heart attack in theend." Back to the reality of the road to Cologne on a rainy morning Is'fore dawn. I iniagined that I could make out it fairly strong case why tile in Wrozlaw or War- saw infinitely preferable to lift in I'nlognc or Frankfurt or Birnlinghaiiiur Pittsburgh. But then such thoughts are understandable at half past six in tin' rnol Ming. 11hen I spoke to a callc.1gut' about this, he said: "i don't want to spoil your case, but IhC ti:luis of Cologne don't stall runuin- at 4.30 ever} niorn- ing.:ulll the Kest lieitllatls don't to take. t\t"n jobs to fluke ends Inc(.[ ... D[]RIN(G the debate in the Carly' fifties on whetlier the Federal Republic should have armed forces. Ihere was a strong opposi- tion uulvenu'nt in the c?ountrV that hecanu? known as the ..Uhne Mich" u'oughty', the ''count-nu nut") hrigacle. Today, West Ger- many bas not far short of half a million mien nuclei- arms. but most, young Germans who receive call-up papers stiff have to be dragged into uniform. twenty four sixth-formers at a grammar school in Karlsruhe were asked recently to express their attitude towards military service. Seven of then) said Ihey didn't think the Federal Republic was worth defending, and a few members of this group said they would like to see the State in its present form abolished anyway. Five boys allowed that the country was worth defending, but consider- ed that military action involved too great a risk of resc'alation into a nuclear conflict. "Better Iced than dead" was their motto. The rest acknowledged military service to be the lesser evil, and declared themselves reluctantly prepared to defend their country should the c?ireunlstances demand. It is thought that these replies may he fairly representative of the view of grammar school boys generally -an indifferent, loot- dragging majority faces a militant minority that regards refusal to do military se'rvic'e as a political ueahurl. One headmaster said it required courage today for an army officer to lecture to a sixth form about democracy's need to defend itself. Ile can mostly expect to be roundly abused. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703AO00400100001-0 Guardian Weekly November211970 Can Latin America achieve a social revolution by peaceful means-or is the only means violent action by guerrillas? Here Guardian correspondents look at the current situation in Peru and Chile. Ultimatum to lotus-eaters Nowhere in Latin America is the fibre of change burning more fiercely than in Peru, where senior army officers are attempting to revolu- tionise the country's social and economic structure by decree. In the course of two years, the military, headed by President Juan Velasco Alvarado, have broken the hold of foreign corn- panies on the economy, initiated a sweeping land reforun programme, and have posted an ultimatum to Peru's notoriously lotus-eating middle class that they either work for the country's development or they get out. Apart from the professional poli- ticians who lost their johs. han'dI% anyone regrets the passing of rep resentative democracy, largely because it was so unrepresenta- tive and because the last Con- gress, which was sent packing along with President Fernando Belaunde in 1968, was so totally corrupt and selfish in its opposition to all reform. The army had backed Belaunde when he was elected in 1963, and he might well have served out a full term if only he had accepted the advice of his military advisers and closed down Congress when it persisted in thwarting his plans for reforming the country's anti- quated institution. Many of the young economists, agronomists, and sociologists who gathered in hope at the court of Belaunde quickly became disillu- sioned by their leader's lack of toughness. Some drifted into academic life in Peru or abroad while others joined the revolutionary opposition which supported guerrilla warfare in 1965. Some of these are now members of the Vanguardia Revo- lucionaria, which offers the princi- pal left-wing opposition to the pre- sent military Government, but many of their former colleagues are working enthusiastically with that same Government. Christian Democ'r'ats. the Marx- ist Social Progresistas, the left wing of Belaunde's Accion Popular Party, and the Moscow-line Conn. munists are all enthusiastically behind this unusual niliteo'y dic- tatorship. The Peruvian Government has been loosely described by both its friends and its enemies as "leftist" and "nationalist": leftist because it has increased the power of the State and begun to redistribute land to the peasants, and nation- alist because of its refusal to obey orders from Washington. However, both labels tend to mislead. In the first place, most of the leading figures in the Gov- ernment are passionately anti- Communist and certainly do not look for popular participation in the running of the country even to the extent that Social Democrats would wish-either now or in the future. "We will organise popular support for our policies," President Velasco told a crowd in Lima last month. In fact, they often seem to be trying to run the Government as if it were just another armoured division which had to be licked into shape. At this point. European liberals tend to sniff the breeze and say "Ha, fascism." While it is true that some of the ideas that are by Christopher Roper current in Lima today seem to hark back 30 to 5i0 years to Europe in the 1920s and 1930s, it is probably an unfair label to choose. Julio Cotter, a Peruvian sociologist, said the other day there was probably a greater de- gree of personal and intellectual liberty in Lima today than there had ever been. The Government is nationalist, but this label may be used to cover such a wide variety of Latin American governments as to be a11uost meaningless. The Peruvian military's political ideas do not seem to be vague at all, in fact they give an air of great precision, picking off their targets one by one. However, like all good soldiers they cover their progress under a smokescreen: "We are following it new road, which is neither capi- talist no- Communist, but corres- ponds to Peru's historical needs," is the kind of statement which is repeated ad nauseam by senior officers. An American sociologist, James Petras, has made the most com- prehensive attempt yet at defining this new road. He compares the present Peruvian situation to Ger many in the second half of the nineteenth century. "The structure of public authority is strongly influenced h% military personnel or values." he says. "There is a strong drive to- wards industrialisation, linked to the overwhelming sense of build- ing a strong nation. There is the same understanding that paternal- istic social legislation administered by the State is necessary to head off a Socialist revolution and cre- ate bonds of loyalty to the Govern- ment while undercutting class and populist appeals." This is much more complicated than any label but seems worth pursuing as Petras has accounted far more successfully than other writers for the many anomalous features of the Peruvian situation. His label for Peru is Neo- Bismarckian, although he admits that there are important cultural and historical dissimilarities. Ile concludes: "It is not alto- gether certain that the develop- mental and welfare policies of the authoritarian Peruvian military will have. the same type of suc- cess in winning middle-class sup- port and creating a powerful nation-state that Bismarck was able to achieve. A key element will be their ability to limit social con- flict and control popular demands during the period of industrialisa- tion and economic expansion." The Peruvian Government is clearly attempting something quite new for Latin America, which is fully deserving of the title revolu- tionary. It is far too early to tell whether the outcome will be good or bad for Peru. Briefly, its de- velopment strategy may be out- lined as follows: 1 Break the power of foreign companies by strengthening the public sector. The Government has established control over the mar- keting of Peru's principal exports -fishmeal and copper-and is well on the way to controlling the bank- ing system. Basic industries will in future be reserved for the State. 2 Strengthen the agricultural High hopes in Allende It was the most sober revolution: the night that Salvador Allende took over Chile's ['residential Palace 500,000 people filled the main boulevard of Santiago. On foot or in suicidally over-crowded buses they came in from the working-class districts, the slums, and the senu-legal "mushroom settlements" of squatters who have been seizing private land all round the city in the last few months. In two giant streams the width of the whole street the crowd surged tip and down. On a dozen wooded stages groups from various national companies danced, recited poems, mimed, de- claimed, and sang. But in all the sea of people there was barely one policeman. Nor need there have been. There were no scuffles. There was no opposition. There were not even any drunks. It was a strangely calm and disciplined fiesta. The people were happy enough but they were not going to go wild. By the end of the evening the touts selling the paper Allende hats were visibly des- perate to be rid of their stocks. Was this the lack of exuberance that makes them call Chile the England of South America? Was it on a mass scale the feeling of unreality and disbelief that still hangs over the leaders of the Popular Unity coalition two months after their unexpected election victory? Was it justifiable apprehension lingering on since the country's first political assassination for several decades, the murder of the General Rene Schneider, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, in an abortive Right-wing putsch a month ago? Or was this dis- cipline, this sobriety, and this calm the best proof that there is no revolution in Chile? The arrival of a Marxist coalition in power in Chile is certainly the most significant event in Latin America since Fidel Castro's triumphal descent into Havana. In one sense it could even be more than that. Government has come to power which will not just speak in the language of socialism for the masses but is actually built on representative and functioning institutions of working-class power. Six political parties form the coalition. The trade unions are solidly behind it. Hundreds of local committees formed during the election campaign remain in exist- ence, although their future role still has to be worked out. The number of peasant unions has shot up in the last few years from 24 to 413, largely under the inspira- tion of the energetic new Minister of Agriculture, Jacques Chonchol, who worked for the Christian Democrat Government but de- serted to found his own party, MAPU last year. His political swing to the Left is part of a wider current, but one which the Christian Democrats themselves encouraged. President Frei's own rhetoric attacked capitalism, and called instead for a "revolution in liberty." But, as the Unidad Popular puts it, "Frei represented reformist capitalism." by Jonathan Steele By attacking capitalism verbally but failing to change it, Frei lost both Right and Left. The party itself split. Then in this year's three-cornered election the remain- ing Christian Democrats were squeezed between the Right-wing ex-President Alessandri and the Popular Unity candidate, Salvador Allende. The previous Government did not leave office with a bad record of reform. During their six years 270,000 houses were built: the number of university places more than doubled to 82,500; 150,000 people were given land; 3.4 million hectares of large estates were expropriated; the illiteracy rate went down from 16.4 per cent to I1 percent. But it was not enough. Unem- ployment remained sky high, with 350,000 out of work in a country of 10 millions. The problem of homelessness became more acute as more and more "marginal" people, in that grim phrase, started to organise in impressively united campaigns to seize unused land and defy the authorities. "Seize the land, and then power" is one of the many slogans on the walls of Santiago. But it is not one of the most common ones. Revolutionary slogans are, indeed, conspicuous by their rarity. Occasionally you see a call for "nationalisation with- out compensation," but it is likely to be handscrawled and small. The "official" slogans are magnifi- cently done, huge multi-coloured pop art messages, but they are safe-"Allende et Presidente del Pueblo," or simply "Unidad Pop- ular." To talk with the new men is to get the same impression of caution, respectability, and moderation. These are not bearded guerrilleros just down from the mountains. The Cabinet. does in- clude four working-class members, a printer, an ex-miner, and union officials. But younger supporters of the Government complain that with one or two exceptions it is old and unexciting. Allende is quiet, courteous, and intelligent, but has little charisma. For years he has worked hard lot- the Presidency, and has now assumed the dignified mask of office with consummate ease. (Whatever happened to that polo- neck sweater)) On the day of the inauguration he barely smiled as he walked through the streets from the Congress to the Cathedral. In the National Stadium two days later be finished his speech and was immediately gone, leaving the immense crowd's ovation poised in mid-air to fade into an embarrassed and heavy silence. But in the encampments of squatters around Santiago the feeling is clear. At least the country has a good government, a government that can do some- thing for ordinary people. Hopes are high that change is on the way, but the coalition is doing its best to dampen down any incipient feelings of impatience. During the tense 60 days be- tween the election and its con- firmation by Congress it called sector by breaking up the vast estates-one was the size of Belgium - which characterised Peruvian landholdings. 3 Strengthen industry by forcing the middle class to take an active part in the process of industriali- sation. This is being pursued through land reform, exchange control, Government investment in major industrial projects, and by making foreign investors oper- ate in partnership with Peruvian capitalists. The most important unresolved doubt concerns the army as part of the Peruvian middle class. Will the army officers, who are largely drawn from middle-class families, feel able to coerce their own class into giving up their privileged position in society in favour of some larger goal? Army officers., who spend much of their working lives in the mountainous central area of Peru, surrounded by the desperate poverty of the rural population, understand how essential that lar- ger goal is to the future security of the middle class. They have fought against revo- lutionary guerrillas and have Liken part in massacres of peasants who supported those guerrillas. They know that the only alternative to change is a bloody revolution. But it is rather as if the South African army came to a similar conclusion, overthrew the Vorster Government, and then tried to persuade their fellow white South Africans to accept material sacrifices in order to raise the standard of living of the black population. for complete restraint so as not to provoke the Army or the Right wing. Even the day of the inauguration was not a public holiday. It almost looked as though it was meant to ensure that most of his supporters would be responsibly at work when Al- lende himself paraded through the streets. The result is that there is still a gulf between the Government and the governed. People are passive, but watchful. It has caused some alarm on the Left- wing of the Socialist party, and among the Mereskas, the Left- wing Revolutionary Movement, where the discussion turns on the danger of a coup by the army. The bourgeoisie will not give up power without a struggle. We should prepare ourselves, they say. They would like the Com- mittees of Popular Unity to be transformed into committees for the defence of the revolution. But the coalition, and particularly the Communists who control 80 per cent of the committees, do not want anything as potentially un- stable as that. Allende knows that his problems in nationalising the mines and the banks, in effecting a meaningful land reform, in holding off the Army, in curbing rampant infla- tion, and in keeping his dispapate coalition together are formidable indeed. The Comrade President means well and will probably do well, but he is going to tackle things in the careful methodical way that he knows best. Next week: the chances of success. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703AO00400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Heath's key to revival The Prime Minister this week than, the policies which have been gave the clearest and most un- so described up to now. It fulfils mistakeable definition he has so the duty of the Government to far uttered of the principles which provide the framework within guide the policy of his Govern- which the abilities and the went. They involve the elevation energies of the community as a of personal achievement as the whole can be developed to the source of national revival and the full - protected from the encroach- offer of a new economic freedom ment of sectional interests." to the individual. He went on: "This is the course Mr Heath was addressing the from which Her Majesty's Minis- Lord Mayor's Banquet at the ters will not be deflected. It is Guildhall. But if the bankers, indus- also the course to which our trialists, and business men who historic traditions call us. It was joined with him in the Lord Mayor's in freedom, not in reliance upon hospitality were looking to the the State, that Britain achieved Prime Mini t f s er or a statement of Government policy to deal with inflation and the worsening economic situation, they were disappointed. Instead, Mr Heath confined his remarks on the economy to an outline of the philosophy under- lying his brand of the new Toryism. In doing so he created a new phrase: "Not just in months, but in years." Mr Heath was arguing that the strategy on which his Government had embarked was a long-term one. He insisted that previous govern- ments had been diverted from their long-term purposes by short- terul difficulties. In contrast, his Government would hold to its course. and the results would not begin to show themselves innnediately. lie said: "As individuals, we have lost sight of our duty to accept responsihility for taking a rational and long-term view of our tare interests. The fact is-that the practice of true individual re- sponsibility is the key to the well- beiugof the community. The health and strength of a free society must be based essentially upon the ac?hievetuetits of the individual." He insisted that the policies which the Government had already launched - cuts in Government expenditure and reductions in personal taxation -- constituted an incomes policy of a new type. He answered those critics who are demanding the reintroduction of an old-style incomes policy by saying: This is not less an in- comes policy because it is dif- ferent from, and more constructive by Ian Aitken Guardian Weekly November211970 and clarified. "The time has come to establish clearly and unmistake- ably that British policies are determined by British interests," he said. More specifically he insisted on Britain's right to pursue its interests in making up its mind about the sale of arms to South Africa. His arguments were largely the familiar ones. But, at the same time, he went further than usual in declaring his Government's opposition to South African aparthied policies. It was not his purpose to en- courage South Africa in these policies or to co f , n er of a certificate treating within industry from the respectability on them, he said. Marxist parties to the left of them he r He vi greatness, through individual M d n d It is a matter of considerable as Ministers one apaS of development and through indus- are well known. They are not i heart searching in King Street i trial expansion. It was the question. We believe it to be about what needs to be done to tOO acceptance of personal responsi- detestable. We believe it to be retrieve the situation. bility, not dependent upon the damaging to all races. We believe the There she 1, m nisi branches a in central Government, that made it is doomed to inevitable failure." and ritish Communist mart are this small island so dominant in But that was a moral attitude, baonly about 220 of and her the world." not a based on factories and other policy. It was certainly not industrial premises. With just over But Mr Heath is clearly a categorical imperative against 30,000 members the average size sensitive to the accusation that any contact with South Africans. of a branch is 29 people. Obviously his Government, by pursuing the It was not the view of the Govern- there are variations, but it would policies he described, is returning Pent that apartheid would be be safe to say that there are un- to traditional Tory policies in- brought to an end only by the likely to he more than about 6.500 tended to enrich the well-to-do use of force. The isolation of South card-carrying industrial members and further impoverish the poor. Africa, far from ending apartheid, in a total labour force of 25 million He argued: "This is not looking would do the opposite. Liberal -thatis.0038percent. hack. This is looking forward to the forces would he best assisted by These figures are to some degree time when we ran release our- maintaining contact with the rest borne out by the returns from the selves front the constraints which of the world. (if have c?ondentned Britain to Mr Heath's denunciation of paSorrtyt ' h chnds district d the frustration and short-term ex- apartheid seemed to be couched . re ckingh Oxfordshire, pedients.'' And he offered a new in even stronger terms than those Berkshire. Buckinghamshire. rea slogan for the new Toryism. "The he has used. But he advanced the of~~skilli d lworkers, many of them cry was once 'Set the people familiar arguments about the in the militan r free.' Today I say to the people: threat to the sea routes around t enginhasing indus- try. 'The freedom is yours, but yours the Cape of Good hope, and meulbersscattered in ten branches to use aright.' " Britain's joint responsibility for (ther'c is another Which is mori- But perhaps the most astonish- them under the Simonstown Agree- hued) _ iug feature of Mr Heath's relatively Pent of 1955. He insisted that Many party members of course, brief passage on domestic affairs under these arrangements, achieve positions as shop stewards was that he made no reference Britain had an obligation to and therefore carry all influence whatsoever to inflation, or to supply maritime equipment to beyond their apparent numbers. any of the specific economic prop- South Africa to enable her to ful- There were, for example, about a hems facing Britain. It was clear fil her side of the agreement. hundred Communist delegates at this week that a number of Tory But he emphatically did not the Trades Union Congress this backbenchers are unhappy about declare that Britain had yet made year. But the degree to which they the omission. a decision to sell the disputed can contrive industrial unrest Most of Mr Heath's speech was arms. All he would do was issue among unwilling workers seems devoted to a survey of foreign an appeal to the Commonwealth very restricted. The reasons are affairs, and a reiteration of his to accept Britain's right to take complex and have faced the party view that British interests have so decisions in pursuance of British faithful with a deem dile. - hi h -r`- far not been sufficientl w c y HOTEL_GUID! In the Royal Borough ... KENSINGTON PALACE HOTEL, London W.8 Superior grade, overlooking park near exhibition halls, and shop- ping centre; theatreland. 