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Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 cl 6 APR -1376 AN UNCLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR INTELLIGENCE RESEARCHERS Center for the Study of Intelligence, OTR Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Preface Books Papers Articles Page Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 This is the first edition of an annotated, unclassified bibliography designed for researchers on intelligence proc- esses and functions and produced by the Center for the Study of Intelligence in OTR. It was developed primarily for internal use in the Center but is being given wider distri- bution in the belief that it may also be of use to a variety of other CIA elements. An effort has been made to list materials of interest on the processes of collection as well as production, although only a sampling of the extensive, anecdotal "spy" literature of intelligence has been included. It will be readily apparent that the available unclassified literature useful for serious intelligence research is still very spotty. Copies of most of the papers and articles listed in the bibliography are available in the Center. Additional entries suggested by users for a future, expanded edition are welcome and can be addressed to the Director of Studies, CSI/OTR. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Agee, Philip. Inside the Compan: CIA Diary.- Ontario, Canada: Penguin Bdos Canada Ltd., 1975. 640 pp. Agee tells of his career as a junior and middle-level case officer in Quito, Montevideo, and Mexico. City, and his, subsequent disaffection with the Agency and U.S. policies. His stated purpose is to get "useful information on the CIA to revolutionary organizations that could use it." The "diary" has been embellished with Agee's views of the historical, political,, and economic contexts . of. his opera- tions as he has come to view them since leaving the Agency; Allison, Graham T. Essence of Decision, Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1971. 338 pp. Allison presents three models for understanding government behavior: Rational Actor, Organizational Process, and Bureau- cratic Politics. He describes the logic of-each riodel, then applies the model to the Cuban missile crisis., The study includes information on the role of intelligence during the crisis and is useful in studying the process of intelligence'-support for policy-making. Alsop, Stewart. The Center: People and Power in Political Washington. New York: Harper #, Row, 1968. 365 pp. In Chapter 8 (pp. 213-252), "CIA: Triumph of the Prudent Professionals," Alsop gives a personal view of many top intelligence officers'and their roles in Agency activi- ties. Individuals he writes about include. Thomas Karamessines, Frank Wisner, Richard Bissell and his role in the development of the U-2, and Richard Helms. Andregg, Charles II Management Of Defense Intelligence: National Security 1-4anagement. "as ington, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, 1968. . 52 pp. A short, primarily descriptive study of the origins of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Barzun, Jacques. and Graff, Henry F. The. flo?dern Researcher. New York: Harcourt, Brace and'Company, 1957. pp. Still one,of the moreuseful aids around; worth a scan by any serious intelligence researcher before he sets out. on his study. Behrman, Jack N. , Boddewyn, J.. J. , and Kapoor,. Ashok. Effects of U.S. International Companies on.-Intergovernmental Relations. ?'Tas izngton, D.C.: Department. of State, Bureau o; Intelligence and Rtiesearch, July 1974. 442 pp. A study of the interaction among U.S. manufacturing businesses abroad, host governments, and . U.S. Embassies to determine the impact on the formation of U.S. foreign policy. The study, commissioned by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State, focuses on patterns of communications among the three groups and ' means for their improvement. In Chapter III the author analyzes. the problems and oppor tunitites in developing and-using intelligence networks within and outside the international companies. This.cor porate intelligence generally deals with risks and oppor- tunities for business abroad, which affect company policy formation and implementation. Biackstock, Paul W. The Strate of Subversion: flan ulating the Politics of Other Nations.iicago: Quadrangle Books, 1964. 351 pp. Although ten years old,-this volume takes on new meaning in the light of the attention focused on CIA's covert action function. The author, with some intelligence experience", but now a college professor, reviews not only the common CA episodes usually contained in volumes of this kind, but also includes a good deal of reflective material on the implications as he sees them of CA'operations. A research study of CA or,: of any intelligence collection function would need to. include this volume as one of its starting points. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Blum, Richard II., ed. Surveillance and Es iona.;e in a Free Society, A Report by the Planning Group on Intelligence and Security to. the Policy,Co.uncil.of the Democratic National Committee. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972. 319pp This is by far the best col.le.ction to date of articles on the myriad aspects of the role of intelligence, domestic and foreign, in our society. Lost of the articles, which range through discussions of the.:FBI and police intelligence to the CIA and policy'support,.are written by those at least.mildly critical of the CIA and interested in change. Any researcher dealing with the larger issues. concerning the role of intelli- gence in our government and policy could start with this volume. Borosage, Robert L. and Narks, John.` The CIA File. New York: Grossman/Viking, 1976. 23.6 pp. This book i's 'primarily a compilation of the record of a .meeting held in Washington, D.C., in September 1974 which was devoted'toairing objections to CIA's involvement in.. Covert Activities. It includes the speech'to the group by then CIA Director William Colby and the.que.stion,?and answer period which followed that speech. .The book'.has chapters (speeches) by the most prominent of the critics of CIA, both responsible and irresponsible. It duplicates entirely the feature section of Society magazine, Volume 1.2, Number 3, entitled "Espionage USA," March/April 1975, which in turn is a slightly edited down treatment of each of the speeches at-the session. The book provides a full catalog of the sins of which the CIA is-accused. Bryan, George S. The Spy in America. :Philadelphia:. Lippincott, 1943. 256 pp. The history of American intelligence from the Revolutionary War until the end of-the First World War.' Canada. Reort'of Royal Commission to Investigate Disclosures of Secret and Confidential In ormation to Unauthorize Persons. Ottawa: Cloutier; 1946. 733 pp. One of the few official accounts in the public realm of the operation of a Soviet spy net. Useful for researchers on espionage operations and comparative intelligence. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch`of the Government (Hoover Commission), "Intelligence Activities," A Report to the Congress ' (containing the Commis.s.ion and' Clark Task Force Deports) June 1955. Clark, Keith C.,'and Legere,' Laurence J., e.ds. The President and the Management of National Security. New York: Frederic A. Praeger', 1'969, 274 pp. 'lost of the studies of'the overall management-of the national security process have been produced by various executive and congressional commissions. This volume has the virtue of being a non-governmental report designed to resume the organi- zational history of the process since 11W1 II, pose and grapple with the major conceptual issues in the process and evaluate various alternatives for changed organization which would lead to an improvement of the process. The authors are all experienced government hands and their observations reflect numerous interviews with government.offi.cials. A researcher considering any of the issues involved in how intelligence is used in the national security process .could get 'a good basic sense of the user side.-through a review of this volume. Copeland, Niles. The Real Spy World. London: Weidenfe1d and Nicolson, 1974.- 391 p. A journalistic, anecdotal perspective and defense of espionage, counterespionage, and covert action as conducted by the CIA. The writer is a former Agency officer who was present at the creation. Researchers working on case histories involving specific episodes of Agency activities would wish to check this volume for assistance. Copeland, Miles. l''ithout Cloak or Dagger. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974. pp. The book is interesting and readable, explaining the basics of espionage operations, agent handling, and the operation of a CIA field station.. Copeland writes about the Agency in a favorable way, defending it against recent exposes. For a I professional intelligence researcher, the'volume would be useful as a storehouse of lore and anecdotes on the espionage side'of the business. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Cottam, Richard t'l: Competitive Interference grid Twentieth Century Diplomac . Pittsburgh : niversity.o pittsburgl Press, 1967. 243-pp? The author's main thesis is that American foreign policy lacks adequate long-range planning and is outdated in terms of its ability to conduct needed "interference": in the affairs=of others in order to influence short and long-.term,outcomes. The author's "interference" is. the CIA's "covert action," and this book is a must for any researcher seeking to:explore the theory and philosophy that could or should underpin covert action. The author would give. CIA a policy-.making role in order to better rationalize the conduct of covert action by our government.'' Dallin, David J. Soviet Espionage. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1955. 559 pp. A leading authority on Soviet Russia discusses in detail the Soviet espionage system, its evolution, its theory, and its, operational code. The book contains certain "area studies" of Soviet espionage, particularly.Europe and North America. This is one of the most comprehensive and authoritative studies of the subject. Daugherty, William E., and Janowitz, rlorris. A Psychological Warfare Casebook. Baltimore.: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1958. g80 pp. A comprehensive treatise on the subject. One chapter relates intelligence research and analysis to psychological warfare, with a series of case studies of POW interrogations showing how they provide the basis for psy war materials. de Rivera,?Joseph, and Rosenau., James N., consultant. The Psychological Dimension of Foreign Policy. Columbus, 1 o Charles . Merrill Publishing Company, 1968 . 441 pp. O ii This study is'unique as.,an attempt by a trained psychologist to unravel 'the behavioral dynamics- of the individual ,that underlie the process of foreign policy..