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September 5, 1956
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Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-009W409,000040001-1 -REQUESTER-VNIff- GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT GEOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE TEVLI-IVATSEVICHI RAILROAD SECTOR Not to be released within a period of 1 year after the publication date of the study without prior approval of SR/6G. Vorcl.s ; Cias3. Ehzhe etffa: T,S 1A+Oxf Aevbeki Pt: Ater. HR-7P--3 CIA/FtR-GR-131 5 September 1956 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS 77,77 tr-t, -REQEHOTER--ONVI--- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Rele-ase : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 WARNING This material contains information affecting tr e National Defense of the United States w thin the meaning of the espionage laws, Title 18, USC, Secs. 793 and 794, the trans- mission or revelation of which in any manner to an unautholized person is prohibited by law. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 "WEAL -RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved Fo - Copy No. 2 GUMP= INTELLIGENCE REPCie MAAR-4R-131 5. September 1956 CENTRA,L IRZELL/GPMCE AGENCY Office of Research am/ Reports MIES= OW -S-Z-444-aucf? COPMEEtringlig Sanitized Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved FortiRgig2W7t1A-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 courzurs Pa A. Introduction 1 34 NOUS]. Summary of the Area 2 C. ftsical Features 4 1. Terrain 4 2. Soil Conditions and Overland Trafficability 6 3. Vegetation 7 I. aydrograpby 9 D. Climate 11 1. Temperatures 12 2. Precipitation 13 3. Surface Winda 15 4. Visibility and Cloud Cover 15 E. Settlement and Economy 16 1. Population Density, Distribution, and Ethnic Composition 16 2. Agricultural Activity 18 3. Settlements and Local Industries 19 F. TransportatIon 25 1. The Breet-Moseow Trunkline 26 a. Trackage and Roadbed 27 b. Rails, Ties, and Signaling System 27 Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleaSta:WA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Page c. Bridges and Culverts 28 d. Branch Lines and Spurs 29 e. Adjacent Telegraph and Telephone Lines 32 .,-. lo Railroad Stations and Maintenance Facilities . . . 33 g. Railroad Traffic 36 2. The Brest-Bobruysk-Moscow HigPway. ....... ? a 38 3. Secondary Reads Along the Brest-Moscow Trunkline . . 40 G. Military Activity and Devolopmept ....... . . . ? ? 41 1. Military Installations and Movements 41 2, Partisan Resistance 46 3.:Soviet Order of Battle for the Belorussian SSR . 47 Source References Selected List of Secret Documents ? Maps and Atlases Air Photography Phop.iLs 48 48 49 49 Foliolias page Fiatre. 1. Drainage and lowland of the type commonly found in the Tovii-Ivatsevichi Area. . .? ? ? 4 Figyre 2 . A swampy forest Characteristic of southern Belorussia 4 S -C -R Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RiliaW7tiA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure 3. :7011g0T.LERES Flood-plain swamp like those along the Yeselida and MukWavets Rivers 5 Piprc . Swampland with its Characteristic vegetation of brush, trees, and marsh grass . . . . 41 ? ? 5 Figure 5. Draining swampland in Brestekaya Oblast' 5 Figure 6. Typical rural scene during the flood season. . 5 Figure 7. Mixed forest with heavy growth of brush and grass 7 Figure 8. Pine forest, typical of the higher, dried land in the area 7 Figure 9. Patch of birth trees in a vet forest 7 Figure 10. Lumbering activity in a pine forest 7 Figure 11. Heavily vegetated swamp area 8 Figure 12. Farmer harvesting marah grass 8 Figure 13. Marsh grass stacked along the Thserda River 8 Figure 14. Transporting marsh grass by boat ...... . 8 Figure 15. Farmer poling horse and plow across a amp. ? ? 9 Figure 16: Farm surrounded by flood waters ....... . 0 ? ? 9 Figure /7. Swamp and flood land of this type can be crossed by boat only 10 Figure 18. Typical vegetation along river banks 10 Figure 19. Method of fidhing practiced in most of the swamps of Belorussia 16 Figure 20. A Strassendorf village of the type seen tbroagnout Belorussia 19 S-B-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Re;fedSSIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. Figure 27. Village located on high ground above Yaseleda Rtrer rollowine; page White Rusaian farmhouse of rough-hewn logs with re,.1d-thatched roof Former Polish farmstead with traditional well sweep Fast train on the Brest-Moscow trunkline Narrow-gauge railroad of the type used in the study area Locomotive water tower at the Bereza*Kartuakaya station Unimproved dirt road of the type commonly seen throughout Breatakaya Oblast' A...93.21nyezMalal 4 Vertical Photographic Measles with Overlays 9 Area Location Maps at 1:25,000 S-E-C-R-E-T 19 20 20 27 27 34 40 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 25X1C Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 GEOGROHIC "WALUTION OF ..711 T:a1:1:71. Introduction TOLJNI The purpose of this study is to evaluste those ph:, caltural, and social features along the Tevli-Ivatsevichi se2tor 4be Brest- Moscow. rairoad 25X1C The railroad sector extends for 89 kilom)ter,3 (55 miles) along the trunkline from Tevli to Ivatsevichl. The st:213 area covers a strip 2 hilometers (1.2 miles) wide on each side of -.74c, railroad. Administratively, it falls within the territorial of Tobrinskiy. Pruzhanskiy, Berezovskiy, and Evetsevichskiy Rayom of Siestslmya Oblast'. According to a recent report by a Westeni diplomat, however, some of the land adjacent to the railroad -- or even a ,i511.,:e of the sector itself -- may be returned to Poland as pari; of proposed territorial exchange with the Soviet Union. The p opc,oai caLLs ;Tor the return to Poland of a strip of Soviet territo'y, incluoiag the rayon centers of Kamenets and Pruzhana, in exchsnle fly rQiish terri- tory around the at center of AugustOw on the 1Z1:1111-aian border. This move may have been motivated by the Soviet desire o eatablish a direct railroad connection from Grodno to Kalirind c,tross Soviet territory. The study is a geographic analysis of the area, i.h particular emphasis on transportation facilities and minter- instaliations. The information presented is based ondata obtained from .arge-scale S-E-C-E-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Fkeiei dIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 eolish and Soviet naps, PN reports. Gem-an eneeeraphy %eRee tiering the latter part of World War II fate), eeceet 25X1C travel reports. Detai1ee4 evaluations of physical, culturaL, gnd Talitarv feateree in the area are based on analysis of Gacimist photoaranhy ev the Photo Ineerpretation Division, The '!evce.eal photo- . phec mosaics at large scale are provided vith everre identif?, in etail the phweicel and cultural features of the ar,-.2a B. General S1211M17`,r of tae Area The Tevii-:vetsevichi Area is part of a glacial oth plein, general:4 referrec as a transition area between the Voikevysk Uplands of the Ridge to the vtorth and the vett sotetheee lowland and flood plain centered around the basin of the Pripyat Rieeer, The nearly level surface contains numerous shallow depressfx':3 le-.ere water lollects, forming swamps or ponds. As a whole, the area let ina6equate1y drained by its smell sluggish meandering streams aed the sem-elementary drainage ditches. Much of it is subject to seasenal feoed;ug. Soils e ry from sandy and clayey in the cultivated areas to OUC77r in the ewamps Large blocks of carefully tended forest covu.-r thf, higher areas where the soil is coarser. In the somewhat low reas the 2orests first grade off into scrub and brush aed then inTo .71Ass and nwamp. The climate of the area is transitional. During iae ummer the maritiev climate of the Baltic Sea Area prevail, and during the wintef the continental climate of European USSR is more pronounced. Small 3E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 linear settlements, mostly- railroad-station occupir the better drained and open sites along the Brest-Moscow Lrm3:line and hilhway. The towns of Berea and Ivatsevichi are the lervest settle- ments within the rai3roari area. Farming is the econohtic va-alstay of the area. At Bereza and Ivatsevichi and at the Isrge? rieoad-station villages, there are some industrial plants, such as brick- yards, grain mills-, railroad repair shops, and otIr 1ii rocessing plants. Considerslle military activity is evident alonF wuca of the rail- road sector. Knowninstallations within the limitt, of the study area Include a large ananunition dump, a fair sized military airfield, and two tank and mobile artillery training and garrison aroas, Groups of soldiers have also been seen 1.orkinq along stretn1-1(-1 the _railroad line, particularly in the vicinity of the settlenerts nt tinanchitsy, 13luden*. Bereza, and Ivatsevichi. Within the are thC gPie1 %Transpor- tation artery is the strategically impOrtant and hvzeied Brest-Moscow trunkline. This da.ible-track line rrier; 77p.t of the freight and militsry traffic betweer. Dijon and the East European satellites. Several rarrow-garr,- brnc 1Y_nes serve either military installations or peet-extmotinp areas _ rail- roads are supplemented by a number of hard-surfaced ond rural roads, mostly former Polish post and truck 4-Daes, The moFst important, however, is the newly reconstructed Brst-Bobruysk-Roslev11- Moscow highway, which parallels the railroad between Lereva and Ivatsevichi. - 3 - S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release7C4A-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 C. Physical Features 1. Terrain The landscape of the Tevli-Ivatsevichi area 'is genereLey flat. The surface slopes gently toward the south and southeest. 