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March 1, 1948
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Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-Rpr79-90976A000 11-111 e itS5 1-1 c PILd a2_0/124. cA.? N CARTOGRAPHIC AND MAP ?G AGENCIES: THE GEODETIC GERMAN CARTOGRAPHY M - 2 DOCUMENT NO. N. CHANGE IN CLASS CLASS. CHANGED 10: TS S C REVUIV DATE: AU TH: HR (0-.; DATET"..22r,L41..,FIEviLivail- _37,2044 NTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY March 1948 tOpl NO. do l'OP TOE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE, FOR FURTHER ROUTING TO T:1E EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, THE LCVISORY r,.:NCIL, AND CENTRAL RECURDS FILE RESPRIeTZL') ofp".-9seiVigr Release 1 1a42RJAP-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 DISSEMINATION NOTICE 1. Reports issued in the M-series generally pertain to territorial questions, geographic intelligence, evaluation of available map information and technical intelligence on mapping in foreign areas. 2. This copy may be either retained or destroyed by burning in accordance with applicable security regulations, or returned to the Central Intelligence Agency by arrangement with the Office of Collection and Dissemination, CIA. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Act, 50 U.S.C., 31 and 32, as amended. Its trans- mission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 (5271) GERMAN CARTOGRAPHIC AND NAP COurPOTING AGRICIES: THE GEODETIC BASES OF O. CARTOMAPHY M-2 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY MARCH 1948 .1111111111111"1" Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary Introduction Pare iv I. Dimensions of the Earth, and Geographic Grids ? . ? ? ? ? ********** ? ??? ? 1 II. Projections 00000000 ...??????. 3 III. Triangulation . 7 A. Triangulation up to 1938 000 B. Maintenance of Triangulation Stations and Restoration of Station Marks ? I ? ? 7 12 C. The Situation in 1938 14 1. Areas with Adequate Triangulation Nets . 4 ? ? # ? ? 4 0 ? 15 2. Surveys Planned or in Progress 18 EV. Connections of the German Triangulation with that of Other Countries ? ? 4 0 0 ******* 23 A. Lithuania 24 B. Poland C. C zechoslovakia and Austria ? ? 0 . 26 D. Switzerland ? a ? a ? * 4 ? ? ? * .0 E. France e ******** ? ?? * 0 28 F. Luxembourg 6 ..... ? . . ? a 31 G. Belgium. . . ? 0 0 . 32 H. Netherlands . . . ? ? 0. ? ? ? ..? .... 32 I. Denmark 0 0 0 : ? 33 V. The Reich Level Net ..... i, ? ? S ? ? ? 0 e . .. 33 VI. Hydrographic Net 0 ? ? 39 , VII. Magnetic North 39 Appendix A: Summary of basic geodetic information for German States 41 Appendix : Triangulation Nets of Greater Germany ? .. .... ..... RESTpICTED a 48 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED LIST OF TABLES Prte 1. Great Circle Maps for Air Navigation (Grosskreiskarten) 9 2. Relation between Connecting Nets .. . ? ? if ? 20 LIST OF MAPS Facing Page Figure 1. Germany: Main and Connecting Triangulation Grids 8 Figure 2. Net of Precision Leeling 9 4 ? ? I 0 4 ? ? 0 34 Figure 3. Bavarian Precision Leveling, 1868-90 - 34 Figure 4. The Principal Triangulation Nets of Greater Germany - 1944 . . . . ? ? lit RESTRICTED 48 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED SUMMARY Germany is one of the few countries in the world that has complete, accurate, and detailed geodetic and topographic.surveys of the major part of its area. The program of unification and coordination of surveying and cartography initiated in 1935, however, created several serious problems for German geodetic and cartographic agencies. Most of the German states except Bavaria and WUrttemberg had adopted the Bessel ellipsoid. Polyhe- dric projections with degrees of longitude measured from Ferro (Canary Is- lands) were used on many of the older, large-scale maps. The large-scale maps of Bavaria and WUrttemberg and the cadastral maps of many north Ger- man states and provinces, however, were compiled on the Soldner and Soldner- Cassini grids; and Bavaria used the Bonne projection. In the recent unifi- cation program, the Gauss-KrfAger projection was introduced. All large- and medium-scale maps published since the beginning of World War II have a geo- graphic grid based on the Gauss-KrUger projection superimposed on them. The Gauss-KrUger projection has been developed in three-degree bands by the Reichsamt far Landesaufnahme and in six-degree bands by the General Staff of the Army. Although Germany is covered by a number of dense and accurate triangulation nets, they were poorly integrated because they were surveyed at different times and by different states. By 1938, sev- eral nets had been resurveyed, and other areas were scheduled for resurveying. In some areas, where differences between nets were not too great, adjustments had been computed. The outbreak of the war slowed down surveying, but along the Westwall Germany attempted to NOTE: The Intelligence Organization of the Department of State and the Office of Naval Intelligence have concurred in the report; the Intelligence Division of the Department of the Army and the Air Intelligence Division, Directorate of Intelligence, Department of the Air Force, had no comment. iv RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED complete new, accurate triangulation nets; and between 1939 and 1941, first-order triangulations of Mecklenburg, Warttenberg, Bavaria, west- ern Austria, and southern East Prussia were completed or continued. Before the war, Germany had started to connect its triangula* tion net with those of adjoining countries, but the German not dif- fered considerably from those of France and Poland. After those countries were conquered, their nets were adjusted to the German net even though comparatively large junction differences had to be ab- sorbed. The first-order connection of the German-Belgian nets was completed as were also the German-Polish nets with the exception of the Warthe not. The level net was renewed continuously because of deteriora- tion due to slight shifts or loss of bench marks. At the outbreak of war, approximately one-third of Germany had been covered by new first-order and email parts by a second-order level net. An older first-order level net covered all Germany. Although many of the old markers have been lost, a number remain and are accurate within a few millimeters. Until 1941 hydrographic surveys along the German coast were continued by the Deutsche Seewarte, the leveling being done by the Rtichsamt far Landecaufnahme. The results of these surveys, however, may have been lost. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/59sipATDP79-00976A0001000200q1-6 INTRODUCTION ? Hr, . Germany is the classic exatple of a country that has complete, accurate, and modern horizontal and vertical control surveys of-the major part of its area. However, techniCal advances :in' road construction, min- ing operations, land redistribution, and military science require surveys of increasingly higher degrees of accuracy. In the past, the planning and execution of a comprehensive'program for the production of large-scale maps were hampered by the existence of numerous small survey districts whose activities were not co-ordinated. To remody.this 'situation, Germany inaugurated in 1935 an extensive surVeying program to provide a uniform basis for large-scale topographic maps. This paper, which outlines the status of this program at the time hostilities ceased, has been revised to include immediate postwar developments.1 I. DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH. AND GEOGRAPHIC GRIDS One of the basic difficulties in the unification of German cart- ographic work is the use by various states of different dimensions for the "geoid" or earth ellipsoid. Since the smaller state cartographic agencies were either absorbed by the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme or followed its lead, only the three assumptions that are discussed in the following paragraph remain to be considered. The Wurttemberg map projection was based on the ellipsoid of the Nurttembergian astronomer Bohnenberger. The Bavarian projections were based on a sphere with a radius of 6,388,172 meters. The dimensions of this sphere were determined from the Laplacian spheroid, which has an equatorial circumference of 40,000,000 meters and a curvature at the latitude of Bavaria that is almost identical with .the Bavarian reference 1. Unpublished report by Captain Spencer D. Smith, in charge, Land Survey Office, Bamberg, Germany, September 15, 1947. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 It8TRIQTED 2 sphere. Prussia and all the states following its lead adopted the. dimensions determined by Bessel who in 1841, computedAhe polar radius 6,356,078.963 meters and the equatorial radius 6077,397.155 meters.1 On some airway maps there are notesstating that a "norgol" radius of 6,370,000; 6,382,750; or even 6,395 000 meters has beep used. By 1924, all German states, most of which had previously used Ferro, had adopted Greenwich as the prime meridian. On their surveys, Prussia and Bavariacalculated that Greenwich was 170 391 57.5" east of Ferro and subtracted 170 401, Since German topographic maps are bounded by meridians and parallels, the subtraction of 17? 40' made it possible to retain the old borders without change, For example, 200 501 E of Ferro became 30 101 E of Greenwich. Only for Baden did the sheet borders have to be changed. These -changes were made' during the war. The margin of error introduced was less than 0.5 Mm., even on the 1100,000 map, Baden and Wirttemberg relied on the Wurttemberg Observatory at Tubingen in establishing their latitude and longitude. Ovang to a mistake in cal- culating the latitude and longitude of Tubingen and to a slight torsion in the established prime meridian, these two states could not easily adjust the established geographic grids to the accepted Greenwich-equator system. Baden 'whiCh hid based its prime meridian on the now demolished observatory at Mannheim,' discovered an -eah.tward deviation from the true north of 107914" along this .meridian north of Mannheim. The amount of deviation along the Arttemberg meridian based on Tbingen is not known. 1. The internationally accepted dimensions are those of Hayfotd for the polar radius 6,3565-911.946 meters and for the equatorial radius. 6,378,388.000 meters. In Germanythese dimensions are used as ,reference only for ,leveling connections with Baltic countries. 'Figures for the Bessel ellipsoid are givpk,in German legal,meters, whereas those for Hayford are in international meters. 1 legal meter . 