` several chapters study the way ind.ividual:s.perceive and react to information they receive; later chapters discuss individual motives in decision-making and the psychological factors of group action in foreign policy., A researcher. studying any intelligence process would find nourishment for his research in this volume. It is a must for the study of intelligence support for foreign policy. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498AO00700050003-6 Dorsen, Norman, and Gil.lers, Stephen. None of. Your Business: Government Secrecy in- America. Idew York: he 7771" r~ s, 1974. 362 pp. A useful 'background volume on secrecy in intelligence. operations. It-is a collection of papers read . before a 1973 conference on secrecy in.government,. plus some of the follow-on discussion of the?pape'rs. The authors and participants cover the political, spectrum.. The. general tone is`critical of the CIA and other centers of.government secrecy, but there is some useful marshalling :of.issues'and some nuggets . of. thought here and.there. Dulles, Allen. The Craft of Intelligence. New York: .T'=he New American Library,--1763. 256 pp. A key book for all intelligence researchers. It offers a wide-ranging view of the perceptions on intelligence by one of the Agency's founding fathers .and, as such, covers much of the history and-variety in intelligence through the 1950s. Dulles, Allen. Great True.. Spy Stories. New York: Harper Row, 1968. 393 pp. An anthology of stories presenting "a comprehensive view of the business of clandestine intelligence as it has been prac- ticed during the present historical era." The 39 stories are divided into 11 categories such as networks, double agents, etc., with comments on each by Mr. Dulles. Recommended. Dvornik, Francis. Origins of Intelligence Services. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1974. 334 np. This book describes the early intelligence services of the Ancient Near East, Persia, Greece, Rome, Byzant'iurn, the Arab ?'uslim Empires, the Mongol, Empire, China,, and Muscovy. The author points out that efficient and dependable intelligence services were,a necessity for all the major.ernpires and describes the .use of secret police, counterintelligence, fast communications, road networks, postal systems, and other devices which contributed to their success. -The book is easy to read and would be of interest to the general reader. Although it focuses on early times, it might' be'ma:rginally useful to a researcher working on questions which involve comparative intelligence. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498AO00700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Falk:, Stanley L. Natio*t1.a1 Security Management: The National Security Structure. Washington,--D.C.: Industrial - College o the-Armed Forces, 1967. 166 pp. .A descriptive aggregation of the various government entities that make up the national security apparatus. There is a short, descriptive. section. on the Intelligence Community. A .student seeking'a.basic review of . the national security, process would find the book useful. Solid bibliography. Farago, Ladislas tsar of Wits : The.Anatom o_f. Es ions e and Intelligence. New or : Punk ?, Wagna ,is Company, 1;954 379 P. Typical of the many popularized, anecdotal. accounts of intelligence :and espionage in World War II and. after. Interesting because of the author's effort to develop an organizational philosophy for intelligence.. Ford, Corey, Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown. and. Company, 1970. 366 pp. A "biography of the late William J. ("Wild Till") Donovan, and'the history of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which he conceived and directed in World I^Jar;II." It is based on interviews with one of Donovan's brothers, his wife, associates, and personal papers of Donovan., Appendices contain copies of some of the documents relating to the OSS. Useful for those working on intelligence history., Franck, Thomas PI., and Weisband, Edward, eds. Secrecy and Foreign Policy. TIew York: Oxford University Press, 1974. 453 pp. This volume is worth a scan, but not much more., by researchers working. on a wide range of topics. As a compendium on the sub- ject of secrecy in government, it illustrates that many authors have done a little thinking about a variety of sub-elements of the problem, but that a central, carefully?organized approach is apparently still lacking. Those seeking some comparison of U.S.. intelligence and that of foreign governments will find help here in several articles, as will those studying Congress and secrecy. A section on the public media and secrecy in government mainly covers familiar ground. A .final section on the..individual vs. the state on the matter of secrecy is largely a series of personal vignettes by aggrieved parties in the liberal spectrum such as Daniel Bllsberg's lawyer. 7 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Godfrey, E. Drexel, and Harris, Don R.: Basic Elements of Intelligence: A Manual of Theory, Structure an Procedures refor Use by Law n orcement Agencies Against Organized Crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing - (Technical Assistance Division, Office of Criminal Justice Assistance, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration,. Department of Justice), November 1971. 159 pp. Good, basic,: .,comprehensive works on.the processes of collection and.production of foreign intelligence are still rather rare. Even rarer are basic efforts to define and describe the'intelligence process as it should and does exist in other areas such as the cor- porate and business world. This volume provides the first comprehensive effort to lay out the intelligence process in the field of law enforcement against crime. It was produced by authors thoroughly familiar with the Intelligence Community of the U.S. government and would be of considerable use to. any researcher working in the field of comparative intelligence. The authors attempt to apply.many of the techniques of the'foreign intelligence process to police work. Goulden, Joseph C. Truth is the First Casualty; The Gulf of Tonkin.Affair--I1 usion and Reality. Chicago: Ran . McNally t Company, 1969. 285 pp.. This journalistic study of the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin affair, although highly critical.of the Government decisions and actions associated with it, is nonetheless useful to researchers on questions of intelligence analysis and the intelligence-policy interface. It is one of the few pub- lished works that attempts a description in detail of the intelligence interaction with policy and policy execution in an important foreign incident. Green, J. R. The First Sixty Years of the Office of Naval e Intelligence. mss. The Rican University, : 1 .6 .. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms,: Inc. 138 pp. The author intended-this book to serve as a.refer.ence for unclassified presentations on Naval Intelligence. He has done an admirable jeb.. of filling. the many gaps in material previously available on this subject. He describes ON.I in considerable detail from its creation;, and he elaborates on its effectiveness in specific incidents such as the Spanish- American war, Pearl Harbor, and the Battle of Midway. The book is almost entirely.factual with little o,pi.nion or analysis. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 :`CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Gross, Bertram M..ed. Social Intelligence for America's Future: Explorations in lems..' Boston: Allyn and Bacon,. Inc. 1969. 541 pp. This volume would have a marginal interest for anyone working in the field of intelligence theory. It is a wide ranging analysis of intelligence as information and its-use in measur- ing domestic social conditions in the U.S: in the 70's and 80's. Although there is no direct application .to-the foreign intelli- gence business, the volume does show that others are thinking about the problems of organizing information for policy support in a variety of diverse fields. Several.chapters contain thoughts on possible methodologies for the collection of social. intelligence. Gurr, Ted Robert. Why Men Rebel. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton.'Uni.versity Press, 1970. 421 pp. The theory that,political violence in a,-group is.a function of the relative deprivation of that group has received wide attention from scholarly researchers in the past: few years. This volume represents, one. of the as- yet few attempts to bring the carefully structured thinking of systems dynamics and other new methodologies to bear on political phenomena in a fully rounded.way. Gurr's volume. is worth the attention of analysts and others studying how to improve the intelligence analysis product. Halperin, Morton H`. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign~Policy. Washington, D.C The Brookings Institution, 1974. 340 pp. Another entry''in the growing decision-theory literature by an author with considerable experience inside the national security apparatus. Using the ABH decision and various other case histories, Halperin studies the interest groups that participate in and influence the foreign policy process. There is`a mine of anecdotal information in this volume and a host of intriguing insights.. A mu'st' volume for anyone interested in the relationships between information and decision-making. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Ilalperin, Norton II., and Kanter, Arnold, eds.. . Readings in American Foreign Policy: A Bureaucratic Perspective. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1973. 43 pp. A. collection of articles. on the .decision-making-process in government: Several deal critically with the, role of intelligence in policy support, Others offer..a look at the anatomy of several important decisions, although they do not deal explicitly with the role of intelligence in those decisions. Hamilton, Peter. Espionage and Subversion in an Industrial Society: AnExarninatinan.d iloso o.- )e fence for ttanagement. won: utc inson, 1967. 2 3 0pp. This of the few studies permitting a comparison of foreign intelligence operations with another field of intelligence, in this case industrial espionage. It con- centrates on English industry, but is very.scholarly, conceptual, and well organized in layinr.out the uses, scope and defenses against industrial intelligence. Useful for n researcher in areas of comparative intelligence. Pasw.ell, Jock. British rlilitar Intelligence. London: l:Ieidenfeld Cr Nico son, 1973. pp. Haswell, a retired array major, did not hold intelligence assignments while on active duty. After retiring he was em- ployed at the British School of Service Intelligence as a writer. The book is of more interest and use to the general reader than to professional intelligence officers. It con- tains anecdotes of British military intelligence operations tip through the first. World.'iar.. .Iead, Richard C. and Rokke, Ervin J., eds. American Defense Policy. 3rd. ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973. 