0herecteriatic features of the landscape are washed-out remnants of tfx-ItarAl moraines and fluvioglacial deposits, lowland areas interrupted by emttered swamps and ponds, and boggy areas along rivers and rivulets (Figure 1). As e whole, the area is part of the transition zone betweee the Volkovysk Hei.3bts of the Belorussian Upland and the vast southern lowlend centered on the Pripyat River Basin. Local differences in elevation are notably small. The maximum elevations are less than 200 feet above the surrounding plain and occur in the heavily forested area sandwiched between the Yaseltda and Zhegulyanka Rivers. Absolute elevations rise gradually from 489 feet (149 meters) above sea level near the village of Smolyarka to 623 feet (190 meters) above sea level nevx Bronna Gera The Bronna (lora is the most prominent hill formation ithin the entire Tevli-Ivatsevicht area. To the west, toward Tevli, slopes are gentle and elevations range between 476 feet (145 meters) and 52:; feet (162 meters) above sea level. Eastward from Bronna Gore, elevations decline gradually to 439 feet (149 meters) at the Zhegulyanka iiver and then rise again sloptly to approximately 512 feet (156 meters) near Ivatsevichi. Terrain immediately adjacent to the Brest-Moscow railroad trunkline is in general slightly higher than the adjacent land and fairly well Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release': C1A-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Irigure 1. DralimR,.; arAi louland t. the type commorly 5i). the Tevli-Ivateevied Figure 2. A awanpy forest charszteristic of southern Belorussia Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 or: it ,e. v,he ra7t1road. is boretr,xed RUPIMS. 17i0g13, nune of he wet areas 41r4'.* 'ic hIri the forests are Taom: Aionfe the ,.,pitey'n of vra Tho oross art:- in a nor.",,Ilt-soptist direction. Sunitra :;eners-1.1 y o.' the loielend or flood-plain type (Fixre ? =5Tr;) `v r 1evel3 of tr.?. icrrn-banked river generall,- r41, 7 i(-) feet ;2 to :4 meters) and flood much of the surround5n7 -8neause of .2oor ra;;oral and artffi drainage, water remtens n1form3ng 57gnmpt, r1.0 hoIrs that Pre more or less a year-round felF.tur,,1 of the loztelscs-f;e. Much of the ;imp land iG covered with swax,(.--, 'et X1OBEee nnd a poor grovth of brush or trees (Figure 4). SQMP. of the un- drained areas are novered with nools and have ro tree gro4-0x. these Lo population as galoe. DL-) swamps and bogs frequently freeze over. The dept'. of' ice dependent on the thickness of snow cover during the period 07 -inten$e freezing. A heavy snow cover causes uneven freezing of the water slxrtee and freuently results in. breaks In. the tee. Recently tho72e kere been indications that the Soviets are stepping up tbef_r rectsrAtion. program and are draining large sections of the swap and hog arenfr farudng (Figure 5). Notable progres has been reported 'oun th own of Bereza on the Yasel'dn River. - 5 - S-E- -R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A0001000100014 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 FT' 1iks those al brig ? .4 t R-t1+ wmosts figure h. Swarrcland with its charactortatic yogiatatioL of bmsh, trees, and marsh fr:7ass.. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Relea,se,,:c.14.-JDP79-00945A000100010001-1 rf.grts 5. DINA intng swampland ?./1 MS twika,%r3, nblast 1 4 f 'LIM 6. l'..771:1,3e3 7. S enn 3 ell oa le) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release-itIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 2. Soil Conditions and Overland TrafficabilUy Except for the moors and the alluvial soils of river osneys, the lolls of the area developed m$.iniy through the disintegration of glacial Aebris. The soils of the area are of three general types: ti) fairly goo4-; clayey soil developed through the disintegration of mineral-rich ground moraines; (2) generally poor soils consisting of gravel oAd sand deposited as glacial outwash plain; and (3) moor soils. Tho soils range fror various podsolic types to pure peat. The more fertile candy and sanov-ooly podsols, are predominant at the nigher levels d along the edges of IMICr'3 and bogs. Immedkitel:tr southwest of the PArharets River clay e podsola predominate for a distance of some 12 nL1. 1 2Okilometcrs). Oandy podsols over the remainder of the sector except io 'eas of poor drainage, where soils are predominantly or the moor or pectoposit type. The principal obstacles to off-road movement are swamps along the rivers. la some sections, these areas are completely lopessable to vehicles and can be crossed on foot only during the drier parts of the year and during the vinter months) when they are frozea. Such swamp areas are found along the Shebnya River near Tevli, alonfL the Mukhavetk:, River southwest of Stantsiya Oranchttsy, near the settlemli, of Kutnevichi, along the /aseltda' River at Berem, and alon:Lo the Zhegulyanka River near Ivatsevichi. -6- - G-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release:CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Between 'arch aid early May, the swamps are c .:tcy impasnable to both vehicles and persons on foot, except along occasInnn: trails 'Figure 6). In &ct, algost ell the river valleys and other low areas are impassable dnring this period. Vrom Nay to December the swamos maz: i)e negotiated with caution after reconnoitering. During the heavy rainn of late summer ann early fall, secondary flooding occuns but it is not a serious ainbralce to cross-country movement. between uecember and Narch the swaps are frozen over to a depth of 10 to 35 1.nchcs and so are easily pnesable on foot. TE,en:--pt the swamps, traffilability in the Tevli-Tvatsevichi are peaerally good.. The terrain eonsists of very gentle slopes. The rivers are shallow and can be crossed at numerous fords eAring the dry .eason, In wooded are the nvdergrawth is not dense enc.ugh to create 24ucb of e hindrance to cross-country movement. J. ifwetation Vegetation in the Tevli-ivatsentichi area is of three principal 4pes: woodland, brush and scrub, and as and bog. Forest covers mate than half the area and is located generally on the higher elevations, erhere the soil is coarse and sandy, ;0-though mixed stands are not common (Figure 7): coniferous ',;reor$ predominate thronghout the area. 7.)ine and spruce are most =maroon (Figure 8). Deciduous vnrieties Include alder, birch (Figure 9), and maple. Along the edges of swamps, born, and ponds the common trees are vf.11ows, poplars, dwarf birches, and water oaks and alders. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release ? A-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure d? Pine forest, typical of :he dricr land i;a6 ama. Kgqrat to!v4ot with hegl r'roolll of sh an r=iss., Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Relepser,:-,p FRDP79-00945A000100010001-1 - A Apara 9 -?atoh of birch trees in a wet foreot. 10 ')..1mberinr activity in a pine f3ras:L. -E -C -E -T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For-Release'rCIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Tile larger stank s of foroet appear liko i 2. rJ osorrounds.,...; by far and Scrub land or suaar. The forests art,: nut 5.ii order to insure continuous growth and annus,1 crops of trees :P71.61v.'e 10). Smaller woodlands *.vre merely togged over. Porest atands corw,iderable jze aro found in the follouing area: CO a tec1 h kill:meters 04 lailes long between TeU. nd '1,:;h4r'Zti; (2) a stretch 5 kilometers(3mi7 EA; long. west cd* the klukhavets 111--ier7: l3) a stretch 12 kilom.eters long. between Berea and the Zhegat,ranka River es4.:;t of:6n.:?:n.y,s, Gore. to be a forest resorvej; tch 6 kilometer:7, 41 &Alec, long between nekhachevo and the Ivatsevichi vie ixt1ty. Slopes Immediately below the forest are covered h growth of SCrli") and brush vegetation ri.s ar C: also the strips 7,4ithin the forests. Closely associated '11-th forest; aufc scrub vegetation ;.s a considerable underyowth of particularly at .i.wer In areas- are the yea::.. round, i;liert?.. is a iftri-?";:: variety of marsh and bog; 1?egetat1on. ennron varieties are graSt5;.. sedge., vush,willow3 argl t71 rich assori.Awn-; of swamp plants 4:1,1.gLf 11). iAarsh ,!..rielki3 of coarse texture and flat fom OWS to a Aeighi:, Eie%Teral feel:- 7a pvivides fair CI Onemei -paY't cuir1y just b.3*.f.'ore it Is 'aarvested summer f2md early autumn ,,11,10,re 32). Cut Inurshgzaz..,s is usually' stacked along the banks of rivers or ponds unti'linter (.11..g-ure 13). Some of it,? novever, i srried by boat to neighboring ';15.:...itate.r4 or kolkhoses (Fiq.ure 10. Driedrsh. fp,S.SS furnishes 11,11,di,..1 ftxr farm. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Releas.91:194,1RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 T.Igure 11. Heavily vegebated wane aroa. e 12. Farmor harves'Ayr marsh grass. i-E-;-R-E- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release4?R-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 ' re 134 Farsh grass tacked along, the 1:asel da River. Figura 14. Trannpo mare). 6,racs 7,-y- boat,. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Releas;e-!-CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 animals and also Is fr&queutly used Cor thatch inc; The t:41.s of willo,Y trees are used for basket weavirg, or fencing farms id, and in constructing micter causeways across SVIUMpS, 4- :4Yqr?e,AY The rivers that cross the Tevli-Ivatsevichi area are tributary to three major river systems -- the Bug, Pripyat, ard Bemen. The Mullhavets River, tributary to the Bug River, has two tributariee wIthin the area -- the Shebnya and the Gorodechna. The former intersects the railroad about 3 kilometets (2 rAles) sout of Tevli, the :kAtter near Khareki to the northeast. The Yasel'a Riv?r, which flos -oast Dereya, and the Zheleguiyanka, which joins the Yasel'da 6 ki3omatei...s C4 miles southwest of Nekhachevo, are tributary to the Pripyat. The Shchara River flows into the Newen; its tri"cutary, the Gryvda, crosses the railroad immndiatel asst of Ivabse-vichL and agair 4I'althar Y.o the northeast. None of the six streams is navigable by boats 7.Krax-4r than small rowboats, -?ole boats, f.,d motorboats (Figure 1.5). The rivers freeze over every winter, usually durirw, November but sometimes as early as late October or as late as the first navt of December. Tbaving usually 0122/Ars in the lutter nart o March, but it :gay be ar late as the thlrd week of April. ?artimlarly severe flooding occurs during the spring thaws, when villages and settlements located on the alirffitly higher ground become 9 S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Releas,e,, A-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figur3 15. Farmer poling home and plow across a swamp. Figure 16. Farm surrounded by flood waters. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved ForR-elease.!:CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 ..solated islands t2igurc 16). 1.1ate-c levels ms,J re frar ( to IC) feet to 3 meters) and remain at that :;_evel fa:" 1 or 21;,,azdti. i-;efore receding. If the thaw occurs graduallj, flood conditions Inv persist for several months. At food stage it is tapossible to cross the ares by foot (Figure 17). Since all strear3s in the area are borderld by swampland, they are difficult to cross by foot at any see.sor? exctipt during the few -Anter months when they are frozen over. The Muktimrets River :Is crossed by the railroad some miles (2-1/2 kilometers) southwest of Station Uranchitsy. the river -varies in depth from 3 to 16 feet to 5 meters) and is &bout 33 feet 1,0 meters The current is slow, and the flat Walks are swamp- mid peat-covered. The railroad crosses the Yaseli'da R:Lver, which is 59 fiiiies (95 kilometers) long, approximately 1 mile (1.6 kilomaters) northeast of Bereya. Al; this point, the river is between 100 w,ct iu i. e (30 to 1!.0 meters) wide and from 0 -Go 4 to L.5 mete..s ot The velocity averages from 1.5 to 3 ret.,t (0.5 to ,'7L9 :netc..-rsi 7.)er second. The bottom consists of both sand and silt and. conains m. :y potholes. he riverbed 5.ti winaing, with numerous stisrp turn3, 1-2,:ex,,:k.;:_.te channels and tributaries, and sandbanks. The banks are from tact 10.5 1A3 1.5 rasters'; hign and are covere< with reeds vith some brush (Figure 18). Despite its swezvy natum, large SeetiOnS ot: the wide valley are planted in potatoes, p.ain, and fruit trees. Approximately - Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleAsgc:_c*FDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure 17. Swamp and flood land of this type can be crossed by boat only. Figure 18. Tyoioal vegetation along river banks. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 ki.loncters) va:i_roaC, bridge ?!-,he Yaset'da Jiver sranhad bl a ,gr.mcrete hilhvav bridv. ? The raihroa6. crosses the Za-,:g,2Lyauka Elver, which flout; in a :?;outheasterly diree;ion Into Ozeo kilometers) ;outhwest of Ilekhachevo. Within tht.-, ,),trriy area, t:I'.se the rive-i' 7ar1e3 from 39 to 66 feet (B.:?, to 20 m..;7,ers). The vall,:w is 2 to 2-1/2 to Itilomete;" vide _and extreTely SiJampy.. The Gryvda Elver acne :?.f7-.7011 the i-l.erthvest; byonO the railroad T:rossizi;.:, at T.,)-atse,gict It swias north and is CV017,8 Ly the ralirea second timz some 4.5 mileL; kilometers) to the rortheLst. At T.r.vatse'vichli the Ch7v64-3, River i3 7;:'elOrtetily aballt. 100 faet (..,",0 meters) 'ide and 16 to 20 feet 0 to 6 Teters) deep. Justsot:17,b. of the railmJ ridm the river is crossed `o,g a hlgaway bridge.; 1/3 rr..le 1t2 icAlometr) ,ort h of the railroad is a seconda-road t:Adize. '.",j1cri1i-Ivatsoriehi area is part of a transitic;:.:, Zone 'between ;?.;he contineataL climate of &tr000an Plassia and the Imerit.17.i",-'2 clinate of t,he Baltic Sea are. Continental influences are fait F,trongly nter 'which is character. *ty fairly cold 'desther :q..-nterrupte0 occasionally- by railder Vc.athr. Aver xge t,:-)D;crstatures are ?:en.e:ca11.7:nt below freezing); from. :!locember through rearnarr., but below- i'reezing temceratures mur extend frcr fievember arcb T1 3pells WarTrieX' 'Weather ir, winter are e.ccollpanied. by fo and tha;-;', doiring Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release :CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 gnics tcte accumulL.ted ice and no cover oc:conslly 'le:Its away completely. The :%nfLucnce of marittle climate i most noticeable luring '?;he summeP months from May through August, Summer temperatures auctuate fr,,m warm to hot, and the heat especially uncomfortable cause of the high humidity. Spring and faLl are transition periods. 3pring, lasting from early March to about the niodle of May, is mild and extremely vet. The general rise of spring temperatures is interrupted by occasional frosts, which occur chiefly at nit. The outstanding characteristic of soring is the wideupread flooding of the land caused mainly by the excessive rise of river waterc FE1l usually begins in SepteMber and is marked by cool, wet days. Temnpratures The average annual temperature in the area is about 5?F. January is the t-olaent month, with a mean temperature of 240F. The absolute January extremes are -20.9?F and 48.20F. Freezing weather usually begins about the end of November and it rougWy 130 days, Thawing 3enerally sets in at the end of March, although E,hort thaws may occur throughout the winter. Spring temperatures average from 320 to 60?D but occasional cold spells bring frosts and thermometer readings of /4 or 5 degrees below freezing. Summer daytime temperatures may risa vhove 9C7A? July and August, but cooler nights with temperatures of 50?-59?F are common. In summer, S-13-C-11-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release :CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 there are about 100 da: z dur:kn which the erxperivureL do not fall below 599F. Fall weather is consiaerablv cooler, with temperatures ranging between 599 and 459F during the day and dropping to between 409 and 329F at night, Average monthly and yearly temperatures recorded at Brest and Pinsk, the two weather stations located nearest the study area, are as follows: .A.verae Monthly ,and Yearly Terveratures de9rees Fahrenheit) 02A1,1,2a I IT III IV V VI VII VIII IX Y. XI.XII Yea:a Brest 23.7 26 33.3 14.8 57.8 62.6 66.2 63.8 55.7 45 36 28 45 insk 23?.E33 44.6 57.8 62.4 66.3 63 55.6 4b.6 -4.8 26.6 44.6 2. Pree-;nitation Precilgtation within the Tevii-Xvatsevichi area ix aeuerally abundant during the summr Ylonth:t but somewhat scant during the winter, Yearly precipitation for the area averages 22 to 24 inches. June, July, and August are the wettest mont4s, with precipitation averaging 3 to 4 inches per month. Sumalr rains are short and heavy and create local floods in sobe areas, especially in late July and August. Precipitation is lowest between january and Alrea, amounting to approximately 1 inch per month. During the wiater the snow cover of the area is intermittent because of frequent thaws. The first snowfall usually occurs about the middle Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved ForRelease : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 of November and the last about the middle of liamh. (';. tile average, the ground is snow covered between 70 to 90 days a year, anc maximum snow cover may exceed 4 to 5 inches in depth in some places Only during ertreme r severe winters does the snow cover become sufficiently deep to require removal. The following tables provide data on precipitation ad snow cover as recorded at the nearby weather stations of Brest and. Pinsk 110 Monthly and Yearly Precixitation _ - Tin inches) Station t.aloaar Ilrest l'inslt 1.16 .91! IT .94 ,98 In 1.04 1.n8 1.92 1.'/,'S 2.48 2.20 vi_ !L' 3.00 3.76 1.12 1.76 !1 2.16 2.8b 2.08 2.00 Arr_ 2L Yearly. _La 1.72 1.52 1.24 23.04 1.80 1.60 1.20 23.32 i) cf Snow Cover by Months (2easured in incnes over three 10-day perio,k) Station I 11 .11 1 :9ccember TT ?+. III January 11 Brest 0 0 -39 1.17 1.56 1.56 3.12 3.12 2.66 Pinsk 0 .n .78 1.17 2.34 2. 3.90 4.68 4.68 February March Station 77P._. I II _April 41_ I H III Brest .:!:.cL. 3.31 3.51 2.66 _ 2.34 1.56 .78 0 0 0 Pinsk 4.68 5.46 4.63 3.51 2.66 1,56 .39 0 ) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Releaes : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 ), Surface Wlnds Northwesterly windr4 DrT. hrorghcut the Tevii-Ivatsvichi area during the summer, bring and moisture fa the Baltic Sea- areas Cyclonic storms_ vith wind veloite of 20 to 30 miles an hour frequently pass over the area. On bamy aunl7r ,.5pys, local breezes -.'rom the swampy areas to the more hetet. e!!..,y-lexd areas blow regularly between 10 a.m. ana p.m- :013ring the :int months, winds range from the south through northeast. 4 and Gloud In. summer, msair.aur . cloudirs or!cturs at night or early morning and in the aftenoon. Night or r1y rning skies frequently have a cover of low stratus coud 1d c. c=ften form continuous sheets. After- noon clouds are usually of the cumulus type. Cloudiness, mainly of low stratus type, is extensfLve in rinter, Ground fog can be observei in the early morning and late evening hours, particularly during spring axle, fall. MUch of ft iz of local character and results from the preseAce of swamps and bogs. Morning fog usually lifts between 9 and 10 a,,m. Tn winter, visibility is poorest during the occssional thaws, when fog may blanket the whole area for 2 or 3 days at a time. G -C -R-E -T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Reieatet-CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 E. Settlement end Economy 1. :PopulationDensit,,?_Distributlona_and,Eteuic In. comparieon with the rest of the Belorussian SrSa tne population density. between Tevli and Bronna Gora is fairly "aigh to 90 persons per square miles (21-23 per square kilometer). hoa Bronna Gora eastward to (vetsevehi the density drops te less tban 25 persons per square mile (fever than 6.5 per square kilometer). A small per- centage of the people lives in the Larger settlements, but the great majority lives in small, widely scattered villages. The villages are the centers of kolkhozes anfJ, average less than 300 in population. For goods and services they rely on market towns, such as Fruzhane, KObrin, and Bereza, which have populations of 5,000 or more. Individual dwellings on separate plots of land are uncommon, The rural population is extremely poor, liw1ng for the most part by farming, lumberin, lil.restcch rnioing, peat cutti'Ag, and fishing (Figure 19). None of these occupations y)..elds more than a bare livelihood. Low sanitary standardo an extrerely poor living quaters contribute to the spread of contagious diseases in addition, lice, fleas, flies, and other insects are numerous, and the water is generally polluted. Malaria is widespread tbrou,ghout the swamplands. Other common diseases are dysentery, typhus, spotted fever, asiatic Cholera, smallpox, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, ague, and horse fly plague, 9-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleerVkiRDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure 19, Method of fishing practiced in most of the swamps of Belorussia? Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 . Five ethnic groupo live in Brestkaya Oblast', and presumably all of these are representef;. within the study area, Belorussians comprise the overwhelmlng majority; with Poles, Great Russians, Jews, and Ukrainians forming small minorities, A few Tatars may also live in the area. The Belorussians, constituting 31 percent of the population, differ only slightly fron the Great Russians in origin, lanue, religion, and culture. There is little feeLing of distinctiveness or of hostility between the two groups. This fact, combined with the general political apathy of the Belorusslans makes it unlikely' that they would participate to any great extent in overt acts of resistance to the Soviet regime. As a group the Belorussian are backward. Culturally) politically, and economically, they have been dominated almost continually by the Russian, Jewish, or Polish minorities. Most of the Belorussians are rural dwellers, and they comprise only a minority of the population in the larger tams like Berea. Those who move into towns tend to lose their distinctive characteristics and to become Eussifled or Polonized, The Poles, about 6 percent of the population, are distinct in culture, religion, and language from both the Great Russians and the Belorussians. Because of these differences the Poles are likely to be hostile to Soviet rule and often become leaders of resistance groups. Great Russians number only some 2 to 3 percent of the population; but they hold many of the top administrative and technical posts. Their - 17 - S-B-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 icv4.- to the 17.-:ovie ragine ls a?ssu:re bthe:1r tioninant position and by their etblc Laentf.ty with the Russian of Eoviet Union- Jeos form a small minoty tht live ahAost..ix.clasively in the larger towns. $ince they are someNhat bette edneats:d than the other ethnic groups, they play ar. important role n ci.ty life, especially' in Puniness activ1.ties. The Ukrainians differ from the Great Russians to a (Tr.eater extent than do the .2elorussiars, and they also possess greater political ,-XVISCiCUSTIOSS,. The Ukrainians therA.ore, are wIre likely to take part in active resistance to the Soviet regime. Agricultural Activiq Because much of the Tevli-Ivatsevichi area Is covered by swamp aad marSA, only about a third of the total ls cultivated or used for z-wwing, At the eastern and western ends of the study area -- between Tevii and Granch!,tey tiuld between. Benilza and Ivatevichi. -- lees than JO percent of the land t farmed, In the middle eetion between Orarchitsy and Bereza, Yhere land is famed, 35 to 0 Dements flecently the amount of land suitAble for cultivation hae -nem. increased. ,onlewbat through drainage proects. The. cool, damp climate and sandy to loamy soil provide conditions favorable for the growth of winter rye, oats, summer barley, potatoes, fodder, flax, and hemp, Rcry vegetahles (chiefly cabbages, arrots, and beets) and melons are grown in sufficient quantities for local needs. 8 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleaSC1A-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 paeticulqrly horses, are used in lnege numbers. The cattle raised iu the area are Holsteins. Sheep and goats are pastured with thc. cattle., chickens, ducks, and geese are raised on mpst of the farms and form ;.he main meat supply of the people. is e; dotained from shallow wells 6.5 to 13 feet 2 to I. meters) deep, with well-sweeps in the form of a long pole balanced in the crotch of a forked tree. Lecause drainae, is poor throughout the area and the soil is et end cotL, spriag crops are yellow rather than green. The shallow surface ele;chee 6up: nt regular intervals of 30 to 60 feet (9 to 18 meters nake the cultieation of row crops difficult. One-horse plows are in 1Yenera1 use, avid harrows are made entirely of wood, even the pointed .pikes. ror the most part the rural settlements are self-sufficient. Flax is-woven by the women, and large bundles of it can be soon drying :prighe; against the wails. Sheep supply both wool for homespun winter clothing and sheepskin for coats and. hats. Rye straw and marsh grass are pilee to dry in barn enclosures or in the fields usually in round :tacke raised feet (I meter) off the ground on wooden piles. , . 3, eecelevlents and Local Industries The, morA common tepe of settlement in the Tevli-ivatsevichi area Is the linear eillage (Stras_sendorf), strung out along a fairly wlde Jirt road (Figure 20). The villa-es of Tevli, Khartki, Sosnuvka, renchf.tsy, liabaki, and Elude& axe good examples of Strassendorf eo S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleaSVCIATDP79-00945A000100010001-1 4ftem Figure 20, A Strassendorf village of the type seen throughout Belorussia. ? Figure 21. Village located on high ground above Yaseltda River. Note the stack of marfth grass resting on stilts, SZ-C-R.B-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For lieleasi ?eIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 eetiellleatr., Some or i.hee villaaes are as much as 1.5 miles (2J1. ktlometere) in length. Throachout most of the study area, villages vev s7aecod reaghly 1.5 to 5 miles (2.4 to 8 kilometers) apart. Distanceap heaever, eary considerably, depending on such factors as available earicelteva land, drainage, and aegetation. Villages are commonly Wit c better drained sites above the high-water level, notably on tie eleveced banks of rivers (Figure 21). The population averages i),:tween 900 and 1,'7,00 inhabitants per village. or the vellages are supplied with electricity. Houses are eiregle-staaied and of wood construction. Many have thatched roofs, o la aowe aee roofed with tile or sheet iron. Hollow-etegmed reads, Cibt marsh grass, and rye straw are used for thatching. This creates a Ate deeaer, and ladders or long poles to aid in fire fighting can away be aeen near tae building Figure 22). Houses eeldom have ewe thae a,To rooms, each with a small wood-framed windoa. Moat ''lrohousea bave a fenced-in garden plot about 1/8 acre in size, aesueabar Yor vegetables. Isolated farmsteads, dating back to the Aeish adniuietration of the area, are relatively few and are ueually -,!eompanied with the traditional aueep well (Figure 23). :eeveaa: of the settlements in the area are built along the ma:1n urkriin o) around railroad stations or sidings. Many are closely e4soc-kateje aith rallroad activities. Such settlements are generally eeferaea ra) as railroad-station villages or towns. Ivatsevicai, Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-kDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure no White Russian farmhouse of rough- hewn logs with reed-thatched roof? Note the wooden poles used for fire fighting? Figure 23. Former Foliah farmstead with traditional well sweep, -E -C -R -E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Relirke-4-dA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Jekhae?,evo: Kossovo-PoleaskOye Bronna Gwa, and Linovo are examples of ii type. The rayon center of Bereza, the largest commnity in the area, is the only real example of a cluster-type settlement. Detailed information on towns is available only on the main eettlernta of the area -- Bereza and Ivatsevichi. Frapoentary ,eforma'cion is also available for some of the less important settlements. BP:RMA, classified by the Soviets as a city (prod) has a population roughly ertimated at 6,000 to 8,000 inhabitants. Most of the many Poles who oree lived here have been evacuated to Poland. The et,y which is i market place for the surrounding villages, is centered around two nearly parallel roads crossed at right angles by several side stieets. te ceuter of the city is densely built up with one- and two-story ef the blockhouse type, some brick end others wood. Outside ee.e centev of the city, the houses are mostly of wood. They are widely spaced. each surrounded by its own small garden. These houses have no eundatione eald are thatched with straw or roofed with shmet metal or e-od, A -&Y3g? of the main streets are paved with cobblestones, but most se unpeered. They vary from 20 to 33 feet (6 to 10 meters) in width ad, excep'c. for the main streets, have no sidewalks. There is no street Aghting, Most, if not all, of the houses have electricity, supplied by a power plant on the Yasei'da River northeast of the city. A steam-cperated - 21 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReiertrieRrelA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 iatortrorb s locatel north of the railroad bridge and 165 feet (50 eters) rest of the river, but vater is actually piped into very few leuildinge,, The Bereza fire department hes an observation tower 50 to fact (15 to 20 meters) high. Other buildings in the city include a ?harreer,,, a motion-picture theater; a post, telephone, and telegraph effice; 1-eld a church. Uereza contains eperate& oawmill and Jection of the city. 'wick smokeetack and several industrial establishments. A steam- a brick factory are located in the western The brick factory has an 82-foot (25-meter) two kilns. In the center of town is a flour Dill End on the northern outskirts an unidentified factory. Among the ither eneuetries are a linen textile mill and a cement plant A ;rack-repair plant just south of the brickyard formerly performed major Igerhenle, buL it reportedly vas moved out of the city in 1949. 'h estiwated 15 percent of Bereza was damaged or destroyed during 7or1d 'Tee 71, but practically all of it has been reconstructed. ;VAT3EIICHI, classified by the Soviets as a city-type settlement 2,,op31/EprodArtgettle-0, is a railroad town, with a population of eoproxerateLy 3,000. Houses are widely spaced and are generally one- tory vo-a or orick buildings with low gable roofs thatched with straw coverea with sheet iron. The streets vary from 33 to 39 feet (10 ,o 12 mecere) in width and, except for the cobblestoned highway, are uapavee, The town has no sidewalke, street lighting, or drainage. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RefeiSi4?trA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 fla sappjled with electricity but water is drawn from wells. There is a post and telegraph office in the town. a alajor industrial plant of Ivatsevichi is the alcohol factory, which uses potatoes as raw material and has its own power plant. Of the four eawmills in town, three arc powered by steam and one by gasoline motors. Attached to one of the sawmills is an MUD woodworking factory, producing windows, doors, and simple furniture. Worth of the highway is a track-repair shop. At the southwest edge of town are 10 gasoline storage tanks. A small machine shop is also located in 7.vatsevichi. Tna is a Strassendorf-type village stretching for about a mile (1.6 kilometers)along an unimproved dirt road that intersects the Brest- oscow Its houses are one-story wood buildings with low gable :vofs thatched with stray or marsh grass. Houses extend along koth sicles of the small railroad station. Near the eastern end of the vi .1 1ag are a church, a cemetery and chapel, and a windmill A short ;aLatavae south of the station is a post and telegraph office. The consists of some 800-1,000 White Russian and Polish peasants. 11GVO is divided into two sections. The larger, which is a 1 iaearataae settlement, is located about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) =oathwesa of Oranchitsy station. It is referred to on Soviet naps N. 14,714)VO. The second section of the settlement is considerably smallez, being associated mainly with the Oranchitsy railroad station. Alear the railroad settlement are several army barracks and a storage area for ail, petroleum, and lubricants. S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release-:bAWDP79-00945A000100010001-1 LOBUDKA is a small village 3 miles (5 kilometers) north of Oeinchltsv station, Although it lies outside the Unita of the study area, it is important because of the significant military activity nearby. The village is square in shape, with houses loosely spaced along four dAet roads that cross at right angles. All the houses are of wood, and several have become quite dilapidated. The few newly constructed buildings are mostly barracke, believed to be occupied by Red Army po:Nr,onno.l. A car-repair plant is reportedly located in the village. In -Ile eastern part of the settlement is a narrow-gauge railroad station. :WDZMi is a combination Stras,endorf and railroad-station village. It extends for roughly 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) from the Bereza Karh,uskaya station westward along the railroad. It consists of some 50 te ei.) wooden houses strung along two parallel dirt roads. The only industrial activity is associated with the extensive railroad facilities In 9,110 station area. The village population is estimated at 800-1,000 inhabitants. 7ARECEVYE is located or the east side of the Yaseltda River, _ _ _ ea- imui: -eately beyond the railroad-bridge crossing. It consists of a group of houses loosely arranged along a dirt road that parallels the raearoad. Each of the 80-odd dwellings has a 1/2-acre plot for truck gare,ening. The western edge of the village borders a swampy area of the Yaserda floodpplain and Is exposed to frequent flooding. - 24- 3-F-C-R-aar Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Rele5a159-8-1Y-kDP79-00945A000100010001-1 itIOANA GORA i8 a railroad village of some 4c) to JO wooden houses. its population coneists of 500-1,000 farmers, reportedly White Russiene. Most of the houses are loosely spaced along two intersecting dirt roads. They are mostly one-story buildings with gable roofs thatched with maree grass or slate covered. Each house has its awn fenced-in garden nlot. In the northern outskirts, there is a small sawmill that produces furniture for local use. 'Former PW barracks are located near Q-ke, ee.Uroad station. The village probably billets some of the ,1111ary personnel connected with the nearby ammunition dump. Tg& CHEVO is a farming settlement strung along he railroad and , main hJAhwav west of the Kossovo-Polesskoye station. It consists of sou:. 50 single-story wooden buildings and has an estimated population of L,500. The village has electricity and a community water lien. OSSOV0-POLESSIXOYE is a small railroad-station vellage located .sama4 own, *a jus.,-; cast of Nekhachevo. The single-story wooden houses are focused ereenn a road intersection north of the railroad station. The village population, which is reported to be someuhat larger than that of tiek::7eehevo, is primarily engaged in lumbering and potto raradmg. Wanaportation Le backbone of the Tevli-Ivatsevichi railroad sector is the internationally strategic Brest-Moscow trunkline. Apert from being the main transportation artery of the sector, it is the keystone of all economic and military activity in the area. A secon&wy but SF-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Releaisi-?-81A:ADP79-00945A000100010001-1 nevertheless important transportation route is the recently improved Brest-BobruyskaMoscow Highway. This road, which crosses the eastern part of the study area, roughly parallels the railroad from Bereza to Tvetsevichi. With the repair of wartime damages, the road Is becoming increasingly important for local and interregional traffic. Other means of transportation in the area include several narrow-gauge branch lives and a number of improved and unimproved dirt roads that intersect the in railroad at several points. t, TheBrest-Moscow Trunkline ? a ? ?he section of railroad between Tevli and Ivatsevichi is part of the men double-track trunklinc connecting Brest with Moscow. This steaaa-merated railroad is by far the most important an Belorussia and ole of the primary trunklines in the Soviet Union. It provides the shortest connection between the central industrial region around Moseow and the manufacturing and marketing centers of Central and Westca Europe. It also provides an important military link between Moseow, Warsaw, and East Berlin. During World War II r it was the main suppla route of the Germans in their thrust toward Moscow. the following paragraphs the Tevli-Ivatsevichi section of the trunkline is described in detail. The information provided on features such as mils, signals, trackage, and traffic, however, pertains also to the Brest-Moscow trunkline as a whole. -26a S-E-C-E-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Relea4rtiit01115P79-00945A000100010001-1 a. Trackage and Roadbed The trunkline was badly damaged during World War II particularly in the areas around Bereza and Ivatsevichi. Until 1947, it operated as a single-track line because of the many temporary repairs being made on the roadbed and bridge crossings. By the fall of 1947, however, Red Army engineers had completely regraded the roadbed, replaced rails and ties, and double tracked the entire line. The new road,ad appears to be well maintained, is approximately 20 feet wide, and is predominantly sandy. Short stretches of the line, however, have a crushed-rock and gravel ballast (Figure 24). Since the railroad crosses generally flat terrain, it has no sharp curves or steep grades. The maximum curvature radius is 1,640 feet (500 meters). In the vicinity of Bronna Gera, the ruling grade is 0.96 percent (ascending) over a distance of about 1,300 feet (400 meters). b. 11.212-s1.?a?ISP.2_234.4.111.1-MIMIt51 The entire Brest-Moscow trunkline is provided with type Is heavy- duty rails. Ties are of wood and are well treated against deterioration. They are spaced at the rate of 1,440 ties per 3,281 feet (1,000 meters) or track. Hand switches and block-type signals are used in railroad stations and yards. The semiautomatic block system was reportedly supplied by the German firm of Siemens and Halske. Electric semaphores are installed at the stations of Bereza-Kartuskays, Ivatsevichi, and Oranchitsy. Much of the signaling, however, seems to be done by hand. - 27 - S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleagePi-GrAIIRDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure 24.. Fast train on the Bre5t44oacow trutkline, Note the gravel ballast. Figure 25. Narrow-gauge railroad of the type used in the study area, Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Fie1i"St1-.IdA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 A common sight is an old man or woman standing outside a hut holding a rolled yellow flag as a signal that the train can proceed with safety. 0. LIVA022and Culverts Along the Tevli-Ivatsevichi section of the railroad, there are 5 fairly large and 9 smaller railroad bridges and 13 or more culverts. The larger bridges cross the Corodechna, Mukhavets, YaselIda, Zhegul'yanka, and Gryvda Rivers. All the bridges were destroyed during World War II, and at first makeshift wooden structures were used as substitutes. All the wooden bridges have now been replaced by permanent installations. The smaller secondary bridges span tributary streams and larger drainage ditches. Culverts, usually of concrete construction, are located chiefly in areas that are poorly drained or subject to floods. The railroad bridges across the Gorodechna and Mukhavets Rivers are located about 5 and 13 miles (8 and 21 kilometers) northeast of Tevli, respectively. Both are single-span steel structures approximately 65 feet (20 meters) long. The estimated width between abutments is 45 feet (14 meters), and the height above water level is about 12 feet (4 meters). The bridge across the Yasel'da River is located 4 miles (6 kilometers) east of the Rereza-Kartuskaya station and aperextlatele 1.5 miles (2.1i kilometer4northemstof the town of Bereza. The most significant railroad bridge in the study area, it consists of a - 28 - S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RefeiSce'ltili-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 single-span steel truss approximately 165 feet (50 meters) long. The bridge is built on two reinforced-concrete piers and has a 16-foot (5-meter) clearance above mean water level. Prior to 1944 the Yasel'da bridge was of a through-truss