1.000,013,355 international meters, RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 3 ,vIe.mar A When the borders of the Baden and Wurttemberg surveys wore compared a difference of 4.32" in latitude and 2;58" in fongitude became apparent. On the ground, this error amounted to between .135 and 141 meters in latitude and between 35 and 40 meters in longitude, respectively. The W'Urttemberg and Bavarian nets, however, were adjusted satisfactorily, leaving a mean error of two to three meters; The difference between the Prussian and Baden nets was 94" in latitude or 280 meters on the ground, II. PROJECTIO--- NS -------- In projections differences between states were even more complicated because- a'single state might use a variety of projections, depending on the scales of the maps produced. Arttemberg and Bavaria used the Cassini- SoIdner projection and co-ordinates for their large-scale maps at-1:2,500 and 1:5,000. This projection virtually shifts the poles and equator of the:sphere in such a way that the prime meridian and equator intersect at the center of an area surveyed. This means that if a 1-degree area is projected as a quadrangle, the distortion is reduced to a minimum. The zero of the co-ordinate system for Wurttemberg is the observatory in Tubingen and for Bavaria the co-ordinate zero is the northern tower of the Liebfrauen Kirche in Munioh. Originally the Prussian topographic map at the scale of 1:25,000 (Messtischblatt) was drawn according to the Prussian poly4edric.prOjection. This projection disregards the curvature of the earth, and considers each part of the sphere as a plane bordered by two successive Ferro meridians and two successive parallels. Length; area, and angles are absolutely . correct at the corners of each of the isosceles trapezoids so formed and the error at the center is insignificant. The Bavarian mapset at 1:25,000, on the other hand, was drawn in tWo forms; a topographic map (Gradabtoilungs- . blatt) on the Prussian polyhedric projection with Bessells reference .spheroid, and -A location sheet (Positionsblatt) on the Soldnerpolyhedric ? projection bordered by parallels and meridians. Recently the latter have - RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDF'79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 4 been made on the Gauss-Kruger projection, using the same sheet lines as the Prussian Mosttischbfatter. The prime meridian adopted by Bavaria in the Sold= system was 293' 160 08.8" et' of Ferro. Bavarian latitudes also have had to be adjusted by adding 02.6" - owing to the use of independent astronomic locations. Bonnets projection with Soldnerts reference grid is used for the maps of the Bavarian Topographic Atlas at 1:50,000. The standard parallel is 4:56i1 and meridian is that of the old Munich Observatory, which has now been demolished. Polyhedric projectione were used also on the Baden and Hessian 1:25,000 maps. - Because paraliele are drawn as straight lines on all polyhedric projections, instead of being slightly curved, there is an insignificant error along the middle line of the maps. The greatest dif- ference between the lengthe of the chord on the 1:250000 map and the arc of the true parallel is 0.13 mm., or 3.2 m, on the ground, and on the 1:100,000 map 0.3 mm., or 29 m. on the ground. These errors lie within the margin of uncontrollable error in map production. About 1928, the Reichsamt fir Landesaufnahme adopted the policy of superimposing on all German topographic maps a plane co-ordinate grid derived from the Gauss projection, a technique suggested by the use of the Lambert grid by the French. KrAger was editor of Gauss' papers 'after his death, and completed and amplified some of the Gauss computations. The Gauss-Kruger projection, from which the co-ordinates of the same name are taken, is d modified transverse Mercator projection adjusted to the spheroid. The projection cylinder is tangent to the spheroid along d meridian which therefore like the equator in theTiercater-projection - has no scale error. In order to keep the distortion within mall limits, the extension of the projection to the east and west of this centrdl. meridian is limited to 1? 30 on. German non-military maps. Thus, from cast. to west new cylinders are used as projection Surfaces at progressive intervals of 3 degrees of longitude. This results in a Series of narrow RESTaICTM Approved For Release 1999/09/0,1 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 5 - strips or bands. The ordinates of the Gauss7Kruger projection are not meridians but small circles parallel to the central meridian. .The abscissas are not parallels of latitude, but great circles perpendicular to the principal meridian. All grid lines appear as straight lines, distances can be measured easily, and angles are conformal.. The projection is not equal area, but the distortions are too small to be measurable if the band is sufficiently narrow. The main disadvantage is that true north is coincident with co-ordinate north only along the central meridian. In February 1942, the Army adopted the Russian system of 6 degree meridian bands for its maps. This difference in width of projection bands distinguishes the army grid (Deutsches HeeresLitter, DHG) from the grid of ? the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme (Deutsches Reichsgitter, DAG). The distortions are, of course, more pronounced on the military grid than on the Reichsamt grid. The following tabulation, computed for 550 N, shows the comparative distortions at the edges of the meridian bands: Measured Distance N-S distortion E-W distortion DRG DHG (3? bands) (6? bands) 1 km. 0.45 m. 0.5 m.. 10 km.' 4.76 m. 4,8 in. * The Gauss-Kruger co-ordinate grid divides the map into squares whose sides vary in length according to the scale of the map. The relationship between the size of the squares and the scale of the map is given below: Scale 1:25,000 and 1:500000 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 1:300,000 Size Of Square Size of Square (In cm.) km.) 1 4.00 5.00 3.33 RESTRICTED 2 5 10 10 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 6 The co-ordinates are SQ numbered-that the meridian 6? is marked 2,500,000 m.; that. of 9? is 3,500,000; that of 12? is 4,500,0000 and so on. Between these principal meridians, measurements are made in meters which, as Germany is east of Greenwich, are designated. as Rechtswert or rechts (to the right). Latitude is measured as the true length in meters from the equator and is called Hochwert or hoch (high). The following tabulation gives a comparison of the DRG and DIM numbering systems: DRG DHG ,53 1,500 000 m. 1,500,000 m. 6? 2,500,000 m. 56 3,500,000 m. ' 2,500,000 111, 12- 4,500,000 m. - ? 150 5,500,000 m. 3,-500,000 m. The Germans used two types of reference grids. The Army grid (Heeresmeldnetz), used for tactical purposes, was based on the Gauss-Kruger projection with 6 degree bands (DHG). The geographical reference grid, (Gradmeldnetz), used for operational purposes (especially by the ;Air Force), was based on parallels and meridians. The 1:1,004000 map of the world was drawn on a modified polyconic projection with straight meridians. On each sheet, the meridians 1 degree - west and 1 degree east of the central meridian are true in length. The Army surveyors have used the Gauss-Kruger grid with. 6? bands exclusively in recent years. The Navy has always used the Mercator projec- tion for its maps; no exception is known. There is no indication that the Navy will follow the lead of the Army. Obviously, in order to take advantage of .rhumb lines in air navigation, most of the general maps used by the Air Forces are drawn on the Mercator projection. On these maps, the scale is correct for one of the three parallels 700 N., 510 N., or 230 N., depending on the area covered. Occasionally other projections are used, including the gnomonic with an oblique axis and the center of reference at latitude 50?N RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 7 but at different longitudes, the stereographic, and the azimuthal with ? ? various centers (Table 1). Maps On a larger scale Were planned, but nothing is known about projection selected. In the meantime, the air force has used an adaptation of the old Vogel map at 1:500,000 on the Bonne projection, or the general map at 1:300,000 (see above). III. TRIANGULATION A. Triangulation before 1938 Germany was covered by a dense network of triangulation points, but the observations were made at different times and with various degrees of accuracy. Those areas for which the coverage was considered unsatisfactory were either resurveyed or were scheduled for new triangulation. In some states such as Mecklenburg, the triangulation had to be repeated since the original values could not be adjusted to the general system. The resurveying of. the first-order net was begun in 1936 and was scheduled for Completion in 1942. Most of the second-order nets completed since 1900 could be converted to the new datum.. Only a small amount:of second- and third-order work was required along the Mecklenburg-Prussia, Saxony-Prussia, Bavaria-Prussia and Bavaria-Austria. boundaries. Some of the third-order work in Bavaria and Wurttemberg would normally have required two to three years, and the triangulation of Germany within its prewar boundaries could have been completed by 1945 if the war had not intervened. Figure 1, though dated in 1938, actually gives data for 1935. By:1938, the new triangulation of Mecklenburg, Wurttemburg, and Bavaria was nearing completion. In Germany the accuracy of triangulation usually. was established by plotting all values of a given point as determined by the various observa- tions. If these values fell within an ellipse whose major axis. did .not exceed 0.30 m. in length, the triangulation was regarded as sufficiently accurate. The pertinent figures for triangulation of first order are: RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 8 (1) The average length of half of the major axis of the ellipse is A i 0.04 m., the maximum error should not exceed three times the absolute mean; (2) the mean deviation from the adjusted direction is .1- 0.2" computed for a mean distance of 40 km., and the maximum deviation is in accord with the newer first order (i 0.15" to -1- 0.201); (3) the accuracy in measure- ments of base lines increased progressively, from 1 in 2,000,000 in earlier measurements to 1 in 3,000,000 in 1935 for the base line of the Island of Rugen. A nation-wide triangulation net of three orders of accuracy was planned to replace the various state systems. The Reich was to be A responsible through theReichsamtl.ur Landesaufnahme for the establishment and maintenance of the first-order triangulation net, Although for the time being Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden were allowed to continue their separate triangulation nets. Wurttemberg and Baden surveyors were at- tached to Reich survey parties, however, and Reich and Bavarian surveyors took part in the execution of triangulation in Wurttemberg and Baden. The reconnaissance and signal tower construction for the new Bavarian first- order net was done by the Reichsamt fr Landesaufnahme, and the observa- tion by the Bavarian surveyors under. the supervision of the Reichsamt. In first,order triangulation a distinction was made between principal and intermediate triangu2ation stations, the latter being observed only after the establishment of the principal net. Their accuracy, however, equalled that of the principal stations and after August 1940 both were accepted, as comprising the Reich Triangulation Net (Reichsdreiecksnetz) and were designated as TP(). Points of the third order Were to' make up the State Triangulation Nets (Landesdreiecknetze) and were designated as TP(L). All'points of fourth order were included in the .Survey Net and designated as TP(A). - The relation between points of various orders is shown .below. .RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 ?RTH SE A. 'roved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 62 GERMANY MAIN AND CONNECTING TRIANGULATION NETS, 1938 INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES, 1937 SCALE 11,775000 50 75 109 11C:214 ',' ' AlOrli" MILES 17.20 Mr I il ail 1 M I I I KILOMETERS IMA Malebri kk.., 111M.1.1111 Milagrtifel", RWAPY AM.. FArebe, Ili , BALTIC ILIPIES 0 - -0ON arTk=,?,El?" o:gr.tu. lV-,:'gIaO iW imE.7N_OMM .trmtn2iNr.i4ob 2F MEW5 ,Pn-a,rs.l.iii_-PsI4..obt,RAeA.t:rsllM.,r rtl,.A\Iio:it-i1ill1? i,'mtiN'F'm11V4.--aWi6EPi0rka i vRiat4_mt t.iiSlglgIMiA7.4,I.1blNEa14i?l In!_r"o6mVit.Na:NiVlO1ati1j5Ti:h1:A"i.A?m1o_,4 En1am iEi 1r6wi1Iti151GA4 eA,1.rt._m?I. 4 11 1SPI Vr111II4M n'71LkOM 1Eil-NtRep1i_Cixbli 4, -Mllr l0M4i14O4Mt3i A.B12 17IM0s1Ra,-mrEM0swi' . Y1vEiN1l1t_I.IEBaT,rmr;,lWT ,o I0W:eIeMZ w.,Sr.M.N1 i.AA.? a--Etldiv1A- if.11i0WINi1017IAi. iAPOM1ItWDMvn2rW,tiz0aLff' eN2SVNri4iael 1-N1mA1l1pA i'42."FOEs1IIpm MPOt1Ok*El .Na_-.1t. it1J1 -iNE^irIP.ol: t krkRV?FWirn1I DiimEWM-AE\tl..1AA Tu DIimMc1',EESmtlwri,r,,CaFnNs1 WviLN f. ao 8 io l1IweMIAt.m1' N.irmioE=RrtI0IR r40i,1.etV w s7Nr4ar\..mA,,I\:., APi:, .i4M? I 1E \.l rt k1iSrF11Na.M ?k.r_1Tr, ,P d, lhA.%1Il ,g- , I ,I_iNE_sA1,3_.. ENANK1wir.N 4 , 'MMm L5Wi O( , \ 4 , 2.- /01 m , . f1 rnEl1?tLIEI,. i1a "li. l i.d -igp1-i0,iwoR1rML7rg*PIffN,11 .,t1,\,-h .k\'._ .4.,7t_.i l.t ,/ .1?ii W,i- MA 0-'1' ',ff rr.6,akNEn''1t7''V7 '51' i-''i lrffi M'-A"0-lIA ,-:i-IMn - I rEir'M .ot IgsN4,A?em1g?0)1.0.\O f \_ M\ WL 'm4 AW/,' Emt2Eaa_tn 1 aI i6r E___tl :r _ iLPOrtlgOV1_4,P'.1, 1 ,_ 'tQ,.v0.t,;1irf.iV OeIaA-_?._4 t4l aHI1 6Ei D a AR'-i1=0 i_M,2B-0 1r,..l.gdQAoIaM.EasOk1?1 . .1.VO -1 lMII .. 11Vd liFP1i.l.A,, . NNfrIENirrdP0A,1.KeAwr4a_ _1.0P PM EC1L,2 ,0a'I L11 .,.:r ,T pE I . Ntn IaVENnVia L ia. w- i- ; 102 MI rke timalliV4 Ii.A 'l 201. 11m_,1ml__A_n "tN-hhM-.%-7ihLgg.ri44 , W Mpig1 heat!, 31.30' TRIANGULATION NETS Fer Mew v-aUl 6.20, LONGITUDE EAST 7?20' OF GREENWICH 8?20' 11?20 13.20' freurre. BERLIN 11908) STREHLEN (1854) SCHUBIN 11903) GUMBINNEN 11906) BASE NETS Scale 1:887.000 BONN AM RHEIN (1892) FIDGEN - ISLAND (1932) North Base South Ba First Order, in present use Supplementary Older, important only to safeguard connections of newer nets New, First Order. Lower orders incomplete, so nets are now of scientific interest only First Order,planned or in progress Intermediate Point of first order Base Line In WUrttemberg, Cadastral Survey In Baden only Extent of Pre-World War Austrian Military Geographical Institute Green print indicates all nets still in use. Dates denote time surveying was done. SOURCE (ibersrdo?kart? dor Havirand?alinta?? DendwIdend aelost den AnseNdamw di? Naddowalvalrn, r,009044. Two Sheex. Roidww4144 L?nclonflinahaw,11014. i434 a. liana, a 8a, BERLIN 11846) OBERBERGHEIM IN ALSACE (1E177) STOLP IN POMMERN 11935) Dew .wer BRAM IN HOLSTEIN (1871) MEPPEN IN HANNOVER (1883) WOHLAU IN SILESIA (1914) GOTTINGEN IN HANNOVER (IWO) 17.20' 18.20' 10?20' 20?20' 21.20 22.20' 10262 September 1946 Department of State, DivisLigioogf4ahpeclinitneWigeelizraoridducctinrr:chri Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 9-1.000Z0001.000V9/600-6/dCIN-V10 1.0/60/6661. eseeieN .10d peA0.1ddV Table 1. Area SET OF "GREAT CIRCLE MAPS FOR AIR-RAVIGATION" (GROSSKREISEARTEN)1 Center of -Radius of the Projection Projection -Sphere -Earth Scale at Center of Projection (in mm.) (in km.) North Polar Region Polar Azimuthal North Pole 479.0 6,370.7 1:13,300,000 Northern Atlantic Oblique Azilmithal.- Lat. ito? N 392.0 6,370.0 1:16,250,000 Ocean Loa3. 30? W Middle Atlantic Equatorial Azi- Lat. 0? 217.5 6,372.75 1:29,3000000 Ocean - muthal Long. 300 W Europe-Asia Oblique Azimuthal Lat. 309 N 205.5 6,370.5 1:31,000,000 Long. 75? E A.. Ordered by the Minister of Air Navigation and Supreme Commander Of the Air Force, compiled by the _ Deutsche Seewarte, Haniburg, printed by Gebruder Salter, Hamburg 36. Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 10 Order Satze Length of Sides Density (1 point per) (1st 12 (30 km. (average) TP(R) ( (2nd 6 6-15 km. , 50 sq. km. TP(L) 3rd:. 3 3?..5 (average) 5 sq. km. TP(A) 4th ;. 0 I. ,.... In the above tabulation, zeTt is used in place of "Number of ...--- Pointings," since the latter might be mialeading. In the Schreiber method of obserVations used by, the-ReichsaMt fur Landepaufnahme, each angle and all combinations of angles about a station are -measured a:number - ? of times, according to the total number of angles.:' For example, in first- order observations from a five line station', ea-ph angle and combination of angles is measured five times with the telescope in the direct posiAdon and five times with the telescope in the reverse position. Triangulation stations were characteristically make4 by stone plates surmounted by Stone pillars. The pillars had crosses chiselled on the top, and the letters TP and a triangle welt engraved on the aides Aufnahme or fourth-order stations were marked AP on one side and a hetal pipe or bolt was used for the subsurface marker. Metal bolts or plates were used only as bench marks. Church spires and lookout towers used as triangulation stations had leveling bolts at their base. The bolt,:: stamped TP (or HP if it is also,a levelling point), had'a hole drilled in the top. The center axis of the hole was used as an eccentric station mark. Second-. and third-order triangulation stations are distinguished from first order only by a lower degree of accuracy, which means that observations were not repeated as often as;for those of first order. In many second- and third-order. nets, however, the accuracy is as good or better than the average for the,Reich- triangulation nets, Only in a few cases is the'maXimum permissible:errerfor.first-order triangulation exceeded, and then usually because of- forced-adjustments to. older_adjoining nets. Similarly, in many cases the probable error of the adjusted direction Approved For Release 1999/06F:caA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTM 11 is well within the Reich average. In the -Old third-order nets, however, the error is much larger, amounting to a maximum error of 150" in the southern part of Pomerania.. The error in the new first- and third-order nets are well within the Reich average. The triangulation program called eventually for a density of stations averaging about one station'to each square kilometer. There are about 54,000 triangulation stations in Prussia. The number was to be increased to-between-'250,000 and 3000000. This density was considered necessary. (a) for military reasons,' (b) t create a sufficient number of control'points'for the use of aerial photographs, and(c) to enable the local authorities to fit their local surveys into the national net. There were 6;000 additional stations in the smaller north German States, and 60,000 in southern Germany. Of these triangulation stations, 12,000 were of first-order accuracy in 1938.. Since then, the army established an 'unspecified additional number of - points, especially in the territory' of the Wet Wail, where they are called artillery points (AP). For purposes of surveying, the French 'Ind Belgian division of the. .right angle into 100 degrees, 10,000 minutes, and 1,000.$000-seconds. was". adopted, oven the French abbreviations being retained. It was deeided, howeVer, to express measurements in decimals rather than use the abbreviations for minutes and seconds. The term "Neugradn (new degree) was coindd for this .new unit.1 Instead of manufacturing new theodolites, it was planned to equip those already in use with the new Seale by April 10 1945. Computations have boon made in thia new system since 1938. 1. Circular Order...of October 18, 19370 concerning the division of angles, ibid., Vol. 14, No. 2, 1938., The centesimal system was not used for first-order triangulation. This exception was officially sanctioned by Section II, paragraph 2, of the Circular Order of October 18, 1937. .RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 12 The decimal graduation was printed also on airway maps, together with the much older alriPion of the circle into64,points (Striche), each 9ne subdivided into 100 points (also called Striche). The German Reich is thus covered by a system of triangulation nets of various ages and degrees of accuracy. Originally triangulation arcs were surveyed, which were later used to combine isolated nets. For these arcs and nets, base lines from 3 to 10 km. (2 to 6 miles) in length were measured, which were expanded by triangulation to a junction with the larger aides of the nets. To insure accuracy, most of the base lines were remeasured and compared with the bases of 960 m. at Potsdam and of 1248 m, near Munich. These remeasurements were necessary also because all base lines were originally measured with the Bessel apparatus rather than the recently introduced invar. wires. The Munich baseline was the first tote measured with invar wires. The use of two primary base lines for purposes of control was adopted because of the possibility of changes in the true length of one of them. .No triangulation point was to be more than 200 km. (about 120 miles) from the nearest base line, B. Maintenance of Triangulation Stations and Restoration of Station Marks Even a perfect triangulation net needs continuous aupervision. Buildings are removed and highway and building construction destroys station marks;, mining Operations may change the surface of the earth, and station marks may be damaged by the negligence of landowners. The restoration and maintenance of station Marks is, therefore, a continuous process. Before the war, reports on station marks were made semi- annually by local policemen. Geodetic engineers usually recovered about 90 percent of those reported as lost. Since the outbreak of World War I, maintenance has not kept pace 'with needs. In 1935, about 3,900 of the, 55,000 triangulation, stations in the Reich saint net were reported to be -damaged or lost, and by now the figure is probably much higher. Furthermore, systematic restoration RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved' For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 13 in some areas showed that 30 to 60 percent more station marks than estimated had' to be either restored or replaced. Such restoration can be done only by experienced surveyors and, until 1936, sufficient trained personnel was not available. During 1936, 11546 station marks were restored, but in the folloWing year, when surveyors were needed for other work, less than half that number was'restored. Triangulation stations known to be damaged or lost as of April 1, 1938 numbered 2,944. Restoration has progressed furthest in Silesia and Pomerania, the state of Lippe, and the northern part of the Rhineland. The restoration of lost station marks, especially if the Surface plate has been lost, is both time-consuming and expensive. The Reichsamt 'fur Landesaufnahme, therefore, charged one of its surveyors with the problem of experimenting with the parallactic polygon chain method, which Professor W. W. Danilow of Moscow had formulated, The theory is based on the fact that the lengths of the longer diagonal of a very long and. narrow deltoid (kite-shaped quadrangle) can be determined from the length of the smaller diagonal and the very small parallactic angles at the ends Of the longer'diagOnal. In practice this involves the difficulty of measuring very small angleS 4nd distances with sufficient accuracy. If the follow- ing conditions can be fulfilled, however, the method is accurate enough for use in replacing triangulation stations of second and third order. The smaller diagonal line must be measured with absolute accuracy by an invar'wire,'and its two parts, formed by its intersection With the longer diagonal line, must not differ more than 0.2 m. The angle at the inter- section Must not deviate more than 2' from a right angle, and the line of sight fromthe theodolite to the marker should be high enough above ground. to exclude refraction. The theodolite itself must be accurate-. Under these conditions, the deviation from the true length is less than 1 in 35,000. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999F/g9MESIA-RDP79-00976A0001011)20001-6 It is understood that this method has proved satisfactory in at least two trial measurements; once in 1935 when two lost points in Holstein were restored, and again in 1936, not far. from Berlin along the planned route of a super-highway that cut through the woods and offered, therefqre, conditions unfavorable for the usual method of triangulation. The parallactic polygon chain method was not intended for use in mountainous areas. After the outbreak of war, the Germans stopped showing the exact locations of subsurface station marks on their maps, in spite of the resulting inconvenience, because such information was considered too valuable to the enemy. C. The Situation,.1938-44 It is possible to give a fairly accurate picture of the condition of German triangulation in 1935 as well as the plans for the, future from a report of President Vollmar of the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme of . . December 1, 1935 (see Figure 1). The scattered information on plans for triangulation during the next few years has recently been supplemented by an unpublished report prepared byGaptain Spencer D. Smith, in charge of the.Land Survey Office, Bamberg, Germany. Of the first-order nets, the Mecklenburg net was completed in 1938 the Danish connecting. net in 1939, thetwo.Fompranian,netsin 1936 and 1937, theaxonconnecting chain in 1941 the_North and,,South Bavarian nets in 1940, the Baden- 4rttembergnet in 19371 and the Austrian net in. 1940. In Germany all medern nets of first order. are completely adjusted to adjacent nets. Older. triangulation data are still in use especially inland registry, because the l:.20500 and 1:5,000 maps were often bordered by co-ordinate lines on the old grid system, and because thousands of fourth-order (Aufnahme). statione.were given in the, old state survey systems, -A summary of the situation is given in Appendix A. RESTRTCTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 15 ? , The Temporary Reich Survey Net was completed in l92$ and the final Reich Survey Net was ready for publication in 1944.- The Reichsamt fur Lahdesaufnahme had assembled a complete card file for Greater Germany showing for each triangulation station, (l) geographic pesitiona and elevations; (2) Gauss-Kruger co-ordinates (DRG) in the temporary system,' i.e., the system wherein adjustments are made without taking in-be con- sideration the base lines and Laplace stations outside northwestern Germany; (3) co-ordinates in the final system in which all possible adjustments are made, and (4) the kilitary Gauss-Kruger co-ordinates (DHG). These files were used in all HVAls (Hauptsurmessungsabteilungen) and the Army Cartographic office received several copies of all cards. At the end of the war, the file for the final Reich Survey Net Was loaded into two trucks. One half was sent to Wittenberg and may be in Russian possession and the other half was sent to Imrsbruch ad is believed to be in .the possession of the French Army in Paris. No examples are in-U.S, or German possession. Such files are necessary, since maps can show the positions of triangulation stations' only within graphic limits, ? On 1:50,000 maps, triangUlation stations are given with, an accuracy of tiO m., other points t,30 m. On Maps at 1:25,000, the accuracy increases to t5 in., and ,t20 m., respectively. To obtain the position of a,point with ah err Of not more than one meter, it is necessary to use the Grundkarten at 15000., or cadastral'maps,for,states such as Baden, BaVaria, HaMburg, HesSen,- Saxony, 4 and Wurttemberg, and for f Thuringia. , 1. ...te.2.prith4....k2;qIeuateTrd.anTeL The regionsdiscussed in the followinaparagraphs'are provided with adequate-triangulation nets, though not necessarily of?ali three orders. In Germany, moreover, a distinction must he made between .= arc of triangulation and a triangulation net, The former covers a strip of land 50 to 70 km. wide, while the latter irregularly shaped area. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESI1UCTED 16 Prussia West of the.Elbe and Connecting _Nets. Adequate triangu- lation,was established in this region between 1878 and 19001. The different triangulation arcs and nets have been adjusted satisfactorily. The Prussian net Was the largest of the German nets and contained the datum point of Rauenberg (related to the observatory in Berlin), and the base lines of Berlin 1846, Konigsberg 1834, Strehlen (Silesia) 1845). Braak (Holstein) 1871, Oberbergheim (Alsace) 1877, GOthingen 1880, Meppen 1883, and Bonn 1892. Consequently all other nets were converted to the Prussian system. The newly measured nets of East and West Prussia, with the base lines of Schubin and Gumbinnen, were adjusted to each other and connected with the Prussian net by holding the border stations fixed by the old not.. ' In 1924, the Prussian system was transferred to the Gauss-Kruger grid and was ,ealled the Preliminary Reich Survey Net. Mecklenburg, -Wurttemburg? Saxony, Bavaria, and Baden thereafter were converted to the system by computation only and without additional measurements. Many discrepancies remained along the borders. All stations in all orders were completely converted to this adjustment and the results were published in trigonometric lists and on index cards. In 1936 it was decided to hold the northwestern part of Germany invariable (nets underlined-in Figure 4, Appendix B) in order to avoid changes in position. The eastern nets Were adjusted internally without base or Laplace conditions, were connected to adjacent nets by the Helmert method, and then connected with the northwestern nets. The southern nets were connected to the combined northern net. The adjustment was further enlarged by addition of the Polish', Czechoslovakian, and Austrian nets in 1944. The result was called the Final Reich Survey Net. In July 1945, the U.S. and the British Armies decided to readjust the Final Reich Survey Net by the Bowie method using all base lines and 1. "Official Triangulation Grid," ibid, Vol. 16, No. 5, 1940. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 17 Laplace stations. The junction figures and sections of this adjust- Ment were completed in July 1947 and called the Central European Net. The polygons should be completed by July 1948. b. East Prussia. Triangulation of all three orders has been completed. c. West Prussia. Triangulation of all three orders has been completed in the former Province of West Prussia. The greater part of this net, however, lies beyond the 1937 boundaries of the Reich, in the Polish Corridor and Danzig. A small part of the triangulation is in the section-of West Prussia that was joined to East Prussia in 1919, but it is atill.referred to in German publications as part of the West Prussian net. d. Berlin-Schubin. A first-order triangulation are connects Berlin and. Sthubin, the latter in the part of Poland that belonged to West Prussia before 1919. At Schubin, the arc connects with the East and West Prussian nets mentioned. The adjustment of the Berlin-Schubin arc revealed large junction errors. By moving the Prussian nets 2.3 m. (or 0.1184) to the west those errors were reduced, but a slight dis- tortion developed in the north (see Table 2). e. Markisdh-Silesian net. Principal first-order triangulation (without intermediate points) has been completed for this area. The second-order has. been: remeasured and the third-order partly remeasured in thp.eastern part of the area. The base line near WOhlaul which had not been used.before was remeasured in 1941 and was used in adjusting the net. -f. Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Lubeck. Triangulation, of all - three orders has been completed. g. Eastern Pomerania, The principal first-order triangulation has been completed for Eastern Pomerania, and the intermediate net was RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 htbTAIUTLV 4) AARON F;,1? rtff eftrg aTaN91 (74W7AiRk7W?914NPRP 01-6 (on Wellin Island), Vogelsang (near Stettin), and Gornow in the west to the Berlin-Schubin triangulation arc in the south 'Northeast of Stolp, a new base line 9.6 km long Was measured with'invar'Wires it 1935. As the triangulation clata were urgently needed'-fer-the area east of the meridian 201 E. because of the man Y new G6rman settlements in the area, the second and third-order triangulation, though observed independently, was done at the sometime as the first-order triangulation. The necessary adjustment to the first order stations, a relatively simple office procedure, was scheduled for the winter of 1938-39. h. Vorpommern .(Northwestern Pomerania), A first-order triangula- tion net was dompleted in this area. A base line of 4.8 km. Was measured on Riigen and another of 10 km. was planned for the Werbelliner heath'. Inl93, there was no plan for second- and third-order triangula- tion and, because of the war, it is unlikely that any has been done 2. Surveys Planned cr in Progress a. German-Danish Net. In the east, the German-Danish net joins the Vorpommern net, which in turn joins that of East Pomerania at Jordansee, Vogelsang and Gornow, and in the south the-Berlin-Zchubin arc. This German-Danish net was to be enlarged to include the northern part of Mecklenburg and to join the Holstein net in the west. This - - would provide a trustworthy framework'for the future triangulation of . Southern Mecklenburg. The first-order triangulation'was completed in 1939; second- and third-order triangulation Was planned only for the Mecklenburg-Prussia border. 11 b. Markisch-Silesian Net. In the area covered by the Markisch- Silesian net, observations for intermediate first-order triangulation stations were scheduled to legih in'the-SUmmer of'1938- SeCond- and third-order triangulation was completed in parts of Upper Silesia RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 ? Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 19 because of settlement projects, but no"plans had been made for the rest oft4e second- and third-order nets, since it was considered unnecessary. East Pomeranian Net. In the,7a,ea west otmeridian 15 20t in zaWPomerania? second- and third-oraer;triangulan, started on completion the first-order net, has been completed. .d. Vorpommern Net (Northwestern Fameranin:), $4rne as above. ,c4 Berlin-Schubin ,Arc. When the:Berlin-SChubin triangulation are: :Wa0 ,:cpmpleted, plans were made for future secorid-.ana third-order trianula- . tion. Computations wore started to adjust the Markisen-Silesian net to, , . tfla Berlin-Schubin arc, but the( adjustments could not be Completed because of.other connections with adjoining nets. Thetadjustment-of tleliarkisch- ? . Silesian not, hoWeve* .would?moVe'the points in seutheast,Silesid-about , 6 m., which was not acceptable to land registry authorities. Other types of adjustitents were, therefore, ulider investi EAr cation. The kisch, ? ? , ? e Siledian'triangulatiCn'net had its own base line near Wohlua, measur.od , . _.asearly as 1914. No adjustment to this base line was made at thetime; n , :because -)f -the outbreak of ijorld is.lar I. It?was neceSsary:? therefore:, to , ? ,? reMPasure the base line which was finally done in 1941 (See above). Sacheischer AnsChluss. A reconnaissance was made in 1935 for -the Sachsischer Anschlup (Saxon connection) covering a small area: located between the principal Markisch-Silesian triangulation net the . Saxon4lannoverian triangulation arc of 1880-1881 and the principal; ? Saxon triangulation net, First,ordertiangUlation has been corpleted, 'a.tWell as a small aln6u'rit of loWerorder triangulatin along the Sakon ? ,berder. MeckIenburgrkisches Net. The Mocklenburg-Markisches . . first-order triangulation was observed between.1936 'and 1939) and in , . .1941-.a. base line measured on Sohorffheiae. This net is bordered -- _ _ - . , .,, by the Elbe are of 1874.5* the golsteinarc of:1869c,the German-Danish RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/G1 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/0 9-1.000Z0001.000V9L600-6 Nets' A. After adjustment Rflb-East Prussia West Prussia RfL -Mecklebbtrg RfL - Saxony Bavaria- Wffrttemburg TABLE 2. RELATION BETWEEN COMMUTING BETS IN TBE PRELIMINARY REICH SURVEY NETa .Commen Points Average Distance Apart (in meters1 Gausa-Erager Number :Location 6 Shortest N-S E-W Distance (Hochwert) (Rechtswert) 3 north and 3 south 0.90 (N) on Potheranian border 1.46 (S) 9.59 :All first-order tri. angulation stations in Mecklenburg 50 All first-order'. 0.21 . Stations in Saxony 10 Along the border 1.73 .near . 2.83 WfirtteMberg. 16 Baden Baden-Alsace B. Before adjustment Wfirttedberg Baden RfL SE corner of 6.39- Wfirttemberg 7.87 30 Along the common 0.76. border 2.04 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? -0.74 to 0.54 *3.55 to +5.41 0.59 to 1.60 135.141 (or 4.32") about 280 (or 9.11 ? OP 4110 el.64 to +2.31 -5.97 to -4.56 -1.62 to 0..87 35-40 (or 2.58") Notes East and West Prussia not moved 2.3 in. westward as a unit Maxim= 1:50 in. Minimum: coincidence 2 cases Maximum: 0.60 - 1 case a. Although the Baden net is connected. With the net of the Relehsamt,fOr Landesaufnahme via Wilrttedberg, the two nets touch at one point. The error introduced by indirect connection results in a difference of 9.1" or about 281 in in the N-S, direction, using the Gauss-Et-U.8er system. These discrepancies are for identical stations along the boundaries of adjacent states, but will not appear in the final net, which should be completed in July 1948. b. RV, -Peichsamt fer Landesaufnahme. Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 21 conneCting net, Whieh'c&verts--rierthernliietkIeribb:rgrand-the.;T:riridipal triangulation net of WeStern Pomerania, -i,thich coMprises pari6 of eastern ,MeelapnbUrg, the Berlin-SChubin Connecting triangulatiOn arc, arid the Principal-Sakon'triarigulatien net.. The Older Mecklenburg first-Order trianguiatien? originally Observed in 1853-60, had td be discarded because of ekeessive errors in azimuth; which prevented satisfaCtory adjustment to the Prussian triangulation. Most of the old MeCklenburg stations, however, were scheduled to be absorbed into the new net as sedond-order triangulation station. 'First-order adjUstMents Were com- pleted in 193.. For Mecklenburg, second- and third-order nets Were remeasured between 1910 and 1912. The computatin to connect the second- and third-Order with the first-ordor was started in 1944. and is now (1947) being completed by HVA VI. h. Bavarian Triangulation. In Bavaria new firat-order triangulation was Started in 1920. It Was connected With the Hesbian, Thuringian, and Saxon triangulation nets, folloWing,the Methods and rules established by the Reichsamt fur LandesaufnahMe. A base line was measured near SchIbis- sheim, but the base lino near Nurnbberg was not agreed to by the Ministry of the Interior and was riot measured during the surver-work of 1941. Reconnaissance and remeasuring of the ontire.first-order net Was completed by the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme and Bavaria.- M6 interthediate triangulation was undertaken, and second= and third-order Were Planned only for some area. At Schleissheim, Bavaria *m(-3asUred a base line with invar wires in order to compare it with another older base line near Munich, Which-had been measured with the Bessel apparatus. There are, however, two bases in Germany that may be used as standards of comparison at Potsdam and at Munich. Thus, it is possible to detect tectonic changes in either One. ? -RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 22 . Bavarian Palatinate Triangulation. In 1937, second-order triangulation was completed for the Bavarian Palatinate. No plans were ? made for immediate continuation of third-order triangulation, presumably because the surveyors were needed on the main Bavarian triangulation. Since-the army did a tremendous amount of triangulation in all areas crossed by the West Wall, presumably the Bavarian Palatinate was included. To what extent .the army survey fulfilled the requirements for the third-order triangulation is unknown. j. Baden and WUrttemberg Vet? Although the old triangulation net - of Baden and WUrttemberg was connected with the old Rhine Survey net, which afforded a connection with PruSsia, it was net satisfactory and new triangulation was considered necessary. Observations for. the principal first-order stations were completed in 1937. ,Because of nearness to the Schleissheim and Oberbergheim -(Alsace) base lines, no others were planned for Baden and Arttemberg, but several Laplace astronomical stations were planned,. Intermediate triangulation, was not completed in the southern part of the area but is now being done by. HVA XII and should be finished by the end of 1947, k. Hessen Net, Inasmuch as'Hessen adopted the principal triangulation net of the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahmo, there was no obstacle to the integration of its lower-order net into that of the Reich. In 19.37, the positions of.a number of intermediate first-order. stations were published. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 23 IV. .CONNECTIONS CF THE GERYAN TRIANGULATION VITH THOSE OF OTHER COUNTRIES In general the German triangulation not is, connected with those of adjoining countries. Where there are junction difficulties, they are due less to insufficient common pc.aits. than to the peculiarities and, in some cases, deficiendies of adjOining nets. During the war, the Germans conceived a -far-reaching program for the unification of, surveying and mapping in all Europe. 'Preliminary steps were taken, :especially in Western Europe. The first German triangulation in France included the parallel from Paris to Brest, the parallel of Rochefort, and the section of the meridian of,,Bayeux that connects the two parallels. Extensive second-order triangulations were carried out along the Atlantic and Channel. coasts, The two most important states adjoining.Germny - Russia and. France - had no elaborate triangulation like., that of Germany. Instead, between the triangulation arcs that criss-crossed the countries were wide intervening areas that were filled in more or less adequately with lower-order triangulation. On Ootober,14-),6, .1943, a conference of military survey officers was held in Vienna. to create a European Geodetic. Unien. Under the leadership of the German Army. The army propesed to take over most of the work? of the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme. .The adjustment of a European net was planned and later executed for large areas of Europe by the army. The results, which were inadequate, were in the pLssession of the army only. Since differences became progressively larger as the distance frem.the northwest German block,increased and since the block was regarded as fixed, the difference could not be adjusted adequately. Discrepancies along the eastern borders ,of Moravia and Austria, however, were only about one meter. Tt was stipulated that maps of all European RESTRICTED Approved. For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999MCWA-RDP79-00976A000100610001-6 states should be made according to the same specifications, on the e ? Gauss-Kruger projecifon using the Gauss-Kruger military grid, In ?.. July 1945, the U.S. and British ArMes decided to undertake the readjustment of the Final Reich Survey Net, using the Bowie method. This was to be called the Central European Net, the title indicating its ultimate scope. (See above p. A. Lithuania . par. 4.) Among the successor states of Czarist Russia, only Lithuania and Poland had common borders with Germany, The northwestern part of Lithuania is crossed by a triangulation arc that has four points in common with the East Prussian net. This are forms the backbone of the Lithuanian triangtlation, Lithuania adopted the Gauss-KrUger grid and its recent map, scale 1:25,000, has the same sheet size and scale as , the German Topographic Lap. Consequently, the new Lithuanian maps and the adjoining German maps fit together accurately, The Lithuanian triangulation was scheduled to be completed in 1943, but was retarded by the war. The work completed, however, was done by Lithuanian surveyors under German supervision. B. Poland Poland tried until 1927 to combine the parts of the German, Austrian, and Prussian triangulation nets within its borders, but , failed because of the lack of a sufficient number of common points. The locations of first-order triangulation stations differed by as much as 5 iters, the differences where the triangulation nets joined in the border areas were up to 120 meters; and some station marks could not be recovered. Thus there were junction errors not along the German border of 1919, but along the pre-First World War border, which coincides. with the 1919 border only in East Prussia and approaches the 1920 (Versailles) boundary only in Upper Silesia. Difficulties were RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 25 encountered also at one place along the Pomeranian border of the Polish corridor, when the new East Pomeranian net was surveyed. The old nets of this area were discarded, but Poland and Germany could not come to an agreement that would make possible the connection of their respective nets. One of the original Russian arcs followed the border of Suwaki Province from its northern border to north of Lomza, Southeast of Lyck, it was connected with an old Prussian arc of 1859. This are is retained. only as the connecting link between the newer East Prussian net and the old Russian aro, although it has only -two stations -near its northwestern end - in common with the East Prussian net of 1903-08. Its other stations are no longer used for German' internal measurements. A Russian arc leading north from Warsaw had two stations along the German border, but no connection with the'PrusSian net was established. Another aro from WarsaW'follOwed the Vistula River and originally joined ?the disearded Prussian WeichSelkette of 1853 near Torun (Thorn). At this point another .old Russian arc 'branched off to the south,, paralleled the old border; and joined the 'Anschluss Tarnewite of 1852, which was still legal and in use in 1944. The survey of-a'hew first-order net, however, is in progress in the area. In the broad area between the Lomza-Lyck and Tarnowitt regions, junctions errors cOUld develop because the nets Were silty-eyed independently; but in the area's most distant froM the junctions cf the nets, the adjustment is purely an-internal'Plish problem.. TO overcome difficulties along the historical boundaries within Poland; differences have been temPorarily adjusted graphically On the"MapS. AS d result, maps covering areas on both sides of the old border cannot be Considered adequate. A new Polish triangulation net 1Tas begun in 1927. Ares of triangulation were planned to cross and join ono another, thus forming RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 26 10 more or less regular polygons. The triangulation around eight of - these polygons was Completed by 1939. The remaining triangulation arcs, which were-to close the two remaining polygons, were postponed because they were in territory formerly belonging to Prussia, where the old ? triangulation seemed most nearly adequate and where a new survey was therefore least urgent. In general these arcs were of first-order accuracy, except in a few areas along the eastern border (now in Russia) and around Warsaw. Besselts reference spheroid is used. . The use of a new projection was planned for future maps, a stereographic projection according to Roussiihe. AS far as it is known, no maps on this projection have been published: After the conquest of Poland, the Germans tried to adjust this new -Polish net to the German net, despite the difficulties arising from the .uSe- of a different reference spheroid and the long distance from the Northwest German net. An intensified program of observating was .planned to complete the gaps in the new triangUlation, but only the work in the Suwaki region was completed. Contrary to professed principles, most of the work in 1940 and 1941 was done alongthe Soviet border.; later the tempo Of the whole program seem to have slackened. C. Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia and the Republic of Austria, both heirs to territory of the old Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, may be-discussed together. The old Austrian Empire was the first large country to cover its entire area with a triangulation net of uniform accuracy andspecifications. This net is usually called the grid of-the Military Geographical Institute, after the agency responsible for it. A feature of this triangulation to be noted is that it stopped some distance from the international. boundaries. .No first-order stations were established with a view to connecting thenet with the triangulation of other countries. In 1878, an ._Osterreichischer -Anschluss (Austrian connection) was established by means of the Prussian RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976AP00100020001-6 RESTRICTED 27 triangulation in the southeasternmost part of Upperalezia- which connected with the Austrian triangulation in Austrian Silesia (after 1918 Czechoslovakian Silesia and the Polish part of Teschen). Along the other parts, of the border also, German triangulation. as extended across into Austria to the triangulation stations of:the Military Geographical net, which later became the Austrian and Czechoslovakian - . . . state nets. The Austrian Republic and Bavaria- had new triangulation underway at the same time and worked in close collaboration with each other. After the conquests of Austria and Czechoslovakia, the triangulation nets of both countries were adjusted to the Reich net. In Bohemia, a new net - probably containing only first-order stations - was surveyed in 1943, Naps of both countries differ slightly from those:of.Germany. Austria as well as Czechoslovakia retained the polyhedric projection, the unit being a quadrilateral ramed by two meridians 301 apart and two parallels 151 apart. Longitude was measured from the meridian of Ferro. Germany, however, had given up use of the meridian of Ferro ? _ and, even on older sheets where it had beenusedhe.projeCtion unit. was a 1-degree quadrangle. .Practically all Germanjaapsi With the exception of the Bavarian -IL221441.11..2SLE,, usp,lengitude referred 0 to Greenwich. The Positionsblatter, which have been replaced by newer maps to Only a small degree, are similar to the Austrian and Czechoslovak sheets but differ slightly from them. On the German sheets, including the PositionsbliAtterv the bounding parallels are straight lines, the secants of arcs; whereas on the Austrian and Czech sheets arcs are used and the resulting,paralTels are. slightlycurved. Both Austria and Czechoslovakia consistently made allowance for this slight curvature. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A0001000228001-6 RESTRICTED Bessells reference spheroid is used in Austria and Czechoslovakia. It is also used in Prussia and Saxony and is sufficiently -Similar to the one used in Bavaria to avoid bad junction errors. Though such theoretical differences may be of minor concern, the difference in basic scales employed creates a practical difficulty. The Austrian and Czechoslovakian scale of 1:75,006 is not used on any official German map. The few existing Austrian maps at 1:25,000 are .of large cities and their environs. Czechoslovakia, however, has a ,Considerable number of 1:251000 sheets along the German border. The new Austrian sheets at 1:50,000 like the German sheets at the same scale, are few in number. The Austrian and Czechoslovakian general maps at 1:200,000 are on the polyhedric projection with a 1-degree grid - a combination that was .never employed by the Germans. Since the corresponding German maps have greater distortion at the corners of the sheets (up to 5mm., the equivalent of 250 m, in the field), it is difficult to match them to Austrian and Czechoslovakian sheets. Along the edges where-the maps are joined, discontinuities appear in the form of gaps, overlaps, or displacements, amounting at places to as much as several hundred meters. D. Switzerland Switzerland, like Bavaria, used the Bonne projection for its topographic maps. Bavaria, however, is the south German state with the shortest common boundary with Switzerland. The triangulation of all south German states has been closely connected with that of the. Swiss for many years. E. France The condition in France is badly confused, partly because of inadequate adjustment between the French triangulation nets, (and -consequently between the Maps themselves) and partly because of the change RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTO 29 in allegiance of Alsace-Lorraine. .Alsace-Lorraine was connected with the other German nets through the 1876 triangulation arc. In 1899, a temporary Connection was made with the triangulation arc of the parallel of Paris in the Department de Vosges. A short time before the outbreak of World War II, the French surveyed a new triangulation arc extending along the parallel of Paris to the Rhine, incorporating triangulation stations of the earlier German triangulation Through this rearrangement, the arc of the parallel of Paris now joins the German triangulation through two common stations that form one side of Belchen-Kaiserstunl of the Rhine-Baden triangulation, as well as of the French triangulation. This .new triangulation was not completed for all orders, but serves as control for the 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 maps (Plans directeurs), and the 1:50,000 map (Nouvelle carte de France). Other French maps are based on older -triangulation. Conversion ? tables have been prepared ?for trans- ferring the old positions to the new system. At some distance from the main triangulation arc, junction differences of 100-150 meters develop. This is especially noticeable on the 1:80,000 map and consequently on its enlargement to 1:50,000. The 1:80,000 map is the Only map of large scale that covers all of France. It is drawn on the Bonne equal-area projection using the reference spheroid of Plessis. The latter is an adaptation of the spheroid according to Delambre, insofar as it assumes a periphery of 40,000 km for the spheroid, which creates an error of 1 in. for every 13.8 km. This does not exceed the normal error of drafting or of expansion or contraction of paper. It is also consistentwith the- . 1 French adaptation of 'the decimal system to longitude and latitude. Thus, a second is exactly 10 meters long and a minute 1 km. However 1.. According to this system the right angle is divided into 100 degrees (100?1 Of 100 minUtes (1009 each, which are Made up of 100 seconds (100c1 each. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100041001-6 RESTRICTED the more recent on.Clarkets spheroid of 1880. The Bonne projecticn for France used the Paris meridian as its central meridian- and latitude 50g (453) North as itscentral parallel. The error in azimuth may be .as great as .30c (171), or 0.5 meter in a 1 kilometer. Thescale.error.may amount to 1 in 400, or. 2.5 meters-per kilometer. Since the First World War, a grid based on this projection has teen used on French maps. . In 1920, the Lambert projection was adopted. This is a conformal projection, with parallels shown ? as concentric circles and meridians as straight lines. The distortions are less than on the Bonne projection. Scale error increases with distance from one of the standard parallels. For this reason, three slightly overlapping zones wore established, each with a width of 4g. latitude. -The scale error generally is leas than 1 in 6,250, but in outlying areas such as Alsace and Brittany-it may amount to 1 in 2,0004 On its own Lambert projection, there is also a separate zone, Nerd de Guerre, whose central meridian is 6e" east cf Paris, central parallel 55g, and with -standard parallels 53g and 57gN. This zone is to be eliminated gradually, but at presentmany maps use this. grid. The older maps are shaped according to the rectangular Bonne grid, which has its origin at-the intersection of the central parallel with the meridian of Paris. They do not fit together exactly however, because the main triangulation arcs were not adjusted to one another. There also are similar differences between individual sheets, depending on which triangulation arcs they are based on. For example,.the 1:80,000 Strassbourg sheet differs asimuch as 20 to. 30 meters from adjacent sheets at its corners, and as much as 50 to 100 meters at the middle of the upper edge. Because about 70 percent of the old triangulation station marks have disappeared, the geodetic data. in RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01_: CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 31 these areas are insufficient for the control of aerial photogrammetry and for artillery range-finding. This is less significant for maps at 1:80,000 or smaller scales, than for the old maps at 1:10,000 and 1:20,000. The new French sheets on the Lambert projections are bounded by meridians and parallels. The newest French survey and mapping program progressed furthest in eastern France. Since the new triangulation was not connected with the German until 1943, it cannot have had much practical influence on the co-ordination of German and French maps. There was, however, another older indirect connection via the Belgian net. Few. general statements about the relationship between French and German maps may be made, since junction errors and distortions can be found even between adjacent French sheets. Because Germany continues to use 360? for its topographic maps,_and France has adopted the 400E division, sheet sizes differ in the two countries, and it is impossible to correlate them. The new 1:50,000 French map, however, is a well designed accurate set covering the entire border region. It may, therefore, be assumed that disturbing features will develop only at a distance from the border if the new French set is used, but may be expected to develop anywhere if the older sheets are used. The dis- tortions of the Lambert projection on the French side are too slight to affect the fitting together of adjoining French and German sheets. F. Luxembourg The Luxembourg triangulation net was surveyed by the Belgians about 1930 and was closely linked up with the survey of Belgium. Good connections were also established with two French triangulation arcs. During World War II, the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme surveyed a new net, which was closely integrated with the triangulation in the Rhineland and with the Old Alsace-Lorraine triangulation arc. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 32 G?. Belgium:- Belgium was. linked. with Germany through! :connecting triangulation in 1894. .During the World' War' II, the Germans wanted to integrate the Belgian triangulation net into that of .the. Reich,, but had not ,quite completed the computations when the Allies liberated Belgium. ?The older Belgian.maps are, on the Bonne- projection; recently the Lambert- conic conformal projection was introduced.. The distortions of the Bonne projection are insignificant for as small an area as Belgium. The same is true :for the Lambert projection. The scale error does not exceed 1 in 10,000 or 10 centimeters in I kilometer, The Hayford spheroid of _reference .was adopted at the same time as the Lambert projection, - H. Netherlands. ? The Dutch triangulation is well connected with the German through two nets.. One net has several -stations .in comraon with the German triangulation between Limburg in the south and Bentheim in the north,. and was surveyed in 1889-92.? The second, a smaller net with three common points in Friesland, was. established 1884-88. The German and the Dutch computations of the geographic positions of these stations,, however, differ from 1 to 2 meters. .. The Dutch reference :spheroid differs little from the Be-ssel -spheroid used. in Gerr4any. The Bonne projection is lied for older Dutch maps, but in 1940 it was about to be _replaced by a stereographie, projection... Owing to the smallnoss of the area, distortions on both projections are -so insignificant that German and Dutch sheets at the same scale can be joined without difficulty. The prime meridian of the Dutch sheets is ? Amsterdam, 40 53 !0.0"E., ? and. of the newer maps the meridian of Aramersfoort? 50 34'15.5"E. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For RNIUDF9g8WSWRIDWIAD4i1A000100020001-6 Measured and computed by Trigonometrical Division of the Reichsamts fur Landesaufnahrne (1941). 15 16 17 18 590 mei FREE SWEDEN uronannem often uimbach 75 MILES 25 50 75 100 KILOMETERS _ . Atrnberg Schwan Neurnerkt 01,00 Groggeterllech, Mgnn lrnaor.lrf BASE MAP: Nets der Fainainwfigungen 1:200,000. TrIgononetrical Division of the Reichsamts far Lendesaufnehrne, 1941. - New net leveled 'Leveling of Pt order Old net leveled 'Leveling of 2nd orderI New net leveled======= Old net leveled Planned routes Lines outside Trig. Division area Lines of the Saxon State Survey New Leveling of let Order?average error of .3 millimeters per kilometer. 'Old Leveling of let Order?overage error of 2 millimeters per kilometer. 'Leveling of End order (Old and New)?averags error of 5 millimeter. Per kilometer. 0 Normal elevation point of 1912 o Connecting points For lines numbered thus,- ??-?=-2 elevations are measured in the new system. ?..-1937 INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY THE CLOSED TRAVERSES OF 1912 IN BERLIN 22 th School NO.6313-R&A, 05S FREE LITHOGRAPHED IN THE REPRODUCTION BRANCH, OSS FREE _ _ ? ? ? e ? , ' ? ! ! ? ' ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1-"` ....... .., . EIGGELTGES , ,. r....-.,' 1.-^, ... ? ..... ,, _ _ I./T, '1,1, .''''....../ '' BAVARIAN PRECISION LEVELING . ob 1868-1890 srh,, --...... ,. .... r. JUSSOICEll *--?"i !. .1.414'-` ?,.. ,EITUICIOLFAT. . 10 0 10 ae s...........?, It''''''' e.,, STAFF) r FRAITIBED ..F, 10 0 10 ? 00 ,.'''''" 's( ' difirell'1... K.' BL-SE1E161. I KILOMETER. Sode a?PMEI?1 -.... 0,1 , \ , \ ri ...N.., f :7 ,....) - . 1 ? , lorplieekef a Ilmilevresberli dkPm ROLLEGTO ' 243314PP, ? blirsebbei TESTEOT FOREHRGINI. BEIGRADONE ?EdillE,'EGEB.- Tr:STADE gilk" .v....., m 1.11 BEIRL4to IEJ ' ....crick '. "r'rm''' \ NUT -.... ,,, -Snag1.? PG MITE Iv TGESTEDT adff. a. ? gip,xx , 1.1 a, v.,.a.? a,? .0,61 dikrillant ' ta. Bench mut. MProMM IANPUNA m Beach msek a railroad *don * ??1?? Meeker at station ,F in town Bench Milk on railroad nark } The fixed NM. are divers 1114.1:t.iVe mm Bench mark on road numbers -.--- Other ralkoad ???-?-? Stave boundam r il e ? a . Maker ndeatee levation maxim point ifIAMBEGUE ? 5- Am.., \ ri PEUCHEWAGGEN ? ARAB earlasid NEM saw ,., Mergeassineded SP , , TEAM armafdd riq SOO. IFIEBERRT il.mbr ' ''''- MdersdodA E ,,r ..v PeeFberg? ll Hone f Sernishaese.? ?, K EirbAdeaG ...,, (..., .... `....__., 'Iv AS TresiJics "v ff?dd. (lir. J If -1 \ 4. L S , '"' '0. ? .0EA111 Tif... V. Ur STGOI,S E. LionDar .......?? ? ifir I le*'8' ? ' . t .4610` . I" ,b-, ".,DOTAINTOR. a , .ALVI .' / Yardentrodb mithor ERDAL' Jevtinten Leman., ?duel, Vrrth'i! Leer 1 ' - ? ? , I 0. 1 4 ALT gFICEISTED keing 11- "v??311.6H Ad. k? 7 ?*...." .-_.......,6 , OSBERC _ M. ...GROTTO aim, ,??? ? 1.a...4 ' EAkvadidres AEI or. ediag elk -n. efin..b. .. , rehes GIUMFET "..-.. IV ??? ' ? ' ' ----I''''"' ' - ----7-- . ? JED. L';it":',.. ? ( Witariq -.NEM I .., . , ? ?00010 fr,V I" o , ? - MG/ Swede& fre,,bediare ... ,. Borle.., '''. G?lel Arm -I A:D.1ff . k_ ItitkeefraeL Mara ?-?- 2 .- ., , T,' . ., ? , . ,..--' i'd?rn ) dame ea C? .. ... '': r."-'2 '-' ... Lleahlies Immo Bremuleburs. meThet re. snASVAI sr.. MRS i"--`?-* Berri. n \,...' 1, 7 ' ? . - 5?R&A, OSS 9 JUNE 1945 FREE LITHOGRAPHED IN THE REPRODUCTION BRANCH, OBI Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 33 In adjusting the triangulation nets of -BelgiuM?. the Netherlands, and Luxembourg to the-German Reich net only minor difficulties were encountered. The junction errors remaining along the Dutch border average 0.40 m, and do not exceed 0,60 m. The computations of the Belgian-Luxembourg adjustment were almost completed by the middle of 1944. I. Denmark Danish and German triangulation. nets were connected across the narrow seas at an early date, more than 100 years ago. In 1869, a triangulation arc was surveyed through Schleswig and Holstein, which has a direct continuation in Danish Jutland. The German-Danish connecting net across the Baltic was resurveyed in 1929-32. Danish maps are on a Lambert conical projection. Direct evidence is not available, but it may be assumed that owing to the smallness of . the country no significant distortions have developed, and that because .of the integration of the triangulation nets at an early date, adjacent Danish and German sheets fit together well. The prime meridian for Danish maps is Copenhagen, 12?34'40" E. ? V. THE REICH LEVEL NET Because of natural soil movements, cultural changes, and other factors, level nets deteriorate rapidly,and should be renewed once in each generation. The old German net is based on leveling performed during the years 1869-1900 and was being releveled when the Second World War broke out. Details of the new leveling were published in Die Nivellements von hoher Genauigkeit. The first volume (1923) covered apart of Mark Bradenburg, the second (1927) northwestern ' Germany,. and the third (1935) the addlinistratiVe districts (Regierungsbezirke) of Dsseldorf, Aachen, Cologne,. and Arnsberg. (See Figures 2 and 3.) A series of booklets entitled EtaialLp_s_sla RESTRICT? ED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01L%RDP79-00976A0001000Nom -6 M Feineinwagungen, started publication in 1930 and: continued until 1939. One booklet was issued for each Re0.erungsbezirk and the series covers all Germany with the exception of Bavaria 'The series contains the most recent published results of levelling:and-Supersedes all, other publications on elevations. Since more urgent problems needed attention, only a few lines; ? around Lubeck and Stettin were leveled. First- and second-order Holstein led to the discovery that the entire region between 'theBaltic, Sea and the North Sea is slowly rising MCAt perceptibly in the northwest. Germany Is connected by lines of level with the Danish islands via Fehmarn, and'With the Netherlands, Poland, and Lithuania) in most cases at the requeSt Of. these countries. The most important levels of 1936,'1937,.and 1938 were in Thuringia, Anhalt, and the 22L12ElluataaLa of Hildesheim and Kassel, which were for the purpose of connecting these regions with the Bavarian net. The results of leveling were published in pamphlets, one. for each Regierungsbezirke. In them the results of the 1868-90 levelings are called "heights in the old system." The results of the oldand new levelings differ very little. When the connection is comparatively completed, Bavaria whose own surveys are progressing comparatively rapidly01 will be able, to adjust its levels to the new system of the Reicheamt. The leveling of Thuringia was also initiated to connect it with the level net of Saxony, which had been completed several years earlier. Both the Bavarian and Saxon level nets were consistent within themselves,, but lacked any connection with leveling lines leading to N.N. the standard datum point.2 'The leveling of Silesia was colvleted 1. The 'comparatively rapid progress of the Bavarian leveling is due to the fact that fist-order lines usually follow railroads, whereas in Prussia and Wurttemberg the lines follow highways in order to ' secure greater stability of benCh'marks. 2. N.N. is the usual German abbreviation for Normal Null or normal zero, the standard datum point. RZSTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 35 before the war, but results have been published only for the Regierungsbezirke Liegnitz,and'Oppeln in Upper Silesia. First-order leveling has been completed in the northern half of Wurttemberg. Plans for 1938 and 1939 provided for the determination of elevations by the Reichsamt in the 22.612Ealgbezirke of Koblenz Wiesbaden, and Trier, the State of Hessen, the Bavarian Palatinate, and the Saar Territory, and for the continuation of the work in Baden southern Wurttemberg, and Bavaria'. In Bavaria, the level net, even the first-order - ? net was far, from .completion at the outbreak of war. In Baden, the levels lll require some checking, especially in the region of occasional edrthquakea. Only Hessen, Regierungsbezirk Wiesbaden., and possibly the. Saar were completed When plans had to be dropped because of war. The Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme also started leveling :along the Baltic coast. This leveling was scheduled in accord with the decision of the Baltic Geodetic Commission and. adjustments were to be made according to a common plan. Leveling of the entire coastal area by all of the Baltic states was decided upon. and by1939, Denmark,: Latvia, and Lithuania had cormloted their parts and German leveling extended as far east as Koslin in pomerania., The. oId-leveling between Koslin and KOnigsberg has an accuracy of_;.oniy 46-8 mm. The rise of 0,12 m, in the level of the Baltic Sea from Travemiinde near LiAbeck to Pilinu2near K8nigsberg noted by the Germans was therefore probably based on readings of several open-sea water gages,. The Reichsamt f?r Landesaufnahme planned to follow first-order leveling by second-order leveling.- Although no definite programs had been prepared for most regions by 1938, the work was regarded particularly important since the principal first-order level lines were in some cases more than 100 km. apart. As a rule, second-order-level8 will be run in RESTRIcva_ Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09M CJA-RDP79-00976A00010002p901-6 ItEbTIL_ hu only one direction: Second-order leVels are not as accurate as ffirst- , order lev:els but should be sufficientlraccurate for technical and , economic*,Purposbb. Some of .the larger cities, including those in the Buhr area, started Second-order leveling without waiting for the Reichsamt. The leveling in the Ruhr region was especially urgent because of ground ,settlements caused by mining. For this reason the Reichsamt program provided for a.loop of.firstorder circuits around the Ruhr on stable ground and a connecting second-order line passing through it. Levels in urban areas were to start from these lines. In addition, many second-order level6 along their rights of way have been measured by railroads and along rivers by the Landesanstadt fUr Gewasserkunde. All Are connected with the first-order leveling of the Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme. In 1935, the level n t of the Reichsamt fur Landesvermessung in- cluded 15,000 accurate elevations, which were connected by 16,000 levbling lines. The number in southern Germany is proportionately large. In addition to the leveling connections with Lithuania, Poland, - and Denmark) which have been made during recent years) there are older connections with all 1adoining countries, including not less than 5 from Prussian Silesia. into :Czechoslovakia, several into Belgium and France, and one from Baden into Switzerland. Bavarian levels were connected at tmo points with the Prussian levels in the old net and at all crossing points of the new net. Nothing is known about leveling across the Bavarian border, to the south except that Bavaria formerly based its elevations on the old Austrian sea level datum at Trieste. Consequently, there must be at least one line from Bavaria into Austria. The Reich elevations arereferred to N.N. which is supposed to be the same elevation as the Amsterdam:sea level datum (A.P.). It is actually 16 Mm. :above this point and 66 mm, above the mean level of WTRICTED - . Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09ft0E1sT:aWDP79-00976A0001000200911-6 the Baltic Sea at Swinemunde. A bench mark (N.H. or Normal-Hochpunkt 1879) was established at the former Astronomical Observatory in Berlin in 1879 to insure the constancy of N.N. In 1912, it was replaced by a new bench mark near kilometer 40.7 on the highway from Berlin to Manschnow (N.H. 1912), which was connected with N.H. 1879 by lines of precise leveling. The establishment of N.H. 1912 did not change N.N. and all elevations in Germany are still measured as above N.N. Since about 1930, all of the south German states have completely revised their separate systems and now refer their elevations to N.N. Originally the elevations in southern Germany were based on the mean level of the Adriatic Sea, as evidenced by older maps still in circula- tion. Some old Bavarian maps state that elevations on them are about 1 m. higher than they would be if measured from N.N. Recent leveling however, seems to indicate differences of as much as 2 m. in Bavaria and 1.74 in, in the Bavarian Palatinate. Until 1910, Baden referred its elevations to the floor level of Strassbourg Cathedral, which is actually 143,730 in. above the mean level of the Adriatic Sea although it had b,.:en erroneously assumed to be 145,752 m. Wurttemberg referred its net to an elevation of 272.5 m, above N.N. which seem to have been derived from the Baden level and, therefore, shares its error. Both the Baden and Wurttemberg reference levels were especially unsatis- factory because large parts of both states lie at levels lower than their reference points. Only the Hessian maps refer to the mean level of the Baltic Sea, which is not the same as N.M. The accuracy of elevations in Hessen, varies from 0.10 to 0.15 in, The unification of the elevations within Germany also correlates them with points in most of the neighboring countries. Only Belgium has widely different elevations, because they are measured above mean low tide at Ostende, which is 2.34 in. below the German N.N. Other RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09k4agt*RDP79-00976A000100020N1-6 international dif,ferences are"given below?- Belgium 'Netherlands France ? Switzerland Austria , -2.34 rn. Elevations above mean ? low tide at Ostende. 7!0.01 in, Due to slight inaccuracy by deriving the German N,N, from the Amsterdam (LP.) -740.26 in.. /0.30Tit. /006 m. Mean level of the Mediterranean Sea at Marsailles. The never maps show elevations 3,26 m. lower than the older mapp.' Mean sea level on the Adriatic Sea at Trieste. Czechoslovakia /0.36 m. Same as Austria. Poland 0.0 -0.06 in, Derived from the Amsterdam sea level datum via the German N.N, Elevations, theoroticaly equal Lithuania- tea level .datum at Kronstadt near . 'Leningrad. Denmark /0.245 On nautical charts elevations near the coast are referred to mean highrwater, and therefore have no common reference level. ? 1. Plus sign (/) indicates that datum point is higher than N.N.'; and.minu$ sign (-.)lower. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTJD 39 VI. HYDROGRAPHIC REFERENCE DATUM The German navy (Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine) had its own nautical division, charged with all matters pertaining to surveying and mapping. Though the coastal features were taken from topographic maps, the navy was equipped to do its own surveying in order to keep correct the continuously shifting features of the coast line. Likewise, hydrographic surveying was continuous in order to keep the depths on the nautical charts correct. In general, the navy was able to keep the data reasonably up-to-date. Unlike the triangulation and leveling nets the depth measurements along the German coasts never became so out-of-date that new systematic soundings throughout whole areas became necessary. The hydrography in the German parts of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea seems to be satisfactory throughout. -A service was maintained through private firms that enabled ships to obtain revised charts at every port of call. The plane of reference in the North Sea is mean low water; in the Baltic Sea it is mean Sea level. The Mercator projection is used for nautical charts. VII. MAGNETIC NORTH Since 1930, most German maps have carried some information on magnetic declination. The newer maps, however, instead of showing the declination (MissweisUng) from true north, show the deviation from the straight lines of the Gauss-Krager grid (Nadelabweichung). On Reichsamt maps the deviation is shown in the margin, and on the maps of the south German states additiunal numerical information is given. The magnetic declination is Westerly throughout most of Germany, and it is decreasing by 0.2? yearly. Only in parts of East Prussia is the declination easterly. Formerly, German maps gave the declination RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 40 . _ for April 1925 in order that computations could be made on a uniform basis. The accumulated deviations, however, had become so large that a new basis was adopted as of the middle of 1936. On more recent air force maps the basis for calculation of the declination may be either 1938, 1940, or 1942. RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 a) APPENDIX A a Summary of the basic geodetic facts of the German states. ? , Name Origin of the azimuth (counted clockwise) Triangulation Origin of the Coordinates Location of Coordinate Files Gauss-Xi-tiger CoordinAtes 'Status LoCation of records CD Baden CD 9- 1.000Z0001.000V9/600-6/dCIN BaverW (on the right bank of the Rhin9 Former astronomic observatory in Mannheim Northern tower of the church of Our Lady in Munich a. Scurc6rPlamEoft-Okossdeasch;s Reich, b. EVA - Eauptvermessungoabteilung 1. EVA XII in Stuttgart 2. Baden Ministry of Finance and'EcOnomics, Cidastral ana Survey Div. in Earlsruhe, 3. Survey offices 1. EVA 'XIII in Munich 2. Oberfinanzprasident in Munich and branch offices in Augsburg and. Landshut; Ober- finanzprBsident in Nfirnb erg and. branch , offices in Anobach and. Warzburg 3. Survey offices All geographic positions are computed provisionally. 1. General Command of the 5th-Army Corps, Stuttgart 2. EVA XII in-Stuttgart Coordinates 1. HVAXIII in Manch= computed provision- ally for large areas in NE, ? NW, and S and for the vicinity garrisons. Nemo Origin of Triangulation the azimuth Origin of the (counted Coordinates Location of Coordinate Oeuss-Krager Coordinates Files Status Location of records Bavarian - W PalatinatO' Brunswick ? Former astronomic EVA XI in Wiesbaden Tomporarr'aCtOrdi.. observatory in ? Mannheim Same as Prussian ? Landeskultur and T44oraryxdciiii4f- .Vermeesungsamt dates:?:, (Agricultural and Surveying Office) 2. Landosforstver. r.,14.0k4ung,(Stato -.,ForeWAd00.pistra- ', 3. Mayor's? 'OiltiO'e SurvernivOion-of the BuildIngs Idmir4stration - k. Prussian Neumessung. sent (New Survey Off ice}. Berman Garing_Werke in YOlfenbatfei ? - EVA XI in :Wiesbaden ? . '!:1,..:-.11etreaVormeteiungs4'::.? stalls (Army Surviii. 4.?Pg SorviteY ? -- . iChsamt-, far Landes (?? ? 7Olfhorno Hann. ? ? Landeskulturt4.1 ?Itersteattingsezat in Brunswick 7,4 ' Name Origin of the azimuth (counted clockwise) Triangulation Origin of the Coordinates- Location of Coordinate Gauss,Krager Coordinates Files Status . Location of records co Emma', (1:$ CAD CAD CAD CD CAD CD o 1-1 I- c'kj 13 .4 Hamburg CID 6 CD CAD .4 0) 0 0 Gotha (part -6f-Thuringia) Eannover since 1868 Ansgariikirchturm Astronamic.observa- tory at Seeburg Spire of Gross Michaelis Eirdhe VermessUngsami Bremen Temporary coordinates Thuringian cadastral office of Gotha EVA VI in Hamburg ? . . Topographical- -- - EVA VII in Gifhorn Survby-ffbservatory of cy.ttingen and. 31 eiur.vey..dietricts triangulation station of the stiss triangulation as points of departure for Cadastral Survey Definite coordinates' available for.' most,triangu- lation stations .0010 1. Heeresvermessunga- stelae (Amy Survey) 2. Reiebtamt far'landde- aufnahme 3. EVA VII in Whom, Hann. 4. Vermessungsamt in Bremen 1. EVA VI in Eamburg 2. Vermessungsamt of the city administra- tion of the Sanaa City Hamburg. 0 CD a.0 CD CD co cr) CD CD C.0 $2 0 0 .4 CAD 6 c) CD .4 Ch Ch 0 Name Origin of Triangulation Location of Coordinate CD the azimUt4 ? Origin of the Files 0 (counted: . clackwise) .Coordlnates - ? CD Hessen- town cburt4. of 1. EVA XI in Wiesbaden Darmstadt - Darimstadt - . 2. Eeseisches Landes- " Cn CD (state Hesse) veimessungeamt in Darmstadt CAD CAD CAD ' Beacon- .:BaSsau (not , quite coin- cident with the present Province of Nassau Kurile-seen (comprises a someWhat larger area than the Artededt-Priodian Province).. Triangulation station: at Kassel, southern tower cfr-.10#153:4PkirOhe/,,.. - V*XIin Wiesbe.d.en EVA Xi in Wiesbaden GaussZttger Coordinates Status Location Of records All old trian- gulation stations of lst and 2nd 'order, 96 percont of 3rd order, and ? 51 percent of 4th order are Gauss-- Kreger 65 percent of the triangulation - - stations were computed provi- sionally The majority of -triangulation stations are sionally EVA XI in Wiesbaden EVA 'XI in Wlesbadeir,? EVA.1 'IfieSbaderi F. Name Origin of Triangulation the azimuth - Origin of the (counted Coordinates clockwise) Pa m ET Mecklenburg m C,) CD _& CID CID CID -PD CD OD INeiningen 0.. No , (part of et-- .,Thuringia) 33 0 CD 6 CD . - ? Location of Coordinate Gauss-Erfter CoordinateW.W Files Status Location of recer4s 114? towards OldenbUrg, Old Oldenburg triangulation 6 'Tower, of the deetle in Schwerin - Northern spire of Liebfrauen- kirche in Munich Tower .of the castle. in Oldenburg Newer Prussian ? triangulation N ' C HVA VI in Hamburg Thuringian Cadastral Office in Noiningen 1..01denburgische Vermeesungsdi- -rektion 2. Cadastral offices 3. EVA VII in Gifborn The. lot-order triangulation stations are definitely computed, the others provisionally Only the corners of a few sheets.,, areHeomputed - 1. EVA VI in Hamburg 2. Mecklenburgisches Landesvcrmesovng- samt in Schwerin Office it Neiningen - Antage 12 (zu Nu ft) THE PRINCIPAL TRIANGULATION NETS OF GREATER GERMANY -- 1944 Approved FtilleftWO e19A04111fftir?ft- BAFRUcli 90tWigHllig020001-6 bWilnale'__ 14 Hauptdrelecksne 12 101-1".4PP .0 fitie, AeziAjeli: 4140P1r, -1M17011?6!4?1 ' ttilAirbfr041 74'' Aikd - -.- .04.t.. ----s*Of* - st N'4. v. -ellAN , 40 ftsvA 14740$44W -111T474111 414r *IAPIdit**444* '41110lb`L /-44grop .4p - ? AW AtOttrieSP4 w AV14140WAtririlir Ai "i116- 4 A?-' 4,410tr- AIPI 1932-1937 12:7* irtik 4614/e4611111310%* Zittrii aLa 4* 4.-Lift4V., mi. trArdialgrA14 Ado. PolesIsches -.54 /13117,0 13164sicker i 1 *islet 1 11 5 i_ eoa V S ti a u I 1 tcheiecksnet: 19 0 tit41 if% otraitiffir-Aadbr'IW410:01111 11 tiltokrti ttleie kw. . riii it1,1 Pik 44006411 4 i i li t. -411 Ft ke. IP' Ittearo wtliv 95 zu ep ire 9 1930-1934 -...e. A r AtiyaripmtsfirdirriikT tai____ilAireblimgrvkAlismaiivm 'IFI,,, l treflAteleisk ,goirt4ArATIMPP. atill 4 goraVill. --AirtfaiP'Cliketitttlif, Atin miroppl .1?.?.___ '''I' t n 9 .41 4111010 -.0**i # iiik OP r- - Pg. Lu blin.: 0 tri Hauptdrelecksnetz ,,rfAIA 1931 _193. .0%047 OS" Wolhrlsebes hauptdrelecasnetz 1934-1935 vittwzrzetwqmo itiVeltr AtiVli A &Ai-11W- 41pATAI ,A,,,,i, 4triatePttiplipi... 110 Afb'Alli,? Apyio.4. ftrAll ifilirotah, -- liaillbY&VTErilialMblr?j Watigiff4TPA" . 16 .- 1.111WaV, re' 41-.11VIM Toff Av -411450VANt WarPOWATA ' lit" San- Aio... we Hauptekelecksnat 10 I Ile ember001 Ha ptdrelecksolgt 1 A' ,igurni.., 189 lho lym._willayA -410401.1* 401s 4 V 011.10`7.4?7.'' Ai am. 401 iporAtMAIS.b. ,..4400, . IPAPER41411' AL ..,-?, .4,00.- 1934-1937 ___-- ? 11 tzb, ?41tottivier-c-tiikroireros1/4,vozyggeor *44/PgrAililtitAratiiidiTirialoTAMV",%Vp re& ,-4/iPmrim. 44/9004tdiv i =tr. riisokm. *Le. 4 mwelikwalterftr.-tm isiiemovelfwg"...,44 w vol. -.811* ALTIONA alib- ,,,k14 ?.....?, $r/ '''' gmavy lines: the boundaries between the triangulation nets. OPP A- fr ..,di ALIC*1242541?4AalliarAllia. .45211, aottrires.... ,wav,1 Trat".74e*/ '1100.7_,,,_,- "'TANA ,?offpwww Light lines: sid of the incipal triangles. es pr Dashed lines: proposed nets. EmPty areas outlined in the East: triangulation nets of the Polish survey, adjusted provisionally to the German net. when first order triangulation was surveyed. LAMSK441441b 4.61trall er? 'IP.A4Wrilahlr-dah\ 1 1 Vrilr it2 iethe nyearsr r Eauptdreckeets o If D N.: first order triangulation net. B Hauptdreieckakette or H Dr K.: first order triangulation chain. Verbindungskette: connecting triangulation chain. Anschlus: connecting grid with a foreign OnuntrY (the name Of the neighboring country always indicated). Unger. liasstab: approximate scale. 'Ig& -t* V Fr.:. formerly. -.41.40 4* The names and years of thetriangulation net. and chains which are underlined, are considered of sufficient accuracy to be a basic block to which surrounding triangulation nets should be adjusted. Ir. m. "... Ungef. Ale8sfee 1:4000000 Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 0/6661, eseeieN .10d PeA0iddV 9-1.000Z0001.000V9/600-6/dCIN Name Origin of Triangulation Location of Coordinate GeutS-Krager Coordinates ? the azimuth Origin of the Files Status .Location of records (counted clockwise) Coordinates Prussia and For Topographical 1. Reichsamt far All trigonom-1. Reichsamt ffir Anhalt Survey -Rauenberg Landesaufnahmo etrical points Landosaufnahme (excepting area's south of Berlin, and since 1923 2. EVA IIII,IV-X. completed 2. EVA provisionally enumerated Helmert tower? 3. Cadastral offices 3. Generaikommandes separately) of the Geodetic InatitUte in ? (Army district commands) Potsdam. For the I. R egierungsprasi- 4. LuftgaukamMandos Cadastral Survey-- dent ea ? (Air force district 40 different points of origin; since --commands) Saxony 1927 Gauss-Krager coordinates used in new surveys. Topographic survey of let order in Greasehhain; Cadent- tral Survey; three local conformal systems 1. Reichsstatthalter (Reich governor) in Saxony, State government 2. EVA III in Dresden Completed 1. Reichsstatthaltar in Saxony, state government 2. EVA III in Dresden 11 0 CD Sachsen-Weimar N CD (part of O ? Thuringia) CD ? Schaumburg-Lippo N CD Schwarzburg- Pcti3 Sondershausen 40" I MO ItNZ Wiirtobberg and Hohepiollern Ramo Origin of the azimuth (counted clockwise) Triangulation Origin of the Coordinates Location of Coordinate Gauss-Krager Coordinates Files Status Location of records 0 C^ D 6 CD Point of origin of the Schreiber projection Ida Tower Triangulation station mark POsson Tower; since 1892 Poss en-Stein Astronomic Observatory in Tabingen; no longer extant ? SOURCE: Planhoft Grosedeutschee Reich, 1944 4?0??????St HVA VIII in Magdeburg HVA VIII in Gifhorn 1. HVA VIII in Magde- burg 2. Thuringian Rentamt (treasury) in Sondorshausen 1. EVA XII in Stuttgart 2. WtrtteMberg Ministry of the Interior, Cadastral and Survey Division 3. Messungsffmtor Provisionally computed It Provisionally computed most triangulation: stations Provisionally-, computed ! et: EVA VIII in Magdeburg EVA, VIII in Gifhorn EVA VIII in Magdeburg 1. General Command of * -8th Army Corps. Div. :IA Mese in Stuttgari- 2.* EVA XII in Stuttgart 9-1.000Z0001.000V9/600-6/dC1N-VI3 : 1.0/60/6661. eseeieN Jod peAcucldV Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6 RESTRICTED 48 APPENDIX B TRIANGULATION BETS OF EAT GERMANY The appended Gorman map, dated 1944 showing triangulation completed during the early years of the war has became, available since the completion of the foregoing _report. Since practically all of the now triangulation was for occupied areas, the map adds little new data for Germany proper: .It does, however, confirm the deduction drawn from other sources that German trigonometrical ac. tivity came to a standstill after ,194, due apparently to the drain -of trained personnel into the army. -RESTRICTED Approved For Release 1999/09/01 : CIA-RDP79-00976A000100020001-6