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Approved For Release 4000/09/06: CIA-RDP79-00798AO010000VO014-5 THE FIRST SESSION OF THE WORKING GROUP VIII ON THE INFLUENCE OF E1VIROZWENTAL CHANGES ON CLIMATE 10 - 21 June 1974 Leningrad *DOC Exemption Letter In ERU File* Leningrad 1974 Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Release Q00/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000WO14-5 REPORT OF THE FIRST MEETING OF WORKING GROUP VIII (INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT CHANGE ON CLIMATE) - FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIXLIST REPUBLICS ON COOPERATION IN THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 1.1 The first meeting of Working Group VIII was,held in Le- ningrad on June 10-21, 1974, as agreed to at the November 16, 1973 meeting of the Joint Committee. The participants in this meeting from both the U.S. and the USSR are listed in Appendix A. Plenary sessions were held on June 10-12 and June 19-21. Details of the agenda, including subjects and authors of formal presen- tations, are given in Appendix B. During the period June 13-18, members of the American dole- gation visited Soviet institutions and observatories in 1.Moscow, Novosibirsk, Kiev, Crimea and the northern Caucasus. There were also visits to a number of institutions in Leningrad during.the first period of the meeting. The institutions visited by the American delegation are listed in Appendix B. 1.2. Working Group VIII, by decision of the Joint Committee, is divided into three projects. To facilitate discussion, the projects have been organized into six subgroups as follows. Project 1. Joint studies of the effects of changes in the heat balance of the atmosphere on climate. a. Subgroup 1 - The in luence of changes of solar activity on the climate. b. Subgroup 2 - Modelling of the climate. c. Subgroup 3 - Assessment of past climates on the basis of the analysis of natural objects and data. Project 2. Joint studies of the effects of pollution of the atmosphere on climate. a. Subgroup 4 - Monitoring atmospheric constituents and assessment of their effects on climate. .b. Subgroup 5 - The effect of pollution of the upper levels of the atmosphere on climate. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For ReleasesWOO/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000Q OO14-5 Project 3 (also Subgroup 6). Joint studies of the meteorology and air-sea interaction Of polar regions in both hemispheres as they affect the climate-of the planet. There were discussions concerning the need to recommend the reorganization of this Working Group to the Joint Commission. Im- portant considerations'for the organization of the Working Group are achieving sufficient disciplinary homogeneity within each pro- ject to permit' successful collaboration and the recognition of the relationship of this Working Group to other groups established under this and other bilateral and international agreements. For the latter reason,, the work of the Subgroup,on polar stu- dies is specifically concerned with problems of climate and not with the broad spectrum of all polar investigations. On the other hand there are aspects of air-sea investigations without which full understanding of the environmental influences on climate cannot be adequately treated, At the same time, the studies of solar activity on climatic variations use different types of data and analysis and are broader in scope than the work of the other subgroups of Project 1. For these reasons a recommendation is made to the Joint Commit- tee for reorganizing Working Group VIII. It is realized that this recommendation impacts the interface between 'the efforts under this bilateral agreement and that on the Study of the World Oceans. It is therefore anticipated that action on this recommen- dation would require communication between the Joint Committees under the two Agreements. The following revised structure of Working Group VIII is recommended: Section 1. Joint studies of the effects of changes of the heat balance of the atmosphere on climate. a. Subgroup 1 -Modelling of climate. b. Subgroup 2 -.Assessment of past changes of the cli- mate on the basis of analysis of natural objects and data, c. Subgroup 3 - Interactions of the atmosphere with polar regions and the oceans as they effect climate. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000070014-5 Approved For Release Q400/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000Q 0014-5 -3- Section 2. Joint studies of the effects of pollution of the atmosphere on climate. Section 3. Subgroup 6 - The influence of changes of solar activity on the climate. This section of the report will list all the proposals for cooperative scientific experiments that have been developed during the meeting.,Not all of these can, or should be initia- ted now. Section 3 will list those projects which we will try to start in 1975. PROJECT 1. JOINT STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN THE HEAT BALANCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE ON CLIMATE 2.1 Subgroup 1. The influence of changes of solar activity on the climate 2.1.1. Scientific cooperation Joint experiments should be conducted to test the vali- dity of possible mechanisms of solar activity influences on atmospheric. circulation and climatic changes. The following are recommended: a) Highly accurate determinations (at least 0.1,0 of the mean) of variations in the integral solar ra- diation flux at different levels of solar activi- ty, both over the whole range of wave length and in separate bands (including infrared, visible and ultraviolet ranges). Provision should be :ade in the future for scanning of the soles _ Disc: b) Synoptic observations of particles enter?n into the upper atmosphere for energies from 10` - 109 eV. c) Synoptic global observations of infra-red radia- tion from the upper atmosphere, especially for the intervals of enhanced magnetospheric activib.i. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Release2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO010 070014-5 d) Anal,sis of observations of concentrations and dis- tributions of ozone, CO2 and H2O in relation to the various measures of solar activity. More exten- sive,ouservations of these parameters, especially at high levels, are required. e) Experimental study of global interaction between the magnetosphere, ionosphere, stratosphere and troposphere for different levels of solar, inter- planetary and geomagnetic activity* f) The study ?of possible changes in the velocity of the Earth's rotation as influenced by solar flares (Danjon's effect). g) Further analysis of changes of atmospheric circu- lation as have been suggested to be related to solar activity. h)The analysis of the variations of temperature and pressure fields in the upper and lower atmosphere during solar disturbances. i) Complex global investigations of the nature of sharp breakings of the atmospheric circulations in connection with solar activity for the purpose of studying the reasons for climatic changes. j) The study of global conditions of formation of droughts in different parts of the world in con- nection with solar activity. Initial experiments on measurements of the solar cons- tant, particle flux and infrared radiation will be carried out in the US and USSR. At a later date, when cooperative experi- ments whould be undertaken, Working Group 8 will refer such proposals through the Joint Commission on the Environment to the appropriate US - USSR organization to handle space experi- ments. 2.1.2 Data exchange Data on solar, interplanetary, raagnetospiieric, ionosphe- ric and meteorological observations should be exchanged on Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Release X00/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000Q O14-5 a regular basis. Specially prepa ?ed lists of times of occurrence of particular features such as solar structures, sector bounda- ries, large geo.aagnetic activity and ionospheric activity should also be exchanged. E;:.changes should use existing channels, name- ly the World Data Centers (A in Boulder, USA; B in Moscow,USSR), which should be encouraged to compile special catalogs of data useful in solar-climate studies. The lists of solar-geophysical data for collaborative in- vestigations should be prepared in the nearest future and should be approved by both sides. 2.1.3 Actions proposed a) The exchange of visits between USA and USSR.? The duration of the exchange visits-should be from several days or several months to one year. Longer visits are considered most important and should include both established scientists, and young scientists. At important meetings on the subject of solar-atmospheric relations in one country it is deemed desirable to invite representatives from the other side. b) The compilation world-wide mailing list of active workers in the field. The mailing list would re- ceive a newsletter and photocopies of any material submitted. This activity should be coordinated with the 1CSU/SCOSTEP Panel on this subject. c) The determination of the indices of solar and geo- physical activities which are to be the most ade- quate ones when analysing and forecasting solar- atmospheric effects. ci) The working Group strongly recommends the develop- ment of short and lone-tern solar activity- for--casting methods. 2.2. Subgroup 2. 1',:odelling of the Climate 2.2.1 Scientific cooperation At present a nuiaber of cliLulte tiieor;r models are availab- Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000070014-5 Approved For Release Aft 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01 ff0if070014-5 -6- le which can be used to study climate variability. Using then models, the first preliminary results have been obtained in the assessment of the role of individual physical processes in cli- Liate formation and its possible natural changes and variations due to anthropogenic factors. Some of these results indicate high sensitivity of the current climate to small variations of climate-forming factors. It suggests the possibility of large-scale anthropogenic varia tions which requires the rapid development of more precise and more reliable methods to assess the mechanisms of climate changes. In connection with existing and planned activity relate to climatic modelling in the USA and USSR, the following gene- ral areas for collaboration may be considered: a) The intercomparison of existing US and'USSR clima- tic models is needed to assess their simulation .properties, b) The construction of new numerical models of the interactive atmosphere-.hydrosphere-cryosphere system (including the stratosphere) are required. In developing numerical models of a climate theory, special attention should be paid to parameteriza- tion of the physical processes which may critical- ly influence climate changes, including the most important feedbacks between the elements of the meteorological regime (for example, the non-con- servative physical, chemical and biological chan- ges of atmospheric constituents such as CO 2, 03 and aerosols). c) In. order to provide consistency in interpretation of results obtained with different climatic models analysis techniques should be agreed upon. The spe- cific proposals should be considered at the next group meeting. d) It is of importance to develop and use agreed upon distribution models for aerosol concentration, moi ture,. CO 20 ozone and other constituents. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For ReleaseQAO/09/06: CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000Gif0014-5 e) The properties of the climatic models and the li- mits of their applicability may differ depending on the methods used for parameterization of physical processes in the atmosphere and the number of the feedbacks incorporated. It is necessary, therefore, to formulate the models compatibly to the require- ments and to evaluate the limits of model appli- cability with respect to concrete problems, f) Consideration should be given to the possible de- sign, performance, analysis.and interpretation of numerical experiments requested by other sub- groups in order to assess the role of specific external (man-made) factors effecting the climate. 2.2.2. Data Exchange Bearing in mind that all the current theories of cli- mate are approximate, it is necessar;; to check these theories against empirical material before applying the models to cal- 0 culations of future climatic conditions. For this purpose, short-term seasonal or interannual observations of meteorolo- gical elements are needed as well as the data on contemporary climate variations and on climate change in the geolo;:ical past. The specification of new observational requirc.,!mnts arc also needed. 2.2.3 Actions Proposed A joint s;;mposium on climatic modelling may be convened in Uzbekistan, USSR in 1976. The United States delegation would like to issue invi- tations to Soviet scientists to visit the following U.S. insl~i- tutions for periods of 6 to 12 months. The invitation is of- fered to the indicated scientist or a collea;;uc to be agreed on by both countries, a) To come to the Geophysical -Fluid D;:na::,ics Labora- tory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion, Environnn ntal Research Laboratories in ceton, N.J. (one or two of the visits to take place in 1975). Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Releas`~ a 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01(A70014-5 i'roi'essor L.I.Budyko - Climate sensitivity and stability- Pio cssor K.Ya.Kondratiev -'Radiation effects of aerosols Academician G.I.Marchuk - Numerical integration methods Professor S.S.Zilitinkevich - Coupled ocean-atmosphere models b) To come to the National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado. Dr. A.F.Treshnikov - Effects of sea-ice Academician G.I.Marchuk - adjoint methods applied to climatic variations c) To come to the University of Washington (Seattle, Washington) _ Dr. A.F.Treshnikov - Modelling of ice dynamics d) To come to Stanford University, California Academician Mustel - Problems of solar activity and climate 2.3 Subgroup 3. Assessment of past climates on the basis of the analysis of natural objects and data 2.3.1. Scientific Cooperation A. Century program (Q - 100 years before present) This will focus on climatic changes in the period of mo- dern instrumental data, including aerological data for the past 20 or 30 years, and will attempt to document the most recent trends of climate together with environmental changes which may have causal connections with such trends. a) Exchange of data, as raw (unsmoothed) time series: (i) Indices of atmospheric circulation intensity and patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. - Update of Dzerdzeevskii circulation-type epoch data by the Institute of Geography, Moscow; (Ya. L. Rauner, suggested coopera- ting scientist). - Updated series of coefficients of empiri- cal orthogonal functions of monthly mean Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For ReleaseZA00/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO0100QpWOO14-5 sea-level pressure (by NOAA Environmental Data Service,. Washington, D.C.; J.M.Mitchell, jr., suggested cooperating scientist)'. (ii) Regional and hemispheric-scale average values of moithly average climatic parameters in Nor- thern Hemisphere. - Climatological surface air temperature in the form of digitized grid-point values on I IBM-compatible magnetic tape for the period 1881 to at least 1960 together with related publications (by Main Geophysical Observato- ry, Leningrad; Ye,P.Borisenkov, suggested cooperating scientist) Updated series (since 1958) of hemispheric. circulation statistics, including zonal and meridional wind indices, free-air tempera- ture, geopotential