type, having 2 single-span super- structures on common abutments. A deck-type bridge of plate girder construction crosses the Zhegul'yanka River some 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) east of Bronna Gore. According to reports, two single-track superstructures are built on common abutments. The span length is estimated at 72 to 82 feet (22 to 28 meters) and the height above mean water level at 11 feet (3.5 meters). A recently completed railroad bridge crosses the Gryvda River approximately 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) northeast of the Ivatsevichd railroad station. The single-span steel structure replaces a wooden bridge located some 50 feet (15 meters) to the south. The new bridge has reinforced-concrete abutments, and a reinforced-concrete pier in the middle of the stream. According to reports the bridge has an overall length of 187 feet (57 meters) and a width of 20 to 2(..) feet (6 to 8 meters); the height above mean water level is some 20 feet (6 meters). d. Ltean.stRalea_a*,_p_ndSurs Narrow-gauge branch lines lead northward from the main line at Oranchitsy, Bereza-Martuskaya, Bronna Gore, and Nekhachevo stations. - 29 - S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Relettge'li-VA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 At Ivatsevichi, a narrow-gauge line branches off in a southerly direction. Most of the branches are of 3'6" gauge and are used primarily for industrial or military traffic. Because of poor roadbeds, in many cases laid across swampy ground; traffic on these lines is light and trains consist of only 4 to 6 cars pulled by obsolete steam or diesel engines. Narrow-gauge rails are generally spiked to wooden ties that are spaced 1.5 feet (50 centimeters) apart. In a few stretches the rails are screwed to iron ties. Much of the industrial freight carried consists of lumber and peat (Figure 25). Military shipments include stores; ammunition, some motorized equipment and spare parts, and unspecified numbers of troops. A steam-operated narrow-gauge line leads from Oranchitsy station northward to Slubuaka and Pruzhana. The line is 7.5 miles (13 kilometers) long and serves primarily the needs of Red Army installations located at Slobudka and Fruzhana. Some sources indicate that the line may have been improved to meet increased traffic demands. A short broad-gauge spur leads to the oil-storage area near Oranchitsy station. According to early postwar information, a narrow-gauge line leading in a north-northwesterly direction connected with the trunkline at Bereza-Kartuskaya station. It was about 20 miles (32 kilometers) long and terminated in a peat and forest area near the improved road con- necting Pruzhana and Slonim. Stops were made at the small settlements of Selets and Mikhalin. Since no activity has been reported on this -30- S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReleiSce?da-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 line in recent years, it may quite possibly have been abandoned. An unconfirmed report, indicates that a newly constructed single-track branch line leaves the trunkline some 9 miles (15 kilometers) west of Bluden? and leads in a northwesterly direction. According to Soviet maps at the scale of lt500,0001 a narrow-gauge siding about 2 miles (3.2 kilometerilong also leads eastward from Oranchitsy station. This spur reporteely runs to a sandpit in the western suburbs of Bereza. At Bronna Gora a small spur branches off to a local sawmill. About 1.8 miles (3 kilometers) northeast, of the settlement is another narrow uge branch line that leads to the large ammunition dump north of Bronna Oars. This line, which is some 4.4 miles (7.3 kilometers) long, is used solely for military traffic. Recent reports seem to indicate that this branch is being converted to broad. gauge. Before 1945, a steam-operated narrow-gauge lino led northwest from Hassovo-Polesskoye station for a distance of abaft 11 miles (17 kilometers) and terminated near a glass factory northeast of the settlement of Ylikhalin. According to PW reports, wartime dannges along the line (particularly destroyed bridges) have not been repaired, and the line may have been abandoned or dismantled. At /vatsevichi? the trunkline connects with a sizable network of narrow-gauge lines. A light railroad leads from Ivatsevichi southwest- ward to Ivanovo on the Brest-Pinsk-Luninets trunkline. Two freight -31 $-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ReteaiillitIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 trains a day travel the entire distance of some 60 miles (96 kilometers) in each direction. Each train reportedly consists of 4 to 6 low-side gondola cars pulled by a steam or diesel-type engine. Branching off this narrow-gauge line are spurs leading to various settlements on the Oginskiy Canal. The most important of these is the spur leading to the town of Telekhany. e. Adjaseptalz!Nop and Telv_at_hotrlain_es An opemawire line roughly parallels the railroad between Tevli and Oranchitsy. It originates at Brest and is believed to be a telegraph line. In the vicinity of Tevli the line runs on the north side of the track. Some 6 miles (10 kilometers) farther to the east, it crosses the railroad and then follows the south side of the track for an estimated 4 miles (6 kilometers). After recrossing the railroad, it continues along the north side, gradually veering off to the north- west in the direction of Baranovichi and Minsk. According to eyewitness reports, the telegraph line has single wooden poles about 26 feet (8 meters) high and spaced about 130 feet (40 meters) apart. The single crossbars are of Wood, and there are no spare insulators. Reports also indicate that an underground telecommunications cable closely follows the route of the open-wire line. A second open-wire line (also referred to as a telephone line) enters the study srea from the southwest at Bereza. It, too, originates at Brest and leads to Slutsk and Mogilev. This line consists of 12 - =12 - -E -C -R -E -T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release': CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 wires strung on wooden poles 26 feet (8 meters) high and some 140 feet (43 meters) apart. It roughly follows the south side of the railroad to a point near Ivatsevichi? where it turns off to the northeast. f. Railroad Stations and Maintenance Patilities The official Soviet Railroad Timetable for 1956 lists 11 railroad stations and flag stops within the study area. From west to east, they are Tevli, Lyasy, Kanarskiy, Orarchitsy, Pavlovichi Polessklye, Peschankal Bereza Kartuskaya, Zarechlye, Bronna Gora, Kossovo- Polesskoye, and Ivatsevichi. Of these, Bereza Kartuskaye is the largest and best equipped station. It is the only stop for fast trains within the area and trains stop for a period of 15 minutes. Kanarskiy, Peschanka, and Zarech'ye are flag stops only. The remaining stations are used only by slow passenger and freight trains. The stopping time for passenger trains averages 3 to 7 minutes. Railroad maintenance and traffic facilities at individual stations are as follows: Tevli (1) Small station building (2) Loading ran with freight shed (3) Water tower (4) Small repair shop and forge (5) Small yard consisting of 3-4 terminal tracks 2 sidings 650 and 980 feet (200 and 300 meters) long Rata (1) Small station or loading ramp (2) 2 sidings - 33 - S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RelltaV:'46?-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Xanarskiy (1) Flag stop only; located a short distance west of Oranchitsy station Oranchitsy (1) large station area with storage buildings and huts; western part of station handles mainly passenger traffic; eastern part used for freight traffic (2) Railroad yard consisting of k or 5 terminal tracks, 8 sidings, and a track scale (3) (4) Water tower Junction facilities for narrow-gauge line leading to Fruzhana Pavlovichi Polesskiye (1) (Wartime information indicated that 2 sidings, 8 switches, and 2 signal and control towers were destrayed in 194. .They may possibly have been replaced) Peschanka (1) Flag stop only Berezatu (1) Single-story brick station on north side of main track .at northern outskirts of settlement of Bludent. (2) Large railroad yard at eastern end of the station; includes '1" track and switching area, with room for as many as 50 parked cars; engine house with turntable and repair shops accommodating 10-15 locomotives; open storage area and ash pit; coaling area, with storage space for 1,000-2,000 tons of coal; large water tower (Figure 26); and stone loading ramp with several storage buildings and grain sheds. (3) Storage area with loading ramps at western end of station - 34 a Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RiligeRrta-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 _ .6,,treskEr Figure 26, Locomotive water tower at the Bereza- Kartuskaya station. Note coal pile along track. SZ-C-RZ-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For hialikit IA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 (4) Set of 8 sidings running lengthwise across station area (5) Electric power plant (6) Servicing facilities for narrow-gauge railroad traffic (l) Flag stop only Bronna Gora (1) Single-story brick railroad station on south side of track (2) 2 terminal tracks 2,300 and 2,600 feet (700 and 800 meters) long (3) 2 running sidings (4) Small number of storage sheds (5) Spur to sawmill (6) Possibly a servicing stop for narrow-gauge traffic leading toward ammunition dump Rbloovoitage. Loading ramps on 3 or 4 terminal tracks; used for shipping timber and potatoes 2 or 3 running sidings Railroad station, water tank, and repair shops(destroyed but reportedly replaced) Junction for narrow-gauge line (now believed abandoned) Ivatsevichi (1) (Reportedly one of the largest timber-loading stations in Belorussia (2) Brick railroad station on south side of track (3) Emergency wooden station on opposite side of track -35- S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Ralicalw:CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 (4) Several loading ramps on 3 terminal tracks (5) Mater tank and pumping station (6) 14. running sidings (7) Narrow-gauge station and railroad transshipment yard g. Railroad Traffic Railroad traffic between Tavli and Ivatseviehi in extremely heavy. To a large degree, it is part of the heavy international traffic moving between Moscow, Warsaw, and Berlin. West-moving traffic includes Soviet raw materials, coal, iron ore, and foodstuffs shipped to Poland and East Germany. Return traffic to the Soviet Union includes mainly war- reparation materials, prefabricated homes, building materials, manu- factured products of all types, and sizable shipments of uranium. Uranium traffic has special priority along the entire Brest-Moscow trunkline. Ore shipments move at the rate of 2 or more trains per week, with an estimated total of about 150 cars. Each car carries approximately 15 to 20 tons of uranium ore, Which is shipped in paper bags or tin containers. In addition to the international freight traffic, there is a fair amount of local freight mevemont within the study area. It consists primarily of agricultural products, lumber and lumber products, and raw materials shipped to Minsk for processing by its limited industrial facilities. On the basis of postwar observations, one-way freight traffic appears to range fraa 15 to 30 trainn a day. Freight trains vary from - 36 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RiflicitiFCTA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 30 to 60 cars in length and consist of 4-axle-type gondolas, boxcars, flatcars, tank cars, and refrigerator cars. The average speed of freight trains does not exceed 25 miles (39 kilometers) per hour. Passenger and military trains account for approximately one-fifth of the overall railroad traffic in the area. Six passenger trains cross the area daily in each direction. Two of these are fast trains, and the other four are slower local trains. One of the fast trains, known as the "Blue Angel" or "Blue Express," was put into operation in the spring of 1955. It operates between Moscow, Brest, and Berlin, covering the trip in 52 hours without transferring. The other fast train provides direct service between Brest and Moscow. Both these trains usually consist of 10 cars -- a baggage car, 6 coaches Chard and soft), a dining car, and an international car for foreign nationals. The slower passenger trains generally consist of about 16 cars. Passengers are predominantly military: roughly 60 percent officers. At times, 50 to 100 soldiers have been observed on a single train. Much of the military traffic goes to military units stationed at Baranavichi, Berets, Pruzhana, or Bram Gora, but some continues westward to Bed Army installations in Poland and East Germany. The maximum rated traffic capacity of the Brest-Moscow trunkline, including both freight and passenger movement, baa been estimated at 120 pairs of trains each day. -37- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 S-NJ-C-R-krk Sanitized - Approved For Release : kuiA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 2. The Brest-j_Lobmakjos_cey Highwax The best available approach route from the west into the USSR north of the Pripet Marshes is the important Brest7Bdbruysk-Moscoe Highway. Although badly damaged during World War II, the road underwent intensive reconstruction during the period 1946-48. Since being reopened to traffic, it has been used both for interregional trucking and for sustained military traffic, including tank movements. Originally the highway connected Brest with Moscow, via Karin, Bereza, IvatseVichi, Slutsk, Bobvuysk, and Roslavli. Postwar information,. however, indicates that a paved shortcut leading from Ivatsevichi via Beranovichi to Minsk:vas under construction in the late 1940's. At Minsk, the road was to connect with the Soviet Autobahn to Moscow. It is quite prdtbable.that)this shortcut has been completed and is now in Operation. The highway is an all-weather, (gravel-surfaced) 2-lane road capable of handling sustained commercial and military traffic. Its overall width is estimated at 26 feet (8 meters) and its travel surface at 20 feet (6 meters). Although several PW reports claim that much of the road has an asphalt surface, most of it appears to hive only an improved gravel surface with short stretches of asphalt in the larger urban centersi/ The highway enters the study area from the southwest at Berezal and from there parallels the Brest-Moscow trunkline to Ivatsevichi. Along this stretch of the road, much of the roadbed has been built up above the - 38 . Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For RdrelgertS-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 surrounding marshland. Road shoulders are of graded earth or gravel and vary in height from 3 to 6 feet. Within the city limits of Bereza the highway has been surfaced with asphalt and serves as the main thoroughfare. It has also been widened to 39 feet (12 meters). Just beyond the northwestern outskirts of town the road crosses the Yaseltds River over a bridge of postwar construction that was opened for traffic in Nay 1948. Before that, traffic moved over a provisional wooden bridge just southeast of the new structure. The new bridge his a single span and reinforced-concrete girders. It is 394 feet (120 meters) long, and has an overall width of 30 feet (9 meters). The footpaths on, both sides are about 3.5 feet (1 meter) wide. Between Bereza and Nekbachevo station the highway runs along the eastern side of the railroad at distances varying from a few hundred feet to approximately 1.2 miles (2 kilometers). A single-span concrete bridge 82 feet (25 meters) long crosses the Zhegulyanka River. Near the southeastern outskirts of Nekhachevo the highway crosses the railroad by an overpass of early postwar construction. The overpass, opened for traffic in 1945, replaces a former level crossing. It is a concrete structure supported by 6 reinforced piers and is about 66 feet (20 meters) long and 26 feet (8 meters) vide. Beyond this point the highway hugs the vest side of the railroad all the way to Ivatsevichi. -39- S -E -C -R Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Refeii*TFCTA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Just beyond Ivatsevichi, it recrosses the railroad over another recently completed overpass. After crossing the Gryvda River east of Ivateevichi, the rcad gradually veers to the southeast. Road traffic between Bereza and Ivatsevichi is fairly heavy, consisting mainly of truck and military vehicles. A regularly scheduled busline also operates daily between Brest and Baranovichi. 3. Secondary Roads Along_the Brest-Mbscov Trumkline Throughout the study area, numerous secondary roads, trails, and footpaths lead to or intersect the railroad. Among these are three hard- surfaced all-wather roads capable of carrying 2-lane traffic. The roads lead (a) northward and southward through Linovo, (b) northward from Bludent, and (c) northwestward from Nekhachevo. In addition, there are a few improved gravel country roads, which were formerly used by the Polish postal service. These rrads lead (a) from Tevli northeast to Pruzhana, (b) from Tevli northwest to Shcherchevo, (c) from Kara:a northeast to Bereza, (d) from Henna Kartuskaya station southeast to Bereza? and (e) from Bereza northwest to Selets. Three improved roads also cross the railrosd between Bereza and Bronna Gore, and two more lead off from Ivatsevichi. Ail others are seasonal roads with unimproved surfaces. Most of them intersect the railroad at level crossings, and the average distance between roads is approxikeetely 1., milea (2.4 kilometers). Al]. the unimproved dirt roads are of poor quality (Figure 27) and are impassable 40- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For k1ificfit'ECTA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Figure 27. Unimproved dirt road of the type commonly seen throughout Brestskaya Oblast'. S-E-C-R.E.T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Rkgfif!trA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 during spring thsws and after heavy fall rains. People generally use stout one-horse wagons drawn by animals of a stocky breed; frequently long distances are covered on foot. A number of tracks and trails run through forests and along fence lines. G. Rilitsatizity_an_dt?Deelent 1. y.a.installat_ionsanLMovements Along the Tevli-Ivatsevichi sector of the railroad, military' activity is far more pronounced at Oranchitsy and to the east than farther west. From Oranchitsy eastward to Ivatsevichi, soldiers eem frequently be seen working in large groups along the railroad, stock- piling ludber or guarding military installations. A gesoline storage area is located near Orenchitsy? on a knoll immediately south of the railroad and west of the Prushana-Zaprudy Highway. Eighteen above-ground storage tanks have been observed, each of which is about 30 feet (9 meters) long and 10 to 16 feet (3 to 5 meters) in diazeter. The tanks lie with their axes parallel to the surface of the ground. Gasoline is brought by rail in 90-ton tank cars, which are shunted onto a siding equipped with permanent pipes leading to the storage tanks. It can be assumed that the underground storage capacity is even greater than that above ground. The entire area is surrounded by two barbed-wire fences and is guarded by soldiers, some in watch towers and others on foot patrolling the area between the fences. 41- S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Rg1igilift.:.WA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 In light weds just west of the storage area is another restricted area surrounded by barbed wire and guarded by troops. Nearby are three barracks occupied by infantry soldiers. An army tank and automaile repair plant is located north of Oranchitsy -. just east of the Pruihana-Oranchitsy road near the village of SlObudka. Four or five two-story gray buildings, perhaps used in part as barracks, lie 330 to 500 feet (100 to 150 meters) east of the repair plant. South of the plant and 115 feet (35 meters) east of the highway are two wooden bunkers, probably used as living quarters for soldiers. They are built partly underground and are 115 to 130 feet (35 to 40 meters) long. Two similar buildings are located some 230 feet (70 meters) east of the bunker. A tank and armored-car proving ground and training field lies less than a mile southeast of the repair plant. Training exercises have included 4 to 6 T-34 tanks 3 or h times a week. Pruzhana is the headquarters of a local garrison. Both officers and enlisted men are billeted in private homes. The greatest concentration of military strength along the railroad sector is at and near Bereza. In this vicinity are a POL storage dump, an airfield, a tank-maneuver field, and numerous barracks. The military headquarters in Berema is located in the north section of the city. Soldiers of this command are reported to year gray-green uniforms with blue epaulets. Tank unite in the vicinity, however, wear S-E-C-R-ET Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ROIMeartS-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 brava uniforms with black epaulets and collar tabs. Three or four three-story brick barracks have been built just beyond the southwest outskirts of Berea and are reportedly occupied by an air-force unit. The buildings are 100 to 130 feet (30 to 40 meters) long and 50 feet (15 meters) wide and have gabled tile roofs and windows with wooden frames. A tank-corps barracks is located at the west edge of town on the north side of the highway. /t is a 3- or 4-story red-brick building that measures about 250 by 65 by 50 feet (75 by 20 by 15 meters) and has a law-pitched hip roof covered with red ti/e. The barracks area, which is 1,000 feet by 330 feet (300 by 100 meters) in extent, is surrounded by a wood picket fence topped with barbed wire and is guarded by soldiers. Within the enclosure are 2 garages, which have roam for about 35 tanks, as well as a military POL dump, which lies immediately north of the barracks and is camouflaged by the woods. A military signal unit is stationed just west of the tank-corps barracks. On the east side of Soviet Street in the settlement of Bereza? there is a militia station, 40 by 26 feet (12 by 8 meters) in size. Stretching south from the southwestern outskirts of Bereza is a tank training ground. It includes an area of slightly rolling, partly wooded country with sandy soil and much underbrush. The area is not guarded but is off-limits for civilians. Frequent tank activity has been Observed there, often at night, but no reports indicate that the infantry has participated. -43- S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For ROlgtgertfik-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 At one time, some 150 tanks and self-propelled guns were reportedly parked between the railroad and the road leading from the station into Bereza. This group consisted principally of T-34's, T-85's, Stalin 2's, aM JSV-122's. About a mile north of Bludent and immediately east of the narrow- gauge brandh railroad to Selets is an airfield that is reported to have undergone recent expansion. It has at least two runways about 255 feet (78 meters) vide. A runway oriented NW-SE is some 6,600 feet (2,000 meters) long; another, oriented NNE-SSW, is 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) long. Both have hard surfaces and unlimited extensibility. IL-28's are reported to have been using this airfield in February 1955. If the airfield has been sufficiently extended and improved, it is quite possible that medium boabers (Beagle type) may now be stationed here. At Bronna Gore, across the railroad from the station there are two wooden barracks formerly used for PW a. Each measures about 80 by 30 by 13 feet (25 by 9 by 4 meters) and has a gabled tar paper roof. Near Bronna Gore is an important ammunition and ordnance depot. It is located in a nixed forest about 3 miles (5 kilometers) WW of the railroad station and covers an area 2 to 2.5 miles (3 to 4 kilometers) long and 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) wide. It is enclosed by a barbed- wire fence 10 feet (3 meters) high, which is guarded by armed soldiers every 650 feet (200 meters), who patrol the area with the aid of Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For kettsRe-8IA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 searchlights. The enclosure contains at least 10 buildings and is served by both a railroad spur and by the secondary road between Smol'ne and Nosuv. The depot is reportedly used as a storage area for new artillery guns as well as ammunition. North of Nekbachevo is a former PW camp, which may now be used as a barracks for Soviet trocps. It is a one-story stone building measuring about 82 by 40 by 20 feet (25 by 12 by 6 meters) and has a gabled tin roof. It is surrounded by a barbe&wire fence with a watchtower. At one time, some 600 PWG were quartered there while they were constructing the highway. A military patrol of two soldiers armed with submachineguns has been reported along the railroad in the vicinity of Nekhadhevo. The patrol was made daily but not at the same hour. Ivatsevichi also is a major center of military activity. Installations there include a POI. dump, a tank enclosure, and an ammunition dump. The POL dump is reported to be the central one for the entire Berea area. It is located north of the highway in the middle of Ivatsevichl and consists of 6 to 8 concrete bunkers protruding about 3 feet (1 meter) above the ground. Each bunker eantains one storage tank. The dump is camouflaged by trees and enclosed by a fence. The enclosure for army tanks is situated on a lov bill NNW of Ivatsevichi. It is surrounded by a high board fence and is reported to contain 50 to 100 medium tanks, possible JS-2's. There are also several S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Relegetik-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 long, low, wooden buildings within the enclosure. Soldiers seen there wore olive-green uniforms with black epaulets and tank-corps insignia. On the southwest edge of Ivatsevichi there is an ammunition dump consisting of 4 revetted buildings and 5 other buildings. 2. Partisan Resistance Partition activity has been reported at several points along and near the Tevli-Ivatsevichi sector of the railroad, but much of the activity apparently occurred during the period 1945-50. The partisan resistance reflects opposition to the Soviet annexation of this formerly Polish territory, to Soviet transfer of local residents to other parts of the USSR, and to collectivization and military service. Remnants of the partisan groups probably still persist in the more isolated areas. Near Kobryn'l 10 miles (16 kilometers) SSE of Tevli, partisans mere active in 1947 and 1948. Some of them were deserters from the Soviet Army. In the vicinity of Zhabinka, on the railroad 13 miles (21 kilometers) southwest of Tevli, 9 incidents of resistance were reported during the period 1951-53. Polish partisans belonging to the WIN (Wolnose I Niepodlezlose -- Freedom and Independence Nbvement) and Belorussian partisans were reportedly active in the Bereza area until 1950. Between 1948 and 1950, 17 resistance incidents were reported in the vicinity of Bereza, both north and south of the railroad, and activity was even stronger in 1946-47. At that time, police raids into the moods were carried out 2 or 3 times a month. From late 1945 with late 1948, there were many partisans hiding in the old German pillboxes in the swamp near Ivatsevichi. -46- JS-E-C-R-E-2 Sanitized - Approved For Keiease : uIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For irztli?IA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 3. Soviet Order of Battle for the Belorussian SSR The following order of battle, while for the most part including locations outside the area, is of direct importance in determining the disposition of troops within the study area: unItta ifeadlt2a_rters Belorussian Mil Dist HQ Minsk Twenty-eighth Army Grodno =VIII Rifle Corps Brest 12th Gds MCZ Div Brest (2 regts in Maya levo) 50th Gds Rifle Div Brest XX Rifle Corps Groduo 48th Gds Rifle Div Volkovysk 55th Gds Rifle Div Grodno Fifth Gds Mecz Army Bdbruysk 10th Tank Div Borisov 29th Tank Div Slutsk V/i Mem Div Osipovichi Sdbordination Uncertain 6th Gds Rifle (MeczT) Div. Borisov 103rd Arbne Gds Rifle Div Vitebsk 220th Gds Rifle Div Minsk Rend Tank Regt WV:150 Bereza :sodweiv Forces (Jay t141. 226th MVD Regt Minsk 297th MVD Regt Vitebsk 432nd MVD ;1110 Minsk 16th Border. Detachment Belorussimn Border District - 47 - Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 5X1A Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 !RI Sanitized - Approved For-RVib"htildA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Atlases 1. 2,119E221WISSR2 Politico-Administrativna Khrta (Belorussian SSR, Political-Administrative Map); 1:600,000; GUM, Moscow, 1951, U. 2. Karts Lesov SSSR (Forest Map of the USSR); 1:2,500,000; OUGK0 174;;;;WIWE-TC 3. Karts Nhrodov SSSR (Map of the Peoples of the USSR); 1:5,000,000; 4?dh."-gtE717-1?UGK?tioscow, 1953, U. 4. Karta Plotnost' Mass le SSSR (Map of Population Density of the 70311770,000,000; 1 sheets; MK, Moscow., 1953, U. 5. Ilimatic.1?mhlya_arta SSSR (Climatic Map of the USSR); 1:5,000,000; Vsheets; MK, Moscow, 1953, U. 6. Pocbve Khrta SSSR (Soils Map of the USSR); 1:4,000,000; GUM, Moscow, 19i, U. 7. Poland; 1:25,000; Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny (Military Geographical Institut); Sheets pas 27-s1up 410 and pas 38-ship 40 C, R, F, 0, 114 1929-31, U. 8.EsatEd; 1:1000000; Wojakowy Instytut Geograficzny (Military Geographical Institut); Sheets pas 38?alup 390 40, 41 and pas 38, 39; 1926-32, U. 9. USSR- Generalinyy Shtab REKK (General Staff Red Army); 1:100,000; Sheets N-35-111, 121, 122, 123, and 133; 1935-400 U. 10. USSR. 1:500,000; General'nyy Shtab Kraanoy Arnii (General Staff Red Army); Sheet N-35-V; 1941, U. 11. gg2graficheskiy.,Atle; GUGK0 Moscow, 1954, U. 12. Atlas Mira (Atlas of the World); GUGK0 Moscow, 1954, U. 13. Atlas SSSR; GUGK, Moscow, 1955, U. Air P._11.0to a 1. Air Photo Mosaic of German wartime Photography, OK 12375-B 2536/44 SK, enlarged to 1:25,000, S. - 49 - --Si-Fr-G./I-B-11? Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-00945A000100010001-1 Sanitized - Approved For Release: 5A000100010001-1 REQUESTER ONLY 117. SECRET- Sanitized - Approved For ReleaselF8M-014V00945A000100010001-1