696 pp. All researchers on matters of decision making in the national security establishment' owe a debt to their military colleagues at the Air Force Academy for this extensive compendium of articles and commentary on myriad aspects of American foreign policy. Only a scattering of the material bears directly on intelligence, but it is still worth a look by intelligence researchers. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Hilsman, Roger. Strategic Intelligence and National Decisions. Glencoe, Illinois:- e Free Press-, 1956. .187 pp.; A unique, valuable book that attempts to compare attitudes toward intelligence among those. that produce it and those who use. it. Its uniqueness comes.partly from its '?inside".quality, since it is the narrative account of many interviews with users and producers. The author also compares some academic approaches to intelligence with reality in the business and attempts to construct an ideal, rational doctrine of intelli- ge,nce support to policy. For anyone with a professional interest in.intelligence and a desire to be.well-read on the subject, this now 20-year-old volume is a must. Huch of it still describes the state of affairs in the business of intelligence andpoli-cy. Iiilsman, Roger. The Politics of Policy HHaking in Defense. and Foreign. Affairs. New York.: Hari Row, 1971. 198.pp. An unexceptional treatment of the various government power centers and their interplay in the policy formulation pro-. cess. A section on the CIA is interesting for its thought- ful explanation of,the. "power" .of the Agency. Hilsman,,Roger. To Move a Nation: The Politics of Foreign the Administration of John :I _(ennedy. New York Dell.Pulishing Company, Inc., 1967. 602 pp. Essentially a personal memoir and view of the main . crises of the Kennedy years. As such it adds little that is unique to the record. There is a chapter on the place of intelligence in a free society that sketches in.the pros and cons of covert operations and contains some suggestions for limited, careful reforms of the Agency. House Committee on Armed Services. "Amending the Central Intelligence Act of 1949,". Report, August 11, 1966, to accompany II.R. 16306, 89th Cong.., 2nd sess'., I'Tashington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1966.. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 I':ymoff, Edward. The. 0 SS- i4i `',''or1d.l'Tar II The Complete Story of America's First l:'ortire T/srdnage service, the Forerunner ot_ the CIA. New York: $al'lantine Books, 1972. 405 pp. rather than a "complete story," this book is a 'collection of incomplete stories of various OSS.'activities, with emphasis on the human element. The book lacks organization, but the individual. chapters are done reasonably well. '' Ind, Colonel Allison. A'Short History of Espionage New Ycirk David McKay Company, nc., 1963. 337 pp. A chronological review of the h.istory.o.f espionage, illustrative of the numerous rather` shallow, generalized accounts of the subject. Jackson, Henry H., ed. The National , .SecuritI Council: Jackson. Subcommittee Pa ers on o icy.-Making at the, rest ential Level. New for : Frederick A. PDaef~er, 1965. 31.1 pp. This volume contains selected documents and testimony before Congress in connection with the Jackson Committee's inquiry into the National Security Council system in 1960. Many of the problems of decision mechanisms, executive control, and information flow still within the systen are illustrated in t'-is:. volume. As such, it provides a helpful bench nark for intelligence process studies that include consideration of the policy-making apparatus for foreign affairs. Janis, Irving L. Victims of Croupthink: A Psychological Stud of Foreign Po is ecisions and Fi.ascoes. Boston: H-oug ton, IIa. lip Company, 1972. 277 pp. Janis presents his explanation of why foreign policy decision makers who are individually wise, able, informed, and dedi- cated sometimes do and sometimes do not make wise decisions. He deals primarily with the'pressures for consensus and gives examples of it in six situations: the Pay of Pigs, U.S. opera- tions in North Korea, Pearl Harbor, Vietnam, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the formulation of the Marshall Plan. A researcher on almost any intelligence process that deals with personal interaction should review this volume. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Jeffers, H. Paul. The CIA: A Close Look at the Central Intelligence Agency. New York: The Lion'Press, 1970. 159.pp. A superficial volume of little value to ahy serious research purpose. Kahh, David. Tho Codebro.kcer.s The Story of Secret t?!riting. New York: t,Iacmil an:, 1967. 1164 :pp. The most authoritative book on communications intelligence. Kaufman, Herbert. The Forest Ran~,er: A Stud in Administrative Behavior. Baltimore: The Johns, Hopkins, ress, 1960, 19 PP. A study of the behavioral dynamics of a large organization, in some ways comparable to the CIA. in its centraland field elements. It provides interesting grist for the intelligence researcher in that it constitutes a useful, relevant study based on sound sociological techniques but written in a style understandable by the layman. Kent, Sherman. Strategic Intelligence for Arierican World Policy. Pri cn eton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1966. 226 pp. A pioneering attempt by one of the giants. of predictive intelligence to lay out an operat-ional doctrine for the effective writing of intelligence estimates. A must for researchers on any intelligence production process. Kim, Young Hun. The Central Intelligence Agency: Problems of Secrecy i n -Democrat. Lexington,. Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company, 1968. 113 pp. A collection of articles now somewhat out of date, but by prominent authors, on a variety of issues riuch in the news today. Deals with the establishment of CIA, its functions'and performance,. and the need for super- vision and control of the Agency. Overall, the book is critical of the 'Agency. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr. The Peal CIA. New Yo.r.l:: ,.acrlillan, -19.68. 312 pp. The author uses his wealth of knowledge gained from personal experience in the middle and top management of the CIA to describe the Agency and its role. Anecdotes based on his experience in intelligence give-the public an.insider's view of the Agency. and its' as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the U-2 incident. A scholarly book with many documentary references. Valuable because of his view of the. strengths as well as the weaknesses of the Agency. Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr: The Intelligence Conmunit : Foreign Policy and Domestic Activities. New York: Hill and T,r.ani , 1973.. 212 pp. The author draws on his personal' experience in-the CTA for this authoritative book on the development and functi'on- ing of the Intelligence Community. It covers the' period!l947- 1973 and describes the impact of intelligence on policy- making in the White House. A good book for the. general reader; well documented. -lass, Philip J. Secret Sentries in Space. New York: Landon House, 1;971. 236 pp. I,-.lass tells "the story of the.U.S.: and Soviet reconnaiss-ance- satellite programs, and their impact. on world.affairs."., The author, senior avionics. editor for Aviation Week F, Space Technology, researched the subject well and has provi etc a reasonably good introduction to the topic. Leighton, Alexander II. Hunan- Relations in a Changing World. few York:. L. P. Dutton ( Company, Inc., 1949. 354 pp.'the story of an effort by OWl.personnel to assess Japanese morale, during 11111 II . It represents one of the earliest attempts to explore the nature-of analytical support to policy-making, and the which the social sciences might be brought to bear . in. such' an effort. Those interested in the analytical process~in intelligence, as well as those studying intelligence methodology, would find it worth review. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 MacCloskey, Monr.o. The American Intelligence Community. New York: Richards Rosen Press, Inc.., 1967. 190 pp. A short, superficial resume of.the American intelligence establishment circa 1967. Parchetti, Victor, and T-lark.s., John D.' The CIA and the Cult 98 pp. of Intelligence New York: Alfred A., hnop 9 3 Marchetti, a former CIA employee and harks,' formerly employed by the intelligence division of the State Department, present a critical view of the CIA, particularly its, covert operations. They advocate for the Agency a to "overall supervision, coordination, and processing of intelligence.'-', The book was printed with certai.n.,:portions deleted as a result of.CIA objections. McGarvey, Patrick J. CIA:. The Tl th and. the Psadness. New 9 2 0,pp. 172. York: Saturday Review res's, This is one of the maverick volumes about the Agency written by a former employee whose main experience was on the. analytical side of the house. Subsequently he did a tour with DIA. Any- one interested in the psychological attitudes of Agency employees, or in an insider's approach to some of the. gen.eral criticisms leveled against the CIA, would find it.usefulfto review P IcGarvey.'s volume, keeping in mind that its factual accuracy has been repeatedly questioned.. McGovern, William Montgomer.y,. Strategic Intelli ence and the Shape of Tomorrow. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1961. 191 pp? Another in the set of volumes authored during the initial years of the U.S. central.intelligence apparatus and intended to develop a philosophy and concept for the production of strategic intelligence. Using voluminous anecdotes from World. War II, the author shows the signi-. ficance of secret, economic, "ethnological and ideological information in producing national intelligence. Researchers on intelligence production functions should probably review it for a flavor of the early scholarly work. on intelligence. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Newhouse, John.. Cold Dawn: The Story of SALT. New York: =olt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973 . 302 pp. This book deals with the. personalities, issues, and events in the first round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between Moscow and 11ashington. A first-stage agreement was signed in May 1972. Scattered throughout. the book are refer- onces to .the Central Intelligence Agency and its role in verifying that the Soviet Union is living up to.-the terms of the agreement. ?orth, Robert C., Ilolsti, Ole R., Zaninovich, M George, and Zinnes, Dina A. Content Analysis: A Handbook',with Applications for the to o nternational Crisis ivanston, Illinois: Northwestern University::Press, 1963. 182 pp. An early effort to explore quantitative methodologies in the analysis of international relations. At the heart of this approach is the weighting of words and phrases., used by nations in their dealings. Worth a scan by a researcher on intelligence analysis. Orlov, Alexander., Handbook of Intelligence and Guerrilla Warfare. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1963. 