350 attractive bedrooms each with TV, private bath and shower. Contact C'elrrral Re cc,' t' lions. Telex 262421, London or phone 01-937 8121 LADBROKE GARDENS HOTEL Near Hyde Park and Portobello Market 28/31 fadhroke Gardens, London Wi 1 60 rooms, B & B from 30s daily. J. Muller )Swiss Prop.) Reception Office Telephone 01-727 (1569 The next time you visit London why not stay at the CLARENDON COURTHOTEL Maida Vale, London W.9 Tel. 01-286 8080. Only 5 minutes from Marble Arch. 170 bedrooms Telephone and Radio in all rooms Modern Cocktail Rar. Television Lounges LONDON - Heritage Hotel, 47/8 Leinster Gardens, W2 from 35/-. 01-723 0368. Something had to go right for the Chancellor, Mr Barber, and on Monday it did - twice over. Britain's exporters delivered a thumping and largely unexpected trade surplus. And the indefati- gable clerks at the Department of Trade and Industry (the Board of Trade, as it used to be in Mr Heath's day) did even better, and dug up some ?130 millions worth Of unreoordad -ports. What it all means is that Britain's visible trade has been roughly in balance for the first nine months of this year-possibly a shade better - and is now in surplus. Take in invisible earnings, which averaged ?44 millions a month in the first half of the year, and a wonderful tourist summer, and it means that we could get quite near the famous Jenkins ?600 mil- lions current account surplus again for calendar 1970. (It also means that the Jenkins surplus was understated by up to ?40 millions.) It could hardly have happened on a better day, with the Treasury just starting an uncomfortable ses- sion with the bank examiners from the International Monetary Fund. The IMF officials (perhaps we should call them I-men?) will still nag away about wage-cost infla- tion, about which they had some harsh things to say as early as last spring, and will no doubt join the chorus of unwelcome advice to try an incomes policy: but a sur- plus is a surplus, and our main creditor can't blink that off. Meanwhile, back in the Com- mons, Mr John Davies had the job of announcing the discovery of the missing export documents - a job slightly soured for a Conserva- tive Minister by the fact that the Government has decided to stop this nonsense once for all by insist- ing on more form-filling. It appears that what happened is that after all the fuss last autumn, when Labour was catching up on earlier under-recording (and got accused of cooking the books for its pains), exporters fell back into their old, sloppy ways in a matter of weeks, and we were back with figures understated by about 2 per cent. Luckily, Labour did set up a checking procedure to watch for just such a possibility, but check- ing export forms against cargo manifests is such a labyrinthine business that the facts have only justemerged. If the cause is obscure, the effect is startling. On Monday the Department of Trade and Industry Thin end of the Red line by Harold Jackson Lord Robens's charge that the The party leaders years ago miners had been led out on strike decided that their most effective by Communist agitators may have method to gain power would be to an element of truth-the miners work within the existing political have always been a stronghold framework. They set the party, for the party. But the implication therefore, to build up an electoral that British industry still faces machine so that more Communists the sort of disruption which the could achieve office in local govern- Communists of the 1950s were anent. For the best part of twenty able to achieve could hardly be years they have plugged away at farther from the truth. There is this, and it has been a dishearten- substantial evid ence, not least ing struggle, from within the party itself, that From the heady days of 1945 the f ilinmllnists F.?,..., t..L..._ by Anthony Harris (not for nothing is it known in Whitehall as Dotty) announced an October surplus of ?27 millions, which was good enough to cheer up the markets in foreign ex- change and Government securities (hut not the stock market). It was the first smile for gilts brokers since Mr Barber delivered his package. But if you take the under-record- ing into account, the October surplus was over ?40 millions, which is good even when allow- ances are made for the long echoes of the dock strike (now affecting export figures more than imports). Exports reached over ?760 mil- lions on a seasonally adjusted basis (?749 millions officially re- corded), which is about ?85 mil- lions better than in the second quarter of the year - the last period little touched by the strike. Imports, at ?690 millions, were at most ?50 millions up over the same period, after allowing for a rush of shipments ahead of the dock strike. The October surplus of ?40 millions or a little more is no doubt a bit above trend, but it is hardly a freak (the figures don't add up, for statistical reasons). Even Mr Barber's critics will for- give him if he looks a little more cheerful now. 60,000 members, they have moved increasingly into political impot- ence. In the last general elect QQ_ they put up 5S candidates and lost 43 per cent of the vote they achieved in 1966. It hardly bred confidence in the strategy of the leadership. More and more party members are calling for a reversion to their original power base on the factory floor-only to discover that much of it has atrophied in the concen- Iration on conventional politics- One of the reasons advanced for this decline has been that the r'etatiyely small number of party activists have been unable to cope with all the work piled on them. "Who really listens to the lowly voices soldiering on at the grass roots''" asked one member, Mr Dave Waddington, recently, in the party journal. "Why the continuing low level of party activity, of parti- cipation in struggle? Why so much passivity in our ranks? Why the continual loss of nientbership, the inability to grow?" None of which exactly sustains Lord Robens's apparent conten- tion that once niore our industrial troubles can be put down to King Street. What might worry him, just as it worries the Communists, is the extent to which their former role seems to have been taken over by such militant groups as the International Socialists, the Socialist Labour League, and others of the "ultra-Left." Just how great is their influence is hard to gauge, but there certainly seems to he great appeal in their approach. A Merseyside Communist, Tony McClelland, complained: "The attraction to ultra-Left militancy is constantly with us. Often very fine comrades, young and old, fall for the idea of short cuts, get weary of the disciplined struggle, seek the more adven- turist road and inevitably end up burnt out. The dockers on Mersey- side know to their cost what the ultra-Left road leads to-division, non-trade unionism, brother fight- ing brother." But there are other members who argue that the only way out is to unite with the other Marxist groups against the com- mon enemy, a move that is greeted with some hilarity by the Trotsk- yists and International Socialists. The main battleground is among the young, both in the factories and in universities and colleges. The Plight of the Young Com- munist League reflects the way the struggle is going. Its present membership is 3,452, a drop of 7 per cent on last year, but 40 per cent lower than in 1967. The reality of industrial unrest seems to hinge much more on the general economic situation and the feeling that there is worse to come, rather than on any evident manipulation by tightly-knit groups of politically motivated men. But, if there are such groups it can hardly be claimed that the limping British Communist Party is at the head of them. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Madmen in authority The disastrous debate on public expenditure and taxation and the flood of interviews published, re- interpretations attempted, and intellectual life rafts thrown in the general direction of the Govern- ment's spokesmen, especially the Prime Minister, make depressing reading. If there had remained any sense of superiority in this country over the United States it must surely have vanished. The contrast be- tween the firm resistance of the American voter to the blandish- ments and misrepresentations of Nixon contrasts sharply with our June election. The "rock-throwing radicals" were about on a par in non-existence with the "direct action to reduce prices." In this country, alas, even Professor Townsend fell forthis nonsense. If Keynes's famous dictum that "madmen in authority who hear voices in the air are usually the slaves of some defunct economist" was ever apposite, Mr Heath and his men have thoroughly vin- dicated it. They seem to have taken in all seriousness the non- sense of Herbert Spencer and his present-day devotees. In particu- lar, Mr Reading, his economic adviser responsible for the famous scare statement, has successfully indoctrinated the Tory politicians. We are back to a policy based on the conviction in classical theories that the consumer is sovereign, that free market prices will automatically bring about a continuous balance between supply and demand and harmony of interest. Any monetary menace to this perfection could, according to Keynesian fiscal manipulation, be eliminated by a slight variation of taxation through the sensitivity of the price level to the slightest change in unemployment. The monetary mystery-mongers, on the other hand, believed that a steady but restricted increase in monetary circulation would bring about the same again at the cost of some "natural" unemploy- ment. The financial journalists who blew up this trivial dispute into a serious disagreement about exclusive choices contributed to the confusion of the politicians. The Conservative Ministers opted for monetary mysticism, and for "removing the State- created fetters" from consumer and entrepreneur alike. Thus the Consumers' Council went the way of the Prices and Incomes Board. The former was, according to the dogma, unnecessary; the latter harmful. A menacing twist was given to the inflationary spiral by accelerating the vast increases in top salaries in the Civil Service and the defence forces. This is how the repression of the public sector incomes and prices was initiated. It was followed up by a general "incentive" for the upper bracket incomes, purchased at the cost of a slight, but embittering, net increase in overall purchasing power. The middle incomes group -those between ?1,000 and ?3,000 a year, with families-nevertheless came off worst from the deal, and the top income group best. To round off the inflammatory package, the Conservative Gov- ernment produced a Bill on industrial relations which is cal- culated to embitter unions, and their rank and file, without being effective in checking cumulative wage demands and inflation. The US experience shows this con- clusively. Finally, the Government seems to wish to enforce competition through the Monopolies Commis- sion. Ministers apparently think that they can exert a pressure on prices through deflation, which would make the weaker go to the wall and the stronger refuse wage demands. Hence the gratuitous smashing of the machinery of the IRC which enabled the Labour Government to reap the benefit of bankruptcies in terms of increased efficiency while avoiding the fact. Mr Davies, whose economic "expertise" we suffered from im- mediately after devaluation, seems to wish to breed, at any rate, small lame ducks. His desires might be fulfilled with a vengeance. The support of air- craft, it must be said, was always excluded from the Davies touch. They will spend on Rolls-Royce more than they got back from abolishing the IRC or from the prescription charges. But will they Resting in peace Negro humour is in rather short supply in the United States, but I would like to tell you a story I heard in South Carolina a couple of weeks ago. It's about an African who was resting under a coconut tree when he was addressed by a passing Englishman. "What," asked the Englishman, "are you doing for yourself, just idly sitting there? Why don't you get busy and develop your fields, those mines, and build cities?" "What for?" the African asked. "To establish commerce," the Englishman replied. "Commerce for what?" "So you can make lots of money." "What good is money?" "Money will bring you leisure." "What will I do with leisure?" "Then you can rest." "But why do all that," asked the African, "when I'm resting now?" I'm not sure whether you ought to show this story to Ted Heath, because it would probably upset him. His whole strategy, after all, is based on the belief that, given a little encouragement to make more money, everyone is going to work harder than ever before. It's an attractive theory, but I have always suspected that it is a more effective political slogan than an economic weapon. This is partly because there are a lot of people in Britain who feel like that African. In other, more successful, countries there is a great debate right now about "the quality of life." Success brings dan- gers, and both in America and Japan this year people have told me how envious they are of our more leisurely way of life. It is an aspect rarely stressed by hard- pressed politicians in search of economic solutions. The majority of people work to live. A minority live to work. It's a fact of life which has exasperated many an employer and it's fashion- able to regard it as a vice. But is it? I'm a compulsive worker my- self, and I'm not at all sure. Sixpence off the income tax merely restores the position as it was when the Tories left office in 1964. And how much does it really count in a situation where, as one of Mr Heath's Ministers, told Lord Balogh on the Tory attempt to get back to the Nineteenth Century not chicken-out when it comes to others? The most faithful de- votees of Tory economic politics are about to learn the lesson the hard way or sterling will be com- promised. The tragedy is that all the bom- bastic statements with which we have been inundated are beside the point. Unfortunately they nail the Government even more firmly into wrong policies, attitudes, and measures. Most of our problems have been caused by the profound change all over the world in the structure of industry. The increase in power of vast firms over their markets, combined with strong trade unions, has destroyed such weak balancing mechanism (mainly monetary) as the econ- omic system possessed in the hey- day of Victorian prosperity. Even then it worked at the cost of crises, unemployment, and misery which would not now be politically acceptable. Since 1945, however, we have had no year in which wages and domestic prices have not increased. So long as this increase was limited and did not give rise to cumulatively rising wage and in- come demands, this was tolerable. But it was only a question of time before inflation would become super-inflation, feeding upon itself. Industry, which could shift the burden of the increase in wages through increased prices on to the consumer, had everything to lose by strikes and nothing to gain by resisting claims. A floating rate for the pound, or repeated devaluation, both advocated by mechanistic economists, would only hasten the catastrophe. Un- fortunately, economists as well as trade union leaders firmly resist this obvious analysis of our prob- lem. It would rob the former of their status as scientists. It would circumscribe the power of the latter. The Labour Government, much to its credit, realised that a double pronged attack was necessary on this basic problem. It had to accelerate industrial restructuring to increase the rate at which productivity rose; and it had to restrain income demands. It failed because prices and in- comes policy was not closely and visibly linked to measures of general social advance, so as to obtain consensus. In the end, and as a result of the unpopularity of incomes policy, it switched its attack on the hardly meaningul legal regulation of the problem of strikes. The Tories followed this ignis fatuus. They changed from out- right investment grants to tax allowances, which had been shown by Professor Neild to be in- effectual, a conclusion which has just been reaffirmed, by, of all people, a survey commissioned by the Institute of Directors. Finally, they pledged them- selves to non-intervention in wage disputes not only in the dominant private sector but even in the case of dustmen. They are making sure of leap-frogging by dividing their responsibilities for income de- termination in the most sensitive areas (doctors, for instance). A general attack on the non- means-tested Welfare State rounded off the first unveiling of a comprehensive policy package. The response was much as it could have been expected by any- body not besotted by abstract imaginings. The inflation took a dangerously accelerated turn. Had Labour been returned to office in June its strategy would have been clear. It was essential to win it breathing space. A price stop, combined with easier money to firms hit by it, and an amicable agreement with the unions on a "norm" for wage increases would at last have solved our problem. In spite of the subsequent out- bursts of Messrs Scanlon and .Jones, I believe that this might have been possible. The Conservatives have no chance to win consensus with their present policies. I believe that their "semi-Maudling" strategy has collapsed, because of timidity, before it started expansion through "greater incentives." We are back at the choice of severe deflation, the first consequence of which they are already shying away from. Devaluation under present conditions will solve nothing. It would aggravate the long-run problem. In both cases union reaction is bound to be fierce-and here is the danger. If Heath cannot stop the unions Mr Powell might. by William Davis Parliament this week, another threepence was knocked off the value of the pound in our pockets between the June general election and mid-September? I don't blame the Tories for adopting the "incentives" slogan back in 1964. It appeals to human greed, and it fits in with Tory philosophy. I am not just saying this because I recognise the appeal of leisure. There is more to it than that. I am saying it also because there is no evidence, either here or in America, that tax cuts alone lead to a really significant change in attitude to- wards work. They stimulate spend- ing, but do not necessarily stimu- late effort. One economic research organisa- tion found that, on the contrary, really ambitious people work harder under high taxation. They are determined to get the things they want, and if it takes more effort to acquire the necessary spending money they will do their best. Experience also shows that, as fat' as industry is concerned, the general economic outlook and the availability of credit can be at least as important as tax con- siderations. Mr Heath has already tightened the credit squeeze. If he now pushes the country into a serious recession in order to deal with wage inflation, as some people ad- vise him to do, he may find his incentives argument even more seriously weakened. Management experts will tell you that, in the case of individuals, "job satisfaction" is often more important than marginal differ- ences in financial rewards. Pres- tige, power, security, honours - all these are far more potent in- fluences than Mr Heath seems prepared to acknowledge. If it were not so, many of our leading industrialist would either retire, or move to another country. I am glad the Government has announced an early cut in personal taxation. It was, I know, Roy Jenkins's dearest wish to be able to do the same sometime during the seventies. But I think Mr Heath is very wrong to present it as some sort of miracle cure. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 CHRISTMAS 1970 Our specialised gift servi,.: is at your disposal to send attractive and welcome packs of fine quality foods to friends and relations in the United Kingdom. We will gladly send you the air mail edition of our full price list-the following are just a few of our most popular selections: CHRISTMAS SELECTION "A" 3 lb tin Whole English Duck in Orange Sauce, 1 lb tin Skinless and defatted Prague Ham, 13 oz tin Boeuf Strogonoff, 13 oz tin Turkey with Mushrooms, 13/4 oz jar Caviar style Lumpfish Roe, 14 oz tin Old English Mince Pie, 21/2 oz tin Sliced Smoked Salmon, 41/2 oz tin Pate de Foie, 15 oz tin Halved White Peaches in Syrup, 12 oz tin Aspara- gus Spears, 12 oz jar Swiss Black Cherry Jam, 1 lb Export quality Christmas Pudding. f5.15.0 delivered in UK CHRISTMAS SELECTION 3 lb 2 oz tin Whole Stuffed English Chicken, 1 lb tin Skinless and defatted Prague Ham, 13 oz tin Turkey with Mushrooms, 12 oz tin Asparagus Spears, 14 oz tin Old English Mince Pie, 41/2 oz tin Pate de Foie, 1 lb 3 oz tin Strawberries in Syrup, 1 lb Export quality Christ- mas Pudding. ?3.15.0 delivered in UK 12 oz tin Lamb's Tongues, 15 oz tin Scotch Shortbread, 11 oz tin Mandarin Oranges, 1 lb Tea, 12 oz jar Swiss Black Cherry Jam, 15 oz tin Halved White Peaches in Syrup, 1 lb Export quality Christmas Pudding. ?2.5.0 delivered in UK CONNOISSEUR'S GAME PACK 3 lb tin Whole Pheasant in Bur- gundy jelly, 3 lb tin Whole Guinea Fowl in Red Wine Sauce, 13 oz tin Game Pie Filling, 1 lb 3 oz tin Whole Grouse in Port Wine Sauce, 15 oz tin Whole Pigeon in Red Wine Sauce, 2 x 13 oz tins Venison in Burgundy Sauce, 2 x 13 oz tins Jugged Hare, 2 x 7 . ,. . . - Quail stuffed with Pate de Foie in Sherry Sauce, 15 oz tin Elizabethan style Rich Game Soup. ?11 .0.0 delivered in UK FINE FOOD FAMILY PACK A wonderful selection which apart from its seasonal contents provides a welcome addition to any store cupboard. 