height, specific humidi- ty, kinetic energy, fluxes of heat and mo- mentum (by NOAA/CFDL, Princeton,N.J.; A.Oort, suggested cooperating scientist). - Complete digitized "World Weather Records" temperature, precipitation and pressure da- ta, by stations, on magnetic tape for the period from beginning of record at each station to at least 1960 together with re- lated publications (by NOAA Environmental Data Service, Washington D.C.;.J.M.Mitchell, jr. suggested cooperating scientist). (iii) Exchange climatological data concerning the energy balance of the earth-atmosphere sys- tem and its geographical distribution. The USSR side would contribute surface-based data on the components of heat balance. The US side would contribute satellite-based data on the planetary heat balance, including cloudiness. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A00100014-5 -10- (iv) Oceanolugic indices of seasonal and year-to- year variations of conditions in the North Atlantic Ocean. Measures of geo;raohical distribution of ocean-surface temperature and heat content of mixed-layer of ocean (by Institute of Oceanology, Moscow; V.G.Kort, suggested cooperating scientist). = Data on oceanic conditions, including month- ly average surface temperatures and their variations over a period of many years, for all available locations in the. ocean (by ITOAA Environmental Data Service, Washington, D.C.; J.M.Mitchell, Jr., suggested coopera- - ink scieiztist) . b) Millenian Program (0 - 1,000 years before present) This will document in greater detail the course of global climate change in earlier centuries, thus lending I)erspective to the course of climate in the 20th century in the context of historical events including the "Little Ice Age" c) Ice-age History Program (0-30,000 years before present, and older) This will help improve the understanding of the extremes of climate, and of the nature of the tran- sitions of climate, both within and following a ma- jor glacial event on earth; and to clarify the geo- graphical pattern of conditions and events during each phase of the glaciation and doglaciation, as. needed to evaluate the accuracy of climate simulation models. 2.3.2 Lcchange of.Data a) Tree-ring widths - un-normalized ring-width series from replicated trees in each of 11 or 12 subpolar sites in USSR, from the Finland border eastward to the Kamchatka Peninsula (by the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Release? 000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A00100 W70014-5 Kaunas, Dr. Bitvinskas, suggested cooperating sci- entist; and by the Botanical Institute, Leningrad, Dr. Lovelius, suggested cooperating scientist). Ring-width series and detailed information concer- ning transfer functions relating ring-width series to climate, for any or all of the more than 49 available sites in North America as desired (by University of Arizona, Tucson; H.C.Fritts, sugges- ted cooperating scientist). b) Exchange paleoclimatographic data acquired according to the plans approved at the Paleoclimatographic Con- ference described in 2.3.3. 2.3.3 Action Proposed. a) Conference on paleocliruatography: a technical confe- rence to be held approximately June, 1975; to be or- ganized to accomplish the specific objectives listed below, and to include as many of the cooperating sci- entists listed below as possible, in addition to other scientists. Country Institution USSR Institute of Geography, Moscow USSR Institute of Geol.agy, Moscow Suggested Participants 'M.I.Neustadt,N.S.Chebotareva, I;1.G.Grossvald, V.P.Gruchuk, A.A.Velichko, N.A.Khotinsky K.N.Nikiforova, N.V.Kind, R.E.Giterman, E.Korenova, M.A.Pavzner USSR All-Union Geological Institute (VSEGEI) Leningrad USSR Institute of Geology, Novosibirsk USSR Institute of Geology, Murmansk US Lamont-Doherty Geologi- cal Observatory, New-York V.N.Saks S.A.Strelkov 'V.S.Broecker, N.Opdyke Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000070014-5 Approved For Release 2000/09/06: CIA-RDP79-00798A0010000014-5 US University of Wisconsin US Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island T.Webb, J.Imbrie US University of Minnesota H. Wright US Yale University, M.Davis New Haven, Qonnecticut US US Geological Survey D.Adam, E.Leopold US University of Maine G.Denton US Ohio State University T.Hughes US University of Washington S.Porter? The objectives of the Conference are as follows: To plan for the exchange of data on 0-14 dated ice- sheet moraines from as many locations as possible in the U.S. and USSR (especially Siberia). - To plan for the exchange of historical palynological data (samples, pollen counts, C-14 dates, and pollen diagrams) from C-14 dated stratigraphic sections located as widely as possible in the U.S. and USSR including areas well south of areas covered by gla- cial ice during the Quaternary. - To plan for the exchange of modern pollen data (samp- les, pollen counts, geographic locations) from sites distributed as widely as possible in the U.S. and USS - To exchange statistical transfer-function techniques designed to extract rainfall and seasonal temperature estimates from fossil pollen data. - To assess the C-14 dating facilities needed to accom- plish the first and second objectives in the U.S. and USSR, and to make