187 pp. Although nearly 15 years old, and concerned with the situation in the 1930's, this is one of the better reviews of Soviet intelligence, primarily general operational doctrine.. The author's advantages are: his former good position in Soviet intelligence; time after leaving it to reflect on it; and some understanding of the American con- cept.of intelligence. One of the more interesting elements of the- book is the author's explicit'and implicit comparison of U.S., and Soviet intelligence services. OSS Assessment Staff. Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office o Strategic Services. ewTark: Rinehart Company, Inc., 1948. 541 pp. to description of the OSS psychological and other procedures for choosing personnel. Very carefully structured and organized, it would be useful for research on the selection of intelligence personnel. . Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Pettee, George S.' The Future of American Secret Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: In antry Journal Press, 1946. 120 pp. This is a short book about the various processes of intel- ligence, from collection'through production, as the author saw them working from the vantage of a. military intelligence officer. in lIorld'ti;'ar' H. It grapples with the problems inherent in these processes that the author believed.would influence the development of a :post-.war American intelligence apparatus. Since the intelligence process has evolved far beyond the author's viewpoint, the book is now of little more than historical interest. Platt,Washington. National Character in Action: Intelligence Factors in Foreign Relations. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press,11961. .250 pp. Platt discusses the importance for the intelligence collector and analyst of understanding the character traits of groups. Unfortunately, he does not relate his group character concepts directly to real problems of inrelli-- Bence.analysis. Thus, the book is only of marginal interest:to students of analysis and other intelligence. processing problems. Platt, Washington. Strategic.Intelligence Production Basic Principles:: New or : Fre eric A. Praeger, 1957. 302 pp. A pioneer effort to define doctrine and principles for the production of national-level intelligence. Nuch of it will strike today's reader as artificial and out'of date; yet, there ate still useful insights to researchers on the` intelligence production process. Prouty, L. Fletcher. The Secret Team: The CIA,:and its. Allies in Control of the United States and the 11orl.' 1nglewoa Cliffs, N. J. r Prentice IIall, 1973. 496 pp. A highly innaccurate attack on the CIA, of no use for serious research. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Ransom, Harry-Howe. Can American Democrac Survive Cold War? Garden City, New York.: Doubleday & Company, Inc.,, 1963 270 pp. Two chapters of .this book-are about the,CIA and include a, generally objective assessment of its early coordination problems with the.. Department of Defense; the difficulties in producing good predictive intelligence; and the appropriate place of covert.action;and a democracy, ,. Some useful background and quotations from early Congressional hearings on intelligence. Ransom, Harry Howe. The Intelligence Establishment... Cambridge, Massachusetts. Iarvar University Press;. 1970. 309 pp. Ransom, Professor of Political Science at Vanderbilt University, has revised and updated his earlier, book, Central Intelligence and National Security, it is,a scholarly work, based on open sources. Unfortunately,.`. even this revision is now out of date in terms of recent Congressional and public criticism of the CIA.~'h?ever.theless, Ransom covers many of the basic intelligence issues,in our society in relation to: the CIA, the Intelligence Community, Congressional surveillance of CIA, and the intelligence bureaucracy and its problems. He also has a chapter on the British intelligence system and its influence on the American system. Since this is one of the more thorough and objective books about the Agency, it would be useful for Agency researchers who outsider's view of the Agency and the Intelligence Community. Report of the-Royal Commission on S.ecurit,_.y . (Abridged). Ottawa, Cana a: The Queen's_?Printer,,1969. 159 pp. This work is worth a look by those interested in the relationship between intelligence and security. Essentially a commission study on how Canada is organized to protect 'her official secrets,. it contains some thoughtful material on the whole general problem of proper'secrecy in government and society. Assumptions are.stated and there is some interesting philosophy. on. how members of- another free society see their security and secrecy issues. - Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Rothstein,. Robert L. Planning,., Prediction, and Polic raking in Foreign Affairs Theory and Practice. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972.''.215 pp. This significant book really consists of. two studies. One is an innovative and. insightful;de.scription.of what. is needed to produce useful planning, in the foreign affairs environment and, by inference, in the foreign intelligence field.-The other is an examination of how theory can be made. useful to the everyday pr,acti- tioner of the various foreign affairs arts Researchers on,Agency management, intelligence support-of policy,. and the development of theory and doctrine in intelligence would find this volume must reading.. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: IIoughton Mifflin Company, 1973.' 505 pp. This book deals with the shift in the constitutional balance between ' Congress. and the Presidency. Of..particular interest to those in the field of intelligence. is Chapter 10_, 'The, Secrecy System," in which Schlesinger traces secrecy in government from. the Constitutional Convention to the release of the Pentagon Papers. He favors less secrecy, but acknowledges it will still be up to Congress to. accept its responsibility for being informed.'. Schwien, Edwin Eugene. Combat Intelligence: Its Ac uisition*and Transmission. Washington, D.C.: The Infantry JOurnal, Inc., 1936. 125 pp,. -An-old, but still illuminating, examination of the tactical military consumer's intelligence needs. Senate Committee on Armed Services, 'Hearings, "National Defense Establishment," 80th Cong., 1st sess., on`S. 758, 3 parts. t'iashington, D.C., 1947 Part 3 contains testimony on central intelligence. Senate Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery, Intelligence and National Security, Report, 86th Cong., 2nd sess. Washington, D.C.: C.P.O., 1960. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 $;enate Committee on Naval Affairs, Report to the Secretary of the Pdavy, "Unification -of the '1''ar and Tavy Departments and Postwar Organization for National Security" (Rberstadt Fleport), 79th Cong.,. 1st less., 19,45, pp. 12-13, .:1.5,9-163. I'rief account of World War'-II intelligence organization and Navy proposals for postwar reorganization. "enate Committee =on' Rules `and Administration,, Report, "Joint Committee on' Central' Intelligence Agency," S'enate,fReport ;To. 1570, 84th Cong., 2nd Uashington, D.,G.,..February 23, 1956. The Committee supports, by an eight-to-one vote, the proposal .to establish a Joint Congressional Committee on CIA. Contains the outlines of the argument in favor of such'a move as well as the dissenting argument. Senate Judiciary Internal Security Subcommittee, hearing, "Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments,'.'83rd gong.., 1st Bess. Washington, D '.C. ,, June 25, 195., Part 13. Contains ,testimony and important documents and memoranda relating to intelligence organization within the. Department of State, 1945-1947. See especially pages 8154-,882...; ;sheehan, Ileil. The Pentagon Papers. New York: The New York Times Company; 1977 pp. The "Pentagon Papers" cover the role of the United States in Tndochina from Uorld War II to May 1968, and consists of approximately 3,000 pages of narrative history and more than 1,000 pages of appended documents. They were commissioned by Secretary of Defense Robert HcNamara in June 1967. and completed in January 1969. The Pentagon Papers indicate that the CIA and other intelligence units were generally .accurate in their reporting of the situation in Vietnam. They have been widely used'and quoted by many scholars and Journalists researching and writing on the Intelligence Community. . Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Smith, Richard I`arris. OSS: The.. Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency. Berkeley and Los Angeles,. California,: University of California Press, 1972:.' 458 ph The book covers the field activities of OSS but omits almost completely activities at the Washington head- quarters It is based on unclassified sources, including interviews with a number of OS.S alumni., Smith, Thomas Bell. The Essential CIA. Self-published, 1975. 204 pp. This pro-CIA about the author's experiences in the Agency from 1952-1963. He worked in the.DDP, in the Technical .Services Staff, and as a case officer. Of marginal use to someone studying the early history of the Agency. ,Strong,. ? Sir Kenneth (Maj or.-General) .. Intelligen.ce at the Top. Garden City, New York; Doubleday, 1969. 271 pp. A rather rambling discussion by a very thoughtful, experienced intelligence practitioner of his military career with special emphasis on his activities during World War II as Chief of Intelligence for Home Forces. Although. primarily biographic in format.,. the iv'ork provides useful insights into the proc- esses used by the Allies to assess German intentions and gives-an interesting picture of intelligence collection in its early stages. Useful for researchers on the history of intelligence and comparative intelligence services. Strong, Sir Kenneth (Major General). Men of Intelligence. .New York: A Giniger Book published in association with St. 2aartin.'s Press, 1971. 1.83 pp. The only extant work in the public ,realm which 'offers some comparison of the philosophies and experiences of major intelligence chiefs through John McCone. The author's material on. the American leaders is interesting because of his British perspective. There is some comparison. of American and British intelligence systems--a subject not yet explored anywhere in detail, and an interesting philo- sophical chapter on the ge'neral,role of intelligence and the intelligence officer. A' basic book'for those interested in the literature of intelligence., 21 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498AO00700050003-6 Taylor, John W. R., and Mondey, David. Spies 'in the Sky. yew York: Charles Scribner Sons, 197.3..:,328. pp. Presents the role of in war and peace, beginning with. the 18th:Ce fury The information on the b-2 adds little-that is new and" cohtains some; inaccuracies. Aerial surveillance in the Cuban missile crisis and satel- lite programs are also covered. Tully, Andrew. CIA:. The Inside Story. New York: William Morrow an Company, 1962. 276, pp. Another of the early popularized accounts of the CIA of little use to serious intelligence, research.. Tully, Andrew. The Super Spies. New York: William Morrow and Co., Inc., 1969. 256 pp. So far, only journalistic, anecdotal accounts of T?SA are extant. This one is of little use'to the serious researcher. U.S. Bureau of the Budget. Report:, Intelligence and Security ;activities of the Government. 20'September 194-5. 23 pp-.'' his Report discusses and proposes a plan for. the organization' of U.S.'foreign intelligence.'and security activities follow- ng World War II. It cites the need for a more widespread understanding of what intelligence is,, and calls for separa- tion of security intelligence (counterintelligence) operations' from the more basic intelligence operations. The Bureau of the Budget urges creation of strong departmental organiza- tions with leadership of Government-wide intelligence activi- ties to be centered in the State Department. The' Report could be of interest to anyone studying the background of he Central Intelligence Agency and considering functional or organizational changes in the Agency. I.T.S. Congress, Hearing before the Committee on Armed 'Iervites, United States 'Senate, on 'Nomi.nation o'f William E. Colby' to be Director .vf Central Inte ligence. }3rd Congress, First Session, July 2,20` an 25, 1973. T`ashington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,`1973: 1.86 pp, Considerable. discussion of a number of.main issues and topics in American intelligence today.' Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498AO00700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 U.S. Department of State. Intelligence: A Bibliography of Its Functions, Methods, and Techniques, Part I. Bibliography `do. 33, December 20, 1948. 91 pp. Part II (Perin iical and Newspaper Articles),.Bibliography No. 33.1, April 11, 1949. 60 pp.. Part I contains publications in English or 1.Testern Europe languages since 1900, with a few outstanding works published earlier. Part II covers the same time period, with entries in four groups: I. Organizational Structure; Functions II. Hethods and Techniques III . . Spies and Espionage IV. List of Newspaper and',Periodical Articles On Intelligence U.S. Senate; Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders. An Interim Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations. with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 20 .11,1oV.ember., 1975. , 349 pp. This interim report of the Committee's investigation covers questions of U., S. involvement in assassination plots against' foreign political leaders, whether the U.S. was. involved in other killings, authorization, and communication and control. Alleged U.S..involvement in assassination plots in Cuba, Zaire, Dominican Republic, Chile,. . and. South Vietnam were investigated. Would beof interest to anyone studying investigations of CIA. Vagts,.Alfred. The Military Attache. Princeton: Princeton University Press,.1967. 408 pp. A thoroughly documented history of military attaches, with most of the author's sources preceding 1960. Shows the conflicts faced by attaches as a result of civilian-military. relationships. Whaley, Barton,, Codeword BARBAROSSA. Cambridge, Massachusetts: TheIT.Press, 1973. 376 pp. BARBAROSSA was the'name given by Hitler to his plan to crush Russia. In, this book covering the, 11-month period preceding Germany's '.attack on Russia on 22 June 1941, Whaley presents hi.slexplanation of how-and why Stalin and all the intelligence services of the world were caught by surprise. Interesting in its illustration of the interweaving of various influences--intelligence, press, personality quirk, and happenstance--on the process Approved For Rformulation. 000/08/31 : (;tA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 '':'haley, Barton. Stratagem:, 'Deception and Surprise in War. Cambridge, Massachusetts; P.T.I.T.., for International Studies, 1969. 965 pp ".. very extensive compilation of case histories, based largely on secondary sources and U_,S. military records. Of marginal interest to researchers.lookinc at post-mortem methodology or perhaps covert action. "ilensky, Harold L. Organizational Intelligence: knowledge and Policy in Government and ' In us_t : New York: Basic Boo s,Inc. , 1967. 226 pp. One of the few studies of the intelligence function by a behavioral scientist, Wilensky's work is especially valuable for its examination of .factors which affect the quality and accessibility of intelligence information in organizations. It touches on foreign intelligence work within the U.S. Government, as well as intelligence needed for domestic policy and business decisions. Written between 1963. and' 1966, it is limited by the lack of access to the extensive i-Aaterial on CIA and U.S. foreign intelligence the seventies. The work has a number of highlights including the intelligence '.'failure" case study of the "Great; Salad Oil Scandal." Extensive bibliography. ''illiams, David. Not in the Public Interest: The Problen. of Secures in Democracy. London: Hutchinson ( Co., +Ltd. ,' X965. 224 pp. it look, from the British point of view, at the operation of the Official Secrets Act. Useful to-researchers on com.para- tive intelligence and on the question of intelligence secrecy and the public right to know. Vise, David, and Ross, Thomas B. The Espionage,Establishment.. Jew York: Random House, 1967. 308 pp. Although the authors the intelligence services of the U.S., Great Britain, USSR, and China, the CIA is their main concern. They see the secret power of the Intelligence Community as a threat to freedom. They present more informa- tion on the British intelligence and security services than tad been available publicly upto that time. Their coverage. of the Soviet intelligence system is done well, but the section on Chinese Communist intelligent :. is lacking. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Wise, David, and Ross, Thomas B. The Invisible Government. New York: Random House, 1964. 375 pp. !',rise and Ross say that the Central Intelligence Agency is at the heart of an invisible'government which is shaping the lives of Americans. They give a detailed account of the Pay of Pigs invasion., discuss the National Security Act of 1947 and the early history of the CIA, describe the role of CIA in Vietnam and Guatemala, and include brief chapters on the National Security Agency and the Defense Intelligence.Agency. Vlohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor, Warning and Decision. Stanford: Stanford. University. Press, 1962. 426 pp_. A classic analysis of the problem of failure in intelligence warning A useful reading for any researcher on processes of intelligence production and analysis if only to illustrate the complexity of the process and the difficulties in achievin analytic objectivity. Wriston, Henry Merritt. Executive Agents in American Foreign Relations. Gloucester, Massachusetts, 1967. (Copyright, 1929, by The Johns Hopkins Press.) 874 pp. A fascinating excursion through the history of executive and congressional use of extra-constitutional. agents in foreign affairs. Although published in 1929, it has considerable relevance today in such issues as the proper scope of covert operations and executive responsibility for providing intelligence and information on intelligence activities to Congress. Yost, Charles W. The Conduct and Misconduct of Foreign Affairs. New York: Random House, 1972. 234 pp. Contains a good, short statement of the traditional State Department position against the CIA. The author calls for a smaller intelligence apparatus, with State taking the lead role in reporting and analysis. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Zacharias, Ellis H. Behind Closed Doors: The Secret History of the Cold War. New Yor : G. P. Putnam' s Sons, 1950. x,67 pp. illustrative of the many journalistic, anecdotal accounts Of intelligence developments during the cold war era by on author experienced in wartime intelligence. Illustrates the expectations of this period for the uses of counter- intelligence and covert action. 7,,lotnick, Jack. National Intelligence: The Economics_ of National Security. Washington, D.C.: In use strrial College of the Armed Forces, 1964. 75 pp. A short history and description of the development of the national intelligence apparatus through the 1950s. :lather basic, somewhat outdated, and of limited use in any but a general educational mode. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Brown, R. V., Kelly, C. t,'. , Stewart, R. R., and Ulvila, J. W. The Timeliness, of '`NATO'Res onse to an Impending Warsaw act-Attack:, A .Decision-T eoretic A roar to its Analysis an Estimation.: I'cLean, Virginia: Decisions and -Designs, Incorporated, August 1974. 75 pp. One of the few efforts, in-unclassified literature to apply new methodologies to a 'specific problem in intelligence analysis. Brown, T A. Desirable flays of Displaying Uncertainty to Decisionmakers-. Paper prepared for A. W. Marshall, a'tional. Security Council. Santa rtonica, California: RAND Corporation, 4 Nay 1073. 12 pp. A short description of the advantages of expressing probabilities in analysis. The author advocates the use of explicit probabilities and describes six'.ays of expressing aprobability mathematically." He also points out some pitfalls for the analyst to avoid in presenting.. statements to decisionmakers. .Brown, Thomas A An Experiment in Probabilistic Forecasting RAND Report prepared -Tor Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,.R-944-ARPA. Santa lonica, California RAND Corporation, July 1973. 45 pp. This report describes an experiment conducted by the RAND Corporation to determine ways.of increasing the, usefulness of forecasts by groups and individuals by- having them stated in explicit probabilistic terms. The-experiment is relevant to the question of "how the intelligence community can more effectively communicate degrees of uncertainty to decisionmakers:" Chan, Steve. A.Program-Budgeting Pro osal.for,Foreign Intelligence. TTTinneapolis: University of Minnesota, Ilarol Scott Quigley Center of International Studies, n.d. 43 pp. This paper presents a budgeting and accounting system for foreign intelligence operations by a graduate student' without any direct experience in the intelligence business. Useful only to illustrate how a total outsider sees the overall intelligence process. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Chwat, John Steven. The President's Foreign Intelligence \.dvisory Board: An Historical and Contemporary Analysis (95S-1975) Washington, .C.: Congress of nal T'esearch Service, Library of Congress, '13 November 1975.. 33 pp. summary of the membership arid- some of the main issues in connection with PFIAB'donefrom unclassified sources.- Clauser, Jerome K., and Carter, Elton S. The Design of an Intelligence Discipline: Assessment of Intelligence I ccucational and TThi.n equirements. State College, 'yennsylvania: HRB-Singer, Inc., March 1965. 55 pp. This, the initial section of a planned three=part study of an intelligence discipline, attempted to ascertain the types of skills and knowledge needed by individuals hold- ing,various jobs from analysts through managers in the intelligence analysis and publication cycle. The authors' findings provide a useful cumulation of such skills, and the study would be handy for research on intelligence training. ]ulles, Allen W. 'Memorandum Respecting...Central Intelligence Agency....," submitted to Senate Committee on Armed Services, April.25, 1947. Printed in Hearings..' -Uational Defense Establishment," 80th Cong., lst Bess..., on S. 758, Washington, D.C., 1947, pp. 525-528. A concise statement of hr'. Dulles' views on a central intelligence organization,as of 1947. Evans, Gary Lee. The:.United.States Intelligence Community: A Brief Description o Organization and Functions. Washington, Dom.:' U.S. library of Congress, 10 November' 1971. 36 pp. Would be useful for someone'who wants a:quick overview of the Intelligence Community as it was organized in 1971. Also contains a sho.rt'h.istory of intelligence in the United States. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Graham, Daniel 0. U.S.- Intelligence at the Crossroads. USSIReport 76-1.' Washington, DC: United States;, Strategic Institute, 1976. 17 pp. In this paper, written shortly after his retirement from the position of Director, , Defense. Intelligence Agency, General Graham seeks to put into perspective the issues of actual and alleged shortcomings and abuses of the intelligence agencies. He points out the damage caused by decline in morale, breakdown in bureaucratic discipline, and the loss of essential secrecy. Ile presents his ideas for legislative, organizational., and procedural reforms to correct shortcomings in. the intelligence system. Would be of. interest to anyone studying the investigations. and proposed reorganization of the Agency. Greenwood, Ted.. Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Arrris_;._ Control. Adelphi Papers, Number 8. Lon on: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1972. 28 pp. This short monograph is one of the few nonclassified efforts to assess the capabilities of photographic and other satellites. Knorr, Klaus. Foreign Intelligence and the Social Sciences, Research Monograph No. 17. Princeton: Center of International Studies, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 1 June 1964. 58 pp. (This paper was published originally under the title, "The Intelligence Function," in Social Science Research and National Security, by Ithiel de Sola Pool and Others, A Report Prepared by the Research Group in Psychology and the Social Sciences of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., March 5, 1963.) A long monograph, now somewhat outdated, examining the relationship between the social sciences and intelligence analysis. The author calls for the development of intelligence theory and doctrine shaped to demonstrate the ways social science can be useful. Ocque, Nancy D. The Directors of Central Intelligence. 13 June 1975. 38 pp. A term paper for a foreign affairs course at Johns Hopkins. based on unclassified sources, the paper brings together information about the men who have served as Director of Central Intelligence. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 :,CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 ?ansom, Harry Howe. Strategic Intelligence. Morristown, itew Jersey: General Learning Press, 1973. 20 pp. A short basic outline,'intended,f.or the lay reader, of the elements which make up the process of strategic intelligence. The author also includes-'suggestions for research, on the intelligence process!, many of which are pertinent to today's concerns.. 1iohistetter, Roberta. Cuba and Pearl. Harbor:, Hindsight and Foresight. Santa Monica, California: The . ND Corporation ( RM-4328-ISA), April 1965, 41 pp Also appeared in Foreign Affairs, July 1965, pp. 691.707. An excellent analysis of the classic intelligence problem of warning posed by the Cuban missile crisis and the Pearl Harbor attack. Must reading for any student of analytic or intelli- lence production processes. 30 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Baldwin, Hanson W. (five-article series in The New York Times on Intelligence): July 20, 1948, '"One of Weakest Links in Our Security, Survey Shows--Omissions, Duplications" July 22, 1948,.. "Older Agencies Resent a Successor and Try to Restrict Scope of Action" July 23, 1948,. "Errors in Collecting Data Held Exceeded by. Evaluation Weakness'' July 24, 1948, "Competent Personnel Held Key to Success-- Reforms Suggested" July 25, 1943, "Broader Control Set-Up, is Held Need, With.a 'Watch-Dog' Unit for Congress" A series of five articles on intelligence dealing mainly with the Central Intelligence Agency. Reports on the first "investigative survey.of.the whole intelligence structure of .Government" by Allen _ Dulles , William H. Jackson, and Mathias F. Correa . in1.948.. Describes friction`between-CIA, FBI,`G-2, AEC, a.rid,State. Points out "intelligence. fi,a.scds" and weakness in evaluation of data, personnel pr.oblems, and the need for greater control by means of a Congressional "watch- dog`? committee Of interest in showing intelligence concerns a quarter century ago.. Barnds,.William.J... "Intelligence and Foreign Policy: Dilemmas of'a Democracy.", Foreign Affairs., January. 1969, pp. 281-29S. A thoughtful examination of the evolution of the CIA. A.good general article for anyone dealing with the role of intelligence agencies in a democracy. Bell, Daniel. "Twelve Modes of Prediction--A Preliminary Sorting of Approaches in the Social Sciences." Daedalus.- Summer 1964, pp.. .845-880... Useful short review of predictive methods in the political area. Beginning researchers faced with formulating the approach methodology.for their study would find this article worthy of a look.. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Blackstock, Paul U. "Covert Pilitary Operations." Handbook of PNilitar Institutions. Ed. Roger W. Little. Beverly Hills, Cali ornia: Sage Publications, 1971. pp...455-492. Scholarly treatments of.covert action are rare: This relatively general piece traces;the rationale of governments for CA from the cold war days through the revolutionary nationalist period and dis.cussesthe:vari?ous types'and objectives of CA. Blackstock,.Paul W. "The Intelligence Community Under the Nixon Administration." Armed Forces and Society. February 1975, pp. 231-250. One of the few short, non-journalistic reviews of the course of CIA affairs since the 1971 order from President Nixon on the reorganization of the Intelligence Community. Emphasizes resource allocation problems facing the Intelligence Community. Bruce, David K. E. "The National Intelligence. Authority." Virginia Quarter Review, Summer 1946, pp. 355-3,69. This well-written article would be of interest to those studying the history of intelligence services in the-United States. Includes information on the establishment of the Coordinator of Information, General Donovan's leadership of COl, and the problems faced by the organization. The con- troversy over the establishment of the National Intelligence Authority and the difficulties anticipated for it are discussed. Cline, Ray S. "Policy Without Intelligence." Foreign Policy," To. '17, Winter 1974-75, pp. 121-135. The author, whowas the State Department'sDirector of Intelligence and Research from 1969-1973, urges a return to the effective use of the National Security. Council. and other elements of the "foreign' policy and. intelligence b,` in decisionmaking 'He' criticizes. the issinger-Nixon practice of "secret deliberations at the top" and contrasts what he considers to be the misuse of the National Security Council in the U.S. military ?lert on 24 October 1973 with the effective "close collaboration between intelligence and the NSC" during the Cuban missile crisis. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Cooper, Chester L. "The' CIA. and Decision-Making," Foreign Affairs, January 1972, pp. 223-2`36. A former officer of ONE discusses the process of preparing national intelligence estimates under the old Board system and describes I the values and faults of some specific estimates, particularly on Vietnam. "Coordination of Foreign Intelligence Activities," Directive from the President. Department of State Bulletin, 3 February 194.6,-pp. 174-175. Directive f'rdn the President setting up the flat-iolial Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group and stating the responsibilities of the Director of Central Intelligence. de Sola Pool, Ithiel. "Content Analysis for Intelligence Purposes." World Politics, April 1960, pp. 473-485.. An interesting review of a RAND study dealing with Allied analysis of German intentions' during World War II, using FBIS broadcasts and propaganda analysis.' The author makes several good points in presenting a 'case for content analysis as a tool for identifying trends in'the policies of other nations. Donovan, William J. ."Intelligence:' Key to Defense." Life, 30 September 1046, pp. 108-120. This article was written by William J. Donovan after the OSS was disbanded. lie cites the need for effective intelligence by our Government and points out the weaknesses of the system at the time. He states the precepts of intelligence which he says are being violated. Also included are examples of the work of OSS during World Ilar 11. Of historical interest. Evans, Allan., "Intelligence and Policy Formation." World Politics, October 1959, pp. 84-91. A review with comment and interpretation of three basic books on intelligence. The author's views, are now largely outdated, but of marginal interest to the researcher on the intelligence- policy interfaces 33 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Evans, John W. "Research and Intelligence: The Part They Play in Foreign Policy." Foreign Service Journal, March 195.7, pp. 24-25, 34, 40. I1istorical information on`State's''Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Falk, Richard A. "CIA-Covert Action and International Law." Society, March/April l975,,pp. 39-44. An,emotional attack on covert action based on its. alleged illegality in international .law. Of marginal use. to a study of intelligence and its legal relationships. Falk, Stanley L. "The National Security Council Under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy." Political Science Quarterly, September 1964, pp. 403-434. Would be of interest to anyone studying the role of the National Security. Council (NS Q. Points out the effect of the personality and individual desires of the President on .the role and scope of the NSC. Describes PresidentTruman's emphasis on the advisory role of the NSC.: its reorganization and formal structure under President Eisenhower; and President Kennedy's reorganization of the NSC with a combina- tion of features from the two previous systems. hallows, James. 'Putting Wisdom Back into Intelligence." Washington Monthly, June 1973, pp. 6-17. A critical look at the Agency's analytic effort. as well as .clandestine operations. Mostly a rehash of commentary and insights from other authors. Futterman, Stanley N., "Toward Legislative Control of the C.I.A." New York University Journal of International Law & Politics, ".inter 19.71, pp. 431-458. The author, an Associate Professor of Law at New York University, calls for legislation to restrict the CIA, particularly its use of funds. He describes the laws which set up the CIA and some of the bills before the Congress (in 1971) aimed at more strict control of the Agency. He also discusses the Agency's relationship i,,ith Congress through the four oversight subcommittees and expresses his doubt about their exercise of control over the Agency.. 11hile out of date, this article may be of interest in studying the past relationship Ap~r(i9M,V-SRg asV206a 8/31: IA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Graham, Daniel 0. "Strategic..Intelligence: Estimating the Threat: A Soldier's Job." Army; April 1973, pp. 14-18. Written by Haj. General Graham while-he was Deputy Director for Estimates in DIA,.this article presents his case for giving the military profession the responsibility for intel- ligence estimates, as well"'as collection, regarding the threat to our national security. lie discusses strategic and tactical intelligence, describing them in a gray. that he says is different from their traditional' definitions, Uould be of interest to researchers on Intelligence Community issues and coordination processes. Greene, Fred. "The Intelligence Arm: The Cuban Missile Crisis." Foreign Pol.ic in the Sixties:. The Issues and the Instruments. es. lP.oger Hi lsman and Robert C . foot. Baltimore The Johns Hopkins Pr.ess., 1965.. ~pp.,127-140. Fred Greene,,Prof'essor, of.Political Science at?'Jtl,liams College, writes about intelligence as I`a 'special ,'arm within the realm of American foreign policy in recent decades." The,? used,as,an illustration of the role of intelligence in the formation of policy.' He discusses the philosophic precepts, and the bureaucratic structure of the Intelligence Community, and concludes that ,'though the Intelligence,-Community was surprised at the start, it handled the situation fairly well." Halperin, Morton H. "Decision-Making for Covert Operations." Society, March/April 1975, pp. .45-51. An essay on the advantages the intelligence establishment has in securing administration approval for,covert action. Stresses the lack of independent cross-checks -built. into, thesyst.em. A fuller exposition along the same lines is contained in IIalperin's book on Bureaucratic Politics=and Foreign Policy. Useful for researchers,:on any aspect of the interface between intelligence production and consumpti,on.. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Hammond, Paul Y. "The National Security Council as a Device for Interdepartmental Coordination: An Interpretation and Appraisal." American Political Science Review, December 1960, pp. 8.99 tin excellent examination of the National Security Council (11SC) as a means of:c.oordinated policy guidance Covers the historical background of-the P'SC and its functioning under Presidents Truman and.,Eisenhower. Problems in the operation of the NSC, and possible.ways of making the process work better, are discussed. Ililsman, Roger, Jr.: "Intelligence and Policy-making in Foreign Affairs." World Politics, October 1952, pp. 1-45. Of interest to anyone studying the intelligence interface to policy-making. Hilsman concludes that intelligence, to be useful, must be policy oriente-d'. Discusses th.e,differences hetiieen :intelligence people and policy-making.people and includes a section on the warning function of intelligence. "Intelligence Objectives." Department of State:. Bulletin, 12 May 1946, pp., 826-828 Of interest to anyone studying the history of intelligence in the Department of State. Lists the functions~of the Advisory Committee on Intelligence; Office of Intelligence Coordination and Liaison; Office of Intelligence Collection and Dissemination; and the Geographic Offices. Jervis, Robert. "Hypotheses on Misperception," 1?lorld Politics, Vol. 20, No. 3 (1968), pp. 454-479.' (Also included in Readings in American Foreign Policy: A Bureaucratic Perspective, edited by Tlorton 11. Halperin and Arno1 Kanter. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1.973, pp. 11-3-138.) .An interesting examination of-the mental and psychological processes of policy makers in receiving and taking account -(If incoming information, including intelligence. Of utility to researchers on the intelligence support and intelligence production processes. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Johnson, Robert 11. "The National . Security Council: The Relevance of its Past to its Futur'e." Orbis, Fall 1969, pp. 709-735. The author examines the kinds of functions,the USC has performed during the four'previbus administrations and the kinds of could perform.''He stresses the diffi- culty in generalizing about how foreign and defense policies are made and points out that the NSC is only one part of a complex system. Useful for research on intelligence and intelligence-related organizations. Jones, R. V. "Scientific Intelligence." Journal of the Roya United Service. Institution, August 1947; pp.'-'352-369. .A personal-interpretation, anecdotal in nature, of some. of the major occurrences in British scientific. intelligence in World War II. The author, . who worked in the field, is concerned with the organizational problems inherent in producing good scientific intelligence. Kendall, Willmoore. The Function of Intelligence.," World Politics, July 1949, pp. 542-552.. A review of Sherman Kent's book, Strategic Intelligence. Its value lies in the questions Kendall raises concerning the role of,strategic intelligence,. many of which still. have some validity today. Kent, Sherman. "'Estimates and Influence." Foreign Service Journal, April 1969, pp. 16-18; 45. An essay by the father of the estimative business on the concepts of developing national estimates and the attitudes of policy makers toward estimates. The conclusions are still largely valid. Kirkpatrick, Lyman B. "Paramilitary Case Study, The Bay of Pigs." Naval 111ar College Review, November-December 1972, pp'?' 32-4 An'analysis by a former CIA Inspector General.?of the lessons for the Intelligence Community in the-conduct of covert operations. Criticizes the failure of the analytic side of CIA to be included in the evaluation of the operation. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Knorr, Klaus. "Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the'Cuban Missiles." 'World Politics, April 1964, pp. 455-467. A very, penetrating examination of the. difficulties faced in intelligence analysis when dealing with the subject of inten- tions. Knorr suggests several areas where. useful work could be done in developing intelligence: theory and doctrine. Lay, James S. "The National Security. Council." American Foreign Service Journal, Vol. 25, No. 3 (.March 19I, pp, 1 -8. The author was serving as. the first Assistant Executive Secretary of the National Security Council when this article was written. It would be of interest to.anyone. looking at the early organization and work of the National Security Council from an intelligence perspective.: Lefever, Ernest W. "The CIA and American Foreign Policy." Llano Review, Volume 4, 1975, pp. 1-34. An effort to justify covert action on rnoral` and .constitutional ?rounds. Lewis, Anthony Marc. "The Blind Spot of U.S. Foreign intelligence." Journal of Communication, linter 1.976, pp. 44-55. A solid presentation of,the argument that intelligence analysis and analysts, to be accurate and useful, must make a greater effort to understand the cultural dynamics and psychology of their subject countries. Lockhart, John Bruce. "The Relationship Between Secret Services and Government in a Modern State." R.U.S.I., June 1974, pp. 3-8. A short, concise description of eight "principles" which should govern the operational objectives of any intelligence service, in an address delivered by an experienced British intelligence professional.. Useful in terms of broad'phi- losophy for.intelligence services operating in a democratic environment., Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Loory, Stuart II. "The CIA's Use of the Press: A 'Mighty Wurlitzer."' Columbia Journalism Review. September/October 1974, pp. 9-18. The most extensive commentary so far'in the public media on CIA employment-of journalists in clandestine operations.; P ,Iaxwell, Elliot E "The CIA's Secret Funding and the Constitution." The Yale Law Journal, January 1975, .pp. 608-636. A scholarly effort to prove that the secrecy surrounding the CIA budget is illegal-under Article 'I of the Constitution.. that a regular accounting shall be made of all monies drawn from the U.S. Treasury. Useful to aresearcher on Agency relations with Congress. Millikan, Max F. "Inquiry,and Policy: The Relation of Knowledge to Action." The Human Meanin of the Social Sciences. Ed. Daniel Lerner. New Yore: Meridian Books, Inc., 1959. pp. 158-180. A rathe?r.'good discussion of the problems in attempting to apply social science to the solution of policy issues. Describes differences in the way social scientists and policy makers view research and the results they expect from it. There are many parallels with intelligence support for policy- making. Also discusses briefly the interdisciplinary approach to research in the social sciences. P Morris, Roger. "The Aftermath of CIA Intervention." Society, March/April 1975, pp. 76-80- A good statement of.the case'against covert action?based on humanistic perceptions and idealistic morality. Hurphy, Charles J. V. "Uncloaking the CIA." Fortune, June 1975, pp. 88-91'ff. A general description of the Agency, basically favorable to it. Contains? good statements of most of-the main arguments used in defense of various CIA activities. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 New York Times (five-article series on the CIA)- -April 25, 1966, "CIA:: Maker of,:'Policy, or Tool? April 26, 1966, "How CIA Put 'Instant Air Force' into Congo" April 27, 1966, "CIA Spies.From 100ATiles Up: Satellite Probes Secrets of Sovi:e.t April 28, 1966, "CIA Operations: A Plot Scuttled" April 29, 1966, "The CIA: Qualities of Director Viewed as Chief Rein on Agency" Best newspaper account of Agency in the 1960s:. Pinkerton; Roy 11. "The, Role of Intelligence in Policymaking." Military Review, July 1966, pp. 40-51. Illustrative of the generally shallow interpr.etations.,of this relationship available in public accounts. Ransom, Harry Howe. ."Great Britain's Secret,. Secret Service." '''idway, June 1967, pp. 19-35 The author gives general information about the British' secret service and its success in remaining a "secret" service. Ile contrasts it with, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency:and suggests some ways he thinks the U.S. could profit by following the British example. Would be of inter- anyone studying (1) the problem of secrecy in a democracy or (2) the British secret service- itself. :;anson, Harry Howe. "Intelligence, Political aid Military," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol 7. Mew or : 11acmil an and Free ,Press, 1968, pp.- 415-421. A short, tight general survey of intelligence history and modern functions. It stresses definitions, basic literature, and makes suggestions for further social science research. Iansom, Harry Howe. "Secret Intelligence Agencies and Congress." Society, March/April 1975, pp. 33-38. A short= description, of the origin's and development of CIA -,relationships with Congress . offered in the usual balanced Ransom style. Useful only as a general review. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Ransom, Harry Howe. "Secret mission in an Open Society." The New York Times Magazine,' 21 'lay 1961, pp. 20, 77-79. Written during the investigation of CIA following the "Bay of Pigs" when "troublesome issues" were "raised not only about the efficiency of the C.I.A. but about its role in American, democr'atic' society.',' Points out, .the means designed to controi.the: CIA-.Federal statutes, PNSC directives, PFIAB, and Congressional subcommittees, and emphasizes the need to .keep the Agency under firm, responsible, political authority. Ransom, Harry Howe.' "The U.S. Congress and American Secret Intelligence Agencies." Prepared for delivery at the 1974 Annual meeting,of the American Political Science Association, Palmer House, Chicago, Illinois, August 29 - September 2, .1974, '32 pp. A review of the development. and status of the Congressional review of intelligence which, concludes that Congress needs more information if` it is to exercise a meaningful role in foreign p olicy-making Also reviews legislative intent in the establishment of the Agency. Roberts, Kenneth E. "Lessons of Strategic Surprise: Pearl Harbor,. Cuba and the 1973 TNiddle East Crisis." New Dynamics ' in National Strategy: The Paradox of, ,eneral Maxwell D. Taylor with con Power. Porewor by trributionsby faculty members of the,United States Army War College. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 197.5. pp. 69-89. This is a short essay on the problem of the intelligence analysis of seemingly irrational national behavior.. The author draws a`number of conclusions about the type of analysis needed from studying Pearl Harbor, Cuba, and the 1973 Middle East Crisis. Students of the problem of strategic surprise would find his views pertinent. Rositzke, Harry. "America's Secret Operations: A Perspective." Foreign Affairs, January 1975, pp. 334-351. Makes a case for an oft-suggested solution to CIA clandestine operations: separate covert from analytic CIA functions and put the covert operators directly under the executive in deep cover. One of the more ingenious efforts to develop this approach. By a former CIA officer. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 :tuggles, Richard, and Brodie, Henry. "An Empirical Approach to Economic Intelligence in World War II." Journal of-the American Statistical Association, . March, 1947, pp. 72-11. This article describes the work of. the conomic.Warfare Division. of the American Embassy, in London,_beginning i . n 1943. lTarkings and serial numbers from captured German. equipment were used to estimate Germany's war production and strength. After the war, the estimates,: were compared with official statistics which'became_available, and the-estimates were shown to be highly accurate.: The article goes into great detail on the methodology of the estimates.. Of his- torical interest in,studying intelligence methodologies. Schneier, Edward. "The Intelligence of Congress:,,Information and Public Policy Patterns." The Annals of the. American Academy of Political and. Social Science, March.1970,.pp.'-14-24. A perceptive article on how Congressmen get the. information on which they base their decisions. Useful . for anyone thinking about CIA's relationship to Congress. Scoville, Herbert, Jr. "The Technology of .Surveillance." Societ, March/April 1975, pp. 58-63. A very general rundown on what is?in the public domain on the new technological processes of intelligence collection and analysis. Contains a badly stretched argument in favor of substituting technology.for human operations. Szanton, Peter and Allison, Graham.,. "Intelligence: Seizing the Opportunity," Foreign Policy, Spring 1976, pp. 183-214. The.authors urge taking advantage of the opportunity presented by the events of the past two years to "rethink and restructure the U.S.''intelligence community'." Six proposals are made for reorganization and new procedures. New legislation and effective oversight by Congress are also called for. Comments on the article'by George A. Carver, Jr. and Morton 11. Halperin present two different reactions to the suggestions in the main article.. 42 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Taylor, Rufus L. "Command and the Intelligence Process." United States Naval Institute Proceedings, August 1960. pp. 2,-39. A careful parsing of the various processes involved in the production of from the Navy's perspective. This article is'of interest,-in its historical perspective on the attitudeof,the military toward intelligence. Unna, Warrenl? "CIA: Who. Watches the Watchman?"iarper's Magazine, April 1958, pp. 46-.53. Another article which called for more effective Congressional oversight of the CIA. Cites bills which have been introduced (but not passed) for this purpose. Discusses Allen Dulles relationship with Congress Would be of general interest to someone looking at the history of CIA's relationship with Congress. Vagts, Alfred. "Diplomacy, Military Intelligence, and Espionage." Defense and Diplomacy: The Soldier and the Conduct of Foreign Relations. New or : inn's Crown Press, 1956, pp. 61-77. Discusses military intelligence and diplomacy beginning in the 1600s through the "Cold ?W)ar." There is a brief section on the establishment of the CIA and some of the questions that have been raised regarding its competency, particularly during the Korean W'War. Walden, Jerrold L. "The C.I.A.: A Study in the Arrogation of Administrative Powers.17 George Washington Law Review, October 1970, pp. 66-101. Short, general review of the origins and authorities of the CIA, emphasizing the shortcomings in the law and control mechanisms for the Agency. Wasserman, Benno. "The Failure of Intelligence Prediction. Political Studies, Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1960, pp. 156-169. An academic, theoretical exposition on intelligence, now largely outdated by modern intelligence procedures, but of some interest to researchers on intelligence theory. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 {Tilensky,' Harold L. "Intell'igence in Industry: The Uses and Abuses of Experts." The Annals.of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, "tare 1970, pp. 46-597. some very general remarks about how industries cope with several basic problems of information needs,` especially at the corporate headquarters. host of it is a reflection of lilensky's larger, basic work: Organizational Intelligence: "nowledge and Policy in Government and Industry. 7right, Quincy. "Subversive Intervention." American Journal of International Law, July 1960, pp. SZ1- . An early essay on the conflict of international law and covert operations. . Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 ADMINISTRATIVE - IN'T USE ON MY Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Some Thoughts on the Value, of a Study of Compartmentation in the CIA A prime objective of the Center is to keep as much of its work as possible focused on issues at the core of pro- fessional life in the CIA. We believe that a study of the various impacts of compartmentation in the Agency would fall within this area. We have in mind a study of compartmentation that would range well beyond and indeed would be primarily concerned with other than the necessary, usual security aspects of the subject. If carefully defined, focused and researched, we,believe a study of compartmentation could provide some use- ful insights on a range of perennial issues in the Agency. Depending on the exact focus of the study, we would Hope to get some of the following: --A better sense of whether our general lack of personnel rotation between offices and compo- nents in the Agency is really hurting us. --A clearer understanding of how the continuing trend toward greater professional specializa- tion is affecting overall Agency performance. --Some measure of how well the formal structures, coordinating mechanisms, etc., we have set up to overcome certain acknowledged impacts of compart- mentation have functioned. Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6 Approved For Rele L 68O$Y?1-: UK, A&W, '8A000700050003-6 --Some additional insights into the question of personnel effectiveness insofar as the presence or lack of adequate communication between compo- nents impacts on such effectiveness. --A better sense of the extent to which the free flow of ideas, so important to the early strength and vitality of the Agency is continuing. --A better idea as to whethex needed security precautions which form the rationale for com- partmentation in many instances are being effectively served by present organizational arrangements or are even being observed. ' --An understanding of how our compartmentation, impact stacks up against similar phenomena in other government agencies and possibly in pri- vate business. --A grasp as to how compartmentation impacts on the "central" features of a central intelli- gence system. Obviously the research required to deal seriously with each of the elements above would call for a study probably too diffuse to be useful. We believe that a careful effort -2- Approved For Release 2000/08/31 CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6,Tr. _ Tt^T'^??AL USE ONLY Approved For RLWdiiY M98134ri'xb]id' b7?L,'06498A000700050003-6 at defining the problem could, however, result in the neces- sary refinement of the approach and focus so as to concentrate on a reasonable number of relevant and. rational objectives. A main key to success in all the Center's projects is selection of the proper people to do them. If,a project of this type is to be thorough enough to be useful, it will almost certainly take a team approach. No one individual could bring to it the, experience and breadth to do the job in a reasonable length of time (6-9 months). We will need three to four people with one functioning as a team leader. The latter individual will be most important. He must be fairly senior, so as to pro- vide some credibility and entree in various Agency circles. He must ,nave a wl.c (-. breadth of jor) experience so as to provic1 a good understanding overall of the organi~a.tion and functioning of the Agency. An officer from the DDA with a view of many Agency elements from the support side might be the best bet. There are a number of officers at the GS-14-15 level in the DDA with interests that go well beyond their immediate job horizons. At the present time, we have several more junior officers from other components who could be recruited for the ,_. project to fill out the remainder of the team. There is no one on the horizon, however, who looks like he could take on the senior slot. Thus, the hurdle at this point to get this project started is to find the senior man.:. STATINTL Approved For Release 2000/08/31 : CIA-RDP79-00498A000700050003-6