3 lb 10 oz tin Whole Chicken, 1 lb tin Skinless and defatted Ham, 1 lb tin Chopped Ham and Pork, 12 oz tin Pork Luncheon Meat, 8 oz tin Finest Ox Tongue, 4 oz tin Frank- furter Sausages, 1 lb tin Steak and Kidney Pie, 2'/4 oz tin Chopped Chicken, 41/2 oz tin Sardines, 101/2 oz tin Beetroot, 11 oz jar Sweet Pickles, 15' oz tin Mushroom Soup, 15% oz tin Ox Tail Soup, 3 oz packet Sage and Onion Stuffing, 3 oz box Cheese Portions, 8 oz box Dairy Milk Chocolates, 2 lb tin Assorted Biscuits, 12 oz tin Short- bread, 1112 lb tin Rich Fruit Cake, 12 oz jar Mincemeat, 12 oz jar Blackcurrant Jam, 1 lb jar Marma- lade, 7 oz packet Lemon Tops, 4 oz tin Salted Peanuts, 8 ozs Finest Tea, 2 x 41/2 oz Raspberry and Lemon Jellies, 151/2 oz tin Rice Pudding, 151/2 oz tin Fruit Cocktail, 151/2 oz tin Halved Pears, 151;2 oz tin Sliced Peaches, 151/2 oz tin Apricot Halves, 151/2 oz tin Pine- apple Pieces, 2 x 4 oz tins Cream, 2 x 1 lb Christmas Puddings. ?9.0.0 delivered in UK We guarantee complete satisfaction. Payment may be made in any freely negotiably currency by all the usual methods To avoid disappointment, please let us have your orders as early as possible stating delivery date required of k, ' rcester Ltd Dept WG O, hard Street WorcesterWR53DP UK Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 What makes Sun' burn? Peter Fiddick ponders the success of a tabloid It is not usual for newspapers to take much public notice of each other. Such admission of other sheets' existence as does take place these days is usually con- fined to academic professional discussions, or the occasional more public jeremiads of some proprietor or other apparently bent on talking his rivals out of business. Rest assured, therefore, that if we are about to break the con- vention of silence, we shall also ignore the precedents of gloom. This week saw the first birthday of Mr Rupert Murdoch's "Sun" and we are here to wish it a happy one. YIPPEE! THEY'VE GOT THE BOOT Guardian Weekly November211970 Race cltallenge on ?10 passages by Charles Stokes The Race Relations Board has officially asked the Australian Government to reconsider its policy of refusing ?10 assisted passages to people from Britain who are of non-European origin. It has also specifically asked for an assisted passage for Mr Jan Augustine Allen, aged 36, his French-born wife, and their three young children. Mr Allen is Jamaican-born although a British citizen. The board's request was passed to the Australian High Commis- sioner in London, Sir Alexander Downer by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. It is being discussed by the Australian Minis- ter for Immigration, Mr Philip Lynch, who will prepare a report for his Prime Minister, Mr John Gorton, and the Federal Cabinet. Neither the board nor Australia House would comment this week. An Australia House official said: "This is a policy matter which has to be decided in Canberra. " Australian immigration depart- ment sources in Canberra regard the board's challenge as being likely to open up a crucial political controversy in Australia. They said the whole question had stem- med from press reports in July which revealed that Australia was discriminating because of colour. Mr Jan Allen and his family later complained to the "Observer" that they had been refused assisted passages because he was black. But Australia House still insists that Mr Allen only applied for permission to enter Australia. In spite of his colour, he was given permission because he was a computer engineer, and his special skill was needed. But Australia has insisted that she did not at the same time have to give them assisted passages. A Melbourne lawyer, Mr David Waxman, has Opened a fund to pay for the Allen's fares. The board and its legal advisers are believed to have based their action on Section 2 of the Race Relations Act, which says it is illegal to discriminate in goods, facilities, and services. The discrimination is more relevant to the British Govern- ment than might at first be ap- parent, because it pays ?150,000 a year towards the assisted as- sage scheme. Pressure coul we be put on the Government not to renew this agreement when it expires in 1972 on the grounds that Australia is scorning a British Act of Parliament. Judging from his most recent statements, Mr Gorton is unlikely to favour much further relaxation of the White Australia policy. In Sydney last month he said it would be "immoral" to create racial ten- sions in Australia, which would follow any sizeable influx of coloured immigrants. "But there is a difficult moral problem on which, in the fullness of time, it will be for those who are now Young Liberals, and young Australians generally, to decide. As for me, I make it clear that I am not going to change our present liberalised policy in any way. " greeted with considerable amaze- smile politely, smell fish, and pass ment at the time. But when you on to the highly pictorial topless know the dip a popular news- dancers on Page 3. Older organ- paper's circulation takes almost isations have better screening automatically every autumn (when systems. The "Sun" has not come racing switches from the Flat to out in favour of legislation. the less attractive "sticks") you But though the intricacies of can find a sort of logic in making a politics and the press obsess some big noise in that area. (mostly politicians), their rele- Then, of course, there is politics. vance in the context of the reader- The general election, as ever, ship changes which the past year polarised political attitudes in the has seen must be minimal. The press. Both the popular broad- fact of the election makes this sheets, "Express" and "Mail," clear: if Right-wing newspapers took off sharply to the Right. Of lose readers while a massive swing the tabloids, the "Sketch" followed in the country is putting back a them. The "Mirror" had tempered Conservative Government, politics its traditional Labourite stance can scarcely be a factor. And this by not following the art 's it h p y sw c isilht h h precsey waasappened. ceIt certainly has something ooo back to opposing strike legislation. Audited circulation figures are The "Sun," however, seems to available only up to June, and over last year from the ailing be getting more thoroughly radical current figures are held very close successor to the "Herald" (which as time goes on. This is not just in to the chest, so one can only guess some will doubtless remember its leaders but also in extended at the present situation. The feel- more or less fondly) was no more coverage of subj i e s Th h t is weeke new poverty and council housing "Sun" is heading for 1.8 millions. "Hands off the Health Service." Back in the summer, before a Its views are often expressed distribution dispute wreaked havoc with a panache (not to say vul- with all trends, the optimists of garity) which the others have Bouverie street had been hoping over the years drifted away from. to hit the two million for their It can lead them to excesses like birthday treat. Now they are talk- last Saturday's full-front-page ing about Christmas. raspberry to Jerry Rubin, cele- No one in his right mind would brating that hate-figure's depar- pretend to have a tidy explana- ture under the screaming headline, tion for the "Sun's" success, inches high: "Yippee! They've got though a lot of people try. People the boot," followed by the "The buy newspapers for a host of Sun says: Good riddance." But different reasons, from horse rac- less fashionable subjects get simi- ing to murder, and when you are lar treatment once the paper dealing with the sort of numbers decides what to say. involved in the mass circulation The sociology of newspapers, field all you can do is to see however, is a race without winners. whether you are winning or losing Any journalist knows how particu- and guess why. lar subjects or treatments get Take sex. There are those who into a newspaper on totally non- will tell you - and did so with ideological grounds - such as much hollering of "yellow press" who happened to be in the office when the "Sun" started - that the the night someone got the idea, or secret of its success was a solid who wins the fight in the daily step back to the sort of sexsation- conference, or whether a featured alism exploited by (conveniently) writer has, for once, a particular the "News of the World," its new bee in his bonnet. It is my impres- parent. Well, it's certainly sexy. sion that such vagaries are more October brought a week-long likely to have a significant effect serialisation of one lurid sex- on a tabloid newspaper simply be- manual - "The Sensuous Woman" cause there are fewer id t q on o eas o costs against revenue - bowdlerised as only a right- the page; once the idea goes in, against advertising rates might minded newspaper knows how. the big-bang theory takes over. take on a very different look. Now birthday week offers "The At the extreme, this gives rise Certainly the men at IPC will be Modern Mating Game," an Ameri- to happenings like the curious watching this more closely than can opus on how to take the guess- case of October 6, when the the statement from their old chair- work out of pick-ups, decorated by Government's anti-strike Bill was man, Mr Cecil King, with which a hairy tummied lad and equally published. "Sun" readers in the their rivals are said to be ready nude bird face to face. Hebrides might have read a lead- to regale us: to the effect that the All very racy, of course, but - ing article on Page 2 opposing the "Sun" is being run the way Mr even with nipples - is it really legislation. Readers of later King would have run the "Mirror." worth a million readers? The editions, having read the main But after all, what sort of news- answer is certainly more com- story on Page 4, found them- paper is this compendium of birds, plicated and equally certainly not selves directed to Page 2 to find politics, concern, frivolity, sex- something to take a high moral what "The Sun Says." But what serials, and sport? One year old, tone about. The full answer in- they found there was a (totally it is not the newspaper it was six eludes the success of a paper's laudable) plea to readers to help months ago, nor yet the one it will tipsters relative to the rest, the find over-80s entitled to pensions be in six months' time. For journal- amount of space it devotes to and get them registered. ists, publishers, readers, television, how much women like it, Senior executives at the "Sun" alike, it has - merely by epundits, xisting and whether people like its sports stoutly deny that the change was - upset a few theories of what writers. The "Sun" chose to open made because "Someone High you can do, what you cannot do, new life with a curious sort of Up" disliked the first version's and what works. Its second birth- racing "scoop" about doping tak- sentiments. Outsiders, and Mr day could be celebrated in a very ing the front page, a decision Murdoch's lowlier employees, changed world. Pro-Market MP wants referendum by our own reporter The case for a referendum on Britain's entry into the Common Market is immensely powerful, if not overwhelming, Mr Anthony Wedgwood Benn stated in a letter to his constituents released at the weekend. "If people are not to participate in this decision, no one will ever take participation seri- ously again," he writes. Mr Wedgwood Bonn is the first leading politician from either major party to espouse firmly the idea of a referendum on Common Market entry. He is also the first prominent pro-marketeer to favour a referendum, although anti- marketeers in both parties want a referendum because they believe it would go against entry. "What is being created," Mr Wedgwood Benn writes, "is not just a Customs union, but a politi- cal unit. Slowly but surely the pressures are building up to create a federal political structure. "The political implications of entry have been played down and anyone who asks questions about it is always told that it would have to be decided later and Britain would by then, be a member of the Community, and would have a say in the decision. "But this really is to fudge the issue. It is inconceivable that Britain with its strong parliament- ary tradition would allow a bureau- cratic commission in Brussels to reach central decisions about economic policy without being sub- ject to broad democratic control by an elected Assembly. Certainly no Socialist could accept anything less." But the "key question," he says, is: How are we to decide whether we want to join? "Up to now it Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 ever, seems to be that the million new readers for the new "Sun" can be accounted for quite closely by corresponding losses in the four other popular newspapers: three of them Right wing. If you take it that the "Mirror" - with nearly five million readers a year ago - had most fat to lose in those who bought it just because they didn't much fancy the alternatives, then they could have lost any- thing up to half the "Sun's" gain. The other three share the rest. So where does popular publish- ing stand one year after the dawn? At a crossroads. I said this birth- day greeting would eschew gloom, but it must only be stating the obvious to point out that if the "Sketch" is slipping towards 750,000 its proprietors must be less happy than ever before, especially if its sister, the "Mail,'; has been trimmed too. The "Mirror" is perhaps in a different position from the others through very weight of numbers, though if the "Sun" ever got itself above two million and the "Mirror" below four million the crucial e uati f has been assumed that, like every other treaty, the decision would be after a parliamentary vote. But this is not the same as any other treaty. It is an irreversible decision which would transfer certain sovereign powers now exercised by the British Parliament to the EEC. Parliament would then be obliged to carry through those changes in its law that were necessary to implement Community policy and the Courts would have to uphold and enforce Community law in Britain. Thus a Government that signed the Treaty of Rome would be binding on all succeeding Parlia- ments for all time and these de- cisions could not be changed even if that Government was later de- feated in a general election." He argues that a general election fought on British entry would "not be a good way of reaching such an important decision." If both parties were in favour, there would be no choice. If one was opposed, voting would be distorted by party loyalties. A bill to allow a referendum on the Common Market could easily be introduced and passed in Parliament, he says. Because of the unique nature of the Common Market issue, it would not lead, as is sometimes argued, to a referen- dum on all kinds of other, issues. "If Britain really is to play a useful part in Europe, and to ac- cept the inevitably difficult process of transition, it must have decided consciously that it wants to enter. Nothing would be more likely to lead to trouble than the feeling that we had been led into Europe by leaders who didn't trust the public to make their views known on it." Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 by DENNIS JOHNSON Time for a change When a friend of mine read at the weekend that the Govern- merit was proposing to introduce "open ended" drinking hours, so that we can behave like real members of the Common Market, he reacted instead like the true son of a feather-bedding Welfare State. "That's no good," he said, with a hint of anxiety, "we shan't know when to go home." Britain still is not. a nation of sophisticated, cultured, and care- free drinkers. Sit your average clock-watching British tourist at a table outside a French bar late at night and he will be a study in discomfort, worrying about the number of francs he will have to spend on another drink to enjoy the "open ended" system, worrying about whether he will be locked out of his pension. Worrying about his delicious sense of wittiness at boozing publicly and in full view of the children as the clock nears mid- night, and worrying, deep down, whether much more of this would turn him into a hopeless al- coholic. We are the prisoners of our long standing Puritanism, and in spite of our protests about stop-watch landlords and officious policemen, we rest secure in our protective framework of restric- tions, testing them now and again to make sure they will prop us up. Do we want to be a nation of "civilised drinkers?" The British Tourist Association, which is said to he behind the Govern- ment's trove, has no do iiht that Office. And indeed the whole Government sees reform, includ- ing a much freer granting of drinks licences to shops, cafes, and restaurants, as the best way to promote competition in the brewing industry and the licence trade. As one Cabinet Minister puts it privately, the reforms will be 'comprehensive and tough' and will prove popular with the public." It is much too early to assess who will be for and who against. Certainly, the Council on Alcohol- ism, which estimates that Britain What prompted Her Majesty's stern and Tory Government to bail out Rolls-Royce? Well, of course, it would have been a bit like pawn- ing the crown jewels to let Rolls go bankrupt. And, of course, the company is still a great and potential dollar earner. But the word in the upper reaches of West- minster is that the decision was neither so sentimental nor so vague. As much as anything, it seems, "cancellation clauses" tipped the balance. Rolls-Royce was con- tracted to sell engines at a fixed price for the American airbus planned by Lockheed. If Rolls had been allowed to fold, it would have cost the balance of payments millions of dollars in compensation. But that is only half the story. Lockheed is in as shaky a state as dear old Rolls. Washington is faced with the same kind of dilemma as Whitehall. Should the stern and Republican American Administration bail out Lockheed? Probably yes, but maybe not. If not, there will, of course, be a little matter of cancellation clauses with may be losing ?300 millions a year because of the effects of drink on health, production, and the Welfare State, cannot be expected to enthuse. Nor, it seems, can the licence trade, which complains angrily about the amount of taxation which reduces its profit and argues that there is not enough money in pubs for unrestricted opening and a leisurely Continental habit of sitting around with a glass of cheap wine. Even the brewers, who have traditionally been regarded as the Conservative Party's private Mafia, must be now beginning to wonder whether their loyalty has been long mis- placed. Though the Anglicans must he assumed to be doubtful until they declare themselves, the non-conformist churches can safely be placed among the enemies of a free-drinking society. All these, however, are parties with a vested interest in restric- tions of one kind or another. What manner of man is the "con- sumer," whose children are apparently to be allowed to watch him at his tipple? Al- though the BTA clearly has in mind the frustrating effect of licencing hours on foreign visi- tors, it is as well for the Govern- ment to understand the funda- mental importance for a native of what it proposes to do. Drink- ing in Britain, though it evolves in style, conforms to a universal pattern which is itself part of a long-ostahlishod way of life. To is nee y a bad thing. There is, for example, good reason to believe that city gents linger in the pub so long at lunchtime only because they know their freedom is within official limits. Many an extra pint is bought at ten minutes to three because it is bound to be the last, and no one bears the responsibility of cutting the ses- sion short. When the Glasgow pubs used to close at 9.30pm they were invariably full to the last second, not of people engrossed in compelling con- versation but of drinkers swallow- ing as much as they could in the Rolls-Royce. No one is saying how many dollars would flow eastwards across the Atlantic, but the engine contract could be worth as much as ?20 millions. Destinations Exit Des Wilson, the Ralph Nader of Britain. The retiring director of Shelter, the campaign for the homeless, has abandoned his idea for a consumers' defence corps that would have filled part of the gap left by the lamented Consumer Council (doubly lamented by Des, who was supposed to run the coun- cil from the end of January). Wilson says he could have raised the ?30,000 a year he wanted to get a small unit off the ground, but there would have been too many strings attached. "The cash would have had to come from business and industry, but you can't protect the consumer from business and industry using their own money." Enter, presumably then, Des Wilson, campaigning journalist and broadcaster. Wilson says he is not looking for another job in the comforting knowledge that, late as it was, it was only as late as the law would allow. Even when the hours were extended, there was always the final, reassuring call of "time" the flashing of lights, the sudden clearing of empties and the sight of a fatherly, scar - faced barman standing meanfully at the street door like the sentinel of an ordered society. But the Government is not merely asking the people to throw away their crutches. Open ended drinking could alter the structure of the British weekend. For count- less fathers the outline is sharply enough defined to remove the need for decision - Saturday: shopping with wife: pub; lunch; football: pub: tea; pub. Sunday: reading papers; washing car; pub; lunch: snoozing or gardening: tea; pub. For their families, the arrange- ment has the advantage of at least regularity. In future, with licensing hours removed, not only will every activity be the subject of a conscious decision, but wives may take a fancy to a glass of Scotch in The Grapes at four o'clock in the afternoon, children to playing on the newly installed rocking horse in the tap room, fathers to dropping in for a quickie mid-morning instead of buying the potatoes, thus caus- ing the entire family to miss its lunch and join him for an expen- sive round in the pub's new family room at ease witn armK. f''or thousan s of people, a pub is still a faintly naughty place, and the beer tastes better for being drunk within its ambient. Pubs were lighted windows on street corners, the last refuges for those who found the industrial towns of the 19th century too intolerable. They were sinful places in the eyes of Liberal England, the haunts of tipsters and wastrels, and the term "public house" continues to have a pejorative ring. We are not yet family drinkers except at our worldliest levels. Our pubs are necessarily con- lincu places, defences against 01.. ii ate. Unly for a few weeks in the summer can we spill out of a country pub and sit with the children in the sun- shine. The result is that the brewers have built even bigger, brassier, and more seductive concrete enclosures with bigger and more profitable "drinking areas," filled with tables just big enough for glasses. At weekends, particularly in the country pubs where families might be expec- ted to go, the crowds are so great that a child would be trampled under foot. Yet some- one had to make us grow up. To be trusted not to drink from morn- ing until night, starve our fami- lies, and ruin our health, that will be some progress; to be able to take the kids into a comfortable bar or restaurant for a sandwich instead of rushing out to them with trays full of Coke. Coming home from the West country in the summer, I asked a landlord if it would be possible for my wife and I to take the children into a "back room." He said it would, and we were escorted in like fugitives, sat behind a closed door, served swiftly with sandwiches, and ushered out again. Any law which removes absurdities of that kind must be good, whether the English pub is ever the same again or not. Why Rolls was spared charity game. Nor is he likely to launch himself into another branch of community action. If he'd wanted that, he could have stayed with Shelter. Which leaves the offers he's known to have had from press and television. Welcome even farther aboard. Hang up Another poser for Edward Heath, man of culture, On November 27, Christie's is selling a master- piece by Velasquez, a portrait of his part-Moorish assistant, Juan De Pareja, painted in 1649. Ex- perts expect it to make the highest sum ever paid for a painting at auction. The record stands at ?821,400 paid in 1961 for Rem- brandt's "Aristotle contemplating the Bust of Homer." The Velasquez has been in Britain since at least 1801, when Christie's sold it for 39 guineas. It is on the list of works of art for which an export licence will be refused. But in the contemplated price range, who can bid? Who but Americans? It looks as if the Treasury will have to step in. But what of HMG's tightened purse strings, not to say stern individual- ism and market forces? Marking time Last week saw the publication of Report No 158 from the Prices and Incomes Board - the fifth in a series of reports on pay in the armed forces. A relatively in- nocuous document, about the separation allowance for troops away from their spouses. But where is PIB Report No 157, the fourth in the series on Services' pay? On the desks of several Ministers, where it has been lying since October 15 - three weeks, that is, before the fifth report was submitted to the Government. It was scheduled for publication last month but wasn't. Why not? Because the fourth report recommends a 30 per cent pay increase for senior officers: bumping-up a Field-Marshal from around ?10,500 to ?14,000, and a General from ?9,500 to ?12,500. Not the right time of year to be putting out such inflationary and inflammatory material. Vapour trails Into Europe - at a price. Last week the world's airlines an- nounced increases in transatlantic fares, but said they would leave European and other increases until later this month when there is an- other gathering of one of the world's most powerful employers' organisations, the International Air Transport Association. Proper enough, but check the small print. In fact, lots of Euro- pean fares were quietly inflated on November 1. Among them fares from Britain to Belgium, Holland, Germany, France, and Ireland - all up by 71/2 per cent. There has been no public announcement, and the airlines will not seek the neces- sary Government permission until next week's IATA meeting in Geneva, which will endorse these and other increases. Meanwhile, the passenger pays. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 TERRY COLEMAN talks to Britain's next Ambassador to Washington Guardian Weekly November 21 1970 Cromer's credit cards George Rowland Stanley Baring, third Earl of Cromer, who has just been appointed the next Brit- ish Ambassador to Washington, will not he the first of his family to be sent to America to act diplo- matically. Alexander Baring, his great grandfather's brother, went to Washington in 1842 to nego- tiate the boundary between the United States and Canada, and is said to have "spread a social charm over Washington, and filled everybody with friendly feel- ings towards England." Lord Cromer has lots of aristo- cratic connections, English and American. One grandfather was Consul-General of Egypt, and the other Viceroy of India. His father was Lord Chamberlain, and de- clined the office of Governor- General of Canada. Lord Cromer is chairman of Baring Bros, mer- chant bankers in the City of London since the eighteenth cen- tury, and also of the English side of IBM. His own godfather was George V; the godfather of one of his sons was J. P. Morgan II. As a page of honour, he handed the princesses Elizabeth and Margaret their coronets at the Coronation of 1937. Later, from 1961 to 1966, he was Governor of the Bank of England, where he sat not at a desk but at an Adam table, and was said by many to have saved the pound, and by Mr Wilson to have preached him "familiar sermons" about inflation. Lord Cromer is very amiable, and amenable to questions. Doesn't he think it hard on the professional diplomats that he is the second consecutive outsider to be given Washington? He says that when he was approached, two or three weeks ago, that was the first question he asked him- self. He decided it was by no means untoward. An old diplomat, long retired, whom he met at a Chatham House dinner told him that in his day as many as five of the top posts were held by out- siders. Of course, said Lord Cromer, not being in the service he did not know who might have expected Washington. How long had he known Mr Heath?-Fifteen years, but he did not remember the first meeting as any great event. Did he know Mr Nixon?-Yes, but he did not want to claim any- thing like a Harlech-Kennedy re- lationship. At what age did he first realise that he was a Baring? When he came to work at the Bank at the age of 20, in the postal depart- ment. But surely he must have real- ised before then that he was not as other little boys were? Ile does not seem to have done: he said his was not a clannish family and he did not grow up among masses of little Baring cousins. But he was, among other things, a page to George V and Queen Mary? Yes; he remembers stand- ing round at State occasions. His mother wrote in her memoirs that the night before the 1937 Coronation he had nightmares that his ceremonial coat, which the tailors had still not delivered would turn up in the wrong colours, and not in the proper scarlet and gold. Was this true?-"I've read that too," he said. After Eton, Trinity College, Cambridge, and a year as a well- qualified post boy at Baring's, the war came and he went into the Guards. He joined the training battalion at Windsor, and retnem- bers they did sword drill every morning on the cricket pitch. He remembers that orders said "Officers who do not have swords will borrow there." He had one. He was at Normandy as a staff officer, and was mentioned in dis- patches, not, he says, for gallantry but for administrative work, and was a lieutenant-colonel at 27. After the war he went to These superbly wrought English pewter goblets are hand made in Sheffieldto a traditional Georgian design. Their exquisite outlines have restfulness and simplicity that combine to grace any table- setting whether traditional or contemporary. Pewter with its unique lustre enhances the pleasures of fine wines, draws out the full flavour of ales and beers. "Once the plate of Kings" pewter remains today a possession still very much to be prized. Georgian Goblets LARGE: Set of six Goblets: ? 15.6.8 $36.50 Pair of Goblets: .?5.5.0 $12.50 Single Goblet: ?2.14.7 $6.50 MEDIUM: Set of six Goblets: ? 14.1.5 $33.50 Pair of Goblets: ?4.16.0 $11.50 Single Goblet: ?2.10.5 $6.00 SMALL: Set of six Goblets: ?12.1.7 $28.75 Pair of Goblets: ?4.4.0 $10.00 Single Goblet: ?2.4.2 $5.25 1'l-ac add mailing :old packing charges as lollutss: .Surface :Mail 1 it Po7ait $1.75 $1.75 14/10 14/10 $1.75 $3.50 14/ 10 ?19 7 . six Goblets $2.50 $5,00 ?1.1.0 ?3.7.5 Capacity: Height: Weight: LARGE 10 fluid oz 6S inches 8% o] MEDIUM 7fluidoz 5V2 inches 5w SMALL 3fluidoz 4inches 3%oz Aquinas Locke & Company Leighton Buzzard. Bads ENGLAND. Tel Leighton Buzzard 2027 America for a year, and then re- meab&Ad how did he dlrit? P, turned to Baring's to become telephoning foreign bankers` managing director. He was 29. "More or less. The reserves In 1953 he inherited the earl- were just going to run out. My job dom and three years later, at the was to deal with the situation. I time of Suez, was making, accord- literally got on the. telephone to hog to the parliamentary reports, all the other leading central banks, what appeared to be a patriotic having worked out on an envelope speech to the House of Lords, before how much we needed, to First Lord Birdwood spoke, in the ask if they would give us credit." uniform of a lieutenant-colonel of How much for? - "?3,000 Probyn's Horse; and then the millions. In the course of one young Lord Cromer, in the uni- rather hair- raisi ng a fternoo it. " form of a lieutenant-colonel of the A good thing the telephones Grenadier Guards, spoke of worked fcr once?-"We had the Nasser's hollow intent and said, most excellent service from the with apparent indignation, that GPO. By seven in the evening I within almost living memory was able to tell the Prince Minister Britain had saved Egypt from we had these promises. He bankruptcy. couldn't have known exactly what Why the uniform? Lord Cromer wasgoingon." explained that in the autumn, So it was fair to say he did save when the world was all calm and the pound?-"It was saved at that peace, Lord Salisbury asked hint, nu nlent. There would have been as a young back bench peer, to awurrd wruew[lapsa. second the reply to the Queen's After he re'ired in 1966, tvhv Speech. was he criticised for going back The custom was, in those days, into commercial life? He thinks that if you had a uniform you this was because in recent years jolly well put it on, so he went to governors have not gone back. the reserve stores of his regiment "I couldn't, at the age of 47, say and borrowed one. Between the I was going to retire. I couldn't time of his being asked and the affordto." time of the speech, the whole Suez Oh, but surey, he was a rich crisis blew up, and he wondered man? whether he ought to speak, since He shook hishead, very sadly. the name had had inherited had But he ww a Baring. On his been closely connected with mother's sidehe was a Minto (the Egypt. (The first Lord Cromer had Viceroy side) : and he had married been Consul General.) That was a Harmswortf. the onlysignificance of the uniform. Lord Cromer- patiently explained But he had spoken, and in favour that the wonderful wealth of the of the invasion?-"The thing Barings was not . His grand- having happened, certainly I father had been the eighth of ten supportedit." children, although he had happily In 1961 Lord Cromer was made been given a grant by Parliament Governor of the Bank of England. on his retirement. Lord Cromer It was a Macmillan appointment. could not remember what that Macmillan had been known to grant was. As for the Mintos, appoint relations. So the droll Mr daughters nevergotanything. Woodrow Wyatt got up in the But, putting everything else Commons, said that "Debrett" re- apart, he had been reported in vealed only the most tenuous con- the past few yeas as having sold nection between Cromer and Mac- a house in Ken for .?35,000, and millan (something to do with the bought a villa in Provence for second husband of an aunt by "less than ?42,:00" so he could marriage), and by implication in- not be on the breai line? quired what other reason there Lord Cromer hquired how much could be for the appointment- The Mr Callaghan paid for his farm, droll Mr Macmillan said: "He is a and suggested fiat it must have young man, which is said to be not cost 4:35,000 at least. "Obviously," a bad thing." he said, "I'm rat going to com- Cromer was 42 and the plain on this score, but it is a fact youngest governor for about 200 of life: I've knovn since childhood years. He had family connections that I would alvays have to work there, though. Sit* Francis Baring, his great great grandfather and the founder of Baring Bros, wrote a pamphlet in 1797 applauding the establishment of the Bank of England and saying paper currency was as good as gold. Jeremy Bentham, in his copy, now in the British Museum, wrote in the margin "Nonsense," "Con- fused," and, if I can read his writing, "Bach." As governor, Lord Cromer was to be pretty nearly as outspoken as Bentham, but first he saved the pound. Now, did he? What did it earth man, who seems Ito see no great virtue in aristocracy as such, and no ideas about having been destined for high office or any- thing. But I Jid ask him about his christening. He said lie did not I'emenijer it. I said his mother, it her memoirs, hac written tha. her child, "as the Cross was made on his brow, raised higher and higher a little upstretched hznd." Ile said: "My mother was very poetic. I have not inherited ttat." Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Danger-but not yet Doomsday Anthony Tucker on pollution In spite of years of speculation about potential worldwide dangers through changes wrought by recent technologies, no pro- gramme of investigation and assessment yet exists. But during the late summer about 100 scien- tists and other professionals met for a month at Williamstown, Massachusetts, to consider critical environmental problems. The findings, a true reflection of current knowledge, ring no doomsday bells but point to real dangers. They also provide a platform for realistic national and international programmes of mon- itoring and control. The full text of the discussions has now been published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Those who, at one time or another, have speculated that the burning of fossil fuels will lead to a disastrous depletion of oxy- gen on our abused planet can relax. If all the fuel resources of the globe were to go up in smoke, the oxygen content of the our, would remain almost unchanged, falling only from 20.946 per cent to around 20.11 per cent. So say the Williamstown college of experts and, in the absence of a more authoritative source, it seems safe to breath easily. Yet that is about the only crumb of comfort these deliberations have to offer. On carbon dioxide, heavy not::! rnnl::imnation. pesticides and-in particular-on the effects of supersonic transport, the present level of knowledge is inadequate for prediction. The disturbing truth is that man does not know what he is doing. Since SSTs are already with us, the Williamstown discussions of their probable effects are the most urgent. Disturbances of the upper levels of the atmosphere leave their imprint for years, and the question being asked is whether it is possible to predict the effects of the large disturbances SSTs will certainly produce at stratospheric levels. The problem centres on engine emissions and, since no definite measurements of SST engine emissions have been made on either side of the Atlantic, it is necessary to extrapolate from work on smaller engines. Particles of various kinds, water vapour, and carbon dioxide, are all poten- tially disturbing factors, leading to increased absorption of sunlight and higher temperatures in the stratosphere, to increased cloud- iness and resultant changes at ground level. Taking current estimates of 500 SSTs operating mainly in the Northern Hemisphere in 1985-90, flying seven hours a day at around 65,000ft, the conclusions are salutary. World wide stratospheric water vapour will increase 10 per cent and, in regions of dense traffic, by as much as 60 per cent. Particle contamination may reach levels that are 10 times as high as those produced by the violent volcanic eruption of Agung Bali, in 196:3. This has become a kind of datum line for assessment of effects, since it produced a strato- spheric temperature increase of 6 deg. C. through the injection of dust particles which absorbed incoming radiation. Although the Aging-effect produced no measurable changes at ground level, 10 times that effect prob- ably would. Further, the combin- ation of nucleating particles and high water vapour could lead to extensive cloudiness affecting large areas of the globe. The Williamstown study does not go on to point out that any changes of incident sunlight on the earth fundamentally affects its productivity. This is because it is impossible to say, at this time, whether cloudiness would occur. But it does point to the urgent need to find out enough about the lower stratosphere to determine what its mechanisms are, to get accurate measurements of SST emissions, and to develop tech- niques for monitoring stratospheric conditions continuously. We are talking about effects which, at their worst, could sig- nificantly reduce oceanic and agricultural productivity, and which are only 15 years away. It is strange, to say the least, that techniques for continuous mon- itoring do not at this moment exist and that no Government has established a firm research policy which will keep the state of know- ledge sufficiently ahead of prac- tical developments for climatic predictions to be made. That, of course, was precisely the position in the case of per- sistent pesticides and, in spite of belated partial reductions in their use, it is by no means certain that they will leave the planet un- scathed. This is not a national affair, as some Governments pre- tend, for large-scale distribution is predominantly through the earth's water cycle and thus affects the whole globe. The Williamstown study points to the accidental elimination of desired predators and to unknown long-term effects on productivity. It recommends not simply a drastic and rapid reduction in the use of chlorinated hydrocarbons and related materials, but the furnishing of subsidies to enable other techniques to be developed as soon as possible. Greatly in- creased effort should be put into the development of integrated pest control systems in which biological control is integrated with a minimal use of non-persistent pesticides. Other areas deserve emphasis. Heavy metals, such as mercury and lead, are reaching the en- vironment in increasing amounts and are highly poisonous. The study is uncompromising in its conclusion that they must be re- duced. Similarly, although no one now doubts that it is urgently neces- sary to reduce the 1.5 million tons of oil which reach the oceans directly each year, little attention is being given to the three or four million tons which get there in- directly. There is enormous scope for improvement through re- cycling, just as there is through the recycling of urban wastes. Both deserve much more attention than they are getting or, indeed, are likely to get unless con- siderable pressure is applied. Taken largely, you could say that things looked fairly grim, through Williamstown eyes, if by no means hopeless. On the hoary chestnut of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the outlook is moderate. Serious effects are likely only after 2,000. Is 30 years a long time? Goodbye to Bessie Mrs Bessie Braddock died in a Liverpool hospital last week after a long illness. She was 71. With her death, Britain-and Liverpool in particular-has lost one of the most distinctive political personalities of the century. Bessie Braddock rose from humble, but militantly Left-wing, origins to become perhaps the best-known woman in Britain after the Queen. She remained Liver- pool-rooted throughout her life, and was married to Jack Braddock, leader of the city Labour Party, who died in 1963. Fame as what Mr Wilson called "a doughty fighter" did not affect the ` wo fixed points in her week-Saturday constituency surgery, and Monday washday. Much of Mrs Braddock's most enduring work was done in Liver- pool in the inter-war years. Elec- ted to the city council as a non- sectarian candidate for the Labour Party during an argument about providing a site for Liverpool's Catholic Cathedral, she was ap- pointed first to the Port Sanitary and Hospitals Committee. Here she pursued deplorable conditions, helped to bring some logic into the relation of municipal and teaching hospitals, and rationalised the uniforms of the city's nurses. She spent the war driving an ambu- lance in the Liverpool blitzes and helping to organise others in the service. She was born into a political cradle: her mother, Mary (Ma) Bamber, was a volatile Scottish revolutionary whose home was a permanent cauldron of Socialist ideas. When she left school, where a good memory helped her to keep up without effort, Bessie started her working life putting seeds in packets for 5s a week. She soon moved to the Co-op drapery de- partment in Walton Road, where she stayed until 1918. In 1922 she married Jack Brad- dock-"in the lunch break from my clerical job with the Ware- house Workers' Union." They had no children. All Mrs Braddock's early years were spent in an atmosphere of soup kitchens and deprivation, al- though her own father was a printer and kept the family off the breadline. She always claimed that it was the sight of well-fed police on fat horses charging a crowd of unemployed men on St George's Plateau, on August 13, 1911, that drove her into the Com- munist Party. After four years in the party, however, she became disillusioned, and, joining the Labour Party, tended to move steadily right. This led to recurrent difficulties with her constituency party, the most notable when the party went Bevanite in the fifties and voted to ask Bessie to stand down: repeated National Executive action was needed to put the matter right. It was in the Exchange con- stituency that Mrs Braddock felt herself to be most at home and working most effectively. Her Saturday morning surgeries in the tatty Islington offices were famous, and there she coped with the heartbreaking problems thrown up by overcrowding and bad housing in central Liverpool. Often there was nothing she could do-but she answered every query with a well thought out reply, and this helped to keep her majority in- vincible. Experience with problems in the city with the least play- ground space, and working as a juvenile city magistrate, led her to a belief in the beneficial effects of boxing. She became honorary president of the Professional Boxers Association. Mrs Braddock entered Parlia- ment for Liverpool Exchange in 1945, and remained there until the last general election, when she did not stand again for reasons of health. She often electrified the House with her accounts of poverty and hardship, in fact, in her maiden speech she told MPs-many of whom sat stunned at hearing such sentiments from a woman member -that throughout Britain, and particularly in industrial areas, people were living in "flea-ridden, bug-ridden, lousy hell holes." In her later years her speeches were rare, but she played an influential role behind the scenes until she was overcome by mental exhaustion last year. She was a member of the Labour Party National Executive for 22 years. Last February she became Liver- pool's first woman freeman. Give a little whistle At twenty-five minutes to nine on Monday morning my nine year old son was suddenly seized with a passionate desire to improve on the thin, uncertain note-rather like a very soft wind in a very small tree-that is all he can manage when he puckers up his lips and blows. The boy who sits next to him in class, it seemed, could emit ear-piercing blasts, imitate birds, and decorate any popular tune with improvised, warbling variations. Could I, in the five minutes left before he set out for school, bring him to a similar level of whistling pro- ficiency? Of course, I couldn't and I haven't yet. For someone with no sense of tone, melody, or rhythm, I am not a bad whistler. I've got a loud, strong whistle that can fetch a dog from two fields away or drive a colleague to the farthest corner of the office faster than most. But passing on this skill to another, I've found, is harder than practising it. Whistling is like winking or wiggling your ears; if you can do it, you know you can do but you don't know how you do it. Over and over again since Mon- day morning, I've shown him how I whistle. I've taught him to imi- tate the exact position of my lips, the precise indrawing of my cheeks, and the slightly raised level of the eye-brows-which seems a necessary adjunct to whistling even if it's not a con- tributing factor-and all to no avail. When he has composed his features into this grotesque pat- tern and then blows, all that cones out is a lot of air and, very occa- sionally, something that almost promises to be a whistle but never remotely begins to live up to it. Both of us have looked round for other tutors and have found that whistling seems to be another of those dying skills and pastimes that will soon only survive as tape recordings in the BBC sound archives. Our milkman never whistles and confessed yesterday morning that he had never learned. The paper boy doesn't whistle and since neither the grocer nor the greengrocer have delivery boys, there is no longer any chance of enjoying that most characteristic and dazzling of all amateur whistling displays-the errand boy riding a delivery bicycle with both hands deep in his pockets and his head thrown by Harry Whewell back, whistling at the sky as though his pedalling legs were pumping out the soaring sound. The professional whistlers have gone too. They used to be billed on music hall programmes as "Siffleur Extraordinary" or some such. Perhaps to set their skill as far as possible from the errand boys, they would make a great show of holding their lower jaw with one hand and cupping the other over their mouth while adding the most astonishing trills and runs to the basic melody of ''In a Monastery Garden." The finale of their act hardly ever varied. Crouched down on one knee, their cupped hand vibrating like a tuning fork, they would embark on an imitation of a sky lark rising from its nest in which they too rose to a climatic cres- cendo on tip-toe and often brought the audience to its feet as well. Why whistling should be so much in decline is hard to say. Lnles, it is that in some mysterious way whistling goes with poverty, and keeping up both appearances and spirits in trying circumstances. Dickens's hard-pressed characters were much given to whistling, and the tradition was kept up in novels and plays about working-class life right up to the last war. It even spread into the plastic arts. There used to be vastly popular, mass-produced plaster statuettes of a whistling boy that once adorned as many mantelpieces and window sills as those three flying ducks now adorn walls. The boy was barefoot and his trousers were tattered and out at the seat. One can speculate with as much pleasure and as little profit on the origins of whistling. Who was the first whistler? Could men whistle before they could speak? Did they whistle before they sang? Who invented the two finger in the mouth whistle that can carry half a mile on a clear day? Why can so few women whistle at all and hardly any of them well. Addressing myself to the theory, as well as the practice, of whistl- ing I've considered all these questions since last Monday and still my son is no nearer his ambi- tion. Fortunately, he has just joined the Scouts and one of their precepts, I seem to remember, is "A Scout smiles and whistles under all difficulties." Frankly, I've always thought the double feat impossible but if he can just master the second part of it, we will both be well pleased and the old tradition will be kept alive a bit longer. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Guardian Weekly November 211970 NORMAN SHRAPNEL'S series on university towns continues with a visit to Colchester-a town of oysters, roses, and revolt "In the main streets," says the yet this seemed to be the only way plaice two-and-nine, witty guidebook, "the future lies of seeing what is left of this once onions five bob) . with the spry rather than the con- incomparable town Across th templative." That's Colchester for still seductive river, past some On the upper level of the court- you. Meaning, of course, that if distinguished facades the demol- yard they are advertising headier you step off the kerb to get a fishers have overlooked, past the fare - an anarchist meeting ("cof- better view of some interesting Arts Cinema (Andy Warhol's fee, biscuits, and bomb") at some- survival you are unlikely to sur- vive yourself. It was Colchester that gave us that splendid counterblast to Ken- neth Tynan in the shape of an overdressed revue called "Oh! Colchester!" They're a sharp lot in this town of oysters, roses, and revolt. It has a long history of that, way before the University of Essex was ever thought of: from Bo:,r~icea to the Quaker boy, James Parnell, who (according to the memorial in the castle) "was imprisoned for his faith and died here in 1656, aged 19." Faith and rebellion are more diffuse these days, but perhaps Colchester was always a dan- gerous town. As if the traffic were not enough, a warning notice in four-inch red letters informs us that guard dogs are on patrol in the castle park. Guarding what, from whom? Yet there is still some surviving virtue in this gutted, filleted place, this fast-dissolving monument to the belated truth that what is good for the motor industry is fatal for English towns. come - "Sh-sb! Keep it quiet! " a rower. There's a counter-attrac- notice entreats), past the Oxfam lion promised by the Go Society shop, a pricey Chinese restaurant ("down with the Mah-Jong paper on its chaste Georgian corner, a tigers"; no coffee or biscuits, le stock-car racing poster, the prem- bomb, but mint-imperials available ises (inactive, not surprisingly) of to all). Crowds sit peacefully the Forces Help Society and Lord enough with ice- the blues for fsh. Roberts Workshops. Pond -cream spoons frfish Neat Magdalen Street - no Everything is man-made here, saeeintended le you can already glass and stone and concrete, no see the tall austere blocks of the vegetation; a kind of more sophis- university brooding in the dhe ticated Blackpool. There's the tance; nothing could look less bank, the bar, the general store. Arnoldesque. And what are they One thing you can't conceivably cooking up now in those scheming have here, or so one would think, towers? You remember that Essex is solitude. Then why that service students, anyway until Cambridge called Nightline, giving an emer- took over, dominated the head- gency number to ring for "loneli- lines of revolt. They once went so ness, crisis, or despair"? An ad- far as getting embroiled in a visory service has also been set parliamentary privilege issue with up to deal with emotional prob- the dreaming towers of West- lems. What has been called "the minster. (All forgotten now, but it freest, most exotic, most relaxed made a high old sensation at the university in Britain" is plainly not time.) free of tensions. The administration block, sur- The bookshop is determined that prisingly, has disguised itself as a its books aren't going to be free, Jacobean country house. ("Pigs! " either. There has been so much somebody has chalked. "Help the pilfering that customers are asked dustmen. n la have to protest about, and it nprotestting ducks. Beyond theleentrance. It'ss an and cases tiny usually seems to be plenty, the that, a sea of cars glittering in the minority, they say, but a tiny motorcar is hardly involved. Legs sun, and those gloomy towers that minority can be bad for trade. are already obsolete here, and can never shine. Have they proved Finally, there's a rather provoca- nonmotorised members of the sociological successes in this tive headline in the local news- university have developed the sociological university? Some paper, front page at that. "Uni- most fluent and persuasive hitch- doubt it. However, large sectors versity women shape up for the hiking thumbs in the entire student of the student body - and maybe sex war," it says. With the flouncy community. I was regarded with staff too, for it's hard to tell the indeterminate student fashions of some kind of awe as probably the one from the other here - are the moment, few of them look as if only person who has walked to cheerfully piling into what looks they're shaping up to anything - Wivenhoe Park in the (admittedly like a very decent lunch in the more, you'd say, as if they were short) history of the university, enormous restaurant (fillet of rehearsing for "Carmen." Two sides of The Strip This is the most violent corner of Fortress Israel, but that does not mean much these days. The soldier at the checkpoint told me to "be careful"; but when I asked what this meant he just shrugged and waved me on. From Jerusalem "The Strip" seems remote and dangerous. People advise you not to go in a car that has Israeli plates (they are red, while occupied Arab ones are blue, diplomatic ones white, and foreign ones, like mine, black). Scores of people have been killed here this year, hundreds wounded -nearly all of them Arabs. Most died when grenades thrown at Israeli cars missed or bounced back (which is what they nearly always seem to do if they go off at all) ; some were deliberately blown up for going to work on buses bound for Israel; others were singled out because of more por- tentous forms of collaboration; a few died because they belonged to the Popular Front for the Libera- tion of Palestine but failed to deliver the Front's money to those for whom it was intended. When I was last here 18 months ago the children were on strike, soldiers peered from behind machineguns on top of the milit ary governor's office and patrolled the streets, looking ill at ease, as if the Israeli army had never been designed for garrison duty. But in these post-Nasser days Gaza looks, and is, as quiet as any other occupied town. Hardly a soldier to be seen. The streets at noon jammed with children going home; the boys looking studious and the girls in Turkish-style trousers or prudish stockings. More than quiet, Gaza is pleasant. I can see why those United Nations wives grumbled so much when they were moved in Jerusalem last year because of the danger. Orange groves around the town, ready for the autumn picking, look as neat and cherished as the Israeli ones. Wide and cool are the main streets with plenty of trees, spacious villas, leisurely traffic, the comforting Arab smells of charcoal and coffee, and, at the far end of the main road, a magnificent beach. What Gaza is like depends on who you talk to. An American journalist emerged from the military governor's office and told an Egyptian woman in the plush lounge of her beach hotel: "Isn't it wonderful what the Israelis have done in three years. Look at those streets, all those wonderful houses." The woman whose surname is Nasser and not, politically speak- ing, especially misleading, in- formed him icily that her hotel dated from 1934 and that Gaza's imposing streets looked much livelier before the Sinai campaign than after. Colonel Shmuel Liram is the military government's officer for liaison with everyone, from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency to the foreign press. He is a talker, a fine example of the in- tellectual, non-military Israeli soldier. "I want you to look at this photograph. It sums up the Gaza story." Ile rummaged in his shelves and produced a blow-up Of a group of laughing college girls walking in the streets. "Look at this, ' he said, as if it were an operations map. "First, the picture was taken by a soldier. I)o they look scared?" They did not, and here followed a digression on the solid reasons Gaza girls had for being scared of soldiers in the Egyptian days. "Next, look at the blouses: white blouses-unheard of in the old days. And look again: two of by Walter Schwarz in Gaza the girls have the top buttons un- done. And bras underneath. It's a revolution." But Colonel Liram's punchline was in the hems. The picture showed these had been turned up by two or three inches. "You see? They turn them up but don't cut them. They know, as everyone in Gaza knows, that things have changed, but that they can change back again, as they did when we pulled out in 1957." Colonel Liram is paternal, affec- tionate, reassuring. "Our problem isn't security (the Egyptians had a dusk to dawn curfew in the refugee camps for 20 years; ours is only from 10 to four and it's at their own request.) It's education. There's revolution going on all right, but it's inside people's homes and the girls are leading it." It is a good line to take with the foreign press, for the social effects of Israeli occupation, here as on the West Bank, look more positive than the political ones. The twentieth century blows in every- where, but it happens more spectacularly when Israelis, with their girl soldiers, their trade unionism, and their informality, move into a place like Gaza. Just as the Gaza girls shorten their skirts, bus drivers in East Jerusalem go on strike against the Arab employers. And wives, it is said, now call the police when their husbands beat them. "If Israel said categorically that Gaza would never return to Egypt, 85 per cent. of the people would come out in support of us, 5 per cent would fight against us, and the rest would go away." The colonel was clearly an optimist. But there are no miniskirts in the refugee camps. Beach camp in the town, Maghazi and El Rurciz camps outside, each a seething, muddy mass of corrugated iron, are as grotesquely overcrowded, as smelly, as those around Amman. Talks with the inhabitants do not bear out Colonel Liram's theory that Gaza youth is with Israel. Refugees have been talking to visiting reporters for 22 years and they know the answers so well that they supply them before the questions have been put. What sounded new, though, was that the "democratic Palestine for Arabs and Jews" idea has got down to the grass roots. At Bureiz and Maghazi you can see this in action. Wide streets have been driven through the camps and lit up at night. Huts which had to be pulled down have been rebuilt by UNRWA at Israeli expense. It is strictly a "one for one" exchange. Mr Arthur Geaney, UNRWA's American director, says that any action that might be interpreted as "resettlement" is vetoed, because it would go against UN resolutions. Even the size of the rooms had to stay the same: a miserable nine square yards. But the Israelis were allowed to install inside lavatories and, more significantly, to put the new huts inside much bigger compounds, which allows for expansion by private enterprise- I met Fayez Abu Rahman, head of the Gaza bar, who pleads for UNRWA and for indicated guer- rillas alike, and Dr Wadi Terrazi, headmaster of Gaza College, in Mrs Nasser's drawing rooms. She served tea and cake and spiced the conversation with cynical asides. ''Everyone always promised us a port: the British, the Egyptians, and now the Israelis. But we still haven't even a jetty-.' The lounge soon resounded twit h the explosion of cherished Israeli myths about Gaza. "That the Egyptians neglected us is simply not true; they provided excellent education. At this moment we have 1,050 students in Egyptian universities." This was the figure Colonel Liram had given me, but to prove the rather different point that he was running his own personal "open bridges" policy across the Suez Canal. Liram's point about the Egyptians' "dusk to dawn curfew" was also denied. The Egyptian one had been from midnight to 4 am -shorter than the Israeli one and much less strictly enforced. It was also apparently untrue that Israel had brought in much industry. The stawberry export scheme had been a flop; strawberries had been sold off in local markets. The copper smelting (about which I heard on my last visit) had turned out to be an ad hoc affair for melting down scrap shells left over from the two desert wars: the raw materials were now exhausted. Dr Terrazo had grouses about telescoped courses and over- crowded classes in the Israeli state schools, and Rahman said that he had four children at school "and not one of them has a single text- book." The trouble about textbooks is that the Egyptian ones had been censored as being inflammatory and few others were yet available. But Gaza's economic grouse is that nothing has replaced the smuggling trade on which its prosperity has been based. The Egyptians had made it a free port, to which Egyptian tourists repaired to stock up. duty free, with every- thing lacking in the Cairo shops. That trade had gone, ard, thanks to the guerrillas, so had the tour- ism of the early Israeli days. For that, at least, the government could not be blamed. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Czech that bounced GERALD LARNER talks to Zdenek Macal (right) it's a bad invasion which pro- duces no good exiles; and the atro- cious Russian invasion of Czechos- lovakia in 1968 did commit to the West the most promising of Czech- oslovakia's young conductors. Zdenek Macal clearly enjoys his new international life. In Man- chester the other day he was dressed more Western than any of us, in a black suit flecked with lurex and a tie to match, shiny waistcoat, silver-buckled shoes. You might have taken him and his long hair for something in show business, except that the high East-European cheekbones, the hollow cheeks, and sunken eyes suggest a less mundane occu- pation. His language, too-a flood of little English, more German, occasional words of French, and musical dictionary Italian-sounds rather more exotic than that of the average club comedian passing through the Midland Hotel. But the first impression is not completely misleading. Fortunately for him, there is more than a little of the showman and the business- man beside the musician in Zdenek Macal. He has a flair for doing the right thing at the right time. Only just over two years ago he arrived in Holland with no money and few prospects. Now he is con- ductor of the Cologne Radio Sym- phony Orchestra, living comfort- ably in Lucerne, and receiving more offers than he can accept. It was a bold move. "Three days after the invasion we left, with three baggages. It was necessary to go." He uprooted himself, his wile, and their then 8-year-old daughter for the sake of what he quite simply calls "freedom." Less simply, he tried to explain some- thing for which neither his German nor his English was adequate about na? relationship between I1is artistic and his private life. "When one will make good music, one must have good private life. Ifow can you conduct Beethoven when you are not free?" So for that, at the age of 32, he gave up his new position as conductor of the Prague Symphony Orchestra, his good standing with the Czech Philhar- monic, his house and other posses- sions. What would happen if they went back? His wife turned an imaginary key in front of her- "Verhaftet," she said. "In prison," he ?..i,? It wa,, also a shrewd move. At last Macal found himself indepen- dent of the need to get a visa when invited to conduct one of the great orchestras on this side of the border. Though he had little more than three weeks' engagements in Holland in August 1968, he had friends in the West, knew he could count on sympathy for his situa- tion, and was known for his success in the Besancon and Mitropoulos competitions, as well as for earlier appearances in Western Europe (including those on tour with the Czech Philharmonic), and for the gramophone records he was begin- ning to make. He had his friends smuggle his scores out to him. Within a few months he made his first appear- ance in England, deputising for Constantin Silvestri, who died on the very day Macal took his place with the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra at the Royal Festival Hall. "Bornamowth" was so im- pressed by him that he was later invited to become the next per- manent conductor. By then, how- ever, he was so busy that he had to decline the offer. Within two years he had converted a promis- ing domestic concern into a flour- ishing international business. So he didn't regret the move? "When I decide," he said, "I do not go back." He has an impres- sive (even for a conductor) confi- dence in himself. He mentioned that Czech musicians who want to go back home cannot play in his concerts, like Josef Suk, who was to have appeared with him and the Scottish National Orchestra in Scotland last week: "But that is not pity for Macal, that is pity for Mr Suk." He rejects any sugges- tion of homesickness "Where I work, where I conduct, where I have my family, that is home." But he did not look as happy as he sounded when he talked about this loss of contact with Suk, who as well as being a fine violinist, is also the grandson of the composer Suk and great grandson of Dvorak an embodiment of Czech musical tradition. Macal has a similarly ambivalent attitude to tradition. On the one hand he can say almost cynically, "Talich one day has an idea about performing a work. Ancerl hears it and says to him- self, 'Ah, that is tradition. I must do that.' And now we must all do it." On the other hand he is proud of his direct contact, through his Brno education, with the Janacek tradition, and defends it against the rival Prague version. He feels himself part of the Dvorak tradition too. So, remem- bering his exciting, but very un- literal performance of the Eighth Symphony with the Royal Liver- pool Philharmonic last year, I asked him about something he did in the slow movement. The Czech in him came through at last. "The mountains in Czechoslovakia, the paysage"-"the villages," his wife suggested-"the country is very poetic, very colourful. If you came to the mountains you would under- stand." Much of what he does in music is done in that instinctive way. Asked about the performance of Brahms's First Symphony he had just broadcast with the BB(' Northern Synlphon-v Orchestra, he knew of course that he suddenly halved the tempo in the coda of the last movement, that he acceler- ated the main thenic of that same movement several times on its first series of statements, that the tempo in the Andante sostenuto fluctuated considerably. He was surprised only that anyone would question these things. Zdenek Macal is like that. A critic might, intellectually, ques- tion some of the extravagant things he does with the classics. But they are the physically and emotionally arousing things to do, the popular things to do. Showy or businesslike it might be, but that is not the intention. He knows that, musically, he is right, and you cannot ignore the conviction behind it all. Art for moneys sake Let us hope that anger and alarm over Government proposals for museum and gallery charges will not fade into mortified accept- ance after the initial letters of polite resistance. These proposals are -Ail only the most niggling hit or cultural meanness since places of public pleasure and learning were set up, they are also short-sighted, uneconomic, and dishonest. Short-sighted in the effect such measures will have on the museum-public relationship that has been carefully built up by most museums over the years. Uneconomic, in that the cost of administrating charges and ex- emptions, installing equipment to deal with them, and providing space for all this to go on, will swallow up a large chunk of any profits. Dishonest in that the public have already contributed once through taxation, and it's not as though the Chancellor has given any assurance that the revenue collected will be ploughed back. The whole attitude that implies that people appreciate only what they actually pay for is condes- by Caroline Tisdall cending. The plain fact is, as any random survey of museum or gallerygoers shows, that if charges are introduced, attendance will drop. This is what most museum directors. had they only been con- suited. would have pointed out. Those magical Ate?ndancc? figures from the Castle Museum, Norwich, quoted to prove the opposite, are misleading. In summer, the museum is a stopping point on day trips from Great Yarmouth, and in winter it's free, anyway. It seems that 2s 6d will be the price. Charges in the Musee d'Art Moderne started at one franc and jumped to three francs. Some American museums cost initially 25 cents and now one dollar. Neither is it any good palming us off with the promise of free ad- mission on Sundays. The scrum would make it impossible to see anything, as anyone who has been in the Louvre or the Sistine Chapel on Sunday well knows. The argument that relative profits from museum to museum will reflect each director's effici- ency is equally shaky. There will always be some museums and galleries, which by their cry nature appeal to smaller groups of people. Unless enjoyment is to be measured solely in terms of number, this does not necessarily mean that the museum is no good. Being civil servants, museum directors are virtually gagged as far as public protest is concerned, and trustees rarely say anything. Surely museum staff acting as a whole round-robin-style could achieve something? The National Art Collections Fund could be less gentle in its protest and threaten to withdraw all it has donated. Students could temporarily put aside their reservations about the function of museums to save one of the good aspects of them. Above all, museum and gallery users could make their feelings felt. It is not just a question of museum charges, but of value. Who still believes that bases east of Suez are more prestigious than our rapidly diminishing Welfare State, of which free museums and galleries form part? venerable showman RECORDS by Edward Greenfield Leopold Stokowski has seriously suffered as well as gained by being typecast as a showman. Now nearing his ninetieth year, his interpretations remain as flam- boyant as ever-listen to the brassy re-orchestration in the final bars of Beethoven's Ninth, newly recorded on Phase Four- but one compensation of age is that veneration finally wins. Whatever the personal idiosyn- crasies of this account of the Ninth (Decca Phase Four PFS 4183) it is unmistakably a great perform- ance. Robert Layton has some- times bewailed the fact that now- adays it is all too easy, economic- ally as well as technically, to make new versions of established classics. In the old days of "78," there were few symphonies or concertos that merited more than one recording. The actual process was laborious, and though some- times this reduced the overall flow and spontaneity, the per- formers really meant what they played. There was no chance of a later remake. The feeling one has with Stokowski is that he has kept this attitude: that his work in the recording studio is not something to be dispatched easily. With the Ninth, of all works, the just weight of utterance is particu- larly hard to capture on record, but here, as in Stokowski's ancient "78'' version of the thirties, he certainly achieves it. The first movement is fast and dramatic, the scherzo tight and pointed, and the slow movement. taken comparatively straight with no sentimentality, has genuine lnnigkeit. The finale is uneven with some strangely slow tempi, but with the LSO and chorus and a fine quartet of soloists, con- c?enlration is always there. an exciting new version. Another fine memorial to Stokowski's continued vitality comes in a record of Shostako- vich's still underestimated Sixth Symphony, made with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (RCA SB 6839). The weight of argument here lies in the long opening slow movement, and it is fascinating to study the deliberate modifica- tions of the composer's markings. made in the interests of focusing attention on the climactic point of the movement. Boult, on Everest, is meticulous by con- trast, and though the result. is very strong, he cannot match Stokowski in emotional intensity. Both performances are far more satisfying than a recent Russian one under Kondrashin on HMV Melodiya, though there the coupling is more generous Shostakoviteh's Violin Concerto No. 2. Stokowski has for coupling the witty "Age of Gold" Suite. RCA has also brought out on the cheap Victrola label (now only 19s lid per disc) two historic Shostakovich performances by . Toscanini and the NBC Symphony Orchestra (RCA VICS 6038. ) records). The sound (taken from wartime broadcasts) is often terrifyingly bad, but the electrify ing intensity of Toscanini's inter pretations is never in doubt. Well worth hearing. I am glad too that Music for Pleasure on its C'lassic's for Pleasure label, has reissued Petre's version with the Phil- harntonia of Shostakovich's 12th Symphony, the programme wort: celebrating the 1917 Revolution (CFP 141). This is, on the whole, better recorded and more sly lishl', played than the recent Mclodiya version from Russia issued at full price. At 17s 9d it slakes an ex- cellent bargain, and so does the reissue of Markevitch's account of Slavinsky's "Rite of Spring" on the same label (CF'P 124 with lyrical qualities given weight a, well as dramatic ones. A GIFT for your friends and relations which will last for 52 weeks Buy them a year's subscription to THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN WEEKLY The cream of British journalism for your friends-a subscription lot- the Manchester Guardian Weekly brings succinct, authorit.itiv e reporting on world affairs and events in Britain, penetrating analysis, independent cornment, wit and good hom our- The I S Saturday Review has called it "the most literate and entertaining ncwspalx'rintheF:ngIishtan ouge.' Treat your friends to an ideal Christmas present Order today to make sure they gel it in time. 't'hanks. Please send the Manchester Guardian Weekly to (wri(e names and addres i' of friends here): Your friend's NAME and ADDRESS Every week for 52 weeks beginning ..................................... (Date) I enclose my cheque for ......_._......-_........_ ................................. Your name and address ..._ ........................................................... Yearly Subscription Rates By Air- United States $18.00 Canada $19.50 Subscriptions to: Manchester Guardian Weekly 20 East 53rd Street New York, NY 1(1022 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Papas Prints solve the problem of what to give a wife, dove, dropout, yogi, president, husband, hawk, friend, foe, businessman, mother-in-law, lord, sister, brother or grandmother for Christmas -wherever they are, we mail direct. London Set: 2 coloured prints 171/2" x 221/2" of Piccadilly and Westminster which include occa- sional hippies, Eros, snobs, Big Ben and a few politicians thrown in, all for the price of $15 a set. 1 Canterbury Set: 4 black and white prints 17" x 14" of this ancient city showing some of Chaucer's characters behaving in the debauched way of those days. These prints will really make you glad you live in this hygienic, modern, pol- luted world. Price $15 a set. Cities of the World: 6 black and white 27" x 20" prints of New York, Athens, Paris, Seville, London and Rome. Illustrates too well that mar- vellous, heady, claustropho- bic feeling of our big cities. Guaranteed to make you want the wide open spaces. Price $20 a set. Israel Set: 6 221/2" x 171/2" prints of Tel Aviv, Akko, Beer- sheba, Nazareth, Meashearim and Jerusalem. The best prints of the lot, all in glorious techni- color. Price $20 a set. Guardian Weekly November21 1970 Cathedrals of Britain: 3 black Manchester Set: 6 black and and white 27" x 20" prints of white 18" x 1 1" prints of this Durham, Salisbury and Can- misty, noisy, crazy, likeable terbury Cathedrals. Pompous city. Price $15 a set. priests, passionate lovers, and an odd passing bishop, these prints have everything, all for the price of $1 5 a set. These fantastic, marvellous prints will 6e mailed free to any part of the world enclosed in beautiful wrap- ping. Please make your cheques payable and send plus completed order form to: "Papas Prints," Waltham, Canterbury, Kent, England. Thank you very much. Req Cost Cathedrals of Britain Set Israel Set I Cities of the World Set Canterbury Set .............................. cost .............................. ............................. NAME .. ...................... ............................. ADDRESS ................... . .............................. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A0004001 Chess Gunderam's Gambit anv defence thy A. M. Sparke, 1st prize Good Companions 1918). Solution No. 1113: 1 NxBP (waiting). If 1 . . . R-R3 2 N-R4, or if R-N3 2 N-N5, or if R-K3 2 N(3)-K5, or if R-Q3 2 N(3)-Q4, or if Rx either N 2 RxR, or if R-B1 2 N-Q8, or if R-B2 2 N-K7, or if R-B4 2 N(6)- K5, or if R-B5 2 N(6) _Q4, or if P-N6 2Q-Q2, or if B-N7 2 Q-B4. One of the most fruitful methods of studying chess openings is to learn a few very sharp variations for White. Even if not completely sound, such aysictn. put pressure on an opponent who knows that a single tactical slip made through ignorance can prove decisive This is the philosophy behind the various gambits (Goring, Tarrasch, Wilkes-Barre) recommended in the Guardian Chess Book, and in practice it works out well. Several sharp system_ arc ;tvitable against the popular King's Indian Defence. One which seems to have Bridge good results against opponents below master strength is a little-known line in the Four Pawns Attack worked out by the gifted but eccentric German amateur Gunderam. I use the word "eccentric" because Gunderam has seriously recommended both 1 P-K4 P-K4 2 N-KB3 Q-K2 and 1 P-KB3 with the idea of a Blackmar gambit after l ... P-Q4 2 P-Q4. Gunderam's Gambit against the King's Indian is a more practical proposition, and, as shown by this week's game, confronts Black with a difficult defence. Nun-Gtrzsenvi Czechoslovak team match, 197(1 1 P-Q I N-KB3 2 P-QBI P-KN3 3 N-QB3 B-N2 4 11-K I P-Q3 5 B-K2 31-0 6 P-B4 P-B-i 7 P-Q5 P-K3 8 N-133 PxP 9 1'-K5!? This is Gunderam's Gambit: the normal moves are 9BPxPor9KPxP. 9 , , PxKP 9 . . . N-N5, recom- mended by Hartston in The King's Indian Defence, is dubious after 10 BPxl PxP 11 P-KRS or to NxP PxP it P-KR3, but not at once 10 P-KR3? P-Q5! 11 N-K4 NxKP! 12 PxN PxP and the three pawns are stronger than the knight. 9 . . KN-Q2 10 BPxP PxP 11 0-0 PxP 12 BxP N-KB3 13 Q-Q2 N-N5 14 P-KR3 BxN 15 BxB QN-Q2 (so far Ney-Polugaevsky, Tiflis 1966) should be in White's favour if he maintains his space advantage with l6 P-QR4 followed by KR-K 1. If 9 ... N-K5 Gunderam recommends 10 NxP, and if 9 . . . N-K1 to BPxP B-N5 I1 B-K3. 10 PxKP N-N:, 11 B-N5 Q-R4. Another critical position in Gunderam's Gambit. 11 P-133 is nr3b abiy best, when 12 KPxP BxP 13 QxP ell QxQ 14 NxQ BxB 15 NxB N-QB3 16 N-B7 R-NI 17 KN-K6 should lead to an even game. If 11 . Q-Q2 12 NxP and 12 . NxKP? is dangerous because of 13 NxN BxN 14 B-B6. 11 . . . Q-N3 is the hook move in a similar position in the main line of the Four Pawns Attack, but it is risky here because of 12 NxP QxP 13 0-0 (or even 13 N-137). 12 P\P, Gunderam suggests the futher gambit 12 0-01' P-Q5 (safer PxP) 13 N-Q5 NxKP 14 B-K7 R-K115NxNBxN 16B-B6. 12 . NxKP 12 . . . N-Q2 is met by 13 P-K6, while if 12 ... P-B5 White can offer the exchange with l3 0-0 Q-B4 ch? (better P-N4) 14 K-RI N-B7 ch 15 RxN QxR 16 N-K4 Q-N3 17 N-B6 ch K-R1 18 Q-B1 and wins. 13 0-i) NxN eh, Black has a difficult position. If 13 . . . R-KI (or 13 . . . QN-Q2 14 P-Q6!) 14 NxN BxN 15 B- QB4 N-Q2 16 P-Q6 B-Q5 ch 17 K-RI N-K4 18 B-Q5 B-K3 19 N-K4! (Ney- Westerinen, Helsinki 1966) keeps the initiative. 11 RxN B-N5? Overlooking the combination which follows: 14 'N-Q2 is better. 15 RxP! RA I 16 BxB K-Rt 17 B-K6 R-B1 18 Q-Q2 N-R3 19 P-06. White's strong passed pawn and active position more than offset the sacrifice of the exchange; in the rest of the game White is always winning. 19 QR-KI 20 R-K7 Q-N.5, 21 R-K1 N-N1 22 I'-KR:3 N-B:3 23 B-07 B _Q5 ch 21 K-R2 R-Qi 25 P-R3 Q-R1 26 BxN PxB 27 Q-N3 Q-N:3 28 N-RI Q-NI 29 Nx1' Rx:10 QRN (S R-31 N-B7 Q-Q2 B-N8 c?h 3-1 K-R1! Avoiding the last trap of 34 KxB? R-Q8 cl; F~-ii2 0-139-ch. :31 . , R-K3 :35 0-116 ch! Resigns. If 35 - RxQ 36 B-R6 dis ch forces [Male. Leonard Barden The Wei way The Aiuericans are in the enviable, so lung as the players using them hul difficun, position of having an are first class. abundance of first-class c.mdidat,?s Here is i~all t ucln'dilhy at all lc ant Ille i 1: r their Mali dia cl bridge teams. One cod requiring skill 1., make. \lcst ?t their' [.Jai aculs. the Sping"ld requiring all. ('hanipionsIt It i1) s, has reeenlIs been dealt at game won by a comparatively unknown Not-Ili - K.s team of young players under the call- 1.16 tan.-N of C. C. Wei. who heal the K d,J,7 famous Dallas Aces by 59 (Ml's in K 9.5 the Iinai- They attribute their vic't;,ry 1?ast mainly to it new system called the West `l. 5 l' a 1, 8. 7, 2 Precision Club, invculcd by :sir Wei, 4 ' '- K. 10.9 whose bidding inetlr,ds and training .5' V - K4, .2 were also responsible for the stir- ? -A, 5,3 .1, 8, 7, 4, :1, 2 -:1. Q prisiuglt ,?- i result, -.f the \ati;'n- South alist Chin:, that tun>he`I A :3 e ?nd in Q 11.:. 2 ~ , f?..~:::p:,.:ri,-. ~ 111.9.6 ~ over the tvnrid, each -1 ,- - T'ht' bidding: 1':ati( S?nth It, have found the answer G, all btu IS INI B IC ' abed N ding problems I well rcuu?nibei as 1935, when 1 was a NB N'1' NB 3N'l' as long ago meniber of the famous Or Paul Steins Nil Nil NB team, we had to abide by the strict West led the 9 of spades. Declarem' rules and discipline of his One Club played low tram dummy and East's system. Since we wan the European jack forced his ace. He led the lit al nd West went in with his d s a and world c?hampioaistups for three diamon sears running it must have been a ace to lead another spade to duuiniy"s gaol[ systeni: but so are most sssicuh king. Two dianu,ud tricks were cashed. then ace' :uui a small beal'1 were led. Hasa won with the king and c;,nlinucd with a he:art. taken in dummy Declurtr n;,\% cashed his last diatuaud and led a heart I it,ii'ds the queen. This was East's impossible Detail of Barry's engraving "The Thames or The Triumph of Navigation" The Grand Manner We are so accustomed to think of artists could paint "serious" subjects English painting of the late eighteenth as well as the Italians, and they and early nineteenth centuries ex- tended to fill their picture galleries elusively in terns of landscape and with foreign paintings, and relegated portrait that we can easily forget that their English ones to their living there were many artists of that time quarters. The more uncompromising who aspired to paint immense painters in the Grand Manner. like allegorical paintings on grand and Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786- heroic themes. 1846), were frequently forced into It comes as something of a shock debt, and Haydon himself, in despair when we see portraits by Sir Joshua at his poverty and lack of recogni- Reynolds (1723-92) and remember tion,conmmittedsuicide. that he himself regarded portrait In spite of their misfortunes. these painting as a second-rate activity: painters provide excellent material resent-day collectors. Their f or p he exhorted his students at the Royal Academy not to imitate the outward larger projects are c Cher unobtain- form of Nature, but to emulate the ,:r Or too large to be manageable, gravity and nnhi;tt of liajian artists but they left many preparatory ?i'r:: Raphacl, Michelangelo, and the sketches behind. George Romney was Carracci, who lived in earlier a eonpulsive draughtsman, and he centuries. filled dozens of sketchbooks with George Romney- (17344802), whose rapid drawings usually of Cataclysmic portraits are admired for their gaiety events. One sometimes sees complete and elegance, regarded portrait paint- sketchbooks devoted to a single motif tog as a deadly drudgery that kept or group, but these are usually broken him away from more ambitious pro- up by dealers. A great many of these jests. These included a series of large sketchbooks have been through the the crthrnw of the soclmostcioof rooms theth London fedrawings c?onpleted, on none Creation and Fall of Man, which would dealers have a few in stock, although have no rival in scale and sublimity the more finished ones can he ex- hut Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel. pensive. Only Thomas Gainsborough, the third Drawings by .Janes Barry are great portrait painter of eighteenth- extremely rare, but he made engraved century England, had no greater versions of all his Adelphi paintings, ambition than to paint landscapes, and these are sometimes available in and he was a constant irritant to Sir print shops. As can he seen from the Joshua for openly ridiculing pompous engraving of "The Thames, or The aspirationstotheGrandManner. Triumph of Navigation" (above). arc strong and decorative, hill the y ames Barry 11741-181)iSl, a l ishinan, ^t the same time rather pompous and North quarrelsome and impulsive It- nilt,n Nuilc suffered near-starvation to paint the dry' in exec -ution791 . is nut, Hai strictly Morti enormous series of wall-paintings sx'a pea nier (1740 r Ei king a painter of the Grand + Nan,, which can still be seen in the lecture lt 3 are A 9. ., [hearer of the Sudety of Arts in the iandisoft ~irchrilliandrawings t hey Adelphi, off the Strand. The Ihcnu' energetic f arc fast rising in price. but his n West East is nothing less than the progress o ne human culture, from its origins with gravings arc cheap and fairly plenti- 7 No Orpheus to the Final Retribution, ful. It might he a good idea to look ~- taking a brief detour to bring in the out for the more elusive artists of None N. nc -None Na no ? Olympic (.amts, the triumph of this kind, like Giles Hussey (1710- .I 7 1 1 O B'it15h c,,:itmtl'('P :old the fouIlding of 88) whose drawings are pedantic I the Suciet) 131 Arts itst?li 'tilt- l.,ttt?r. ,nd p:unst.rking. South c'n tetg xMVielf 1 The art I of the` Gf.til(i 1(ruu&r aigh h. 4a Ai- 10,4 enough to pay are I Barry more than cilc?onsc?iuusiy uuuated [wir.,n o expenses. methods of compositioit but it woidd . 1 ',tic t ? ,bs,r'd to pretend that cccu the o [ t it N ne 4 1i) 11 he had discardrri :v rlub hr u,~uhd hmc been thrown' in will, for ace I? lead into South's spades. in [.act he discarded a spade, s, declarer put hint on Iead with the queen "I spade and he had to Iead Io the king Clubs. ?Rixi Markus ACROSS 1. Rule, too; you start in France (8). 5. Duck, and somehow clear the voice (6). 9. The country endlessly swells with song (8). to. CO's PRO makes a grating sound (6). it. A victor's cause--a better character (8, 6). 14. Page returns somewhat white, sniggering (5). 15. She mothers two (5). 16. Mount of chaste Edwardian (5). 17. First-class Communist pub- lishedabroad (5). 20. No native makes a charge (5). 22. "I'm certainly reckoned a true -" (W. S. Gilbert) (14). 24. Battle one ill part of old London (6). 25. Prize for girl with a broken lute (8). c . o For good or :11 In(- ,[s 11 p:,trotls of Fn;l:uul refused to he hest would stand 111) to the cuilipeti shamed roue 11,15itig 10t, Similar tiun of their Italian counterparts grandiose schcmcs. The bible lords l';ccn so. what they lack in quatits agreed that there was a m'i'd for they gain in their associative value: therm, but they quietly went on )idly- the artists themselves come alive in ing pictures of their horses, houses, the memoirs of the period. and they and themselves from native artists: give fascinating glimpses 111111 litet'at) if they wanted something more London in its heyday. elevated then they bought pictures front Italy. Anthony Penge They refused to believe that F:nglish 26. Way to surrotutdtrain (6). 27. Fool levers bad lad into tree on Sunday (8). DOWN 1. Writers in revolt against doctor (4). 2. Widows so leave cloisters in disarray (7). 3. First roan, hill-dweller v'er'y tough! (7): 4. Urging trial of licensee (7, 4) 6. About to make a demand, and getback (7). 7. Gruulpy journalist went over 7). 8. dormer fairy intended, we hear, to test a theory (to). 12. 'Fool to squeeze motorist? (11). 13. Said sapper: "Change vanishes! " (10) . 18. Make merry French king rest in a different way (7). 19. Old soldier sees nothing in the beast (7) . 20. In the morning, a tug first reaches the vessel (7). 21. Put in office, Stalin is reformed by student (7). 23. Bungle. of course! (4). Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 The last reckoning by John Gooch. HISTORY OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, by B. 11. Liddell Hart (Cassell, 5gns). "War," Clausewitz remarked, "is an act of violence to compel the enemy to fulfil our will." The late Sir Basil Liddell Hart devoted his life to devising a system of strategy which could utilise violence in a way at once controlled and imagina- tive in order to gain political ends swiftly and with the least possible cost. The outcome was his theory of mechanised warfare which was put to the test during the Second World War. So the pros- pect of his analysis of that war is an exciting one. The result not surprisingly, is a work which concentrates its attention on those theatres where armour and mechanised warfare played a major role, in North Africa and Western Europe. Liddell Hart's analysis of the campaigns in these theatres is brilliant, compounded as it is of rich detail and acute perception. It abounds with firm and scholarly judgments which are one of the delights of the work, and from them some of the iliilitaryr emerge with great credit. Sir John Dill dared to An anthology of the best of the Guardian 1969-1970. This is the 19th of the annual series-as usual collecting together the Guardian's wisest and wittiest thoughts and reports. The articles offer as good reading as ever this year, recording and commenting on the passing of the sixties and the beginning of a new decade. The Guardian writers included are familiar names- Alistair Cooke, Norman Shrapnel, Sir Neville Cardus, and Victor Zorza, amongst others. Here they all are, telling you how Wall Street lost its nerve, how Mr Heath was changed utterly, and how it was in Paris, in Hanoi and in Rome . . and many more interesting reports from the pages of The Guardian (awarded newspaper of the year, 1970)- A limited number of books are available in hard cover- price $3.75. To The Manager, Manchester Guardian lnc.20 East 53rd Street, NewYork NY 10022 USA Please send . copies of the Bedside Guardian No 19 to the address below: Zip.. _ ............... _.....................-_......... _.......................... _.................. l enclose $ ... for .... books at $3.75 per copy. Payments must be enclosed with order. Please make checks payah I e to Ma nchester G uardia n I nc. proved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 challenge Churchill's decision not to shore up Singapore in 1941 but failed; Singapore fell. His opposite number, General Halder, endeavoured to persuade an infinitely more vindictive master that the pace of advance into Russia in 1942 was too great; he too failed, with results far more catastrophic. Some operational commanders also are singled out for special mention, among them O'Connor, Cunningham, Gretton, Rommel, and Kleist-who has perhaps not yet been given his due. Some aspects of the struggle clearly failed to excite the author's interest and are given corres- pondingly less attention; thus we learn little of naval or aerial warfare, nothing of the role of partisans and nothing of the wartime organisa- tions of societies and economies. This is perhaps the great defect of the work, because the Second World War was as much a war of attrition as was the first, but materiel replaced manpower as a crucial factor. There was no re-enactment of the costly operations such as the battle of the Somme when 60,000 men were lost on the first day. However the battle of Midway in June, 1942, saw what was to all intents and purposes a death struggle between American and Japanese aircraft carriers. Naval warfare also furnishes an example of the speed with which such strategic capital could be destroyed: the engagement in which the Hood was sunk and the Prince of Wales severely damaged on May 24, 1941, lasted only twenty- one minutes, not much longer than an episode of The Archers. What cane to count for at least as much as military facility was the economic capacity of the belligerents to sustain the level of industrial pro- duction needed to keep up the impetus of their military t-f1ach nes, An aside on Speer's heroic attempts to shore up the ramshackle German economic system only whets the appetite. The process of conducting a modern war also gave birth to important social changes, yet we get no mention of Beveridge, of Abercrombie, or even of PAYE-to the man in the street surely one of the most immediate and enduring of wartime measures. Clausewitz it was who described war as "the bloody and destructive measuring of the strength of forces physical and moral." Liddell Hart's History of the Second World War gives us as in- cidentals the blood and destruction while des- cribing the process of that measuring with sure- ness and scholarship, aided by a very fine set of maps. The work is flawed because it pays little attention to the moral forces, the organisation of civil communities to meet the demanding em- braces of modern mechanised warfare. But there is none the less very great merit in it. Combat was the only means by which Hitler could be de- feated and the Axis dissolved, and that process has now been described and explained so well that we need not wish it done over again. Manchester men by Harry Whewell PORTRAIT OF MANCHESTER, by Michael Kennedy (Robert Hale, 30s). In his preface, Michael Kennedy quotes Robert Southey, writing in 1802: "A place more destitute of all interesting objects than Manchester it is not easy to conceive." Mr Kennedy adds that he disagrees and that his book explains why. With respect-and one must be respectful to so much relevant material diligently collected and thought- fully arranged- it does no such thing. As anyone who has ever tried to devise such a list of interesting objects for an inquiring child or a curious visitor must know, the count is pathetically small for a place of Manchester's size and influence. The city was short of interest- ing objects in 1802 and it is short of them still. What it has always been rich in-at least for the past hundred years-is interesting subjects: native or adopted citizens. Most men who write about Manchester make this clear, consciously or unconsciously, and Mr Kennedy is no exception. His book contains as much information about the physical side of Man- chester as the common reader could want. The developing histories of the industrial areas and the housing estates are duly noted and dated along with those of the Grammar School and the Free Trade Hall. He catalogues, as he was bound to do, the cultural and sporting sides of the city's life, and there are chapters on some of the causes and concepts it has taken up and enhanced. All these things are clearly the duty of anyone writing about Manchester. Mr Kennedy only exceeds his duty when he writes about the great figures. When he is dealing with Scott and Simon, Barbirolli and Halle, Stopford and Lowry, the pages reflect depth and colour that are often missing elsewhere. The parallel between the book and the city itself is too obvious to miss and too close forcomfort. Spluuerings by Anthony Howard THE PENDULUM YEARS, by Bernard Levin (Cape, 50s). The first book from arguably Britain's best- known journalist is clearly something of an event. From the moment that I originally met Bernard Levin-which was before even he introduced him- self' to readers of the (then) "Manchester Guardian" with that memorable piece on ITV's opening night in September 1955 he was always both templed and tormented by the idea of writing a book. Publishers would line up hefore hint like the burghers of Calais. he would toy with their pleas and requests -only at the end of the day sternly to resist every blandishment that they could otter him. Book-writing, he would announce, was really an uneconomic use of a successful ir+nrnalist's time, talent, and effort. But he kidded no one. We all ;..,L., fl,-ft secretly he wanted to do it-and now he has. The result, it has to be said, merely demon- strates that there were good reasons for his earlier wariness. All the tricks of the phrase-maker, the nimble debating foot-work, the splendid capacity to pick up and immortalise instances of the outer reaches of human folly, are represented in this 435-page personal survey of the Sixties. But the very skills that make Mr Levin such a muster of the journalistic sprint prove his undoing .a long-distance runner. The knowing tone that always before excited now simply exhausts; the seeing-off punch-lines that previously never failed to be funny now succeed only in sounding forced; even that enviable, enveloping self-confidence (does anyone construct and control longer sen- tences?) in the end suffocates rather than stimu- lates. But it is not just a question of the style: there is something badly wrong with the content too. The Pendulum Years is very much a bran-tub of a book-but however deep you dig into it there is never anything approaching a surprise pack- age. Both the events it deals with and the way it treats them are altogether too predictable: whether it is Mr Levin inveighing against Mr Mervyn Griffith-Jones in the Lady Chatterley case or laying into the aged Bertrand Russell -we have been through it all before and do not really need to have it rehashed for our benefit now. In fact the one area where Mr Levin might have had something fresh and arresting to say he h a rd ly enters . The Vietnam War, which was very much Mr Levin's personal cause, at least of the later 1960s (as I ought to know, having had his "Daily Mail" columns defending it regularly presented to me by the LBJ White House), becomes the subject merely of a few bad-tempered pages on Canon Collins, Miss Vanessa Redgrave, Tariq Ali, and sundry other disapproved of British demonstrators. There is no effort on Mr Levin's part to defend or justify the hard-hat position he took up de- manding that we should all be properly grateful for the efforts the Americans were making on our behalf. Charitably, one can only conclude that our Bernard still has enough native shrewdness to spot a loser when he is onto one. But in that case one also has to ask "What about this book?" Perhaps the best that can be said is that it was worth a try. The familiar bril- liance is certainly there in flashes: who else could have summoned up the vision of Sir Alec Douglas- Home "floating on the lethargic sea of his own simplicity" or, for that matter, have characterised Mr Wilson's voice as an "ingratiating wheedle?" But somehow and sadly the total impact is of a damp firework that splutters once or twice and then goes out. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Being Fiedler by Gabriel Pearson BEING RUSTED, by Leslie A. Fiedler (Seeker and Warburg, 35s). In 1968 Leslie Fiedler's home was penetrated by a teenage female police spy concealing an electronic bugging device. She allegedly planted a packet of marijuana which the police seized as evidence that the premises were used for drug- taking. Professor Fiedler has since been sentenced to six months' imprisonment. He is currently appealing. Meanwhile, in Being Busted, he is appealing to the different constituency of intellectual and academic peers. The appeal is simultaneously an apologia and fictional autobiography. His case commands all one's sympathy. The book of the case is another matter and requires to be treated on its own terms. Fiedler views "Being Busted" as a third stage in London Shopping CHRISTMASGIFTS-AIR MAILED TO ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD The best in the world-at Scottish prices! CARDIGANS V-NECK PULLOVERS ROLL NECK SINGLE PLY .Jeer 21 S All prices include insured air mailing charges Cardigan and Pullover Colours: Natural, Navy, Corn, Black, Silver Grey, Clerical Grey, Mid Grey, Light Blue, Coffee, Slate Blue, Lovat Green, Cham- pagne, Scarlet, Wine. Roll Neck Colours: White, Black, Navy, Scarlet, Natural, Wine, Blue, Loyal, Mid Grey, Silver Grey, Cedarwood. 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Air Mail $2.40(20/ per pipe extra. his self-evolution as a controversial figure, living dangerously between such incarnations of the great American polarities as excommunist Jewish Easterner and Montana backwoodsman; a square purveyor of obsolete culture to post literate and myth-obsessed youth. Such a situation requires heroic resiliency. "Be faithful to your ambivalence," he exhorts himself. To be so is to be truly, to be mythically American, "to suit oneself, one's history and one's fate." Above all, Fiedler is heroically a teacher, a critic, a professor. It is in the academy that America encounters institu- tionally and consciously her own vast inarticulate dream. This is the new, last frontier manned by Fiedler with a pen as deadly and self-expressive as Hemingway's gun. He images the academy as "the spot-lighted ring . . . in which bleeding actors and reeling audience are equally violated, only the referee a mediator, dancing his detachment from the kill." "Being Busted" does not turn Fiedler into a pro- tagonist but it does uniquely qualify him for a place in the ring as the dancing referee. The dance inevitably lows up with age; it. seems to age even in this L u1. In spite of some admission of the pathos of tiredness, an ecstasy of self-congratulation still keeps this book fairly high. It celebrates a ENGLISH TEA Mailed direct to U.S.A. and Canada. Superlative teas, each the finest of its kind, in attractive decorated metal caddies. Ideal for gifts. A.rsorOnent AB-One A-lb. caddy each: London Blend, pure Ceylon, superb Indian, new season's Darjeeling, top quality Keemun, choice pure Assam. All six (31h. net) $10.00 Assortment C-All of the above plus one 6-oi. cadd. each: Formosa Oolong, '(-;olden Seal' Darjeeling, Lapsang Souehong, Jasmine Mandarin Pekoe and one 1121h. caddy Gunpowder. All eleven (51h. net ) $17.50 All prices post-paid U.S.A. 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Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 fortunate 1,11, the sheer beautiful luck of being so positioned as to overhear what the young dream and purvey it, not ungainfully, to the old. Being Busted has become the latest mode of Making It. Making It, of course, is still the American Dream and it depends upon the assumption that America is superlative: "America, however, surpasses all the rest"; in efficient repression, that is. Europe remains America's superannuated shadow, at best a consumer durable served up to the tripping Fulbrighter. Fiedler's stay in Sussex left no more deposit than irritation at British self-absorption in the minutiae of her own decadence. Fiedler is a brave fighter. The first half of the book is a wonderfully stylish, self-sustaining dance between the dandified and the demotic that con- stitutes, as in Mailer, the modern Song of Myself. Fiedler notes how Montana wives strove "to extort gardens out of the porous soil." Exactly like th,.~ American writer. Though sooner or later must he not admit that it is extortion, the soil really porous, the wives also relevantly on the scene, the all-male jamboree over? Between the lines of this book one glimpses precisely a responsible domestic sobriety. To admit to that would be heroism indeed, as also that the dream-crazed young should be handled with extreme caution. They may be bugged. HOW ONE ANGLICAN FEELS AS NEW SYNOD MEETS Stage, or halt on road to 1 xe - cenmk sw 1. wr~m' V o;CE Dish L~ ~nadian o~ US and Special f?r reaers! e rder cross a before T1ie Lee er than eED to New GAN p tla t,c fast 'I ubllcation- D. ruOtt01 day of 011-COL Y bSCriP ad9313 rly Su n (both of th world zinc FIZZ in the co yort belOLU t?da~.o. an P President and Seuetary lack Primate - telegram to PM We a heluli d tie Jkquiel .t the peeet- hrethedkt church i01ty / tie mweep. iSehe.rledly alp- ti,, M th, ede er arwe pat tie Intbr .1 the to Yount Ahica. - A,ehibhq ar (Sate..,l k. Ii ,i,,. P c bury eep t duet W. Bete,. AUTHORS WANTED BY N.Y- Leading book publisher seeks manuscripts of all types, fiction, non- fiction, poetry, tech- PUBLISHER MG-1 Vantage Press, 1 20W 31 Street, New York 1001. HARPSICHORD Completely new dc,igo six LWU, Ur rllltS' ., sUtttgs- Kits from $175: also com- pleted instruments. Clavi- chord kit from $1110. Write for free brochure. Zuckermann Harpsichords Inc, Department(:, 11a Christopher Street, New York, NY10014 RIVERSIDE O1lCAN STUDIOS I:rD., 4, Rkheewd Rud, Riw,k,e'e?w-'Tlw.e . surrey. Tel. 51 546 lit! To the Publisher, Methodist Recorder, 176 Fleet Street, London EC4A 2EP 'Please send me a free copy of the Recorder `Please mail me 12 months subscription. I enclose ........................ Aare bran C. Ld. Name ....................... ._._.................. ......._......................................................................................... Address...... ....................................................... ................................................................................... I)rlete whirlr duns nut app/v Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Guardian Weekly November 211970 C42M to rescue Rolls-Royce In its first major intervention, the Government has saved Rolls- Royce. Britain's most prestigious company, from the threat of bank- ruptcy by providing an extra 4'42 millions of public money. This will be used for development on the RB 211-22 jet engine for the Lock- heed TriStar airbus. At the same time Rolls aston- ished the City by announcing a loss of ?48 millions for the first hall of this year (against a profit ?,.f t2.5 millions last year) largely because of provisions made for mounting losses on the RB 211-22 engine, which was accepted at a fixed price in March, 1968. At the time it was hailed as the biggest British export order, which would herald a new era for Rolls-Royce. Instead, inflation and technical problems (including troubles with the much-vaunted carbon fibre blades) have all brought the company to its knees. Rolls admitted last week that up to 600 engines had been accepted for delivery over five years and Engines for the Concorde are financed separately by the British and French Governments. Like most aerospace companies in America, Rolls is more or less mortgaged to the Government. Rolls-Royce's unsullied reputation throughout the world, however, is bound to suffer from the announce me nt. The group has often been criti- cised for having too many brilliant young engineers and not enough financial control. This has been all too well demonstrated in practice, in spite of American companies suffering Similar problems. In the Commons there were gasps of surprise from the Optw- sition when Mr Frederick Corfield the Minister for Aviation Supply, announced that the cost of develop-_ ing the RB 211-22 engine was estimated to have risen from 1'100 millions to ?135 millions. Recog- nising the size and importance of the development programme, he said, the Government had decided to join the company and its VICTOR KEEGAN ON R-R's problems with the Lockheed Airbus contract. So Rolls-Royce, the fallen idol of parent company have plummeted if it is seen as a sign of a volte British industry, has proved the over the last year and 13 and W face by the Government over first big exception to the Govern- itself has had to cough up ?20 propping up ailing companies. To nient's declared policy of non in- millions for technical troubles on have let Rolls go bankrupt was lertruliorr. To be lair the Govern- its Jumbo jet engines. Lockheed, virtually unthinkable. It is a large ment has hinted that aerospace which takes the Rolls-Royce RB employer of labour and the may have to be helped. Bid the 211-22 engine, has been hovering nation's fifth largest exporter. scale of assistance (an extra t42 around bankruptcy largely be- More than that. If Rolls-Royce millions; on top of t47 millions cause of a who-pays-what wrangle had been allowed to go under already committed to save the with the US Government over (1on- there would have been no corn- group from disaster) conics as a tracts. surprise. Rolls-Royce has had its lair the ey aleft in rtile ight world the to challenge And all this just for the RB 211- share of technical troubles, to mke rgh nc Americans 22 engine to power the Lockheed notably with its carbon fibre engines. make advanced civil acrd Airbus. The question of further blades, but they should be seen Electric of AmWithouterica Rolls, salt a ai money for a different version of against this context. Rolls is still and Pratt and the engine for the British or Euro- a brilliant engineering company, worldWhitney would have shared a pean Airbus has been shelved for but the fact remains it must bear monopoly between thine, the nioment. This is expected to heavy responsibility for making with alt that implies for prices cost around ?60 millions-if you the ''shipbuilders" mistake inl.hereture. believeestiniatesanymore. takin on contracts involvin sae are t the elsewhere that The announcement that last advanced technology with no sub- City trek that the Gmajo ba is year's year's hall-yearly profit of 4;2.5 stantialescalationclauses. prepared to see a moor ink- has, after- going into a It is the company's business to ruptcy in an attempt to jolt the disastrous untry disastrous reverse thrust, become make judgments about likely tech- co tion away from net ni it)- a loss of t48 millions this year, is meal problems and the prospects Rolion, is not far elf the heart the, latest in Rolls-Royce's igno- of runaway inflation. As a result Rolls eta}' have been the last to minions fall froni grace. The proud- of these errors of judgment (for escape. est name in British engineering which the Ministry of Technology. In any ease, the Government has seen its shares sink from 50s which was deeply involved, must has yet to decide whether Rolls- last year to less than l2s even share the Marne) what was hailed Royce stays ill the first league of before the announcement was as the biggest breakthrough for world aero engine manufacturers made. Rolls-Royce in March 1968, has or whether it ought to be relegated The Rolls-Royce debacle raises become an albatross around the to the second. That will depend two important points: the ineplica- company's neck. on permission being given for Rolls lions for Government jilt er?vereljolt, On one matter the present to develop an advanced version and the competence of the con- Government is responsible. The of the RB 211-22 (almost a differ- pally itself. In defence of Rolls, replacing of investment grants- ent engine) for whatever airbus it must be said that the world paid in cash-with profit - related the Government opts for. aerospace industry is ina bad benefits by the Government to The Government may yet decide way and to a large extent lives off stimulate investment, has hit Rolls that so much of the country's re- national assistance. The crisis hard. It has no profits against sources of skilled manpower and applies to airframe mail ul act u let's which it can offset anything-or capital should not be concentrated like Boeing, airlines (with the sue- even with which it could take ad- in one company. The choice is prising exception of BOAC), and vantage of the 2r , per cent cut either to opt out of the big league lg liii' iii au ut act tire's. in corporation tax. It is not the and channel the resources saved ['rail and Whitney, the biggest only major British company in this in another more profitable direc?- of the three remaining eugiue cam- position. lion, or to merge Rolls with a panics of any ineportanee, has The (evernux'rrt's kiss of life company outside Britain. This has been in trouble. The shares of its for Rolls could be very misleading already been mooted in the City. that "substantial losses" are forecast. The Government's help is linked to a large management shuffle, in- cluding the appointment of Lord Cole, former chairman of Unilever, as chairman instead of Sir Denning Pearson, who becomes a non- executive deputy chairman. It was also announced that Sir David Huddie, who was knighted for his services to exports after neogitating the RB 211-22 con- tract, is to retire, although he will continue as a "consultant." Government aid of 442 millions is supported by another unsecured loan of ?I8 millions by a group of banks. On present calculations this should enable Rolls-Royce to meet expected cash needs of ?35 millions in 1971 and 425 millions in 1972. All this relates to the need of the RB 211-22 engine for the Lock- heed airbus. If it is decided to go ahead with the British or Euro- pean airbus, still more money will have to be made available. Cause of the trouble-the R 8211-22 engine for the Lockheed TriStarairliner being tested at Derby. The engine shown here is being prepared for its first run in one of the new production engine test beds. bankers in meeting the increased cost- Rolls-Royce, inits financial state- ment, said that provision for engine losses of i;15 millions and ?10 millions for contingencies turned a loss of ?.1 millions for the first 24 weeks of this year into a loss of ?48 millions. In effect the company is throwing all the dirt into this year's accounts. This should enable the group, other things being equal, to show a profit in 1971. British Leyland hopeful by John Coyne British Leyland Motor Corpora- tion will not be coming to the market with either an equity or a loan issue in the near future,. nor is it looking to the Government to mount any financial support operation, In spite of a severe Liquidity strain, which was well known even before the management's warning to Austin. Morris workers, the group has arranged with its bankers to provide extra facilities to fund a capital ex pcndittn'd' plan running in excess of 4:.50 millions a year. British Leyland has recently been the subject of considerable speculation on its financial posi- tion, and one MP has raised the possibility of it bankruptcy in Parliament. With the Rolls-Royce situation coming to a head, speculation on BLMC has intensi- fied, but company sources make it clear that the reports are not accurate. The group's cash problems have been accentuated by the recent changes in investment grants. In the year just ended, for instance, the group expected grants of ?8.3 millions on expenditure of ?52 millions. The group is continuing Settlement by Tom Ticket! The agreement between General Motors and the Auto Workers' Union in America is obviously going to be a major setback to the Administration's efforts to restrict inflation. It appears that the settlement will give the company's workers increases in wages and fringe benefits totalling more than 30 per cent during the next three years, including an immediate pay increase of about 14 per cent. Wages for most men will go up by about 7s to snore l ham ?2 an hour-. The union has won a major victory in getting General motors to accept that there should be no ceiling on the "escalator clause" which will raise pay as the cost of living goes up. The cost to General Motors in wages alone could well be in excess of $2,000 millions a year, The settlement will certainly in- crease pressure for agreement its rolling four-year capital expen- diture plans for 1200 millions, sug- gesting that this year spending will be on a par with last year's. This time around, however, the group will have no grants to aid its cash flow. Of course the 60 per cent free depreciation allowed in its place could be just as valuable in the short term, but only if the profits are available to take advantage of the tax benefits. Present indicators are that British Leyland should indeed have the profits available to take advantage of the changes. There is no reason, say company sources, why the group should not have a "respectable profit" for the present year. In any event, with a deprecia- tion charge of ?40 millions there is only it small gap to find between planned annual capital expenditure of around ?.50 millions. The group's bankers have apparently indi- cated their willingness to accom- modate the group until permanent finance can be arranged in a year or two when capital markets are stronger. As to the year just ended on September 30, City expectations are of a figure ?500,000 either side of break even. at GM elsewhere. In the industry it will be the model for settlements with Fords, Chryslers, and the Ameri- can Motor Corporation, and with firms supplying components. The increases will also set a target for other unions, which will soon be starting negotiations on new contracts. The steelworkers, whose contract expires next year, are determined to get "very, very substantial wage increases" according to their president, Mr I. W. Abel. General Motors' main negotia- tor, Mr Earl Brarmblett said after the talks that the cost of the settle- ment was "substantially more than the anticipated rise in produc- tivity in this country and this, of course, is true of the general level of settlements in recent times." When he was asked specifically whether it was inflationary, lie replied that what he had said was "the general definition of inflation." Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Our 'Enery lightens the gloom It would be easy to take a gloomy view of British sport this week: there have been so many setbacks, ranging from the continuing dreary form of the MCC cricketers in Australia to the inability of home tennis players to dominate the final stages of the Dewar Cup circuit. Throw in the failure of British golfers in the World Cup at Buenos Aires, the drubbing in the Laurel International horse race in Washington, the pronounced dip in attendances at Football League matches, and the unconvincing form of all four home countries in inter- national soccer matches, and this week's sports diary looks as cheer- less as the month that has spawned these events. One chink of light was the success of Henry Cooper in regaining the European heavyweight boxing cham- pionship, the third time he has held the title, having twice had it taken from him for technical reasons. At 36, Our 'Enery" gave the holder, Jose lbar Urtain, the Basque boulder thrower, 10 years and the expected lesson in the noble art as exemplified in all the brutal efficiency of Cooper's ]eft arm. Jabbing, hooking. or upper- cutting, but mostly jabbing insistently in Urtain's face, that left showed little loss of skill, though doubts were ex- pressed later about other aspects of Cooper's abilities. Urtain, one eye closed and the other cut as records of Cooper's ef- ficiency, was unable to continue before the ninth round began, but in the eight rounds he lasted he did enough to expose the fact, obvious as it may seem to some, that Cooper's age is be- ginning to catch up. No one wants to see him end his career horizontal, and there are numerous calls for him to retire. His manager, Jim Wicks, has no such doubts. Cooper next visits South Africa for a couple of fights, and then would like two or three fights as champion before quitting. The simple reason is money . . . "r rt1i ,v r?r '1,',':r rrtirement. But rLS- eager to challenge Cooper, including McAlinden and Bogner in Britain, have much more talent than Urtain, who though strong and willing was mostly wild. It is the yourgsters who could end Cooper's plans abruptly. One thing is sure, though, Cooper's final pay packet will be weighty. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Another boxing success was that of Bunny Sterling, the coloured Common- wealth middleweight champion who is having difficulty getting fights in Britain. Although still suffering the effects of gastro-enteritis, Sterling outpointed Kahu Mahange (New Zealand) in a title defence in Aus- tralia. Sterling hopes to return to Aus- ALAN DUNN'S DIARY tralia to fight their champion, Tony Mundine, and also wants to challenge the European title holder. Tom Bogs (Denmark). More cheerful news came with the announcement of the British team to meet the americans for the Walker Cup at St Andrews next May. It is: M. F. Bonallack (capt.), R. Carr, R. Foster, C. W. Breen, W. Humphreys, .1. S. Macdonald, C. Macgregor, G. C. Marks, D. M. Marsh, H. B. Stuart. Reserves are: M. G. King and A. P. Thomson. Young Humphreys, who drew a touch of praise from Jack Nicklaus after they were paired in the Open this year, is, at 18, one of the youngest players to be selected for the series, while Roddy Carr, at 20, completes a notable double for the Carr family, his father, Joe, being a formidable figure in the amateur golfing world for three decades. While the leaning towards youth is admir- able, there is a sufficient leavening of experience, including the recall of David Marsh after 12 years, to give the team a balanced look. So many top amateurs have recently turned professional that the field for selec- tion has been rather limited, and the team faces a stiff task. The flood of indifferent news can no longer be staunched, however, and one might as well stay on the golf course to record Britain's dreary showing in the World Cup. The Welsh pair, Brian Huggett and David Thomas, were the best of the four British teams, 27 strokes behind the winners, Bruce Devlin and David Graham, of Australia, whose only poor rounds were on the last day when both scored more than 70 for the first time at the Jockey Club course. England, with Tony Jacklin failing to find inspiration from Peter Butler's steadiness, were on 575; Scotland (Ronnie Shade and George Will) on 576; and Ireland (Hugh Jackson and Jimmy Martin) on 588. The individual winner was the highly popular "local" winner, Roberto de Vicenzo (Argen- tina) with 269, beating Graham by one shot. The final four in the team prize were 545 Australia; 554 Argen- tine; 563 South Africa: and 565 United States - thus ending for a year the US domination of both events. The Americans had greater success in the Laurel Washington Inter- national. Fort Marcy, the favourite at 6-5, repeated his success of 1967, finishing a length ahead of the French filly, Miss Dan, in driving rain. The sodden conditions were blamed for the fifth placing of England's challenger, Lorenzaccio, ridden by our champion jockey, Lester Piggott, seeking his third successive victory. Fort Marcy's win brought his earnings in stake money to more than $1 million, the tenth US horse to reach that figure. Soccer took a few knocks this week, notably at the gate. Figures produced by the Football League showed that up to the end of October, average at- tendances were down by t.164 The First and Second Divisions have lost the most, more people are watching Third Division games, and the Fourth Division also dipped. Average gates were: First Division, 31,949 from 33,765 last year; Second Division 15,818 (17,254); Third Division 8,544 (7,880); Fourth Division 5,067 (5,436). Too much soccer crowd violence, reduced standards of play, and tele- vising of extracts of matches were among the reasons for the decline put forward by critics. Certainly, at international level, there seems to be a degree of indifference, perhaps only natural after seeing World Cup soccer pumped through one's tele?.:,. :. . during the summer. At the huge Hampden Park stadium, 24,000 were scattered like birds around the stands for Scotland's match with Denmark in the European Nations Cup. Scotland, hit by injuries, squeezed a win 1-0, but did little to encourage the 24,000 to call again. Four thousand fewer were at Cardiff to see Wales secure a goalless draw against the strong Rumanian side, while only 17,000 turned out at Hull to watch England beat Sweden in an Under-23 international. These are End of an athletics era There will be no more athletics at th? White City, London. In a tortuous statement last week the Greyhound Racing Association and the British Amateur Athletics Board got round tc the fact that the last winning step has been taken, the final long jump Pleasured, and the shot and discus stored away for the last time. For those within the sport in Britain this is hardly news; the closure has been expected, even urged, for the past few years. But for many people all over the world the end of the White City will be like the death of a close friend. People Irr,? Vladimir Kutz, Emile Zatopek, Herb i,:uiott, Peter Snell, Ron Clarke, Sydney Wooderson, Chris Chataway, Herb McKinley, McDonald Bailey, Arne Anderson, Gundar Hagg, Sandor fheros, Laszlo Tabori, John Pennel, Valeriy Brumet, Lynn Davies, Wilma Rudolph, Mary Rand, Tamara and Irena Press, and Nina Ponomoreyva and a host of others will pause and remember an important moment in their athletic lives. It was the Parthenon of the sport, and there were more great athletics achieve- ments at the stadium than in any otherone. It was, as Sydney Wooderson said the other day, inadequate from the time that athletics made its home there in 1932. But that really did not matter, and men broke world records at distances from it mile upwards. The Stadium was built for the 1908 Olympic Games, and it had a dramatic beginning for it was there that Peitri Dorando was helped across the finish- ing line in the marathon and thus was disqualified from taking the gold medal. The greatest race? I put that question to the chairman of the GRA, Laddie Lucas, who has seen most of the big events there since the end of the last war: "Oh, the Kutz-Chata- way race: I can see that tremendous surge in the middle of the back straight now." Anyone else there on October 13, 1954, will have the same clear vision of the man with the red hair matching the surges of the red- vested Russian and finally just getting away from him, an effort that brought a world record of 13min 51.6sec for 5,000 metres. Derek Ibbotson brought the world mile record back to Britain there on September 19, 1957. A perfect piece of pacemaking accomplished by Mike Blagrove of Ealing Harriers cleared the way for a flying last lap by the indomitable Ibbotson who broke the tape and achieved the magical figure of 3min 57.4 sec. Gordon Pirie's singleness of purpose helped to pack the arena through the fifties. But there were moments of freatness seen by but a few, such as the afternoon Adrian Metcalfe set up hree Oxbridge records. for 100 yards, 120 yards, and 440 yards, in less than wo hours. The GRA have fathered the sport ,yell. Having enjoyed the years of the 30,000 and 40,000 spectators, they supported it through the days when economically it was not really wise to do so. "We are a commercial organisation," Mr Lucas told me, "and are responsible to our shareholders. Our revenue from athletics is less than half of one per cent. To re- develop the track with eight lanes and a Tartan surface costing ?60,000 would not have been commercially profitable for three or four meetings a year. "The stadium is to be redeveloped ENGLISH BISCUITS AND PRESERVES A superb pack of West Country specialities the "TRURO PACK" containing: two drums of Cornish Fairings (crisp and crunchy Ginger Biscuits), two drums Cherry Choc- lets (new biscuits containing cherry and chocolate), one drum Cornish Shorties (a delightful shortcake) and one drum Country Maide (a biscuit with a Lemon Buttery flavour). Six drums in all for ?1.10.0. ($3.60) postpaid UK or $ 5.76 postpaid USA From East Anglia the "LIQUEUR PRESERVES BOX" con- taining six 12 oz jars, one each of:-Black- currant with Rum, Apricot with Sherry, Peach with Brandy, Marmalade with Vintage Brandy, Marmalade with Curacao, Marma- lade with Navy Rum. ?2.96 (55.94) post paid U K or $9. 30 post paid USA EGERTONS Postal Gift &ShoppingSeroice 5 FORE STREET, SEA'I'ON DEVON, ENGLANDEXI22LB the type of show occasions when the future senior internationals are paraded, but although England won 2-0 with goals by Brian Kidd, the game drifted quickly into anonymity- In contrast, Northern Ireland had an audience of 48,000 for their Euro- pean Nations Cup match with Spain in Seville. Spain were flattered by their win, 3-0, for the Irish were generally lively, especially Best. But in his next match, Best was booked for the third time in a year and now faces the possibility of a hefty fine and suspension from his club, Man- chester United. Two of Best's three bookings have been for registering dissent from a referee's decision -- the Irish ;Ere traditionally hot tem- pered - but the Disciplinary Commit- tee are unlikely to be charitable, There will be gloom in such North- ern cities as Manchester, Leeds, and Stoke at Sir Alf Ramsey's decision not to include Bobby Charlton, Jack Chariton, and Gordon Banks in his England squad from which the team to play East Germany at Wemhlety next week will be chosen. Banks, con- sidered widely to be the finest goal- keeper in the world, and the Charlton brothers are in their 30s, and Sir All, loyalist but no sentimentalist where the hard world of professional soccer is concerned, knows that the time has come to start rebuilding for the World Cup of 1972. These are his early choices: Clemence and Shilton as goal- keepers; Cooper, Hollins, Hughes, Hunter, McFarland, Moore, Mullery, Reaney, Sadler, and Wright as defen- ders: and Ball, BeII, Clarke, Hurst, Kidd, Lee, Osgood, Royale, and Thompson as forwards. Somewhere among that lot there could be the makings of another World Cup side. Lawn ton -z in turmoil at the nrument, saw British preten- sions slapped down in the indoor Dewar Cup finals in London. Francoise Durr (France) beat Ann Jones 7-6, 2-6, 6-2 in an absorbing final, having beaten Virginia Wade in a semifinal. In the men's final the British were unrepresented, John Alexander (Aus- tralia) beating Tom Gorman (US) 5-7, 7-6, 7-6. It was the first time that a tie-break system had been used, and though confusing at first it eventually served its purpose of get- ting matches finished in reasonable order. by John Rodda as an all-purpose one for a crowd of between 7,000 and 10,000 with the crowd on one side housed in a luxury that is not available at any stadium in either Europe or the United States." Last week's announcement was prompted because the only athletics international in London next year will now be at Crystal Palace. With the Women's, Schools, and the AAA championships there, this is the new home of the sport. But the administra- tors of the sport should say so. No Test for Ward by Brian Chapman in Sydney Alar Ward's MCC Test career in Austra'ia is finished before it began. The Derlayshire fast bowler is going home to rngland, but the manager, David Clark, said this week: "We shall not rush him.' The injury to his right leg is still something of a mystery. Clark said: "There is something in his physical make-up which nobody seems to under- stand." Ward is naturally deeply dis- tressed at the decision, but he accepts it as a necessity which is tragic for him. Unless this medical problem can be solved it may cause the close of his career at 23, when he held out promise of becoming one of the great fast bowlers of the world. His X-ray examination revealed "a slight irregularity of the lateral aspect of the fibular," which was due to "a tiny avulsion fracture." The harsh dictum is that rest is essential and that "spurting activity" is ruled out for at least four weeks. The doctors have spoken in their own technical terms, and cricket is infinitely the poorer. The pros and cons of Ward's interest and the team's interests have been fairly worked out. In effect he could not bowl in any Test before the fifth with any degree of prudence." The replacement for Ward is Bob Willis, of Surrey, who at 21 receives his big chance in international cricket. Willis came near to selection when the England team was originally picked. He bowls with fire and lift. though not So outstandingly fast as Ward. It is in his favour that he moves the ball away from the batsman. I have heard Surrey colleagues say that at his best few faster bowlers are his equal, but that he is inconsistent. Willis is tackling a tremendous job out here and will need to be at his peak all the time. If our fast attack cannot crack open the top Australian batsman more effectively than hitherto, we can hardly expect to win the series. The Australian team for the first Test Contains four newcomers. They are Greg Chappell. an all rounder and brother of Ian, Rod Marsh, a wicket-keeper bats- man who supplants Taber, Terlyien-w%. a leg break bowler, and Alan Thomson, the Victoria unconventional fast bowler. It is surprising that Jenner is preferred to O'Keeffe, who bowled so well for New South Wales in the first innings against MCC. Marsh, from West Australia, was described to me as capable of being the first wicket-keeper to score a Test century for Australia. Lawry has to undergo a fitness examination but is expected to play. The side has high potential in batting but does not look so impressive in bowling as Connolly is omitted. The team is: W. F. Lawry (capt.), I. M. Chappell (vice Capt.), G. Chappell, J. W. Gleeson, T. Jenner, It. Marsh, D. McKenzie, I. R. Redpath, A- P. Sheahan, K. R. Stackpole, A. Thomson. K. D. Walters. Ship in Bottle The Christmas present with the difference. Handmade by Scottish Craftsmen. Completely rigged, and in full sail in 12in. bottle. Price The Cutty Sark (Tea Clipper) $26 The Queen Mary, Elizabeth or QEII $25 The Oil Tanker $24 The Fishing Boat $27 The War Ship $26 Complete Pipe Band in Bottle $15 The following yachts are in large upright bottles which may be converted into table lamps. The America $33 Gipsy Moth IV $32 Lightning $30 We can supply any ship in a bottle from a sketch, drawing or photograph. Air Mail Postage and Packing $3. UK and Irish Gifts are posted free of charge. Wights Quality Scottish Gifts, 80 Wilton Road, Carluke, Lanarkshire, Scotland. Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0 What's in it for American business today? A one-day Symposium at the Waldorf Astoria, New York, on Wednesday, 2nd December 1970 9.20 `Introduction' The Rt. l-ion. Lord Robbins, C.H., C.B. Clwirmati of the Financial Times 9.45 `A European Currency- Counterweight to the Dollar' Herr Hermann Abs, mint of the Supera'isory Bnanzl of the Deutsche Bank 11.00 `Financing European Industry' Baron Guy de Rothschild President of Banque Rothschild, Paris Current concern in American business circles, about the development of the European Economic Community, goes far beyond the import restrictions at present before Congress. Is there much likelihood of a `trade war' with Europe? Would the effect of Britain joining E.E.C. be favourable to America? Will a slightly smaller American share of a rapidly expanding European market be greater than a larger share of a stagnant market? Would a single European currency benefit American interests? If a powerful European market has an effect 11.55 `Creating Europe's Industrial Giants' Signor Giovanni Agnelli Chanmooof FIAT, Tinin 2.15 `Challenging Europe's Industrial Giants' M. Louis Camu P,,-ddent, Banque de fintxclles `Britain's Role 3.10 in Europe' Rt. Hon. Roy Jenkins, M.P. 131 itish Channcellot of the Erhequer, 1967-1970 upon the American economy, is this outweighed by political benefits? Does America now face a more formidable challenge in Europe than heretofore or will expansion continue at its recent rate ? These, and other questions of crucial importance to American business, are discussed by six leading Europeans in a Symposium organised by the `Financial Times' of London at the Waldorf Astoria, New York. Entitled `The Challenge of Europe', it could well prove a seminal occasion for all concerned with the American economy over the next decade. Reservation form for The challenge of Europe A one-day Symposium at the Waldorf Astoria, New York. Dec. 2. 1970 Please reserve a total of ticket/s, at $100 each (or any currency equivalent), in the name/s of the following delegate/s: Surname of delegate Position in company Telephone numher_ Guardian Newspapers Ltd. 1970. Published by Guardian Newspapers Ltd., 192 Gray's inn Road, London. WC1 at 184 Deansga to, Manchester, and printed forthem, by Lancashire Colour Printers Ltd. Sandy Lane, Lowton St. Mary's, Warrington. Lancashire. England. Second class postage paid at New York, N.Y., and at additional mailing offices. The Financial Times Symposium and sent to: Mr. Emery Cleaves, The Financial Times Symposium Office, Partners for Growth Inc., 1270 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020. cheque for enclosed/Please invoice Authorised by Position in company Name and address of company Approved For Release 2003/12/22 : CIA-RDP78BO5703A000400100001-0