appropriate recommendations to in- sure the needed support. To formulate a research plan for acquiring continuous stratigraphic sections (both pollen diagrams from lak cores and soil sequences) covering all or significant Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000070014-5 Approved For ReleaseJ000I09/06 : CIA-RDP79-OO798AOO1OOQ#7OO14-5 portions of the Brunhes Iuiagnetic Epoch (the past 690.000 years) in the U.S. and USSR at a number of widely-distributed sitese b) Conference on paleoclimatic modelling: a technical conference to be held in the U.S. in June 1976 or thereabouts, designed to.ekehange results of expe- riments simulating selected past climates. (i) U.S. scientists will present results of nume- rical experiments aimed at simulating ice-age climates at the last glacial maximum using ge- neral circulation models (NCAR, Boulder, Colo- rado; J.Williams, W.Washi.ngton, and R.G.Barry, suggested cooperating scientists. National Science Foundation's IDOE/CLTIV.P Project Scien- tists and other institutions as appropriate) (ii) USSR scientists will present results of clima- te-modelling; experiments carried on b;y the In- stitute of Geography, Moscow (I.P.Gerasimov, suggested cooperating scientist) and by the Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad (L`.I. Budyko, suggested cooperating scientist).In ad- dition, information on ice-age climate in the oceans will be presented by the scientific staff of the Institute of Oceanology, Moscow (A.Lysitsin, suggested cooperating scientist) and other institutions as appropriate, c) Exchange of scientific personnel. Each country shall have the right to arrange for working visits of up to a total of 6 man-months duration per year by up to 3 scientists. Soviet institutions open to visitation shall include the Institutes of Geography, Geology, and Oceanology in Moscow, the All-Union Geological Research Insti- tute in Leningrad and in Novosibirsk, and the Sibe- rian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in No- vosibirsk. U.S. institutions open to visitation shall include those listed under 2.3.3. above. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Releas00/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A00100014=5 -14- PROJECT 2. JOINT STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF POLLUTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE ON CLIMATE 2.4. Subgroup 4.Yonitorina atmospheric constituents and assessment of their effects on climate 2,4.1. Scientific cooperation a) At present, the USA has 4 baseline stations and 10 regional stations with 2 additional baseline stations planned for the future. The USSR has 1 baseline station and 5 regional stations. It is desirable to enlarge the network of stations and to expand their geographical location. The respec- tive networks should be expanded as soon as fea- sible and largely completed by 1980, b.) Both countries will provide for the accompli- shment of measurements within the WMO program (aerosol chemistry based on the study of the atmospheric turbidity, rain chemistry and C02). Additional measurements beyond these minimum requirements are also being made others are planned* c) Both countries should develop methods of mea6 surement and systems of calibration for carbon dioxide, ozone, and atmospheric turbidity (and other optical properties) at the baseline sta- tions and exchange the experience gained and the data from such work. (i) The US would provide a surface ozone measu- ring system for operation at a USSR remote Observatory. The exchange would be phased as follows: 1974 - one electrochemical concentration cell system 1975-76 - one ahemiluminescence (ethylene reaction) system. One precision ozone generator. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Releasq,~000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A00100QK0014-5 (ii) The USSR would provide one system for the measurement of total ozone (perhaps of the N81 type) in 1974 or 1975 to becpera- ted in parallel with a Dobson spectropho- tometer at a US stations (iii) Each instrument will be. supplied with its maintenance and operating instructions (iv) A scientist knowledgeable in the system operation will accompany the system to the proposed operational location and provide instructions and training in its operation, d) Joint mathematical modelling of the life-cycles and of the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone,aero- sole and other important pollution on atmosphe- ric radiation for their incorporation in global climate models. Exchange of model results to enable mutual improvement. e) Bearing in mind, that atmospheric aerosols is one of the possible factors that may affect climate, it is advisable to carry out an agreed program of investigation of the spatial concentration field, microstructure, chemical composition and optical properties of the aerosol. The first projects in this area will be: (i) The development and design of a field experiment to be conducted in a non-urban location of-the USSR. The experiment would incorporate an angular integrating nephelo- meter to measure the scattering properties at the ground. Other instruments to measure aerosol optical properties at this site may be provided by the US and the USSR to aid in the determination of the radiative and other properties of particles. The chief focus is the massive particle production by industrial Europe after it has had the opportunity for chemical and physical changes. Prof.Charlson (USA) and Prof.Rosenberg (USSR) should coordinate the planning of this experi- ment. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000070014-5 Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A00100014-5 (ii) To develop. proposals on conducting surface measurements of aerosols using lidars (to- gether with supporting measurements, air- craft and balloons) by the next meeting of the Working Group. 2.4.2. Data Exchange Site documentation and data exchange should be organized to permit the cooperating scientists to better anal global pollution. Data should also be exchanged from each basel ne station. (The requirements for these exchanges were furnish to US and USSR Working Group members in June 1974).? 2.4.3. Actions Proposed a) To ask the Working Group on Space Metebrology(Co chairmen are Dr.Johnson and Dr.Alexandrov) to de s- lop suggestions on space remote sensing of the minor gaseous and aerosol components of the at- mosphere, measurements of the spectral solar con stants,and investigations of the radiative proper- ties of the earth-atmosphere system, with the da a obtained to be presented to Working Group 8 for pro- jecting the climate changes, b) A meeting of specialists on atmospheric optics and aerosols should be held. This group would study the role o relative and absolute humidity and the molecular chemical com- position of the processes which influence the variability of the physical andcptical properties of sub micrometer pdrticles in the air. Prof.Charlson (USA) and Prof.K.Kondratiev, Prof. Rosenberg (USSR) should prepare plans for this meeting. It is desirable for this meeting to be held in connection with the IUGG meeting in Grenoble, France, in August,1975. c) A US scientist will be invited to come to the Main Geophysical Observatory of the Hydrometeorological Service in Leningrad to work on problems of measuring minor constituents in the atmosphere. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798A001000070014-5 Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 `S d) in order to improve our understanding of techni- ~.ques for measuring minor constituents in the atmosphere in very clean air, the US would like to invite a Soviet scientist to work at the Mauna Loa Baseline Station for a period of 1-3 months. The Soviet scientist would bring with him USSR instruments to measure ozone and atmospheric aerosols and turbidity. These instru- ments would be used alongside US instruments for a comparative study of theme measurements and other measurements made regular- ly at Mauna Loa. Arrangements for this meeting would be made by Mr.Pack. Approved For Release 2000/09/06 CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Releafsa X000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO010 0070014-5 2.5 Subrroup 5. The effect of pollution of the upper levels of the atmosphere 2.5.1 Scientific Cooperation a) Collaboration is proposed between the University of Leningrad and the University of Wyoming in joint balloon experiments for the in situ measure- ment of stratospheric aerosols, 03, H2O and ions. A detailed description is given in Appendix C. b) It is proposed that measurements of stratospheric constituents, such as NO, OH, H2O (vapor) con- tent, UV radiation and aerosols be conducted using USSR and U.S. instruments on board the TU-144 and other aircraft. A detailed description of the U.S. proposal is given in Appendix D. 2.5.2 Data 1xchange There should be an exchange of i?esults of investigations of the quantitative assessment of possible environmental effect of SST exhaust, and especially the effects on climate. There should be an exchange of proposals on methods and means of de- tecting these effects and of possibilities for minimizing them. 2.5.3 Actions Proposed a) Investigations should be conducted on the best available methods and instruments in U.S. and USSR for ground-based measurements of UV fluxes at the network of stations in both countries. b) The visit of USSR sCientis(s who can report progress on these experiments and data exchanges is invited to Boston, lgiassachusetts and Washing- ton, D.C. in the period 4 to 12 February 1975, including; attendance at the Fourth CIAP Confe- ren.ce (Boston, Massachusetts) during 4 to 7 Feb- ruary 1975? Approved For Release 2000/09/06 : CIA-RDP79-00798AO01000070014-5 Approved For Release00/09/06: CIA-RDP79-00798AO0100QWO014-5 -19- c) A joint symposium on ecosystem response to clima- tic changes should be held in Leningrad in 1976 d) Arrangements should be made to exchange data on anLLcipated production of the TU-144 and other USSR civilian stratospheric vehicles in the future and comparable US data (fleet size as a function of time). e) Arrangements should be made to exchange data and models of crop and ecos=ystem productivity depen- dence on temperature, precipitation, sunli;3ht and solar UV-B flux, including; agroclimatology of corn, wheat, rice, cotton, soybeans, sorghum and table vegetables, as well as sensitivity of crop and ecosystem yield to change in climatic variab- les. f) Arrangements should be made to e: