NATURE VOL 251 NO 5476

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October 18, 1974
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age, 5" v. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 ? SYMI2P1',"31,"4,7-rif4`46P6O? 6 STe 'Qt*Vwjv Vol 251 No 5476 October 18 1974 UK 35p USA S1-:-Ockli Macmillan Journals Liinited. )almost astonishment to. all readers of his work. Fig. 5 shows a buizard saddled with the machinery which, by means of the two tubes running, downwards from it, transmits the vertical and horizontal movements of its wing to the recording apparatus, which is not repre- sented. In the study of the more intricate points the necessary instruments are so heavy that the whole bird has to be partially supported. This is done by attaching it to the extremity of a long lever which revolves, with scarcely any friction, on a pivot. This is found not seriously to interfere with the normal flight of the bird. _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 _ r co _Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 8 1974 YOUR FUTURE IN ELECTRON OPTICS... WILLYOU WANT INCREASED EFFICIENCYAND VERSATILITY.. AND TOP PERFORMANCE TOO? When investing in an electron micro- scope, one shouldn't have to com- promise either the present or the future. A microscopist who needs the best should demand the best. Rightly, users demand the highest feasible resolving powers, but other qualities are coming to the fore. Setting up and using the microscope must be quicker and easier. It must be possible to extract more and more information from a specimen. Ser- vice life may lengthen to 20 years or more. The microscope and its acces- sories must be adaptable to the chan- ging needs of this future. If you have been waiting for an in- strument able to meet these demands, wait no longer. There's a Philips microscope for you now The EM 301. It gives you top resolution (better than 3 A point-to-point or 2 A line) with a minimum of fiddling. To get a vacuum, push a button. To focus, turn a knob. To make a micrograph, choose a camera and push a button. Add a goniometer for 60? tilt, with- out image shift or loss of focus. Whenever you wish, add on facilities for in-situ micro-analysis... STEM and SEM operation... quantitative analysis.., and extend its life far into the future! See it all in our new brochure. Philips Industries Electron Optics Department Eindhoven - The Netherlands Above left Graphitised carbon lattice showing1,7A separation Above centre (220) lattice fringes of Diamond, 1,2A separation Above right Liver DNA and Cytochrome C showing spiral structure 100A Tomorrow's electron optics... today! PHILIPS PHILIPS Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A0002-00010001-4 Vol. 25I No.-5476 OctOber 18, 1974 Published weekly by Macmillan Journals Ltd ' London ?? ? 4 Little Essex Street; WC2k 3LF ? Telephone (01).836 6633 Telex: 262024 Telegrams: Phusis London WC2R 3LF ? ? Washington ? ? 711 National Press Building,..DC 20045 Telephone: (202) 737 2355 Telex: 64280 Editor . David Davies Deputy Editor Roger Woodhan-i Editorial Staff Gillian Botieher Colin Norman* John Gribbin Sally Owen ? ? John Hall Allan Tiber , Eleanor Lawrence Miranda Robertson *Mary Lindley Fiona Selkirk Peter Milford Robert Vickers Peter 1\,IeWinark Mary Wade* John Wilson *Washington office Publishing Director Jenny Hughes Display advertiSernent,enqiiiries in: London Office Classified advertisement enquiries to: T. G. Scott and Son Lid, 1 Clement's inn, London WC2A 2ED . Telephone: (01).242 6264 and ? ? (01) 405 4743 Telegrams: Textualist London .WC2A 2ED .? ? . Subscription enquiries tci: ? MacMillan Journals Ltd,,Brunel Road, Basing'stoke,??Harits,- G21 2XS TelephOne! Basingstoke 29,242 ? Publication address in the United States The Win Byrd Press inc.,. . 2901 :Byrdhill Road,' .Riehniond, ,Virginia 23228 . . Second Class Postage. for the USA , paid at Richmond, Virginia . US Postmaster, please send form 3579. to Nature; 711 National Press Building, Washington DC 20045 ? Price. ? ?22 peryear---.-excepting USA . " and Canada ,(?28 Per year). Registered as a newspaper at the- . ? British Post Office Copyright .0 Macmillan Journals Ltd, October 18, 1974 . , . Cover Picture A hundred years ago Nature was reviewing E. J. Marey's ? Anithal Mechanism (page 518, October -29, 1874):,These cumbersome mechanisms were Soon to be replaced ,by Muy- 'bridge's zobpraxiscOpe camera. On 'page 567 we look at a Muybridge sequenee. aritl-,a century later?What happens when the light is switched on. -Volume 252 .-,Investigating the paranormal 'October 18,1974,. 559 , For those in peril on the factorY floor. ? 560 INTERNATIONAL NEWS 562 NEWS AND VIEWS ? 569 ARTICLES Humathreproduction and' family planning: research strategies in developing countries-- A.-Kessler and C. C. SteMdley. , ? 577 Compositional variation in recent Icelandic tholentes and the Kverkfjbll hot?spot? G. E. Sigvaldason, S. Steinthors?son, N..19iskarssoli,andP. ImSland, . 579 Climatic significance of deuterium abundance. in growth rings of picea?W.,E. Shiegl 582 Properties of hybrids between Salmonella phage P22 and coliphage?? D. Bat stein and I. 'Herskowitz .. 584 LETTERS TO NATURE?Physical Sciences ? 'Distance to Cygnus Cheng, K. J. H. Phillips and A. M.. Wilson. 589 High 'energy radiation from white holes?J. V. Narlikar, K. M. V."?Appa Rao and N: badhich ? 590 Spectrum of the cosmic background radiation ,between 3.min and .800 pm? E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers,: J. S. Huizinga,:l: E. BeckMan? and.P. E. Clegg .- 591 A new. solar-terrestrial.relationshiP.?.-G: M.BroWn 592 Rainfall, drought and the solar-cycle?C. A:Wood and R..R. Lovett 594 Dynamic implications 'of Mantle-hinspots?M. A. Khan . 596 A-type doubling in the?CH molecule?R. E..HammersleY and ,W..G. ,Richards ? 597 Drag-reducing polymers and liquid-column oscillations?W. D. McComb. , 598 noise with-a low frequency white:noise L.. Schick and A, A. Verveen 599 , Second Law.of TherModynamics?D.R. . 601 information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding,?B, Targ and H. Puthoff 602 LETTERS TO NATURE?Biological Sciences The stability of a feasible random ecosystem?A. RobErts: . 607 Objective evaluation of auditory evoked EEG responses?B. McA. Sayers and H. A. Beagley 608 Imprinting and .exploration of slight novelty in chicks?P..5'. Jackson and P. ? P. G. Batesoi: 609 ? Microbial activation of proPhenoloxidase from iminune insect larvae--A. E. Pye 610 Elevation of total .seruni:IgE in rats following helminth parasite infection? E. Jarrett and H. Bazin 612 Alternative route for nitrogen assimilation in higher plants?P. J. Lea and . B. J: M,iflin . ??, ? . 614 Evolution of cell -senescence, atherosclerosis and benigrytumotirsD. "Dykhuizen ? 616 Insulin stimulates mybgenesis in a rat myoblast line?J.-L. Mandel and ? M. L. Pearson, ?, .. . . Sickle tell resistance to in vivo hypoxia-49. Castro, S. C. Finch and G.,Osbaldistane 620 Expression of the?dyStroPhia muscularis (dy) receSSive gene-in mice-:=K?Parsans ? ?. . 621 Growth of human muscle spindles in vitro .?B. J. Elliott and D, G. F. Harriman 622 Multiple control mechanism? underlie initiation of growth in animal cells? ? L. J..d e ?Asua and E:Rokengurt . . ? . . ? ? ? ? ?624 618 ? Control of cell division in yeast using the ionophore, A23187 With calcium and magnesiin*--J. 11.??DUffus.and L. J Patterson 626 ? Antigen of mouse bile.caPillaries and cuticle of, intestinal mucosa N. I. Khramkova and T. D,Belo.MaPkbia ?? Ultrastructural analysis of toxin binding and entry. into mammalian G. L. NicoI,s?on ? 627 628 Serum dopamine (3-hydroxylak,activity-in developing hypertensive rats--T. Nagatsu; T. Kato, Y. Numata "(Sudo), K. Ikuta, H. UmeZawa,-M.-Maisuzaki and T. Takeuehi 630 Enzymatic synthesiS of acetylcholine by a serotonin-containing neurone from Helix? M. R.? Hanley, G. A. Cottrell., P. C. Emson and,F. Fonnurn , 631 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 ii Declassified and Approved For Assignment of the gene for galactokinase to human chromosome 17 and its regional localisation to bank q21-22?S. M. Elsevier, R. S. Kucherlapati, E. A. Nichols, R. P. Creagan, R. E. Giles, F. H. Ruddle, K. Willecke and J. K. McDougall Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 18 1974 Guide to authors Nature accepts three types of communications: ? Articles are up to 3,000 words in length with at most six displayed items (figures and tables) and may either be reports of major research developments in? a subject or broader reviews of progress. ? Letters are brief reports of research of unusual and wide interest, not in general longer than 1,000 words; at most they have three or four displayed items (figures and tables). ? 'Matters Arising' permits occasional short discussion of papers that have previously appeared in Nature. A limit of 300 words is placed on contributions in this category. Manuscripts may be submitted either to London or Washington. Three typed copies should be submitted, each including lettered copies of figures. Typing (including references) should be double spaced. The title should be brief and informative. Pages should be numbered. References, tables and figure legends should start on separate pages. Experimental detail vital to the paper yet which would interrupt the narrative is best placed in the figure legends. Units should conform to the Systeme International. Greek characters should be identified in the margin on their first appearance. Equations should, occupy single lines if possible. exp (a) is preferred to ea if 'a' is more than one character. Articles should be accompanied by an abstract of not more than fifty words, and the abstract should list the main conclusions that are drawn. References are indicated by super- scripts in the text. The style may be gleaned from any contemporary Nature with the following two changes: (i) If it is necessary to refer to several references by the same author at once, only one reference number need be given. (ii) The last page as well as the first of any reference should be cited. Abbreviations should follow the . World List of Scientific Periodicals, fourth ed. (Butterworth, 1963-65). Symposia are often difficult to refer to and only published or soon-to-be- published volumes should be mentioned in references. Their publisher and place of publication should be clearly indicated. 'Personal communication' and 'unpub- lished work' should be incorporated in the text. Artwork should be sent with the manuscript. All artwork should be marked with the author's name. Line drawings should preferably be in Indian ink on heavy cartridge paper, although other materials are accept- able; thin, shiny, folded, torn or heavily handled material should be avoided. Matt rather than glossy photographs are preferred. Figures are usually reduced to one, column width. The originals should be about as wide as a page of Nature. Figures, particularly maps, should contain nothing but essential material. It is preferred that the original be unlabelled, but with a copy containing lettering. Labelling on photographs should if possible be avoided entirely. A fuller guide appeared in Nature (246, 238; 1973). 633 5-Methylcytosine localised in mammalian constitutive heterochromatin- 0. J. Miller, W. Schnedl, J. Allen and B. F. Erlanger 636 Structure of DNA in DNA replication mutants of yeast?T. D. Petes and C. S. Newlon 637 . Radiological mapping of' the ribosomal RNA transcription unit in E. coli? P. B. Hackett and W. Sauerbier 639 Distribution of DNA in dividing spinach chloroplasts?R. J. Rose, D. G. Cran and J. V. Possingham 641 Friend virus release and induction of haemoglobin synthesis in erythroleukaemic cells respond differently to interferon?P. Swetly and W. Osterag 642 Erythropoietin responsiveness of differentiating Friend leukaemia cells? H. D. Priesler and M. Giladi 645 Growth of rust fungi of wheat and flax on chemically-defined media?A. Bose and M. Shaw 646 Anti-receptor antibody and resistance to graft-versus-host disease? T. J. McKearn, Y. Hamada, F. P. Stuart, and F. W. Fitch 648 New inhibitor of reagin-mediated anaphylaxis?B. J. Broughton, P. Chaplen, P. Knowles, E. Lunt, D. L. Pain, K. R. H. Wooldridge, R. Ford, S. Marshall, J. L. Walker and D. R. Maxwell 650 Significance of immunofluorescent staining of lymphocytes with antisera to 1gM immunoglobulins?E. Merler, J. Gatien and G. De Wilde 652 Cellular immune response to a drug-treated L5178Y lymphoma subline? A. Nicblin, A. Bini, E. Coronetti and A. Golden 654 A lymphocyte-inhibiting factor isolated from normal human liver?K. Schumacher, G. Maerker-Alzer and 'U. Wehmer 655 Two types of resistance to polyene antibiotics in Candida albicans?C. C. Hsu ('hen and D. S. Feingold 656 Crystallisation of a modified fibrinogen?C. Cohen and N. M. Tooney 659 nature SUBSCRIPTION ORDER FORM Subscription Department, Macmillan Journals Ltd, Brunel Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire, 4RG21 2XS Please enter me for a year's subscription to NATURE starting with the issue dated I enclose ?22.00 (128.00 USA and Canada) (Prices applicable only to orders started before December 31, 1974. Payment may be made in any currency at the current exchange rate.. Orders must be accompanied by remittance. Cheques should be made payable to Macmillan Journals Ltd. Please allow 3 weeks for dispatch of first issue.) NAME ADDRESS POSTAL/ZIP CODE Registered No: 785998 England 'Registered Office: 4 Little Essex Street, London WC2R 3LF Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 59 Volume 251 Investigating the paranormal October 18, 1974 WE publish this week a paper by Drs R. Targ and H. Puthoff (page 602) which is bound to create something of a stir in the scientific community. The claim is made that information can be transferred by some channel whose characteristics appear to fall "outside the range of known perceptual modalities". Or, more bluntly, some people can read thoughts or see things remotely. Such a claim is, of course, bound to be greeted With a preconditioned reaction amongst many scientists. To some it simply confirms what they have always known or believed. To others it is beyond the laws of science and therefore necessarily unacceptable. But to a few?though perhaps to more than is realised?the questions are still unanswered, and any evidence of high quality is worth a critical examination. The issue, then, is whether the evidence is of sufficient quality to be taken seriously. In trying to answer this, we have been fortunate in -having the help of three indepen- dent referees who have done their utmost to see the paper as a potentially important scientific communication and not as a challenge to or confirmation of prejudices. We thank them for the considerable effort they have put in to helping us, and we also thank Dr Christopher Evans of the National Physical Laboratory whose continued advice on the subject is reflected in the content of this leading article. A general indication of the referees' comments may be helpful to readers in reaching their own assessment of the paper. Of the three, one believed we should not publish, one did not feel strongly either way and the third was guardedly in favour of publication. We first summarise the arguments against the paper. (1) There was agreement that the paper was weak in design and presentation, to the extent that details given as to the precise way in which the experiment was carried out were disconcertingly vague. The referees felt that insuf- ficient account had been taken of the established method- ology of experimental psychology and that in the form originally submitted the paper would be unlikely to be accepted for publication in a psychological journal on these grounds alone. Two referees also felt that the authors had not taken into account the lessons learnt in the past by parapsychologists researching this tricky and complicated area. (2) The three referees were particularly critical of the method of target selection used, pointing out that the choice of a target by "opening a dictionary at random" is a naive, vague and unnecessarily controversial approach to randomisation. Parapsychologigts have long rejected such methods of target selection and, as one referee put it, weaknesses of this kind reveal "a lack of skill in their experiments, which might have caused them to make some other mistake which is less evident from their writing". (3) All the referees felt that the details given of various safeguards and precautions introduced against the pos- sibility of conscious or unconscious fraud on the part of one or other of the subjects were "uncomfortably vague" (to use one phrase). This in itself might be sufficient to raise doubt that the experiments have demonstrated the existence of a new channel of communication which does not involve the use of the senses. (4) Two of the referees felt that it was a pity that the paper, instead of concentrating in detail and with meti- culous care on one particular approach to extra-sensory phenomena, produced a mixture of different experiments, using different subjects in unconnected circumstances and with only a tenuous overall theme. At the best these were more "a series of pilot studies . . . than a report of a completed experiment". On their own these highly critical comments could be grounds for rejection of the paper, but it was felt that other points needed to be taken into account before a final decision could be made. (1) Despite its shortcomings, the paper is presented as a scientific document by two qualified scientists, writing from a major research establishment apparently with the unqualified backing of the research institute itself. (2) The authors have clearly attempted to investigate under laboratory conditions phenomena which, while highly implausible to many scientists, would nevertheless seem to be worthy of investigation even if, in the final analysis, negative findings are revealed. If scientists dispute and debate the reality of extra-sensory perception, then the subject is clearly a matter for scientific study and reportage. (3) Very considerable advance publicity?it is fair to say not generated by the authors or their institute?has preceded the presentation of this report. As a result many scientists and very large numbers of non-scientists believe, as the result of anecdote and hearsay, that the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) was engaged in a major research programme into parapsychological matters and had even been the scene of a remarkable breakthrough in this field. The publication of this paper, with its muted claims, sug- gestions of a limited research programme, and modest data, is, we believe, likely to put the whole matter in more reason- able perspective. (4) The claims that have been made by, or on behalf of, one of the subjects, Mr Uri Geller, have been hailed pub- licly as indicating total acceptance by the SRI of allegedly sensational powers and may also perhaps now be seen in true perspective. It must be a matter of interest to scientists to note that, contrary to very widespread rumour, the paper does not present any evidence whatsoever for Geller's alleged abilities to bend metal rods by stroking them, influence magnets at a distance, make watches stop or start by some psychokinetic force and so on. The publi- cation of the paper would be justified on the grounds of allowing scientists the opportunity to discriminate between the cautious, limited and still highly debatable experi- mental data, and extravagant rumour, fed in recent days by inaccurate attempts in some newspapers at precognition of the contents of the paper. (5) Two of the referees also felt that the paper should be published because it would allow parapsychologists, and all other scientists interested in researching -this arguable field, to gauge the quality of the Stanford research and assess how much it is contributing to parapsychology. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 54 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 ? 18 1974 (6) Nature, although seen by me as one of the world's most respected journals cannot afford to live on respect- ability. We believe that our readers expect us to be a home for the occasional 'high-risk' type of paper. This is hardly to assert that we regularly fly in the face of referees' recom- mendations (we always consider the possibility of publishing, as in this case, a summary of their objections). It is to say that the unusual must now and then be allowed a toe-hold in the literature, sometimes to flourish, more often to be forgotten within a year or two. The critical comments above were sent to the authors who have modified their manuscript in response to them. We have also corresponded informally with the authors on one or two issues such as whether the targets could have been forced by standard magical tricks, and are convinced that this is not the case. As a result of these exchanges and the above considerations we have decided to publish in the belief that, however flawed the experimental pro- cedure and however difficult the process of distilling the essence of a complex series of events into a scientific manuscript, it was on balance preferable to publish and maybe stimulate and advance the controversy rather than keep it out of circulation for a further period. Publishing in a scientific journal is not a process of receiving a seal Of approval from the establishment; rather it is the serving of notice on the community that there is something worthy of their attention and scrutiny. And this scrutiny is boun to take the form of a desire amongst some to repeat the experiments with even more caution. To this end the New Scientist does a service by publishing this week the results of Dr Joe Hanlon's own investiga- tions into a wide range of phenomena surrounding Mr Geller. If the subject is to be investigated further?and no scientist is likely to aecept more than that the SRI experi- ments provide a prima facie case for more investigations? the experimental technique will have to take account of Dr Hanlon's strictures, those of our own referees and those, doubtless, of others who will be looking for alternative explanations. Perhaps the most important issue raised by the circum- stances surrounding the publication of this paper is whether science has yet developed the competence to confront claims of the paranormal. Supposedly paranormal events frequently cannot be investigated in the calm, controlled and meticulous way that scientists are expected to work, and so there is always a danger that the investigator, swept up in the confusion that surrounds many experiments, abandons his initial intentions in order to go along with his subject's desires. It may be that all experiments of this sort should be exactly prescribed beforehand by one group, done by anOther unassociated group and evaluated in terms of performance by the first group. Only by increasing austerity of approach by scientists will there be any major progress in this field. For those in peril on the factory floor In this article Peter J. Smith argues that a greater commitment (in deed as well as word) to community science by the Scientific Establish- ment might help the world of science regain some of the public respect it has lost. THE question of who speaks, or should speak, on behalf of the scientific com- munity has been debated on many oc- casions, most often without result. On the face of it, such lack of resolution is hardly unexpected, for scientists and scientific institutions are not noted for their ready ability to achieve con- sensus. Yet there is no doubt that they can put up a pretty collective front when they feel so moved. The one famous occasion on which a near con- sensus was reached was when the scientific community saw itself put at risk financially by the Rothschild pro- posals. Then individuals and institu- tions miraculously found a common cause of self-preservation. But when it comes to the defence of less privileged groups it is quite a dif- ferent story; the voice of the British scientific community is seldom to be heard, whether taking a moral stance, exerting humanitarian pressure, supply- ing expertise or even simply providing information. A good case in point is provided by a new Socialist Worker pamphlet entitled Asbestos: The Dust that Kills in the Name of Profit. As the title hints, the object of Socialist Worker is nothing less than the com- plete overthrow of the capitalist system; and one of the ways of achieving this aim, it seems, is to give strident publi- city to defects in the capitalist-indus- trial system. Fortunately, one can easily avoid a sharp turn to the left and still admit that what some British workers have been subjected to in the name of asbestos production is beyond the limit of acceptability in a humani- tarian society. For what clearly emerges from the rhetoric of the pamphlet in question is a picture of men and women reacting in some bewilderment to the long-term ill effects of a technological activity. The chief consequence is, of course, asbestosis?a killing disease acquired by breathing in asbestos fibres. The bulk of the pamphlet is devoted to case histories of men to whom asbes- tosis has come as a shock after a decade or so in the industry. But more instructively, there is also a short ac- ccount of the fight for safety put up by a small group of the 7/162 Glasgow insulation workers' branch of the Transport and General Workers Union against the obstruction of the asbestos companies, the indifference of politi- cians, the weakness of the Factory Inspectorate, the silence of much of the press, the impotence of health authorities, the equivocal official stance of unions in general, and, last but not least, apathy among many of the asbestos workers themselves. And ?there is certainly something to fight about. According to Patrick Kinnersly (The Hazards of Work: How to Fight Them, Pluto Press, 1973), asbestosis is taking an increasing toll: 64 are known to have died in 1965, 107 in 1970 and 113 in 1971. The number of new cases diagnosed rose from 82 in 1965 to 153 in 1970. Moreover, asbestosis is only one of the asbestos-induced diseases. Lung cancer appears to require a smaller exposure to asbestos. There is also another form of cancer known as mesothelioma which involves growths in the linings of the lungs and stomach. Almost all mesotheliomas are caused by asbestos; but no one knows how many workers in Britain are killed by them, partly because they take so long to develop and partly because they are not always identified. The TUC Cen- tenary Institute of Occupational Health has suggested that, 30 years after first exposure, about one in 200 will be found to have died of mesothelioma; but Dr Irving J. Selikoff of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York is ap- parently more pessimistic. He has recently been quoted .as saying that, for every 100,000 workers entering ?the asbestos industry under the safety standards obtaining in the United States as recently as 1971, he would expect 20,000 to die of lung cancer, 7,000 of mesothelioma and 7,000 of other cancers and asbestosis. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature I Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 61 The point of drawing attention to the asbestos problem is not to elevate it into some sort of special case; any one of a hundred examples could just as easily be used for illustration. Nor is it to argue that the whole asbestos industry should be closed down forth- with. Such a course of action would be inconceivable in the face of the fact that asbestos currently finds some 3,000 uses in almost every sphere of material living (a testimony to its unique combination of fibrosity and imperviousness to heat). Asbestos pro- ducts (and thousands of other equally or more dangerous substances) are here to stay. But under what conditions are they to stay? And who is to influence those conditions? The most Striking thing to emerge from the story of the asbestos workers of Glasgow and elsewhere is that no organisation remotely con- nected with the world of established science has played any part in it. The British Association has been silent. The Science and Natural Environment Re- search Councils have been silent. The Royal Institution has been silent. The University Grants Committee has been silent. The Association of University Teachers has been silent. In this and many other comparable cases a few individual scientists and science journalists have spoken and acted; but what has been completely lacking is the evidence of any sense of collective responsibility on behalf of the whole, or even a significant part, of the British scientific community. It is true of course, that the Medical Research Council and the recipients of their grants are responsible for a great deal of basic biological and medical research into this and other industrial diseases; and my remarks should not be construed as criticism of that organisa- tion, the individuals associated with it or the valuable work they do. The point I make is much more general?that even when the adverse side-effects of science and technology directly involve health (and they do not always do so), their mitigation requires much more than fundamental research into the nature of the disease itself. Here, with particular reference to the asbestos case but with general applic- ability to many other situations, are some specific things which the scientific community could (and should) have done and could still do. ? Admit moral responsibility for tak- ing a clear lead in seeing that the ill effects of science and technology are eliminated or at least mitigated. As Dr. Bernard Dixon (What is Science for?, Collins, 1973) has said: "When an un- expected, unforeseen calamity does happen, the scientist is more, not less or equally, responsible compared with others in doing all he can to fight A? worker displays symptoms of asbestosis against it". In practical terms, taking a moral lead would probably first mean overseeing the organisation of a suit- able team to map out the full extent of the problem and identify gaps in exist- ing knowledge. Between them, the organisations mentioned above encom- pass the elite (albeit often self-elected), if not most participants, of British science, and form a body with an almost infinite variety of expertise and an immense potential for ?influencing public and government opinion. That these powers are so often allowed to lie dormant is, to say the least, aston- ishing. ? Ensure that the outstanding ques- tions and problems identified by the investigating team are followed through. In almost all cases it is prob- able that more research is needed, in which case the distinguished bodies of science should regard it as their duty to, create the necessary political, finan- cial and organisational climate in which such research can be carried out. Is monitoring equipment highly enough developed? Are safety levels adequate and are they 'formulated in the right way? To what extent is the gen- eral public, as well as factory workers, at risk? These and many other ques- tions covering a variety of disciplines can be investigated but they require effort. Again, the principal scientific organisations have it in their power to encourage the mobilisation of scientists for 'this purpose. Will they use this influence? ? Exer't pressure to ensure that the high principles so proudly proclaimed by the scientific community are ac- tually put into effect. For example, it is quite plain that one of the greatest difficulties encountered by industrial workPand others exposed to risk is that of securing the scientific data (for example, from monitoring) from which a proper assessment risk may be made. Up to July of this year, Factory Ins- pectors divulging such information to employees or others without the em- ployer's permission were actually sub- ject to imprisonment. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 has mitigated these harsh conditions, although as the Trade Union Research Unit at Oxford has pointed out (Health and Safety at Work Legislation: A Critical Study, 1974), disclosure of information is still left largely to the Factory Inspector's discretion. It is difficult to understand how a community which puts such a high value on the freedom of scienti- fic information can reasonably con- tinue to allow the principle to be treated with contempt. Is there any respectable reason why human health should be less privileged in this respect than the activity of pure science? Of course, employers frequently attempt to justify their refusal to disclose vital information on the grounds of commer- cial secrecy?a ploy which is sometimes legitimate, sometimes not. The scien- tific community has a unique role to play here, for a group of independent scientific experts of integrity is the only body able to make a proper assess- ment of what is truly confidential and what is unreasonably claimed as such. Why has the scientific community as a whole failed in this respect? The reason seems to be that, in the past, scientists have found it adequate to justify widespread public support of science on the grounds of the supposed cultural value of the activity and of its supposed role as the progenitor of technology. But what they have failed to grasp is that the first of these grounds was never very convincing to the wider world (at least as justifica- tion for a high level of public support). and that the second is rapidly losing its credibility. In fact, science has a third role, which is neither "science for its own sake" nor science conceived as a means to a materialistic end. This is science for human welfare?call it "com- munity science" if you like. It is prac- tised in a few university departrnents; it is practised with great effect by, for example, the staff of the Greater London Council's Scientific Adviser. It is regarded as second rate by most university scientists, as a threat by industry, and with indiffer- ence by our major scientific institu- tions. But it is just possible that a greater commitment to it by the scien- tific community might go some way towards regaining for science the public respect (not to mention the -public money) it has so patently lost in recent years. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 r 18 1974 I international news Frameworks for energy in the US? ? ? by Colin Norman, Washington ON THE eve of its recess for the November elections, the US Congress approved what could turn out to be the most significant piece of energy-related legislation to reach the lawbooks since the oil crisis began to bite. Minutes before President Ford ap- peared before a joint session of Con- gress to deliver his economic pep talk, a House-Senate Conference committee reached agreement on a bill which will abolish the Atomic Energy Commis- sion and replace it with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and an independent Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Two days later, the bill was sitting on Ford's desk awaiting his signature. Until last week, the bill had been mak- ing glacial passage through the Con- gressional mill, and there were fears that no agreement would be reached on the measure before the end of the session. The importance of the legislation is that it consolidates energy research and development programmes which are now spread out over a host of federal departments and agencies into a single agency. Furthermore, it re- moves a long standing complaint that the Atomic Energy Commission suffers from a conflict of interest by both pro- moting and regulating nuclear energy, because it splits those functions into separate agencies. Furthermore, the bill considerably elevates the status of research programmes concerned with nuclear safety and the safeguarding of nuclear materials. The bill, which was originally pro- posed by former President Nixon's Administration, sets up the NRC to take over virtually all of the regulatory functions that are now performed by the Atomic Energy Commission, but it also completely alters the present bureaucratic structure. The NRC will consist of three co-equal offices, each of which will report to a 5-member commission. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation will be concerned with licensing nuclear reactors. The Office of Material Safety and Safe- guards will license reprocessing facilities and facilities associated with trans- porting nuclear materials, and it will also make sure that nuclear materials are adequately safeguarded. The third, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, will perform backup research for evaluating licence applications to ensure that safety and safeguards criteria are met. As for ERDA, it will take. over vir- tually all the energy research and development activities performed by the federal government, using the laboratories of the Atomic Energy Commission as the base of its opera- tions. It will be split into six divisions, each of which will be headed by an Assistant Administrator, concerned with fossil fuels; nuclear energy; envir- onmental safety; conservation, solar, geothermal, and advanced energy systems; and nuclear security. ERDA will carry out all the energy programmes related to Project Inde- pendence?the much vaunted drive to make the United States self-sufficient in energy supplies?and it will be armed with a huge budget, amounting at present to about $2,000 million a year. Nuclear energy will soak up nearly half of the ERDA funds, with the breeder reactor getting the biggest single slice. But it will also take over such programmes as the solar energy research effort which was recently launched by Congress (see Nature, 251, 368, 1974), as well as Congressionally inspired research and development programs concerned with _geothermal energy and other longer-term energy 'options. . . . and in Holland from Arie de Kool, Amsterdam THE Netherlands are going nuclear, but slowly, and with a maximum of government control. In fact, the gov- ernment will increase its influence in the whole of the energy field consider- ably?if possible, together With other European countries, if not, alone. Its proposals are set out in a long- awaited White Book on Energy. Several of these are concerned with getting the government a measure of control in the privately owned energy supply sector. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the government proposes to establish a monopoly for the ex- ploitation of nuclear power stations and promises to undertake studies on overall nuclear safety within two years. It plans to build three 1,000 MW nuc- lear power stations, to be on stream by 1985 or when the establishment of the government nuclear monopoly and the safety studies permit. The government also wants to negotiate a say in the managerial con- ditions of energy supply corporations, and by bringing the planning of all types ?of power stations under govern- ment responsibility, ensure that elec- trical power supply is discussed in parliament. To stimulate the use of coal for electricity generation the government will stipulate that all new power plants shall be fitted for oil and coal firing. The Dutch will also con- tinue to participate in the German- Belgian-Dutch prototype sodium- cooled fast breeder reactor at Kalkar in Germany, although the government is strongly considering pulling out of the next phase, ?the construction of a 1,000 MW demonstration reactor. Looking outwards, the government plans to take a 40% share in all nat- ural gas and oil exploitations on the Dutch part of the continental shelf, with the condition that the govern- ment share in the profit may rise as high as 80% if conditions allow "with- out impeding the attractiveness to ?the oil companies". The Dutch government also plans to build up a "strategic reserve" of natural gas by stimulating exploration and exploitation of smaller fields in order to have the major source at Slochteren available in case of another oil crisis. It is no secret, that the cabinet has been highly divided, especially over the use of nuclear energy. A couple of days before the White Book was officially released, it leaked out that the government proposed a consider- able delay in the construction of nuc- lear power plants. This was the inter- pretation the 'progressive' members of the cabinet were giving (and were supposed to give) to the delay that is bound to result from the establish- ment of the government monopoly and the requirements of an overall safety report. However, Dr Lubbers, Minister of Economic Affairs, maintained at a press conference, that the three plants should be ready, by 1985. The safety reports might lead to a change in reactor type, a change of site, even to a postponement of the start of the first reactor, but not to the goal of 3,500 MW of nuclear energy in 1985. Naturally, the opponents of nuclear energy are not very happy with the White Book. Some 10,000 people biked and bussed to Kalkar in protest, three days .after the White Book was published. 17] Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 63 The chemistry of profits from Nechemia Meyers, Rehoyot DETAILED plans are now being made for an investment of some ?240 mil- lion in ,Israel's ,chemical industry. Roughly half this sum will be used to promote the exploitation of inorganic Negev chemicals, with the other half being used to expand the Haifa Bay complex of petrochemical firms. The investment, enormous in Israeli terms, is a natural outcome of the chemical industry's growing success, both in supplying vital products to the home market and in the export sphere. Overseas sales of Israeli chemicals already account for 20% of her indus- trial exports (excluding diamonds), and there is no apparent limit to potential customers. The 393-square-mile Dead Sea, most saline of the world's lakes, has long been the major focus of Israel's chemi- cal industry, in the 20th century. Plans for exploiting its potash and other mineral resources were drawn up in 1911 by Moshe Novomeysky (an im- migrant from Siberia) and the first plant, run by Novomeysky, began operation in 1931. For many years, however, the Dead Sea Works were usually in the red, causing cynics to suggest that "the only thing that can sink in the Dead Sea is money". It sinks no longer. On the contrary, Dead Sea potash, bromine and mag- nesium oxide?extracted from a 50- square-mile area of evaporation pans at the southern end of the saline lake whose waters initially contain only 1% (by weight) of potassium chloride?are today sold at a handsome profit to customers in Europe, Africa and the Far East. Other Negev enterprises are also profitable, in large measure because of rising prices. Israel's phosphate mines?part of the Mediterranean phosphate belt that stretches from Morocco in the west to Jordan in the east and Turkey in the north?are a striking case in point. In 1971 Government experts, dis- mayed by 20 years of losses, suggested that they be closed down. Fortunately they were not, and as a result profits are now rolling in to the State Treasury. Ironically, they largely reflect Arab Morocoo's successful exploitation of the world-wide fertiliser shortage to push up phosphate prices from $11 to $60 a ton in just one year. Copper prices are now lower than . they were at their peak, but they are still high enough to ensure the profit- ability of the modern copper mines at Timna (which are very near the Chal- colithic ones). However, the copper- WOMEN who graduated from Ameri- can universities this year with a degree in chemistry or chemical engineering commanded higher salaries than their male counterparts, according to a study carried out by the American Chemical Society. It is the first time since the society began keeping track of such matters that women graduates have earned more than men. The ACS survey showed that, on average, the starting salary for women chemists this year was 5% higher than that for men, whereas in 1964, newly graduated women chemists could ex- pect to earn only 68% of the starting salary for men. While this seems to indizate that employers are attempting to recruit more women, the survey also turned up evidence that the battle for equal employment opportunities still has some way to go. For one thing, women and minority groups had a higher unemployment rate than the average for all ACS members. The overall rate of 1.4% was exceeded by American Indians (6.3%), Orientals (3.1%), Spanish surnamed and black chemists (1.5%), and women (3.5%). But at least that's an improvement on previous years, when the unemploy- ment rate among women chemists was typically running at about three times that for men. bearing strata that were worked in ancient times are not the same as those mined today. Formerly copper nodules associated with fossilised trees within the Middle White Sandstone were exploited. This layer appears near Timna about 330 feet above the copper-bearing Cambrian rocks that are now worked (by both underground and open-cast mining). The only, major failure in this sphere has been with a controversial plant, near the Judean Desert town of Arad, for the manufacture of phos- phoric acid by means of hydro- chloric acid produced from residual Dead Sea brines. An American firm whose fluidised refining process was used in the plant, the Madera Com- pany, is being sued in an attempt to recover at least part of the ?25 million loss, and alternative operating methods are now being studied. When the current expansion plan is completed, potash production will rise from one million to 1.5 million tons a year, phosphate production from one million to 2.8' million tons a year and bromine production from 20,000 to 50.000 tons annually. Profits from the mining and processing of Negev chemicals, this year expected to total ?15 million, will presumably also rise in at least the same measure. The scheduled ?240 million invest- ment in the petrochemical industry will meet local needs for petro- chemicals (including raw materials for plastics) and also give a boost to ex- ports. Items whose production is to rise include polyethylene, styrene, poly- styrene, phenolics and PVC. In addi- tion, much larger quantities of potas- sium nitrate ? a highly regarded, Israeli-developed chemical fertilizer? will be produced in the Haifa area. While the cost of the oil used as a base for these petrochemical products has obviously risen steeply, Israel is no worse off in this respect than her com- petitors, and looks ahead to profits from petrochemicals in addition to those she is already earning from in- organic chemicals. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 S ( Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 18 1974 ICI puts money oh genetic engineering by Miranda Robertson THE news that Britain's Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd (ICI) is to invest ?40,000 over the next three years in research on genetic engineer- ing initiated by University of Edin- burgh biologists seems to bring the more optimistic speculations on ?the potential benefits of these controversial techniques a step closer to reality. One of the most widely cited possibilities has been the production of insulin from a mammalian gene inserted into a bacterial phage or plasmid. Yet projects aimed at this kind of application, in- cluding the Edinburgh-ICI collabora- tion, are still very much at the research, and short of the development, stage. The outstanding problem takes the form of a fundamental question in molecular biology: will the synthetic machinery of a bacterium lend itself to the production of a protein specified by a mammalian (or any other eukary- otic) gene? Morrow and his colleagues in the United States have succeeded in demonstrating that bacteria can tran- scribe eukaryotic DNA into RNA (Proc. natn. Acad. Sci., 71, 1743; 1974); but whether they can achieve the next step?the translation of the RNA into protein?is still not known. Further- more, this is much the trickier step of the two, for while the genetic code is universal, the software for translating it into protein is not. Optimists believe that the first eukaryotic protein will be emerging from bacterial cells within the next year or two. Equally distinguished sceptics foresee that the highly specific molecular recognition and control systems governing protein synthesis will present serious problems. Dr Kenneth Murray, whose work with his wife Noreen on phage lambda (Nature, 251, 476; 1974) led to the ICI project, suspects that bacteria can be made to translate mRNA specified by eukaryotic genes, though perhaps rather inefficiently. One way in' which he can conceive of overcoming specificity problems is by reducing the inserted DNA to the bare structural gene, as free as possible from regulatory sequences that would be unrecognisable to a bacterial synthetic system. That raises the further technical problem of accurate excision of single genes from the donor DNA. The current burst of genetic tailoring took off from the isolation in 1972 of the bacterial restriction enzyme EcoRI, whose peculiar properties make it par- ticularly suitable for the cleavage and reconstitution of heterologous DNA. But the very property of specific cleav- age that makes the enzyme so useful also makes it inflexible: it will only cut a molecule where it wants to, and no?t necessarily where you want it to. Con- sequently one of the first requirements will be a range of enzymes with differ- ent specific cleavage sites. Researchers at Edinburgh and elsewhere are already at work on the accumulation of such a versatile set of Molecular scalpels, but no-one is yet ready even to think in concrete terms about operating on such exotica as insulin genes. With the recent emphasis on the possible 'hazards of genetic engineering research, safety has become a prominent issue. In fact, the experiments on phage lambda fall outside the forbidden cate- gories I and II of ?the US National Academy of Sciences' cautionary state- ment, into the more amorphous cate- gory of experiments which "should not be undertaken lightly". One of the principal points which Murray has stressed in connection with the phage lambda system is its relative intrinsic safety. It does not carry drug resistance factors and is therefore susceptible to control, and has only been used so far with strains of E. coli to be found in the human gut. If the system comes into use on a commercial scale, Dr Murray is willing to envisage the THE bacterial enginering argument so far has been given most promin- ence in the United States and Brit- ain, and it is likely that these two countries will be the first to formu- late a set of guidelines, either as legal constraints OT as informal codes of practice. But the problem is worldwide, and the International Association of Microbiological Societies has rec- ently set up an ad hoc committee to advise it on the hazards inherent in recently developed techniques of genetic engineering. This committee will not attempt to duplicate the activities of either Professor Paul Berg and his com- mittee in ?the United States or Lord Ashby's Working Party in the United Kingdom, according to the chairman, Professor S. W. Glover of the University of Newcastle-upon- Tyne. Rather it hopes to evaluate any recommendations made by these committees or at the international meeting planned =to take place in California next February, and if necessary, to arrive at a set of con- straints or guidelines which it can recommend to the JAMS for world- wide communication through the network of national societies affiliated to the JAMS. Apart from Professor Glover, the committee consists of Dr E. Woll- man (France), Dr A. Demain (US) and Professor G. Terui (Japan). development of bacterial protein factor- ies custom-built to be incapable of infecting a human host. In ?the meantime, precautions at Edinburgh include scrupulous sterilis- ation procedures. So far, the Murrays themselves have been the only people to have handled doctored phage par- ticles. Not that they really believe that phage presents a serious threat to health; with the courage of their con- viction, each Murray swallowed an experimental dose of 10' labelled phage ?without either immediate ill effects, or traces of surviving organisms in the gut flora thereafter. The injection of ICI funds will now, of course, make it possible to adapt a laboratory designed to contain patho- gens, while at the same time the expan- sion of the project will mean the involvement of more personnel. Proper training of laboratory personnel will be emphasised since structural safeguards such as air-locks and protective hoods ?both on the agenda?offer no pro- tection from human carelessness. The obvious advantage of an academic-industrial collaboration such as that between Edinburgh University and ICI is the pooling of intellectual resources not normally available to industry and practical resources not normally available to universities. There is one university department, however, which is uniquely placed from both points of view. The Department of Biochemistry at Imperial College Lon- don possesses a pilot plant for growing up to 60 kg of bacteria, as well as facili- ties for purifying large quantities of enzymes, and is now under the chair- manship of Professor Brian Hartley. Hartley and his collaborators have been working for the past few years on enzyme adaptations in bacteria (see for example Nature, 251, 200; 1974). The most recent development in this work has been the use of genetic engineering techniques to transfer the genes specify- ing the enzymes between bacterial species. Hartley's plans for the bio- chemistry department include the recruitment of young molecular gene- ticists with a view to developing and exploiting these sophisticated techniques in the production of commercial quanti- ties of enzymes tailor-made to the purposes of medicine and industry. His approach differs from that of the Edinburgh team in a number of ways. For one thing, their project is based principally on the use of phage lambda as the vehicle for the trans- planted genes, whereas Hartley's will involve both phage (where that seems advantageous) and bacterial plasmids. (This will bring the Imperial College project into NAS category I, so that out of respect ?for the moratorium it will have to be deferred, though prob- ably not for long.) But there are also Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 .565 Nature V ut. ZJ1 VCIUUGI JO .17/ n` FACED with two proposals for dealing with their company's liquidity crisis, employees of George Kent Ltd have voted in favour of an arrangement with the Swiss company Brown Boveri which would give Kent more cash to the tune of ?6 million but leave effective control of the company in the United King- dom. The. name Kent on scientific instruments is well known in its own right in research laboratories, as is that of a company which it owns?Cam- bridge Scientific Instruments. The result of this exercise in indus- trial democracy flew in the face of Mr Anthony Benn, Secretary of State for. Industry, who preferred an arrangement whereby George Kent would be taken over by GEC, Sir Arnold Weinstock's company. But Mr Benn was also keen that Kent's employees should have a chance to make their views known and he now has to decide, in the light of the ballot, how to use the 24% of the Kent shares which the government owns when it comes to a vote among shareholders. If he decides to go along with the Brown Boveri plan it seems almost certain to be the one that will win the day. Brown Boveri originally proposed that it should buy 53% of the Kent Business report by Roger Woodham shares but it has now decided to be content with less than 50%, thus as- suaging fears that control of George Kent would be lost to a foreign com- pany. It also envisages Kent's scientific and medical instruments business being set up as a separate company owned by the mooted Brown Boveri Kent Ltd, and this is where some Kent employees part company with the Brown Boveri plans. The 600 employees of Cam- bridge Scientific Instruments voted in favour of the GEC plan to a man be- cause they regard an independent instrument company as a doubtful starter because of its small size. Over George Kent as a whole, however, 75% of the 7,300 employees said yes to Brown Boveri. This desire ?to run into the arms of of a Swiss-based multinational is almost certainly based on fears that 'ration- alisation' after a takeover by GEC would threaten job security. By con- trast there is little overlap between the activities of Kent and Brown Boveri, and the latter sees Kent as a useful marketing base in the United Kingdom. Indeed the prospect of access to France, Germany and Switzerland, where Brown Boveri sells some ?780 million worth of equipment and where neither Kent nor GEC is particularly strong, is an added attraction from Kent's point of view. major differences in both methods and aims. With his background in enzyme evolution and 'bacterial adaptation, Hartley expects to rely very much more heavily than the Murrays on the adap- tive potential of the bacteria themselves. This might be used, for example, to produce enzymes stable enough to sur- vive long periods of storage at room temperature. The first step would be to introduce the gene into Bacillus stearothermophilus, which thrives at high temperatures. If an environment could then be devised in which the bacterium's survival would be greatly enhanced by the production of large quantities of the new enzyme, the bacterium would be under considerable Selective pressure not only to make the enzyme, but to evolve a structure for it that would be stable at high tempera= tures. In a collaborative effort with the Microbial Research Establishment at Porton, Hartley has already achieved the purification to homogeneity of 20 enzymes from thermophilic bacteria, in quantities of 50 kg. The facilities are to be moved to Imperial College in January 1975, and the intention is eventually to produce enzymes' for sale to industry. There is also the possibility of selling enzymes for research to other laboratories. Imperial College has at its disposal a potential wealth of restriction enzymes in the vast range of organisms grown there for antibiotic research. Isolation and purification of these en- zymes will be an important Part of the research programme. The problem of maximising bacterial production of a particular enzyme for either commercial or research purposes may be another case in which the answer lies in the versatility of the bacteria themselves. In the case of phage lambda, there is a well known Promotor system which it may be possible to commandeer. This enzyme system, together with the product 'of another phage gene, can override the controls which normally serve to pre- vent or limit the transcription of a given gene. Up to half the cell's synthetic capacity may in consequence be re- cruited to the 'production of a single type of protein molecule. In bacteria, however, it may actually be possible to increase the number of genes from which transcription of a given mRNA taken place. Hartley and his 'colleagues have recently demonstrated (Nature, 251, 200; 1974) that 'bacteria often respond to metabolic demands for large quantities of a particular enzyme by duplication of the genes which code for it. Again, of course, this technique would involve -manipulation of the en- vironment and not the 'bacterium. Hartley draws a categorical distinc- tion between the prospect of getting bacteria to mass-produce enzymes to human specifications (science), and that of inducing them to make mammalian hormones such as insulin (science fiction). This is partly because of his own emphasis on bacterial evolution- ary 'potential in the implementation of human designs. While it may not be too difficult to devise environmental exigencies that would force a bacterium into an unnatural need for an outr? enzyme, it is extremely difficult to imagine how one might 'provide it with an incentive to produce insulin? although with elaborate genetic manipu- lation it may be possible. Hartley is not, however, among those who think trans- lation will be a major problem, though he concedes it is the rate-limiting step. But in view of the extensive use already made in industry of microbial enzymes, not to mention long-term plans for solving the global food problem with microbial proteins, bacterial enzyme production may prove quite enough to be getting on with. Li Little Red greenery book from our Soviet Correspondent THE all-Union Botanical Society of the USSR has completed compilation of its "Red 'Book" of flora, listing some 20,000 forms in need of governmental protection, some 600 of which are in immediate danger of extinction. In commenting on the report, Pravda predictably pays prime attention to those .species 'which provide "irreplace- able" raw material, such as the Siberian and Korean cedars, and the Caucasian iron-wood, and notes that such valuable species as the waterfall poplar, Vavilov's almond, and the Kolyma currant are apparently, already, irretrievably lost. Nevertheless, the red book also in- cludes plants which have so far found no economic use, including certain weeds "against which mankind has waged an agelong struggle". This would appear, at first glance, contrary to Soviet utilitarian theories, but, the commentator explains, the "dialectics of 'harm' and 'use' is in this case com- plicated and contradictory", and quotes the classic case of penicillin in order to justify the presence of the weeds. Li Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 er 18 1974 Musical chairs on Capitol Hill by Colin Norman, Washington FOR six days early in October the US House of Representatives put on a display of squabbling and infighting which would almost have done justice to Gladstone's Parliament during the stormy days of Irish 'reform'. One venerable Representative announced at one point that she would "fight to the death" to get her way, while another remarked that the House had lost its collective sanity. In the end, however, there were no open fisticuffs on the floor, as there were in Gladstone's day, and the whole affair got scant attention from the general press. But for science and technology, the titanic struggle on Capitol Hill holds some important implications. The basis of the squabbling was a bold attempt to reform the House's antiquated committee structure?not exactly a heart-stopping issue, which is probably why it did not grab too many headlines?and the outcome can best be described as a standoff between the reformers and those who were hoping to preserve the status quo. But it will, at least, change the way in which the House handles a good deal of legisla- tion involving research and develop- ment. In short, the committee on Science and Astronautics, which has never exactly been a giant on the Congres- sional landscape and whose influence has been shrinking recently along with the decline in the space programme, is set to pick up some important new responsibility. In addition to its present authority, which is essentially limited to the pro- grammes of NASA, the National Science Foundation, the National Bureau of Standards and general science policy deliberations, the com- mittee will pick up jurisdiction over all non-nuclear energy research and development, environmental research and development, -civil aviation re- search and development and the Weather Service. In line with its new roles, the committee also gets a new title?the Committee on Science and Technology. Certainly, it can be argued that the committee still cannot be called the focal point for scientific matters in the House since the really big spenders remain outside its jurisdictional patch. Defence research and development stays under the jurisdiction of the Armed Services Committee, for ex- ample, the Commerce Committee re- tains control over biomedical research, and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy has lost none of its authority over nuclear matters. But the changes could turn out to be significant, par- ticularly in regard to energy research and development. First, by way of background, some remarks are in order on the functions of Congressional committees and the need for reform. Committees in the House resemble a collection of mediaeval fiefdoms pre- sided over by extremely powerful-- and usually elderly?chairmen who have risen slowly through the ranks during their years of residence on Capitol Hill. The so-called seniority system requires that committee chair- manships (and the chairmanships of subcommittees) go to the longest-serv- ing?and not necessarily the most able ?committee members who belong to the political party which holds the majority of House seats. Each committee has its own area of responsibility?thus, for example, the Armed Services Committee deals with legislation concerning programmes of the Department of Defense and the Agriculture Committee deals with agricultural legislation. When a bill is introduced into the House, it is re- ferred to the appropriate committee, which usually assigns it to one of its subcommittees. Hearings are held on the bill, it usually gets amended or completely rewritten by the subcom- mittee before being passed on to the main committee, which can further amend it before it moves on to the full House for further amendment and final passage. The committee therefore represent the centres of power since they shape the legislation which reaches the floor. Moreover, committee chairmen (and to some extent subcommittee chair- men) wield a tremendous amount of power over the system since they control the appointment of committee staff, who deal with the nuts and bolts of the committee work and frequently write the legislation themselves. And, equally important, the chairmen can kill off legislation with which they dis- agree simply by keeping it bottled up in their committees, never allowing it to be brought to a vote on the floor of the House. One problem with the system is that it has been more than a quarter of a century since any serious attempt was made to alter committee jurisdic- tions, and areas of authority have con- sequently become considerably blurred. Take energy research and develop- ment, for example. The Committee on Science and Astronautics is deep into that subject since it has jurisdiction over the programmes of the National Science Foundation, but so is the Interior Committee, the Public Works Committee, the Commerce Committee and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. The net result is that there has been considerable jurisdictional turf fighting between committee mem- bers for control of energy research legislation. Another effect of confused jurisdic- tions is that when a member of the Committee on Science and Astronau- tics, for example, writes a bill aimed at setting up a prograthme of, say, solar energy research, he shapes the legislation to give the programme to the National Science Foundation or NASA so that his committee gets jurisdiction over it. The result is that programmes don't always get assigned to the most suitable agencies. Then there is the problem that Members of Congress often serve on several committees, which consider- ably dilutes their effectiveness. So, all-in-all, the House of Repre- sentatives is not a terribly efficient place, and that's why two years ago a special bipartisan committee, headed by Richard Bolling, a skilled legislator from Missouri, was appointed to recommend some reforms. Almost a year ago, the Bolling Com- mittee came up with a batch of re- commendations which immediately threw most of the committee chairmen into fits of apoplexy. It suggested a fundamental realignment of committee jurisdictions, that members could only serve on one major committee, and that the powers of the Speaker should be elevated. But by far the most controversial provisions it contained were the com- mittee realignments. For a start, the Bolling proposals would have stripped one of the most powerful committees?the Ways and Means Committee?of many of its functions, it would have split the Education and Labour Committee in two, and it would have abolished the Post Office Committee, the Internal Security Committee, and?to all in- tents and purposes ? the Merchant Marine Committee. Not surprisingly, a good number of committee chairmen who had reached the pinnacle of their political careers were not altogether happy about having their power suddenly stripped from them, and they persuaded the Demo- cratic Caucus to appoint another com- mittee to come up with some counter proposals. It was those recommendations which were adopted last week, with a few minor modifications, after six days of bitter debate which at tithes left the House leadership entirely confused. As far as science and technology are concerned, the Bolling Committee had recommended that the Committee on Science and Astronautics should be given authority over all energy re- search and development, including Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 567 Fast workers EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE (he thought the Anglo Saxon version more strik- ing than plain Edward Muggeridge) was a Victorian photographer who left Kingston-on-Thames in 1852 to sail for America. There he was run over by a stage coach and tried for the murder of his wife's lover. He was declared insane and acquitted after a former employee had testified: "He was most eccentric in his work; he would not take a picture unless the view suited him." On the credit side, he made a stereoscopic record of the Modoc Indian war and toured Cen- tral America (as Edwardo Santiago Muybridge), later selling collections of 120 prints at 100 dollars the set, which was a close call to skinning the market at 1876 exchange rates. More importantly, Muybridge made photo- graphic studies of movement which laid the foundations of. a completely new high speed photographic indus- try (not to mention a completely new movement in European art). In 1880 he became the first person to photo- graph movement (using "the famous zoopraxiscope camera") and resynthe- sise the movement on a screen. A strip from this original sequence (above) was featured in an exhibition accompanying the eleventh interna- tional congress on high speed photo- graphy at Imperial College, London. The same congress was marked by an exhibition of applied photography at the Royal Photographic Society, where the very latest achievements of the high speed photographic industry included the series reproduced below. It shows the development of a con- vective flow in the gas filling of an electric bulb as the current through the filament is switched on. The photographs are from eight three- dimensional holographic images re- constructed from a sequence of double exposure holograms recorded on a single plate with a pulsed ruby laser. The pulse length was about 1 ms and the interval between pulses was 20 ms. The pictures were produced by the National Physical Laboratory, with whose permission they are re- produced. The Muybridge series appears by courtesy of the John Judkyn Memorial. nuclear energy. But the powerful Joint Committee on Atomic Energy objected at such an intrusion on its patch, and the Science and Astronautics Com- mittee eventually wound up with only non-nuclear energy research and deve- lopment. But that is a distinct im- provement over the present arrange- ment in which authority is split over a number of committees, and it also means that the neW Science and Technology Committee will get juris- diction over the non-nuclear pro- grammes of the umbrella Energy Research and Development Adminis- tration. The Bolling Committee had also recommended that the science com- mittee he given "special oversight" over military R & D, which would have given it authority to make studies and recommendations on the Pentagon's programmes, but it wouldn't have had the power to write laws in that area. But Edward Hebert, the 74-year-old chairman of the Armed Services Com- mittee would have none of that, and his monopoly over the Defense Dep- artment programmes remains un- broken. ? Finally, the Bolling proposals would have given the Science and Astronau- tics Committee jurisdiction over vir- tually all the programmes of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. But Mrs Lenore Sullivan, Chair- man of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries didn't relish the idea of her committee disappear- ing from under her, and the upshot is a grotesque split with some atmos- pheric programmes going to the new Science and Technology Committee, while oceanography stays with the Committee on Merchant Marine. But at least it was agreed during the floor debate last week that the two commit- tees will work together on oceanic and atmospheric matters. As for environmental research and development, both the Bolling Com- mittee and the Democratic Caucus committee recommended that the new Science and Technology Committee would gain responsibility for that entire area, and so it will. The upshot, then, is that many science and technology matters in the House will now be consolidated into one committee, which should make for smoother operations in sonie areas. But it should be pointed out that the seniority system has survived com- pletely untouched, and nobody had the temerity to alter the workings of per- haps the most powerful committee of all?the House Appropriations Com- mittee, which deliberates on the budgets of the executive departments and agencies. Bolling, at least, remains philo- sophical about the outcome of his attempts at reform. "It is a good start", he said last week, and indicated that he will try again next session. Meanwhile, the Senate has for some time been making noises about taking a look at its own hopelessly confused committee structure, but so far has shown no signs of doing anything about it. It is far from clear at this stage, for example, which committees will get jurisdiction over the Energy Research and Development Adminis- tration, and science affairs are strung out over a whole range of Senate committees. Since all bills must be approved by both the House and the Senate before they become law, the House reforms are clearly only half-way measures, no matter how good they are. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 'gem, news and views 41,14011111111 Fluctuations in climate THROUGH most of the first !part of this century it was widely taken for granted that climate is essentially constant, apart from short-term fluctuations, some of which might involve shadowy cyclic changes. In fact, the global climate was at that time changing?a rather general warming and increasing moisture in continental interiors (apart from the Americas)?in ways that made life easier for most people in most !places. Hence, ?there was little investigation of the phenomenon. Now, however, the decades of neglect have given place to widespread concern over climatic change. This is partly because there is some evidence of a global cooling, and a change in the rainfall trends also, setting in from the 1950s onwards. There is also a more pressing alarm over the many signs in recent years of an increased range of variability of climate from one year (or short group of years) to another. The world population is already so large that there is no margin for even occasional bad years ?bad, that is, in the sense of lowered harvest yields in several of the world's principal grain-producing areas. Indeed, the world's grain reserves have been reduced each year since 1970: both 1972 and 1974 will rank as bad years in the sense just mentioned, but even in a good year, such as 1971, the reserves fell, and are now under a quarter of what they were before this decade. It was with facts such as these in mind that US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger told the United Nations General Assembly in April 1974: "The poorest nations, already beset by man-made disasters, have been threatened by a natural one: the possibility of climatic changes in the monsoon belt and perhaps throughout the world. The implications for global food and population policies are ominous. The United States proposes that the International Council of Scientific Unions and the World Meteorological Organi- sation urgently investigate this problem . . ." And, in similar vein, Lord Rothschild wrote recently: ". . . there are several subjects in which I regret that the Think Tank has not so far taken an interest: one of these is the effect of the possible changes in our climate on the life of the inhabitants of this island. It would, I believe, repay study." Also, the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, of which I am director, whose financial plight over ?the first 2-1 years of its existence has several times been mentioned in Nature, now has the funds needed to start its work?thanks to the generosity of ?the Wolfson and Nuffield Foundations in this country and the Rocke- feller Foundation in the United States. This issue of Nature carries three more in the series of contributions to knowledge on the variations and variability of climate which it has been publishing in recent years. Drs Wood and Lovett report on page 594 on the rainfall variations measured in Ethiopia over the last 70 years, and the records of major drought years since AD 1540, analysed in relation ?to the 11-year sunspot cycles. Their result high- lights the great range of variation of the annual rainfall in that country within each 10 or 11-year period as likely to have more impact than the longer-term trends, though possibly made more serious by ?these. On page 592 Brown reports a new link between variations in the Earth's magnetic field at the time of sunspot minimum and the strength of the subsequent sunspot maximum; together with the climatic evidence such as that presented by Wood and Lovett this raises the possibility of the use of the Earth's magnetic field to forecast changing weather patterns five or six years ahead. The third contribution, on page 582, is concerned with what can be learnt of the longer record of climatic behaviour from tree rings, in this case the year-rings in spruce (Picea) growing in southern Germany. Dr Schiegl uses deuterium measurements on the tree rings to show how an indication of a long history of annual mean tem- perature might be derived. This technique is one example of a rapidly increasing number of types and uses of 'proxy' data to extend and corroborate the climatic record for periodS before the invention of most meteorological instruments. Mass extinctions in the fossil record THE !problem of what caused the extinction of particular groups of fossils continues to intrigue both palaeontologist and layman. Every schoolboy learns about the dramatic and relatively sudden extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Mesozoic Era, and many are the more or less ingenious !hypotheses put forward to account for it. My own favourite relates the extinction to the relative decline of the gymno- sperms or naked seed plants in favour of the flowering plants during the Cretaceous period. The surviving conifer and cycad representatives include many producing oils with renowned purgative properties, from which one is drawn ineluctably to the conclusion that the poor dinosaurs died of constipation! The trouble with all such 'hypotheses is their ad hoc character, devoted specifically to the dinosaurs. Viewed in a broader context, the dinosaurs are seen as but one of a whole series of animal groups, both terrestrial and marine, which died out at the end of the Cretaceous about H. H. LAMB 65 million years ago. An even more spectacular phase of mass extinction, affecting a majority of invertebrate and vertebrate classes both on land and in the sea, took place towards or at the end of the Permian some 160 million years earlier. It is no coincidence that the three faunally defined eras of Phanerozoic time, ?the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic, are divided by these two so-called crises in the history of life. Attempts to account for these, and lesser, phases of mass extinction can be grouped into two broad categories, involv- ing phenomena either extrinsic or intrinsic to our planet. The extraterrestrial explanations have usually centred around the deleterious effect of high levels of cosmic radiation, leading to widespread destruction of organisms, either directly or by damaging genes and thereby preventing successful reproduction. Some have argued for episodic pulses of increased radiation compared with that operating Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature ified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 569 at present, for which there is no independent evidence; others have postulated that at times when the geomagnetic field was reversing the 'magnetic protection' of the Earth diminished for period of perhaps as much as a few thousand years, allowing more radiation to penetrate to the surface of the continents and oceans. Explanations such as these have fallen out of favour in the last few years for a variety of reasons. For example, they have not been able to explain why marine organisms have been affected at the era bound- aries more than terrestrial ones, especially plants. Further- more, in the ocean the intensity of radiation diminishes to a small fraction of its atmospheric value only a few metres below the surface. Attention has now turned to intrinsic factors. Following the pioneer work of Valentine and Moores (J. Geol., 80, 167; 1972) who were the first to seek an explanation for the Permian extinctions by bringing together concepts derived from plate tectonics and modern ecological theory, attempts adopting a similar approach have been made recently to account for the 'crises' at the close of the Meso- zoic and Palaeozoic. Hays and Pitman (Nature, 246, 18; 1973) have speculated along the following lines. In the late Cretaceous there was a huge marine transgression over as much as a third of the continents, when sea level was raised hundreds of metres as a result of uplift of the mid-oceanic ridges. This was a consequence of an acceleration in the rate of seafloor spreading for which there is apparently good independent evidence. The transgression was instrumental in inducing a more stable, equable world climate, which led to significant diversification of many animal groups including the dino- saurs and, in the marine realm, reef corals, rudistid bi- valves and planktonic foraminifera. Highly diverse, steno- topic organisms in stable environments are vulnerable, however, to even slight environmental change. The pro- nounced marine regression at the" end of the Cretaceous, related by Hays and Pitman to deceleration of seafloor spreading rates, induced an episode of increased thermal gradients, seasonal temperature contrasts and storminess, together with a significant change in oceanic circulation patterns. This sudden decrease in environmental stability was sufficient to cause widespread extinction, affecting the groups cited above and many others. The dinosaurs' un- satisfied need was not so much for laxatives as for winter woollies! A significant relationship between the late Permian ex- tinctions and fall of sea level is also inferred by Schopf (J. Geol., 82, 129; 1974). His survey disclosed that the number or marine invertebrate families halved from the beginning to the end of the period while at the same time the area of shallow epicontinental seas diminished by rather more than half. The lowering of sea level was probably a con- sequence of the creation of the supercontinent Pangaea as separate continents collided. When this happened the seafloor spreading rate diminished as a 'brake' was in- evitably applied to plate movement. There is no satisfactory explanation of why sea level began to rise again in the early Triassic, although Pangaea did not begin to disinte- grate, with the creation of a new spreading axis between Africa and North America, until the early Jurassic. In the earlier hypothesis of Valentine and Moores, the extensive late Permian extinctions were attributed partly to increased interfaunal competition as formerly isolated continental shelves were joined together, and partly to a reduction in environmental stability consequent upon the creation of one large continent from several smaller ones (thus, seasonal climatic contrasts would have increased). Schopf draws attention to another factor. Ecologists recognise an exponential relationship between species number and area of the habitat occupied. Modern theory has it that animal populations in a given region are in a condition of dynamic equilibrium, with rate of im- migration being balance rate rate of extinction. The theory has been applied with great success to oceanic islands, which form an excellent laboratory for ecologists. Small islands cannot be held to possess 'impoverished' faunas, as formerly thought; they can only support small populations and consequently extinction rates are higher. It is a big jump from species abundance in tiny islands to familial abundance in seas bordering whole continents, with rate of immigration being replaced by rate of origination through evolution, but Schopf is prepared to take this bold step. He can at leaA claim the support of a leading researcher in the new ecology (D. Simberloff, J. Geol., 82, 267; 1974), who has erected a model for the Permian diversity reductions and 'extinctions based on reasonable biological assumptions, which shows a good accord with Schopf's data. Thus merely reducing the area of the Permian shelf seas might be sufficient in itself to explain the increased rate of extinction, reaching a maximum at the end of the period. An attractive feature of the two hypotheses outlined above is that they account for changes in organisms inhabit- ing a wide variety of habitats in a way which is consistent with modern ecological theory, and provide a satisfying correlation with independently deduced geological events of great significance. In both cases the fundamental control on the extinctions is likely to have been variation in heat flow from the mantle, affecting the density, volume and spreading rates of oceanic ridge systems. Though many important questions remain unanswered, an explanation along these lines is much less of a Deus ex machina than that involving variations in cosmic radiation. A. HALLAM Neural hypothesis of muscular dystrophy is flourishing MANY workers in the field of neuromuscular diseases will feel that there is more evidence in favour of the neural hypothesis of muscular dystrophy than Professor Bradley's article' would imply. Although it is true that Harris and Marshall' did not find evidence of functional denervation in dystrophic mouse muscle, the earlier and contrary observa- tions of McComas and Mrozek' have now been confirmed by Law and Atwood'. Fibrillation potentials, usually re- garded as a sign of denervation, are also a feature of murine dystrophy'. Possible ultrastructural correlates of synaptic dysfunction have been found in the axon terminals of dystrophic mice in studies from two laboratories'''. Even if Harris and Marshall were correct, these authors demons- trated nonetheless that the neuromuscular junctions of dystrophic mice were unusually susceptible to adverse con- ditions within the experimental milieu. Dr Salafskys was one of the first to transplant minced muscle between normal and dystrophic mice and, by con- trolled experiments encouraging reinnervation of the trans- plants, was able to study their contractile properties. The explanation offered by Dr Bradley is insufficient to account for all his findings. Of those muscle transplantation studies in which care was taken to permit reinnervation, two" have largely confirmed Salafsky's work and one" has not. 'In the cases of human Duchenne dystrophy the evidence is mixed. Fibrillation potentials certainly occur' and the work of Desmedt and Borenstein" is cited as indicative that denervated muscle fibres become reinnervated. In contrast, a 'careful electron-microscopical study by Dr Andrew Engel and his associates" has not yielded any evidence of struc- tural abnormality in the motor axon terminals. This result, and the finding of normal numbers of motoneurones at Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 s Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A0092099:19091,-ir N autopsy', does not contrao,dict the neural hypothesis as originally prop- osed". Indeed, recent studies with A. Upton and P. Jorgensen, as yet un- published, strongly suggest that it is possible for motoneurones to have 'silent' synapses. In patients with unequivocally neuropathic disorders it now seems that neuromuscular junc- tions may become inexcitable but still capable of transmitting a neuro- trophic influence to the muscle fibres. If this interpretation is correct, it is not difficult to conceive of more severe dysfunction in which the syn- apsp, although present, can no longer ?subserve a trophic action. So far as the motor unit counting results are concerned, the necessary eleotrophysiological technique was first applied by McComas, Sica and Currie" to the extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscle. The choice of muscle was subsequently criticised on the grounds that the motor nerve was vulnerable to trauma, particularly in disabled patients such as those with dystrophy'. This criticism would seem unfounded if the, recent reports"'" of normal numbers of motor units in Duchenne dystrophy are correct. Our own solution to the problem of trauma was to study pat- ients with very early stages of the disease and to extend the technique to muscles other than EDB. These last results" are in keeping with the earlier ones. Since the full papers by Panayio- topoulos et al." and by Ballantyne and Hansen" have yet to appear, it is diffi- cult to be certain that these workers have achieved the refinements of the counting technique reported by Bradley. Scarpalezos and Panayio- topoulos" in their brief description claim to be able to detect very small muscle responses "overlapping at noise level" on single, rather than super- imposed, oscilloscope sweeps. Not only is this feat a logical impossibility, but the value of the superimposition tech- nique (employed by ourselves) in detecting very small evoked biological signals has been accepted ever since the pioneering experiments of Daw- son". As practised by our own group, the motor unit counting technique has proved itself as a sensitive and reliable means of detecting neuro- pathic disorders and it is gratifying that Ballantyne and Hansen" have obtained almost identical values for healthy subjects. It is important to add that the technique has recently been employed in a 'blind' study of 17 possible cases of malignant hyperther- mia (unpublished work with B. A. Britt and W. Kalow) and has so far been completely accurate in predicting the status of the subjects. I feel that the most direct evidence against a neural aetiology of dystophy is the parabiotic cross-innervation experiment of Douglas and Cosmos" in mice. The strongest evidence against a myopathic aetiology (though not necessarily for a neural one) is the exceedingly elegant chimaera study of Peterson". At first sight contradictory, these obseravtions may be reconciled by taking into account the stage of development of the animal at which the foreign nerve was introduced to the muscle. Thus, it is possible that the very first contact between a geno- typically dystrophic motoneurone and a genotypically normal muscle fibre in the embryo will commit the latter to a dystrophic growth thereafter; if so, any later experimental manipulations ith innervation would b i ff ti w wou e ne ec ve. Regardless of the true state of play, the neural hypothesis has successfully drawn attention to the possibility of deranged trophic mechanisms being present in neuromuscular disease. Whether or not the hypothesis is eventually shown to be correct, it will have served a useful function if it advances our understanding of dystrophy or brings a cure one step closer. ' Bradley, (1974). ? Harris, J. B., and Marshall, M. W., Exp. Neural., 41, 331-344 (1973). McComas, A. J., and Mrozek, K., J. neural. neurosurg. Psychial., 30, 525-530 (1967). ? Law, P. K., and Atwood, H. L., Experientia, 30, 155-156 (1974). ? McIntyre, A. R., Bennett, A. L., and Brodkey, J. S., Ardis neural. Psychiat., 81, 678-683 (1959). ? Ragab, A. H. M. F., Lancet, ii, 815-816 1971). 7 Gilbert, J. J., Steinberg, M., and Banker, B. Q., J. Neuropalhol. exp. Neural., 32, 345-364 (1973). ? Salafsky, B., Nature, 229, 270-272 (1971). o Dubowitz, V., J. Physiol., Land., 231, 59P (1973). 10 Hironaka, T., and Miyata, Y., Nature new Biol., 137, 221-223. (1973). " Cosmos, E., Physiologist., 16, 167-177 (1973). 12 Norris, F. H., and Chatfield, P. 0., Electroenceph. din. neurophysiol., 7, 391-397 (1955). 13 Desmedt. J. E.. and Borenstein, S., Nature, 246, 500-501 (1973). '4 Jerusalem, G., Engel, A. G., and Gomez, M. R., Brain, 97, 123-130 (1974). Tomlinson. B. E., Walton, J. N., and Irving, D., J. neural. Sc., 22, 305- 327 (1974). 1' McComas, A. J., Sica, R. E. P., and Campbell, Mi., Lancet, i, 321-325 (1971). 17 McComas, A. J., Sica, R. E. P., and Currie, S.. Nature, 226, 1263-1264 (1970). Eng.1, W. K., and Warrnolts, J. R., in New Developments in Electromyo- graphy and Clinical Neitrophy.sio- lo,gy (edit. by Pesmedt, J. E.), 1, 141- 177 (Karger, Basel, 1973). 19 Roselle, N., and Stevens, A., in New Developments in Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology (edit. by Desmedt, J. E.), 1, 69-71 1973). A. J. McComAs W. G., Nature, 250, 285-286 20 21 22 23 24 18 1974 Scarpelezos, S., and Panayiotopoulos, C. P., Lancet, ii, 458 (1973). Ballantyne, J. P., and _Hansen, S., Lancet, i, 1060 (1974). McComas, A. J., Sica, R. E. P., and Upton, A. R. M., Arc/os Neurol., 30, 249-251 (1974). Panayiotopoulos, C. P., Scarpalezos, S., Papapetropoulos, T. A., and Caronis, A., J. neural. Sci. (in the press). Ballantyne, J. P., and Hansen, S., J. neural. neurosurg. Psych jot. (in the press). 25 Dawson, G. D., J. neural. neurosurg. Psych/at., 10, 137-140 (1947). Douglas, W. B., and Cosmos, E., in Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy (edit. by Milhorat, A. T.) 2, (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, in the press). Peterson, A. C., Nature, 248, 561-564 (1974). 26 27 Drilling in the Antarctic from Peter J. Smith So much attention is given to the large- scale geological programmes, such as the Deep Sea Drilling Project, that there is a tendency to overlook the more modest investigations which face tech- nical and logistic problems scarcely less formidable. A good case in point is the three-nation programme of drilling in the McMurdo Sound region of Antarc- tica. By the late 1960s it was clear that if significant progress were to be made in investigating the geology, geo- chemistry, glaciology, lake-bottom stratigraphy and thermal characteristics of the dry valleys west of McMurdo Sound, it would be necessary to supple- ment surface studies with borehole data. Accordingly, several drilling pro- posals were submitted to the National Science Foundation which coordinated all acceptable proposals into a single programme with participating scientists from the United States, Japan and New Zealand. Thus was born the Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP), since expanded to include Ross Island and McMurdo Sound itself. The original aims of the DVDP as described by McGinnis et al. (Antarctic J., 7, 53: 1972) included studies of pal- aeontological and volcanic evolution during the poleward migration of An- tarctica, palaeomagnetic reversals, the geochemistry of polar desert soils and permafrost, heat flow, the hydrogeology of ice cap margins and the global tectonic significance of the McMurdo volcanics, although it is already clear that the first of these objectives will not be met. An initial exploratory season was envisaged, followed by three drill- ing seasons involving a minimum of 10 holes. During the exploration in the 1971-1972 summer season electrical depth soundings were taken to deter- mine permafrost thickness and the nature of the material beneath the Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 .571 permafrost, seismic refraction profiles were run in lake basins to establish the relief and structure of bedrock and overburden thicknesses, and a regional aeromagnetic survey was made to pro- vide structural control. In addition, environmental monitoring (Physical and microbiological) was begun and will be continued throughout the project. Drilling began during the 1972-1973 season with two holes through the volcanic rocks of Ross Island; and preliminary 'geological and geochemical results from these sites (boreholes 1 and 2) were described about a year ago (Antarctic J., 8, 157; 1973). During the 1973-1974 summer, seven More holes were drilled in the Ross Island volcanics (borehole 3 adjacent to hole 2) and in the dry valleys at Lake Vanda (bore- holes 4 to 9); and a series of reports on this work has just been published (Antarctic J., 9, 125; 1974). According to Kyle and Treves the cores from holes 1, 2 and 3 reveal that the geological history of Hut Point Peninsula (Ross Island) is much more complex than the surface geology suggests, which is itself sufficient vindication of drilling. The oldest unit penetrated by holes 2 and 3 is a 200+ m thick pile of hyaloclastite represent- ing early eruptive events that took place below ice or water; in other words, an early stage of marine vol- canism involved the construction of a hyaloclastite pedestal which may have impinged on a thick ice shelf covering the Ross Sea more than 1.2 million years ago.. The higher lavas, on the other hand, are apparently subaerial flows and pyroclastic units which represent a single 'differentiation series starting with olivine-augite basalts, working through augite-kaersutite basalts 'and ending with k'aersntite hawaiites, although the ,phonolites on an ,adjacent hill may well be more extreme differentiates of the same magma chamber. The cores from the dry valleys not unexpectedly comprise glacial and marine sediments, although two of the holes also penetrated the crystalline basement. Both sedimentary and igneous cores are still under 'laboratory investigation so few geochemical and mineralogical results are available. But Tarii reports that stable isotope studies have already revealed the sources of core ice; in Lake Vanda, for example, most of the present water apparently originates as fresh water whereas deeper sedimentary layers are still under the influence of sea water. Also Gumb- ley et al. have begun to use the upper few metres of sediment from Lake Vanda to trace the lake's Late Quarter- nary history. The DVDP can already be credited with the resolution of at least one long- standing disagreement. Over a decade ago, Armitage and House (Limnol. Oceanog., 7, 36; 1962) discovered that although Lake Vanda lies in a region where the mean air temperature is ?18? C, it has a bottom water temper- ature of +25? C. This led Armitage and House, and later Angino et al. (Sci. Bull., 45, 1097; 1964), to suggest that below the lake there are either high geothermal gradients or hot springs. Wilson and Wellman (Nature, 196, 1171; 1962) ruled out hat springs on the grounds that the measured isotherms in the lake are nearly horizontal. Not only are hot springs unlikely in Antarc- tica because the great 'thickness of frozen ground precludes abundant groundwater; they argued that the entrance of springwater into the lake in conjunction with any possible hot spring would produce a much more compli- cated thermal pattern. Instead, they developed a theory of solar heating in which solar energy penetrates the lake's ice cover (found if() be extremely trans- parent) 'and is absorbed in the water below. In support of this view, Wilson and Wellman pointed to the extreme clarity of the water and to the decrease in temperature gradient with depth (which implies a heat 'source' in the water itself). Heat flow measurements in the upper 30 cm of lake sediment also seemed to show that heat is flow- ing from the water to the Sediment. But Ragotzkie and Likens (Limnol. Oceanog., 9, 412, 1964) produced pre- cisely the 'opposite result from similar measurements and therefore attributed the high bottom temperature to a com- bination of solar heating and high geothermal gradient. Wilson et al. have now resolved this question by making thermal measure- ments in DVDP hole 4 which pene- trated the crystalline basement below Lake Vanda. The temperature in the basement 15.5 m below the lake bottom is consistently 0.48? C lower than that in the sediment 0.5 m below the lake bottom. The corresponding temperature gradient (average 0.032? C m-1), com- bined with estimates of thermal con- ductivity, shows that Lake Vanda is losing heat downwards at a rate of 0.5-1.0 cal cm's', thus convincingly supporting the view that geothermal heat is not the reason for the lake's high temperature. Corvine cannibalism from our Animal Ecology Correspondent ARGUMENTS have been raised for years about the functions and consequences of territories to animals. Since the ultimate restraint to population in- crease is availability of food, one might expect the relationship of territory size to food to be both positive and linear. For some species, mostly herbivores, Eltanin bailed out To oceanographers the name Eltanin probably stands second only to Glomar Challenger. From 1962 to 1972 this vessel carried out geo- logical, geophysical, geochemical, biological and meteorological re- searches which covered some 80 per cent of the southern ocean be- tween 35? S and Antarctica. Then a $1.5 million budget cut in the US Antarctic Research Program ended its active work. But now the Eltanin is about to begin a new five-year programme on Antarctic research as a result of an agreement between the United States and Argentina. The ship, re- named Islas Orcadas and operated from Buenos Aires by the Argentine navy, will carry out joint scientific expeditions with support from the National Science Foundation and the Argentine National Antarctic Directorate. this may be true or nearly so. But often for both carnivores and herbivores territory size is unrelated to food supply (Watson and Moss, in Animal Populations in Relation to their Food Resources, 167, Blackwell, Oxford, 1970). Hinde points out that territories have complex functions with conse- quences both harmful and advan- tageous to an individual's chance of breeding success (Ibis, 98, 340; 1956). Simple answers cannot be expected to complex questions. In a well designed series of field ex- periments on carrion crows in north- east Scotland, Yom-Tov added extra food to the environment to ascertain if there was a direct relationship be- tween territory size, food supply and breeding success (J. Anim.Ecol., 43, 479; 1974). There was circumstantial evidence that there was no absolute food shortage during the breeding season. Fooci in the form of hens' eggs and dead, hens' chicks was placed near to artificial trees both within and with- out established crow territories. This treatment failed to increase the breed- ing density of adults. But one egg and five chicks offered daily to a group of fourteen breeding pairs in the close proximity of their nests resulted in a significantly higher survival rate of nestlings although there was no differ- ence in clutch size. At fledging an average of 2.3 young had survived in the experimental nests compared with 1.1 in the controls. The other effect of food added daily from the start of the year was to signi- ficantly shift the date of the start of laying, bringing it forward by 5 days. Earlier layed clutches were almost twice the size of late clutches, but the Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 .4kaw number of fledglings produced per nest was about half. So increased winter food affected date of laying but not, per se, the number of fledglings pro- duced per nest. How does extra food increase the survival rates of nestling crows? Preda- tion of the eggs and desertion by the adults were the main factors respon- sible. Krebs has pointed out that arti- fically increased winter food has no effect on the number of territorial breeding pairs of great tits during the following spring (Ecology, 52, 2; 1971). Those nests that were closer together than 45 m suffered 12% more preda- tion (mostly by weasels) than did those nests spaced over 45 m apart. Carrion crows are their own chief predators? they prey to a significant extent upon the eggs and nestlings of their own kind. With cannibalism as the regula- tory mechanism, the ultimate limiting factor for the number of nestlings reared is the dispersion of food within the territory. An abundance of food close to the nest means that the clutch is left unattended for shorter intervals than if the food is widely scattered. To remain near the nest breeding crows limit their territory size. The lower limit to territory size depends upon the amount of food available and the upper limit depends upon its dispersion and the ability of the pair to defend its nest. Cyclic AMP and pattern formation from Paul Epstein BY staining with fluorescent antibody specific for cyclic AMP, Pan et al. (Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 71, 1623; 1974) have been able to observe the distribution of cyclic AMP in both the unicellular amoebae and the multicel- lular pseudoplasmodium of Dictyostel- ium discoideum and several related species of cellular slime mould. Cyclic AMP was first shown to be important in the life cycle of D. discoideum when it was isolated as the naturally occur- ring .acrasin, or chemotactic agent by which the vegetative amoebae signal each other to aggregate (Barkley, Science, 165, 1133; 1969). Now the studies by Pan et al. suggest that cyclic AMP is important not only for aggre- gation, but for determination, or pattern formation, as -well. In the cellular slime moulds, once the aggregation process is completed, the amoebae form a pseudoplasmodium, OT grex, which, depending on environ- mental conditions, may migrate for an indefinite period before beginning to differentiate into two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types? spore tells and stalk cells. By staining with vital dyes, Bonner (The Cellular Slime Molds, second ed., Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jer- sey, 1967) showed that the cells in the anterior third of the grex become stalk cells, whereas the cells in the remaining posterior portion become spore cells. The cells in the grex are not pre- determined, however, since a grex which is sliced transversely can form two normal fruiting bodies, containing the normal proportions of spore and stalk cells (Raper, J. Elisha Mitchell scient. Soc., 56, 241; 1940). This observation indicates that the cells can recognise their position within the grex, and somehow alter their developmental fate accordingly. How do the cells know their position in a field? One theory is that they respond to gradient(s) of concentration of small m olecule (s) (Wolpert, J. theoret. Biol., 25, 1; 1969). More recently, McMahon developed a theory of -pattern formation using D. discoideum as a model, which holds that a sharp concentratibn boundary of a small molecule can develop through its regulation by contact-sensing mole- cules on the plasma membranes of cells in the field (McMahon, Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 70, 2396; 1973). These regulatory molecules -would be the macromolecules which synthesise and degrade the small molecule. In this case, the polarity of the morphogenetic field is determined by the boundary of the small molecule, which in turn is determined by the distribution of contact-sensing molecules. Although one theory invokes a gradient and the other a boundary, both models require non-uniform distribution of a small molecule to determine the pattern of development. The results of Pan et al. suggest that cyclic AMP might be one such ? small molecule which determines pattern formation in D. discoideum. Pan et al. showed that as the pseudoplasmodium was allowed Migrating grex of Dictyostelium dis- coideum seen from the .side and from above. From Developmental Biology by Nelson Spratt. to migrate, a distribution of cyclic AMP arose such that the higher con- centration was found in the anterior, pre-stalk region. In some cases, they observed an abrupt boundary of cyclic AMP concentration between the anter- ior and posterior portions of the grex, as theorised by McMahon. It is interesting to consider two earlier observations which bear on pat- tern formation and differentiation in D. discoideum, and to see how they fit with the idea that pattern formation in the grex is determined by the distri- bution of cyclic AMP. Bonner (Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 65, 110; 1970) subjected isolated amoebae to high con- centrations of cyclic AMP and found that they developed into stalk cells. From this observation, he concluded that cyclic AMP functions -as an inducer of stalk cell differentiation. The observation of Pan et al. is -consistent with this conclusion. The other observation was made by Raper (J. Elisha Mitchell scient. Soc., 241, 1940), who sliced a pseudoplas- modium transversely into four sections. Section one, the anterior tip, could be made to migrate for various times. If induced to begin fruiting body forma- tion immediately, without any resump- tion of migration, this section developed into an extremely -abnormal fruiting body, bearing very few or no spores, and an excessively heavy stalk. If 3-6 h of migration were allowed before fruiting formation began, the resulting structure was less abnormal but still bore fewer spores and more stalk. If 24 h of migration were allowed, the tip gave rise to a completely normal fruit- ing body, with the correct proportion of spore and stalk cells. Hence, Raper demonstrated that the cells at the anterior tip of a pseudoplasmodium are determined to become stalk cells, and that this determined state is altered progressively as the tip migrates. In accord with this observation, Pan et al. found that the distribution of cyclic AMP in the grex becomes more apparent as it migrates. Likewise, Mc- Mahon, in his theoretical treatment. showed the boundary of cyclic AMP concentration arising near one end of the field, and moving along the field with time. McMahon calculated that by about 3-5 h the boundary becomes stabilised at a position one-third of the way down the field; that is, at the posi- tion which would give rise to the normal proportion of spore and stalk cells. Although substantial proof is required before one can state that cyclic AMP is responsible for pattern formation in D. discoideum, the results of Pan et al. at least suggest such a function. If further studies provide proof, this would represent the first identification of a small molecule res- ponsible for pattern formation. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature Declassified and Approved Clustered genes Iheragments respectively, react mostly with 18S rRNA. These results suggest and non-transcribed spacers For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 573 from Benjamin Lewin MOST eukaryotic genes are probably present in only one copy for each haploid genome. Two notable ex- ceptions to this rule are provided by the genes coding for histone proteins and those which specify ribosomal RNAs: here many genes, apparently identical for ribosomal RNA genes and with little variation in the histone genes, are organised in a cluster in which each transcribed sequence seems to be separated from the next by a . non- transcribed spacer region. The structure and function of the spacer are pre- sumably relevant to the control of gene activity, and perhaps to the prob- lem of the suppression of variation in the multiple copies ,of each transcribed sequence. During oogenesis in Xenopus laevis the nucleoli which contain ribosomal DNA are amplified to become a major cell component. The ribosomal DNA can thus be isolated in bulk and has been the subject of much work on sequence .organisation. This DNA was recently used as a substrate for the EcoRI endonuclease of Escherichia coli by Morrow et al. (Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 1743-1747; 1974) who found that each repeating 'unit (tran- scribed plus non-transcribed) suffers two cuts. When X. laevis rDNA molecules of about 50X 10' daltons were treated with excess EcoRI enzyme the principal fragments had weights of 3.0X 10' and 4.2X 10' daltons; prominent among the minor fragments were two of 3.9 X 10' and 4.8 X 10' daltons. These products were annealed with DNA of the plasmid pSC101 (which is cleaved at a single site, generating a linear molecule from its circular genome) to give plasmid? rDNA recombinant molecules that were then replicated by growth in E. coli. When the recombinant plasmid DNAs were isolated from several bacterial cell lines and analysed by cleavage with the EcoRT restriction enzyme, each recombinant plasmid gave fragments with sizes typical of the linear molecule of pSC101 and of the cleavage products of Xenopus rDNA. By hybridisation with 18S and 28S Xenopus rRNA, Morrow et al. showed that the hybrid plasmid CD4, which contains both the 3.0 x 10' and 4.2 x 10' cleavage fragments, anneals equally well with both rRNAs; the CD18 plas- mid containing only the 3.0x 106 dalton fragment anneals principally with 28S rRNA; while the DNAs of plasmids CD30 and CD42, which con- tain the 3.9x 10' and 4.2x 10' dalton that the tandem repeats in the rDNA are heterogeneous, each consisting of the 3.0 X 10' dalton sequence (which contains the 28S rRNA sequence) and the 3.9 x 10' or the 4.2 x 10' dalton sequence (containing the 18S rRNA sequence and presumably differing by the presence or absence of an extra sequence; other variations in this region are suggested by the existence of other size fragments). Since the transcribed region of Xenopus rDNA takes only one form, heterogeneity in sequence must be ascribed .to the non-transcribed spacer region, a conclusion supported by the report of Wellauer et al. in the Pro- ceedings of the U.S National Academy of Sciences (71, 2823-2827; 1974). By cleaving Xenopus rDNA with the EcoR1 enzyme, they were able to isolate two classes of fragment on agarose gel electrophoresis.. Every pre- paration contains a prominent band of 3.0 x 10' daltons and several bands are present in lesser amounts which vary from 4.0 to 5.8 x 10' daltons. To decide whether the heterogeneity of the larger bands exists within single genomes or reflects differences between animals, they examined the rDNA from a single nucleolus organiser; this contained at least three of the larger size classes as well as the 3.0x 10' dalton band. The repeat length of transcribed plus non- transcribed Xenopus rDNA is about 8 X 10' daltons, clearly implying that the repeats must be heterogenous in length (since otherwise the total length of fragments would equal rather than exceed the repeat length). When the duplex lengths of the fragments were measured by electron microscopy, the smallest proved to have a homogenous size of 3.0 x 106 daltons and the number of these small fragments equalled the sum of the number of the larger frag- ments. Each repeat therefore seems to comprise one 3 x 10' dalton region and one of the larger regions. Secondary structure mapping has previously been used by Wellauer and Dawid (Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 2827-2831; 1973) to order the sequences for ribosomal RNA ?in the precursor of the mature rRNA (see Lewin, Nature, 250, 619-621; 1974), When RNA is spread for electron microscopy, hairpin loops may form between short complementary sequen- ces and the position of each loop along the linear molecule provides a map of it. The 28S rRNA has a characteristic map present at the 5' end of the pre- cursor and the 18S rRNA is character- ised by an absence of loops. Wellauer et al. now extend this technique to DNA which has been denatured to single strands. The. small 3.0 x 10' dalton fragment cleaved from Xenopus rD y the EcoRI enzyme is homo- geneous in structure; it seems to result from cuts made by the enzyme about 0.3 x 10' daltons into the 28S rRNA sequence and about 0.2 X 10' daltons into the 18S rRNA sequence; this fragment thus represents the starting region of the rRNA precursor, lacking the immediate 5' end. The other frag- ment generated by these two cuts has one end devoid of structure, presumably corresponding to the 18S rRNA sequence, with the other end displaying the structure typical of the very begin- ning of the 28S rRNA structure. 28S 40S 18S Nontranscribed Spacer 30 X106 12 4.0-5.9 X106 II Summary by Wellauer et al. of struc- ture of an rDNA repeat unit. The central regions of all larger frag- ments show a related structure, but vary in length. It is therefore the non- transcribed spacer region in which the heterogeneity resides and the formation of heteroduplexes suggests that the shorter large fragments represent deletions of sequences present in the longer large fragments. How this heterogeneity relates to the functions of the nucleolar rDNA is not yet known; one reservation about the interpretation of these results, however, is that the ?source of the rDNA is the amplified material of the oocyte and it remains to be proven whether the same situation is found in the sornatic cell. Analysis of histone genes is at a less advanced stage than that of ribosomal RNA genes. Each of the five histone proteins seems to constitute a unique amino acid sequence in any species; and the hybridisation analysis of Weinberg et al. (Nature, 240, 225-228; 1972) sug- gested that their messenger RNAs are coded by genes repeated some 500- 1,000 times in the genome of the sea urchin Psammechinus milaris. Because of the multiple codons representing each amino acid, identity of protein sequences need not imply identity of the repeated nucleic acid sequences coding for them, but the hybridisation analysis suggests only limited hetero- geneity. The histone messengers of another sea urchin, Lytenichus pictus, have been separated by gel electro- phoresis into a small number of groups by Grunstein et al. (Cold Spring Harb. Symp. quant. Biol., 38, 717-724; 1973) and a fingerprint analysis of one of these messengers is 'consistent with the idea that its sequences are fairly uniform. The histone genes of Psammechinus milaris band on CsC1 gradients at a density only slightly greater than'that of bulk DNA, but Birnsteil et al. (Proc. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 57 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 18 1974 natn. Acad Sci. U.S.A., 71, 29004; 1974) now report that they can be iso- lated by their ability to bind prefer- entially to actinomycin C1 which causes them to form a low density band. The band isolated in this way hybridises well with a preparation that contains the messengers for four histones (mRNA activity for histone F1 has not yet been demonstrated); since each of the four histone messengers shows a virtually identical reaction with the fractions of DNA separated on the CsCl?actino- mycin gradient, it is likely that the different histone genes are intermingled rather than clustered in four individual grows. Comparison of G+ C content of histone DNA and RNA, and the results of shearing and of melting histone DNA all suggest that the histone gene cluster also contains other sequences that are poorer in G+ C content. The release of the histone-coding from the other sequences only by shearing sug- gests that both components are integral parts of the gene cluster. The melting curve of renatured DNA from the preparation implies the presence of some heterogeneity in sequence, pro- bably in the sequences which do not code for histones. Whether the com- ponent poor in G-i-C represents a non- transcribed spacer region analogous to that of the rDNA gene cluster is not of course revealed by present data but this is one of the functions that can be imagined for it. Two by two from D. H. Jennings IT is rare these days to attend a con- ference covering the whole spectrum of biology. But the Society for Experi- mental Biology mounted such a con- ference?on symbiosis?at Bristol on September 2-6. By retaining the original de Bary definition, namely that symbiosis is the association of two different organisms, it was possible to have all shades of interest from mole- cular to whole organism biology rep- resented. Thus, ecologists, though not contributing directly, could find much to interest them. Indeed, two contribu- tions were particularly seminal for ecological studies. Fricke (Max-Planck- Institut, Seeiweesen) indicated how behavioural studies of organisms in the Red Sea can provide an under- standing of animal interactions in nature thus adding flesh to the bare bones of numerical population studies. Cox (Kings College, London) discus- sing his work on intraerythrocytic parasites, pointed out that population biologists cannot continue to think about particular species without con- sidering their parasites. He showed how susceptibility to various virus diseases can be dramatically modified by the presence of parasites. ?There was much emphasis on how the invading symbiont avoids attack by its potential host. Terry (Brunel University) and Smithers (National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill) presented their elegant studies on the evasion of the immune response by Schistosoma which can survive by its ability to acquire host molecules. Mus- catine (University of California, Los Angeles) provided data indicating the recognition by Hydra of the appro- priate Chlorella cells takes place after engulfment at the stage when the algal cells move to the base of the digestive cells. Studies on symbiosis in Para- mecium are now also beginning to yield relevant information with respect to bacteria (Preer, University of Indiana, Bloomington) and Chlorella (Karakashian, Max - Planck - Institut, Wilhelmshaven). In spite of the decision to use the de Bary definition, there was much discussion of what is meant by the term 'symbiosis'. Mortimer Starr (University of California, Davis) pro- duced a new classificatory scheme which has the virtue of both clarifying thinking about the phenomenon and indicating where further experimental work is required?to decide, for ex- ample, whether a symbiotic association is mutualistic or obligately parasitic. In this respect, Smith (University of Bristol) put those interested in lichens further in his debt by his careful analysis of the present data in the field which indicate that there is no detectable benefit to the algal partner. Also Coffey (Trinity College, Dublin) presented further information about the rust fungi, once thought to be the classic example of obligate pathogens in plants but which can now be grown in culture. Many problems are emerging for the biochemists, particularly on how a symbiont affects the physiology of the host which it has invaded. Bio- chemists should be impressed by Aplysia which does a far better job than they of isolating chloroplasts. There is no doubt, as shown by Trench (Yale University), that these chloroplasts are fully functional, though the relationship between these organelles and the animal cytoplasm in which they reside is not the same as that which exists in the intact cell from which the chloroplasts are extracted. But biochemists and molecular bio- logists have other reasons for being in- terested in symbiosis. Chloroplast sym- biosis is, in a number of ways, the living expression of how eukaryotic organelles are believed to have arisen, namely by successful invasion of a primitive glycolytic prokaryote by oxy- gen utilising (to give mitochondria) and photosynthesising (to give chloroplasts) prokaryotes. Though the theory has a respectable age, Lynn Margulis (Uni- versity of Boston) has done the most recently to bring it up to date. In a debate on the theory she propounded her views with infectious enthusiasm. But though most of the audience were believers, Raff (University of Indiana, Bloomington) in a careful comparison of bacteria and mitochondria showed that their faith may be blind. Five hundred million years ago in Wales from I. Sirachan ABOUT half of those attending the symposium organised by the Palaeonto- logical Association of London on the Ordovician System (September 17-20) had spent the previous week touring Wales looking at the classic geological sites of Arenig, Llandeilo, Caradoc and Bala. Much of the material presented at the meeting in Birmingham was fac- tual and included new information as well as regional summaries, but there was also a considerable questioning of current dogmas. F. J. Fitch (Birk- beck College, London) and others speaking on Ordovician geochrono- logy pointed out the possible sources of error inherent in radio-isotopic dating, particularly in Lower Palaeo- zoic rocks, and stressed the need for the use of standard reference scales (such as ithat produced by the Geologi- cal Society of London in 1964) so that data from different sources could be accurately compared. They concluded that a length of 65 Myr (between 510 and 445 Myr ago) was reasonable for the Ordovician, compared with 70 Myr for the preceding Cambrian and 40 Myr for the succeeding Silurian. Given this broad time ' span, it was not surprising that the details of the regional pictures presented by later speakers should show some differences. The biostratigraphical problems were analysed in various groups of fossils. W. B. N. Berry (University of Cali- fornia) related his graptolite faunas to warm and cool water masses using a palaeogeographical reconstruction with the land all on one hemisphere. M. Lindstrom (University of Marburg) felt that the conodont faunas agreed in provincialism with the graptolites but C. R. C. Paul (University of Liver- pool) found distinct North American, Baltic and Mediterranean cystid faunas only up to the lower part of the Caraclocian, after which time provincial boundaries became fuzzy. This he related to closing up of ocean basins Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Nature Declassified and Approve during late Ordovician plate move- ments. He also discussed the functional aspects of respiration in cystids to critically low oxygen levels in shallow tropical seas. This linked the palaeo- geographic approach to the climatic one which was discussed by N. Spjeldnaes (University of Aarhus, Denmark). The now well known gla- cial deposits of the Moroccan Anti- Atlas were beautifully illustrated by J. Destombes (Service geologique, Rabat) and other speakers referred to climatic cycles in the Ordovician which influ- enced the occurrence of various groups of fossils. Changes in faunas could be caused as much by climatic changes as by migration between continental plate margins and the disentangling of plate movements through the whole length of the Ordovician needs much further work. None of the formal papers included any discussion of the boundaries of the Ordovician, most speakers making it clear whether they regarded the Tre- madocian as Cambrian (as in English usage) or Ordovician. But the large gathering of experts from so many countries, including the Soviet Union, provided the opportunity for meetings of the Commission on Stratigraphy of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Several recently formed sub- commissions and working groups of the commission will have a great deal to do with correlation of strata be- tween countries and continents. Dif- ferences of interpretation were much in evidence during the closing general discussion in Birmingham, particularly between those based on groups of fossils traditionally used, such as bra- chiopods and trilobites, and those which have come into prominence in the last few years, such as conodonts. Some of the ideas were certainly pro- vocative and augur well for the future liveliness of the subject. As an eminent worker on Palaeozoic gastropods put it to close the meeting?a snail never gets anywhere unless he sticks his neck out. Plant conifers and lose water d For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 575 from Peter D. Moore A KNOWLEDGE of the rate of water loss from a forest is essential both for forest water budget calculations and in the management ?of water catchments. Many comparative studies have been undertaken to provide such informa- tion, on forest stands and on other vegetation types. Differences in water loss from various types of vegetation are explicable in terms of transpiration rates, in the effect of vegetation upon evaporation direct from the soil by Expanding wings in moths frotn our Insect Physiology Correspondent EVERY lepidopterist knows that The stimulus which maintains the inhibition comes from the head: decapitated moths spread their wings immediately, regardless of whether they are confined. Moths - decapitated at the very moment of eclosion, however, show neither wing inflation nor wing folding. But if decapitation is delayed until five seconds after emergence, the full wing-spreading behaviour occurs. This effect of the brain is not dependent on the nerve supply; it is the result of the neurosecretory `eclosion hormone': a brain re- moved from the pupa and im- planted into the abdomen of a decapitated pupa is wholly effective in evoking complete wing spread- ing. The suboesophageal ganglion is also necessary for wing spread- ing; but this seems to be a neural effect on movement. The hormone bursicon, set free from the abdo- minal nerve cord, will cause neither wing inflation nor wing folding; it has two important functions: it serves to plasticise the cuticle (as was shown by Cottrell in the blow- fly) and it sets in motion the har- dening of the cuticle which, in turn, apparently dictates by feed- back to the central nervous system the timing of the wing-folding movements. In brief the eclosion hormone, discovered by Truman a few years ago, not only initiates emergence, but also wing spreading, which is brought about by a central motor programme involving neural and hormonal stimuli and some degree of sensory feedback. emerging butterflies and moths go through a characteristic sequence of wing-folding movements, with wing expansion and general harden- ing of the cuticle, before settling down into their normal resting pos- ture; and that the force for wing expansion is the hydrostatic pres- sure of the blood generated by strong contraction of the abdomen. Truman and Endo (J. exp. Biol., 61, 47; 1974) have now elucidated the complex of physiological fac- tors engaged in this familiar phenomenon. It was shown .by Fraenkel many years ago that if the newly moulted blowfly is obliged to continue bur- rowing through the soil, it remains soft with the wings and body un- expanded for many hours. Only when it makes its escape is the cuticle expanded, hardened and darkened. It was generally assumed that this hardening process must be controlled ?by a hormone, but that was demonstrated by Cottrell only in quite recent years and confirmed by Fraenkel and Hsiao, who named the hormone in question `bursicon'. It ?is liberated from the brain and other ganglia of the nervous system. Truman and Endo found that the emerging adult of the tobacco hawk moth Manduca behaves in the same way. It likewise pupates in the soil, and so long as the emerg- ent moth is confined it shows in- tense digging behaviour, and the spreading of the wings is sup- pressed, sometimes for 24 hours. providing 'insulating layers of varying thickness and spatial structure, and in the interception of precipitation and its subsequent evaporation directly from leaf surfaces. The quantification of these para- meters, however, is extremely difficult. One of the most useful approaches has been the development of detailed models which attempt to account for all of the microclimatic and spatial variables, each of which can be deter- mined individually (for example, Mon- teith, Syrnp Soc. exp. Biol., 19, 205; 1965). Various attempts have been made to compare water losses from deciduous and coniferous stands by observational rather than theoretical methods, but most of these have shown negligible differences during the summer months (for example Zahner, Forest Sci., 1, 258; 1955); no reliable data are available for longer periods covering the winter season, when evergreens may continue to transpire and also to inter- cept more rainfall than deciduous trees. Comparative data between forest stands on different sites will always be some- what suspect because of possible dif- ferences in the soil water storage capa- cities, hence long term studies on a single site where deciduous trees have been replaced by conifers seems to be the most hopeful approach to this problem. The results of just such a study have now been published by Swank and Douglass (Science, 185, 857; 1974). Their study area is in the Appalachian Mountains of the south-western region of North Carolina, originally bearing oak?hickory forest. Streamflow studies were carried out on selected watersheds within the area over a period of ten Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 57 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 years, which provided data sufficleirn for the prediction of stream flow under any given conditions of precipitation. In 1956 a 16 hectare watershed was clear- felled and planted with eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). For the next six years the streamffow was greater than that predicted for the forest stand, in the initial period by as much as 15%. Subsequently streamflow fell below pre- dicted annual values and for the past 6 yr it has been - between 15 and 20 cm (equivalent to 15-20%) below that expected from a hardwood stand on the same site. Monthly streamflow values over the course of a year are particularly inter- esting because they show that between June and October the monthly stream- flow is less than 1.5 cm below the expected value, whereas in November, December, April and May streamflow is over 2.0 cm below expected. Thus the additional losses of water from a coni- fer stand take place mainly in winter and spring; the possibility of this being the case had 'already been postulated by Penman (in Forest Hydrology, edit. by W. E. Sopper and H. W. Lull, Per- gamon Press, Oxford, 373; 1967) on the basis of very little observational evi- dence. The difference is likely to be caused by both the increased interception and the higher transpiration rates in the conifers in winter and spring. The leaf area index of hardwoods in winter is low ( Tm. Now Tm F(f,t)v(r)dt, 0 so at frequencies (2n/rm< 1), is also frequency independent and represents a white spectrum. This is also true for . Hence, for a sequence of pulses with a distribution of time constants, A(f) is white at low enough frequencies so long as there is no coupling among the para- meters of a single pulse. A similar conclusion obtains for the factor P(f) which incorporates the effect on the power spectrum of deviations from a 'Poisson sequence. II Fig. 3 Pulse sequence parameters. We have co kv = f ?(9)exp(2:rcif(P) d9. 0 Physically there exists a maximum Cp, say 9,? beyond which ?(9) is arbitrarily small. Hence, for low enough frequencies, (2rcf9?,< 1), kit is frequency independent and, therefore, so is Re (kv/(1?y)). We therefore have a theorem which says that the power spectrum of any pulse sequence, Poisson or non-Poisson, even with a distribution of pulse time constants, is white at low enough frequencies provided that there is no coupling among the parameters of a single pulse. There are at least two immediate and useful consequences. First, if there is not too much overlap between pulses, simple visual inspection of the sequence will permit estimates of Tm and 9. This in turn allows an approximate determination of the low frequency bandwidths over which A(f) and P(f) respectively are white. Hence, under these conditions, visual inspection can tell us whether deviations from a white spectrum are due to A(f) or P(f) over a particular bandwidth. This is particularly easy to do in those cases where (pm > Tm. Secondly, if one should find that at low frequencies (27cf < the smaller of Tm' or (pm-1) the spectrum is not white, then the implication is that coupling must exist among the parameters of a single pulse. The first consequence permits direct comparison between the experimentally determined form of the power spectrum and the theoretical frequency range over which A( f) and P(J) should be white. Since one now knows over what bandwidth the form of the spectrum is due to the shape of the individual pulses, we have a direct way of determining if the sequence is non-Poisson (via P(f)). The second allows one to deduce that functional relations (for example,9 =-- (constant)-c or h = constant/(p) exist between the pulse parameters. We note for example that (I) ? (constanOt is a kind of inhibition where the presence of a pulse with a long time constant tends to delay the appearance of a next pulse while h = constant/9 is a kind of facilitation where a large pulse tends to encourage the appearance of the sub- sequent pulse. Detailed analysis of the low frequency deviations from a white spectrum will make it possible, in some cases, to select the precise form of the pulse coupling and thereby give further insight into the physical origins of the noise. If the hourglass flow is examined at different angles with respect to the vertical, the formation of unstable vaults can easily be seen. Clearly, the formation of unstable vaults of different lifetimes generates the clustering effects (Fig. 1) in the flow. In an extensive study (published in Dutch) Pesch14 investigated the flow of particles from bin openings. A key parameter is the ratio of the opening to the grain diameter. In an hourglass the ratio threshold, 4, is exceeded. Only unstable vaults occur in normal use and their lifetimes have an upper limit. Hence, the distribution of the intervals between successive particles flowing through a plane must have an upper time limit. In the case of the flow of steel grit through a pore, in our experiments, for example, no intervals longer than 200 ms were found during a period of 10 min with a mean flow of 1,250 grains s -1 through the laser beam (0.2 mm diameter). Generally, the individual pulse time constants were considerably less than 20 ms. According to the theorem developed earlier in the paper, the low frequency spectrum should be white for frequencies below about 1/0.2 = 5 Hz as has been found (Fig. 2). The l/f portion of the spectrum is due to the non-Poisson character (clustering) of the individual particles. At higher Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Natat, Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 601 Compl frequencies a change from l/f to some other spectrum is pre- dicted due to pulse shape, time constant and photocell response. This occurs, as expected, at frequencies 100 Hz. It is tempting to conjecture that in some systems of molecular dimensions with barriers, particles and pores analogous situa- tions might prevail. Molecular size vaults might be formed and thermal motion function as the agent for the introduction of the instabilities. These systems would exhibit power spectra with strong low frequency contributions (perhaps 1/f in form) but, yet, at the very lowest frequencies their spectra would always turn white. K. L. SCHICK* A. A. VERVEEN Department of Physiology, University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands Received August 24, 1973. *Present address: Department of Physics, Union College, Schenec- tady, New York 12308. Verveen, A. A., and Derksen, H. S., Proc. Instn elect. Engrs, 56, 906 (1968). 2, Siebenga, E., and Meyer, A. W. A., Pflugers Arch., 343, 165 (1973). 3 Siebenga, E., and Verveen, A. A., Proc. first Europe. Biophys. Congs., 5, 219 (1971). Peschl, I. A. S. Z., thesis, Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven (1969). 5 Flinn, I., Nature, 219, 1356 (1968). 6 McWhorther, A. L., Semiconductor Surface Physics, 207 (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1956). 7 Schick, K. L., Acta biotheoretica (in the press). 8 Heiden, C., Phys. Rev., 188, 319 (1969). 9 Rice, S. 0., Bell Syst. tech. J., 23 and 24, 1 (1944). Second Law of Thermodynamics IT is widely realised that there is no single and uniquely cor- rect statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics but rather that there exist a number of different and mutually compatible, correct statements' (Everett' mentions "two or three dozen") each of which illuminates a different facet of what H. A. Bent (private communication) has called the "Second Law type of behaviour observed in nature". There is no brief statement from which " . . . all of the thermodynamic relationships . . ."3 can be deduced without further knowledge. In considering a particular problem one particular statement is generally more apposite than another, and for those who are concerned with the mechanisms that produce work, a statement of the Law that stresses the significance of work has distinct advantages. One such statement of mine' has been criticised by Legon3. Un- fortunately the revised article containing the basis for some of my statements has only recently appeared' though it was submitted long before the other'. This paper' should have forestalled many of Legon's objections. For example, its first page deals with the question of "maximum work" and its equations (5) to (7) and (9) to (13) deal with equi- libria and with entropy creation respectively. Legon's objections are numerous and diverse but I will try to deal systematically with them, as summarised in his last paragraph. Lack of originality. I had not seen the passage quoted from Butler' (page 32) when I wrote my paper'. Legon writes of my statement: "All it says is that something that is happening" (that is, that can proceed spontaneously) "can be made to do useful work". Exactly so?it is very simple. Taken with its corollary, that unless a proposed change can be made to do useful work it cannot happen spontaneously, the statement specifies conditions both neces- sary and sufficient for predicting which Changes can happen spontaneously and which cannot. There is no logical neces- sity to add any statement about "maximum work". Readers of my two articles" can surely be in little doubt that I understand at least as well as does Legon the fundamental conclusion of Carnot7 that to every specified change (isothermal or not) there must correspond a certain definite maximum output of work when going in one direction and an equally definite minimum input of work when going in the opposite one: these transfers of work would be realised under reversible conditions; they may or may not be equal depending on the particular system under consideration. I made no claim that my statement of the Second Law sums up the whole of thermodynamics in one sentence: neither for that matter does Legon's italicised quotation from Planck' (page 103) do so. It is necessary to know more of the subject in order to comprehend either state- ment, and the two can then be seen as not contradictory, but complementary. To understand the `work' view of the subject in relation to the 'entropy' view of it, one must understand the fact (explicitly stated in refs 4 and 5) that in order to obtain work from a spontaneous process a machine of appropriate de- sign must be introduced, in imagination at least, into the situation. This machine constrains the process in such a way that it can occur only if at the same time work is delivered; the machine must also contain a device (for example, a weight) for storing this work since many types of system are not, in themselves, capable of storing work. All machines consist of several phases and possess geometri- cal features, and far from being a mere artifice, the nature of such machines and their limitations are the main topics of interest that thermodynamics has had to offer to many scientists, from the Carnots onwards. As Joule' (who was interested in muscles as well as in galvanic cells and heat Table 1 Range of spontaneous processes ? Completely irreversible Completely reversible Resulting change in Universe Maximum entropy creation Zero entropy creation Zero increase in stored work Max. increase in stored work Max. inc. in thermal energy Min. inc. in thermal energy engines) wrote in 1853: "Perhaps the most important appli- cations of dynamical theory are those which refer to the production of motive power from chemical and other actions." The matter could not be more succinctly ex- pressed. Failure to apply to isolated systems. I did not in fact claim' that the same equation relating work to entropy creation applied to isolated systems, merely that the "argu- ment can be easily extended" to them, by imagining a machine to be introduced into the system itself. This basic idea is far from novel". A simple example that illustrates the point well is provided by an isolated system in two parts that are initially at different temperatures. Heat is allowed to flow either by ordinary conduction or through a heat engine. For a given change of state' it is found that the entropy created AScr is always a single-valued function of the work wasted. If one part of the system (e) is much larger than the other, the equations approach as a limit the simple form given in my paper (ref. 5, equation (10)) : AScr= [wasted work] IT, Legon's preoccupation with semantics has led him to make heavy weather out of a simple situation. Work can certainly be stored in an isolated system?by lifting a weight within the system or, in various other ways. Revealingly enough, the one form of energy that cannot be used for this purpose is the very one suggested by Legon, that is, thermal energy. The fundamental distinction be- tween thermal energy (for definition, see ref. 12, page 1.1) and other types of energy is absolutely basic. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 602 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Legon poses, as a challenge, the problem of obtaining work from the mixing of two ideal gases in an isolated system of constant total volume. It is elementary that if the mixture is allowed to form by merely withdrawing a partition between the gases we have a good example of a completely irreversible process with maximal entropy creation (+11.53 J if we started with 1 mol of each at 300 K) and no performance or storage of work. On the other hand, by introducing into the system a suitable machine, the uniform mixture could be allowed to form in such a way that a weight within the system was raised. (The machine described by Planck (ref. 8, page 219) may be readily adapted for this purpose.) At the end of the latter mixing process the isolated system would accordingly contain more mechanical energy than it did at the begin- ning. From the First Law it follows that the system must necessarily contain less thermal energy; that is, its tempera- ture must have fallen. In the limit, where the mixing was reversible, the maximum possible work would have been performed and transferred to the weight (2,769 J if the gases were monatomic) and the temperature would have fallen to 189 K. In this reversible case the change in entropy arising from mixing (+11.53 J K-1) is exactly counterbalanced ?by that attributable to cooling (-11.53 J K-'): no entropy is created. At this point it might be objected that the change in the gases is not exactly the same as if they had mixed irreversibly, because their thermal energy and temperature have decreased. This is a simple consequence of the First Law which applies equally no matter whether one is considering an isolated system, a non-isolated one or the whole Universe. If a change is conducted in such a way that a weight is lifted then all the other bodies involved cannot possibly end up in the same state as if the weight had not been lifted. Failure to apply to nonisothermal systems. Legon ex- presses doubts about the validity of the equation for entropy creation (refs 3 and 4) save for "the trivial case for which the temperature Te of the environment is equal to the temperature T of the system throughout the process'''. On what grounds are these doubts based? Legon does not discuss, let alone dismiss, any of the sources quoted in my article'. Other relevant sources which should be considered are Keenan, and Hatsopoulos" and the classic accounts by Maxwell" and by Gouy". Legon's quotation from Planck (ref. 8, page 104) con- cerning "dissipated energy" deserves close consideration. It seems to state that the maximum work is a definite quantity only for isothermal processes. If true this would directly contradict the views of Thomson" (later Lord Kelvin) "On a universal tendency in Nature to the dissi- pation of mechanical energy". On pages 113-117 of ref. 8, however, Planck discusses his own statement (ref. 8, page 104) and we see that there is in fact no contradiction. What Planck demonstrates is that although the change in Helm- holtz free energy, ?dA = ?d(U?TS), measures mi.. under isothermal conditions, it cannot? conveniently be used to determine w..x under nonisothermal conditions because the term S dT that then appears is frequently indeterminate. The same point has already been made in a footnote by Gouy (ref. 15, page 506) who had also gien the correct equation for determining wn,ax under nonisothermal con- ditions. Accordingly I find no substance in Legon's objec- tions under this heading. If it is thought that there is conflict between the 'work' view of thermodynamics and the 'entropy' view it is high time that the idea was abandoned. The two views are different, but syinmetrical, aspects of the same reality. Spontaneous processes of all kinds fall somewhere within the pattern shown in Table 1, their position depending on the efficiency of the machinery used for the extraction of work. D. R. WILKIE Department of Physiology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Received December 3, 1973; revised June 4, 1974. ? Bridgman, P. W., The Nature of Thermodynamics, 116 (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1943). ? Everett, D. H.' Chemical Thermodynamics, 216 (Longman, London, 1971). ? Legon, A. C., Nature, 244, 431 (1973). ^ Wilkie, D. R., Nature, 242, 606 (1973). ? Wilkie, D. R., Nature, 245, 457 (1973). ? Butler, J. A. V., Chemical Thermodynamics, fourth ed. (Macmillan, 1955). ? Carnot, S., Reflections on the motive power of fire (1824), translation (Dover, New York, 1960). ? Planck, M., Treatise on Thermodynamics, third ed., trans. from seventh German ed., 1922 (Dover, New York, 1958). 9 Joule, J. P., Phil. Mag., Series 4, 5, 1 (1853). " Maxwell, J. C., Theory of Heat, fifth ed., chapter XII (Long- mans Green, London, 1877). " Thomson, W., Phil. Mag., Series 4, 5, 102 (1853). " Guggenheim, E. A., Thermodynamics, third ed. (North Hol- land, Amsterdam, 1957). " Keenan, J. H., and Hatsopoulos, G. N., Principles of General Thermodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1965). " Gouy, M., J. de Phys., 2' serie, t.VIII (Novembre 1889). 15 Thomson, W., Phil. Mag., Series 4, 4, 304 (1852); corrections in ibid, 5, viii. Information transmission under conditions of sensory. shielding WE present results of experiments suggesting the existence of one or more perceptual modalities through which individuals obtain information about their environment, although this information is not presented to any known sense. The litera- ture1-3 and our observations lead us to conclude that such abilities can be studied under laboratory conditions. We have investigated the ability of certain people to describe graphical material or remote scenes shielded against ordinary perception. In addition, we performed pilot studies to determine if electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings might indicate perception of remote happenings even in the absence of correct overt responses. We concentrated on what we consider to be our primary responsibility?to resolve under conditions as unambiguous as possible the basic issue of whether a certain class of para- normal perception phenomena exists. So we conducted our experiments with sufficient control, utilising visual, acoustic and electrical shielding, to ensure that all conventional paths of sensory input were blocked. At all times we took measures to prevent sensory leakage and to prevent deception, whether intentional or unintentional. Our goal is not just to catalogue interesting events, but to uncover patterns of cause-effect relationships that lend them- selves to analysis and hypothesis in the forms with which we are familiar in scientific study. The results presented here constitute a first step towards that goal; we have established under known conditions a data base from which, departures as a function of physical and psychological variables can be studied in future work. REMOTE PERCEPTION OF GRAPHIC MATERIAL First, we conducted experiments with Mr Uri Geller in which we examined his ability, while located in an electrically shielded room, to reproduce target pictures drawn by experi- menters located at remote locations. Second, we conducted double-blind experiments with Mr Pat Price, in which we measured his ability to describe remote outdoor scenes many miles from his physical location. Finally, we conducted pre- Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Natui,Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 603 liminary tests using EEGs, in which subjects were asked to perceive whether a remote light was flashing, and to determine whether a subject could perceive the presence of the light, even if only at a noncognitive level of awareness. In preliminary testing Geller apparently demonstrated an ability, to reproduce simple pictures (line drawings) which had been drawn and placed in opaque sealed envelopes which he was not permitted to handle. But since each of the targets was known to at least one experimenter in the room with Geller, it was not possible on the basis of the preliminary testing to discriminate between Geller's direct perception of envelope contents and perception through some mechanism involving the experimenters, whether paranormal or subliminal. So we examined the phenomenon under conditions designed to eliminate all conventional information channels, overt or subliminal. Geller was separated from both the target material and anyone knowledgeable of the material, as in the experiments of ref. 4. In the first part of the study a series of 13 separate drawing experiments were carried out over 7 days. No experiments are deleted from the results presented here. At the beginning of the experiment either Geller or the experimenters entered a shielded room so that from that time forward Geller was at all times visually, acoustically and electrically shielded from personnel and material at the target location. Only following Geller's isolation from the experi- menters was a target chosen and drawn, a procedure designed to eliminate pre-experiment cueing. Furthermore, to eliminate the possibility of pre-experiment target forcing, Geller was kept ignorant as to the identity of the person selecting the target and as to the method of target selection. This was accomplished by the use of three different techniques: (1) pseudo-random technique of opening a dictionary arbitrarily and choosing the first word that could be drawn (Experiments 1-4); (2) targets, blind to experimenters and subject, prepared independently by TARGET RESPONSE 1 RESPONSE 2 a SRI scientists outside the experimental group (following Geller's isolation) and provided to the experimenters during the course of the experiment (Experiments 5-7, 11-13); and (3) arbitrary selection from a target pool decided upon in advance of daily experimentation and designed to provide data concern- ing information content for use in testing specific hypotheses (Experiments 8-10). Geller's task was to reproduce with pen on paper the line drawing generated at the target location. Following a period of effort ranging from a few minutes to half an hour, Geller either passed (when he did not feel con- fident) or indicated he was ready to submit a drawing to the experimenters, in which case the drawing was collected before Geller was permitted to see the target. To prevent sensory cueing of the target information, Experiments 1 through 10 were carried out using a shielded room in SRI's facility for EEG research. The acoustic and visual isolation is provided by a double-walled steel room, locked by means of an inner and outer door, each of which is secured with a refrigerator-type locking mechanism. Following target selection when Geller was inside the room, a one-way audio monitor, operating only from the inside to the outside, was activated to monitor Geller during his efforts. The target picture was never discussed by the experimenters after the picture was drawn and brought near the shielded room. In our detailed examination of the shielded room and the protocol used in these experiments, no sensory leakage has been found. The conditions and results for the 10 experiments carried out in the shielded room are displayed in Table 1 and Fig. 1. All experiments except 4 and 5, were conducted with Geller inside the shielded room. ? In Experiments 4 and 5, the procedure was reversed. For those experiments in which Geller was inside the shielded room, the target location was in an adjacent room at a distance of about 4 m, except for Experiments 3 and 8, in which the target locations were, respec- tively, an office at a distance of 475 m and a room at a distance of about 7 m. A response was obtained in all experiments except Numbers 5-7. In Experiment 5, the person-to-person link was eliminated by arranging for a scientist outside the usual experimental group to draw a picture, lock it in the shielded room before Geller's arrival at SRI, and leave the area. Geller was then led TARGET RESPONSE RESPONSE 2 RESPONSE URI cE.U.s.-..A2, -* TARGET Fig. 1 Target pictures and responses drawn by Uri Geller under shielded conditions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 604 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 _ Table 1 Remote perception of graphic material Experiment Date Geller Location Target Location Target Figure (month, day, year) 1 8/4/73 Shielded room 1* Adjacent room (4.1 m)1- Firecracker la 2 8/4/73 Shielded room 1 Adjacent room (4.1 m) Grapes lb 3 8/5/73 Shielded room 1 Office (475 m) Devil lc 4 8/5/73 Room adjacent to shielded room 1 Shielded room 1 (3.2 m) Solar system ld 5 8/6/73 Room adjacent to shielded room 1 Shielded room 1 (3.2m) Rabbit No drawing 6 8/7/73 Shielded room I Adjacent room (4.1 m) Tree ? No drawing 7 8 8/7/73 8/8/73 Shielded room 1 Shielded room 1 Adjacent room (4.1 m) Remote room (6.75 m) Envelope Camel No drawing le 9 8/a/73 Shielded room 1 Adjacent room (4.1 m) Bridge if 10 8/8/73 Shielded room 1 Adjacent room (4.1- m) Seagull .1g 11 8/9/73 Shielded room 2$ Computer (54 m) Kite (computer CRT) 2a 12 8/10/73 Shielded room 2 Computer (54 m) Church (computer memory) 2b 13 8/10/73 Shielded room 2 Computer (54 m) Arrow through heart 2c (computer CRT, zero intensity) *EEG Facility shielded room (see text). 1-Perceiver-target distances measured in metres. /SRI Radio Systems Laboratory shielded room (see text). by the experimenters to the shielded room and asked to draw the picture located inside the room. He said that he got no clear impression and therefore did not submit a drawing. The elimina- tion of the person-to-person link was examined further in the second series of experiments with this subject. Experiments 6 and 7 were carried out while we attempted to record Geller's EEG during his efforts to perceive the target pictures. The target pictures were, respectively, a tree and an envelope. He found it difficult to hold adequately still for good EEG records, said that he experienced difficulty in getting impressions of the targets and again submitted no drawings. Experiments 11 through 13 were carried out in SRI's Engin- eering Building, to make use of the computer facilities available there. For these experimenters, Geller was secured in a double- walled, copper-screen Faraday cage 54 m down the hall and around the corner from the computer room. The Faraday cage provides 120 dB?attenuation for plane wave radio frequency radiation over a range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz. For magnetic fields the attenuation is 68 dB at 15 kHz and decreases to 3 dB at 60 Hz. Following Geller's isolation, the targets for these experiments were chosen by computer laboratory personnel not otherwise associated with either the experiment or Geller, and the experimenters and subject were kept blind as to the contents of the target pool. For Experiment 11, a picture of a kite was drawn on the face of a cathode ray tube display screen, driven by the computer's graphics program. For Experiment 12, a picture of a church was drawn and stored in the memory of the computer. In Experiment 13, the target drawing, an arrow through a heart (Fig. 2c), was drawn on the face of the cathode ray tube and then the display intensity was turned off so that no picture was visible. To obtain an independent evaluation of the correlation be- tween target and response data, the experimenters submitted the data for judging on a 'blind' basis by two SRI scientists who were not otherwise associated with the research. For the 10 cases in which Geller provided a response, the judges were asked to match the response data with the corresponding target data (without replacement). In those cases in which Geller made more than one drawing as his response to the target, all the drawings were combined as a set for judging. The two judges each matched the target data to the response data with no error. For either judge such a correspondence has an a priori probability, under the null hypothesis of no in- formation channel, of P = (10!)-1 = 3x 10-7. A second series of experiments was carried out to determine whether direct perception of envelope contents was possible without some person knowing of the target picture. One hundred target pictures of everyday objects were drawn by an SRI artist and sealed by other SRI personnel in double envelopes containing black cardboard. The hundred targets were divided randomly into groups of 20 for use in each of the three days' experiments. On each of the three days of these experiments, Geller passed. That is, he declined to associate any envelope with a drawing that he made, expressing dissatisfaction with the existence of such a large target pool. On each day he made approximately 12 recognisable drawings, which he felt were associated with the entire target pool of 100. On each of the three days, two of his drawings could reasonably be associated with two of the 20 daily targets. On the third day, two of his drawings were very close replications of two of that day's target pictUres. The drawings resulting from this experiment do not depart signific- antly from what would be expected by chance. In a simpler experiment Geller was successful in obtaining information under conditions in which no persons were know- ledgeable of the target. A double-blind experiment was per- formed in which a single 3/4 inch die was placed in a 3 x 4 x 5 inch steel box. The box was then vigorously shaken by one of the experimenters and placed on the table, a technique found in control runs to produce a distribution of die faces differing non- significantly from chance. The orientation of the die within the box was unknown to the experimenters at that time. Geller would then write down which die face was uppermost. The target, pool was known, but the targets were individually pre- pared in a manner blind to all persons involved in the experi- ment. This experiment was performed ten times, with Geller passing twice and giving a response eight times. In the eight times in which he gave a response, he was correct each time. The distribution of responses consisted of three 2s, one 4, two 5s, and two 6s. The probability of this occurring by chance is approximately one in 106. In certain situations significant information transmission can take place under shielded conditions. Factors which appear to be important and therefore candidates for future investigation include whether the subject knows the set of targets in the target pool, the actual number of targets in the target pool at any given time, and whether the target is known by any of the experimenters. It has been widely reported that Geller has demonstrated the ability to bend metal by paranormal means. Although metal bending by Geller has been observed in our laboratory, we have not been able to combine such observations with adequately controlled experiments to obtain data sufficient to support the paranormal hypothesis. REMOTE VIEWING OF NATURAL TARGETS A study by Osis' led us to determine whether a subject could describe randomly chosen geographical sites located several miles from the subject's position and demarcated by some Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Natut Declassified and Approved \-1 appropriate means (remote viewing). This experiment carried out with Price, a former California poliee commissioner and city councilman, consisted of a series Of double-blind, demon- stration-of-ability tests involving local targets in the San Francisco Bay area which could be documented by several inde- pendent judges. We planned the experiment considering that natural geographical places Or man-made sites that have existed for a long time are more potent targets for .paranormal perception experiments than are artificial targets prepared in the laboratory. This is based on subject opinions that the use of artificial targets involves a `trivialisation of the ability' as com- pared with natural pre-existing targets. In each of nine experiments involving Price as subject and SRI exPeriMenters as a target demarcation team, a remote location was chosen in a double-blind protocol. Priee, who remained at SRI, was asked tb describe this remote location, as well as whatever activities might be going on there. Several descriptions yielded significantly correct data per- taining to and descriptive of the target location. In the experiments a set of twelve target locations clearly differentiated from each other and Within .30 mm driving time from SRI had been chosen from a target-rich environment (more than 100 targets of the type used in the experimental series) prior to the experimental series by an individual in SRI manage- ment, the director of the Information Science and Engineering Division, not otherwise associated with the experiment. Both For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 605 the experimenters and tk?siubject were kept blind as to the contents of the target pool, which were used without replace- ment. An experimenter was closeted with Price at SRI to. wait 30 min to begin the narrative description of the remote location. The SRI locations from which the subject viewed the rerrible locations con- sisted of an outdoor park (Experiments 1, 2); the double-walled copper-screen Faraday cage discussed earlier (Experiments 3, 4, and 6-9), and an Office (Experiment 5).-A second experimenter would then obtain a target location from the Division DirectOr from a set of travelling orders previciuSly Prepared and randomised by the Direct& and kept under his control. The , target demarcation team (two to four SRI experimenters) then Proceeded directly .to the target by automobile without communicating with the Subject or experimenter remaining behind. Since the experimenter remaining with the subject at SRI was in ignorance both as to the particular target and as to the target pool, he was free to question Price to clarify his descrip- tions.. The demarcation team then remained at the target site for 30 min after the 30 tnffi allotted for travel. During the observation period, the remote-viewing subject would describe his inipTessioris of the target site into a tape recorder. A coinpariSon was then made when the demarcation team returned.. Price's ability to .describe correctly buildings, docks, roads, gardens and so on, including structural materials; colour, ambience and activity, sometimes in great detail, indicated the functioning of a remote perceptual ability. But the descriptions contained inaccuracies as well as correct statements. To obtain a numerical evaluation of the accuracy of the remote viewing experiment, the experimental results were subjected to inde- pendent judging on a blind basis by five SRI scientists who were RESPONSE a RESPONSE 1 RESPONSE 2 TARGET Fig. 2 Computer drawings and responses drawn by Uri Geller. a, Computer drawing stored on video display b, computer drawing stored in computer memory only; c, computer drawing stored on video display with zero intensity. Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 606 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 3 1974 Table 2 Distribution of correct selections by judges A, B, C, D, and E in remote viewing experiments Descriptions chosen by judges 1 2 3 Places visited by judges 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hoover Tower 1 ABCDE Baylands Nature Preserve 2 ABC Radio Telescope 3 ACD BE Redwood City Marina 4 CD ABDE Bridge Toll Plaza 5 ABD DCE Drive-In Theatre 6 A Arts and Crafts Garden Plaza 7 ABCE Church 8 AB Rinconada Park 9 CE AB Of the 45 selections (5 judges, 9 choices), 24 were correct. Bold type indicates the description chosen most often for each place visited. Correct choices lie on the main diagonal. The number of correct matches by Judges A through E is 7, 6, 5, 3, and 3, respectively. The expected number of correct matches from the five judges was five; in the experiment 24 such matches were obtained. The a priori probability of such an occurrence by chance, conservatively assuming assignment without replacement on the part of the judges, is P = 8.10-10. not otherwise associated with the research. The judges were asked to match the? nine locations, which they independently visited, against the typed manuscripts of the tape-recorded nar- ratives of the remote viewer. The transcripts were unlabelled and presented in random order. The judges were asked to find a narrative which they would consider the best match for each of the places they visited. A given narrative could be assigned to more than one target location. A correct match requires that the transcript of a given date be associated with the target of that date. Table 2 shows the distribution of the judges' choices. Among all possible analyses, the most conservative is a per- mutation analysis of the plurality vote of the judges' selections assuming assignment without replacement, an approach inde- pendent of the number of judges. By plurality vote, six of the nine descriptions and locations were correctly matched. Under the null hypothesis (no remote viewing and a random selection of descriptions without replacement), this outcome has an a priori probability of P = 5.6 x 10-4, since, among all possible permutations of the integers one through nine, the probability of six or more being in their natural position in the list has that value. Therefore, although Price's descriptions contain in- accuracies, the descriptions are sufficiently accurate to permit the judges to differentiate among the various targets to the degree indicated. EEG EXPERIMENTS An experiment was undertaken to determine whether a physiological measure such as EEG activity could be used as an indicator of information transmission between an isolated subject and a remote stimulus. We hypothesised that perception could be indicated by such a measure even in the absence of verbal or other overt indicators.8.7. It was assumed that the application of remote stimuli would result in responses similar to those obtained under conditions of direct stimulation. For example, when normal subjects are stimulated with a flashing light, their EEG typically shows a decrease in the amplitude of the resting rhythm and a driving of the brain waves at the frequency of the flashes8. We hypothe- sised that if we stimulated one subject in this manner (a sender), the EEG of another subject in a remote room with no flash present (a receiver), might show changes in alpha (9-11 Hz) activity, and possibly EEG driving similar to that of the sender. We informed our subject that at certain times a light was to be flashed in a sender's eyes in a distant room, and if the subject perceived that event, consciously or unconsciously, it might be evident from changes in his EEG output. The receiver was seated in the visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded double-walled steel room previously described. The sender was seated in a room about 7 m from the receiver. To find subjects who were responsive to such a remote stimulus, we initially worked with four female and two male volunteer subjects, all of whom believed that success in the experimental situation might be possible. These were designated 'receivers'. The senders were either other subjects or the experimenters. We decided beforehand to run one or two sessions of 36 trials each with each subject in this selection procedure, and to do a more extensive study with any subject whose results were positive. A Grass PS-2 photostimulator placed about 1 m in front of the sender was used to present flash trains of 10 s duration. The receiver's EEG activity from the occipital region (0z), referenced to linked mastoids, was amplified with a Grass 5P-1 preamplifier and associated driver amplifier with a bandpass of 1-120 Hz. The EEG data were recorded on magnetic tape with an Ampex SP 300 recorder. On each trial, a tone burst of fixed frequency was presented to both sender and receiver and was followed in one second by either a 10 s train of flashes or a null flash interval presented to the sender. Thirty- six such trials were given in an experimental session, consisting of 12 null trials-no flashes following the tone-12 trials of flashes at 6 f.p.s. and 12 trials of flashes at 16 f.p.s., all randomly intermixed, deter- mined by entries. from a table of random numbers. Each of the trials generated an 11-s EEG epoch. The last 4 s of the epoch was selected for analysis to minimise the desynchronising action of the warning cue. This 4-s segment was subjected to Fourier analysis on a L1NC 8 computer. Spectrum analyses gave no evidence of EEG driving in any receiver, although in control runs the receivers did exhibit driving when physically stimulated with the flashes. But of the six subjects studied initially, one subject (H. H.) showed a consistent alpha blocking effect. We therefore undertook further study with this subject. Data from seven sets of 36 trials each were collected from this subject on three separate days. This comprises all the data collected to date with this subject under the test conditions described above. The alpha band was identified from average spectra, then scores of average power and peak power were obtained from individual trials and subjected to statistical analysis. Of our six subjects, H. H. had by far the most monochromatic EEG spectrum. Figure 3 shows an overlay of the three averaged spectra from one of this subject's 36-trial runs, displaying changes in her alpha activity for the three stimulus conditions. Mean values for the average power and peak power for each Table 3 EEG data for H.H. showing average power and peak power in the 9-11 Hz band, as a function of flash frequency and sender Flash Frequency Sender 0 6 16 Average Power 0 6 16 Peak Power J.L. 94.8 84.1 76.8 357.7 329.2 289.6 R.T. 41.3 45.5 37.0 160.7 161.0 125.0 No sender (subject informed) 25.1 35.7 28.2 87.5 95.7 81.7 J.L. 54.2 55.3 44.8 191.4 170.5 149.3 J.L. 56.8 50.9 32.8 240.6 178.0 104.6 R.T. 39.8 24.9 30.3 145.2 74.2 122.1 No sender (subject not informed) 86.0 53.0 52.1 318.1 180.6 202.3 Averages 56.8 49.9 43.1 214.5 169.8 153.5 -12% -24 %(P < 0.04) -21 % -28 %(P < 0.03) Each entry is an average over 12 trials Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 Vatur Declassified and Approved For Release 201 of the seven experimental setsie give*.trrable 3. The power measures were less in the 16 f.p.s. case than in the 0 f.p.s. in all seven peak power measures and in six out of seven average power measures. Note also the reduced effect in the case in which the subject was informed that no sender was present (Run 3). It seems that overall alpha production was reduced for this run in conjunction with the subject's expressed appre- hension about conducting the experiment without a sender. This is in contrast to the case (Run 7) in which the subject was not informed. Siegel's two-tailed t approximation to the nonparametric randomi- sation test9 was applied to the data from all sets, which included two sessions in which the sender was removed. Average power on trials associated with the occurrence of 16 f.p.s. was significantly less than when there were no flashes (t = 2.09, d.f. = 118, P -o ?;"' -5 a. 2 a. 300- 100 P>0.15 Cont. 2 393 329 280 616 Imm. 382 241 333 313 263 P< 0.01 mm. Com. 79 64 82 13 174 381 361 425 353 339 P < 0.01 Cont. 33 90 32 23 130 I m m. 225 139 287 217 211 a Chymo- Zymosan trypsin Activator Pset domonas Pen ginosa Fig. 1 Activation of prophenoloxidase in control (Cont) and immune (Imm) plasmas by various materials. The values indicated by the bars are the average amounts of pro- phenoloxidase found in five different determinations. A determination used 0.20 ml of plasma from a different pool of control or immune haemolymph mixed with 0.01 ml of activator solution or suspension, incubated for 5 min at 30? C, then assayed for phenoloxidase. (See text for assay technique.) Results for individual determinations are listed within each bar. With no activator materials present?water controls?the phenoloxidase activities of plasmas ranged from zero to two units; these values have been subtracted. Statistical comparisons are between control and immune plasmas. a-Chymotrypsin (Nutritional Biochemicals Corp., three times crystalline) 6 mg water. Zymosan" (General Biochemicals) 1 mg water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa P11-112 was grown in nutrient . broth +1% glucose and collected at 24 h by centrifugation, 8,000g for 15 min. Cells were washed with 0.85% NaCI, then brought to /1550 = 1.1, a concentration of about 5 x 10? bacteria per ml and frozen. The cell suspension was thawed, resuspended in water and refrozen. It was rethawed and heated at 100? C for 30 min. After cooling, 0.10 ml aliquots were used to activate pro- phenoloxidase. None of these activator materials had inherent phenoloxidase activity. amount of haemolymph and to facilitate handling, pooled haemolymph was quick frozen with acetone-dry ice, lyophi- lised and stored at ?20? C. Haemolymph from control larvae was collected and stored in an identical manner. My preliminary experiments and those of Evans" have shown that haemolymph phenoloxidase occurs as the proenzyme in plasma and can be activated by material from haemocytes. To test for other types of activation, lyophilised haemolymph was reconstituted with distilled water to a concentration of 10 mg solids per ml. This was 1/17 to 1/18 the usual concentration of solids in fresh haemolymph, and its purpose was to slow spontaneous activation of prophenoloxidase by haemocytes, so that plasma could be collected before activation. The plasma and cellular fractions were separated by centrifuging whole reconstituted haemolymphs at 650g for 15 min at 4? C. The supernatant fluids?the plasmas?were removed and used immediately. When water was added to the haemo- cytes in the lyophilised material no lysis was observed microscopically. Also, haemocyte concentrations were cal- culated, with correction factors for dilutions, to be 18,590 mm-3 for immune and 40,040 mm' for control reconstituted haemolymph, slightly higher than those reported by Stephens" for immune and control fresh haemolymph. These observations tend to preclude massive haemolysis during handling although the release of some haemocyte materials into the plasmas was possible. Phenoloxridase activity was measured by spectrophoto- metric determinations of initial reaction rates with a Gilford recording spectrophotometer. For a standard assay, 0.30 ml of test material was mixed with 4.7 ml of 0.1 M KP042-, pH 6.4, containing 20 Amol of 4-methylcatechol and 40 Amol of 4-hydroxyproline ethyl ester. 4-Methylcatechol was enzymatically oxidised to its quinone. The quinone reacted nonenzymatically with 4-hydroxyproline ethyl ester to form a stable product, 4-(4'-hydroxy-2'-carbethoxy-l'-pyrrolidy1)- 5-methyl-o-benzoquinone, with, a X. at 520 urn (ref. 7). In the system used, with excess substrates, 4A520 was directly proportional to enzymatic activity. One phenoloxi- dase unit was defined as AA520= +0.001 per min at 30? C; ?the maximum rate observed during the first 2 min after the initiation of the reaction was used. By measuring the phenoloxidase activity of plasmas incubated with and with- out activator materials, prophenoloxidase activation was quantitated. Immune plasmas showed significantly more prophenoloxi- dase activation than control plasmas when both were in- cubated with either zymosan (a yeast polysaccharide)" or a preparation of damaged Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Fig. 1). After treatment with a chymotrypsin (EC both control and immune plasmas showed a high degree of Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 612 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010001-4 1974 prophenoloxidase . activation, siiThtgr to that in immune plasmas treated with the mierobial products. The activator(s), assOciated with zymosan and P? aeru- ginosa did not have esterase activity towards benzoyl-L- tyrosine ethyl ester when tested 'at pH 6.0 (the pH of the plasmas) or at pH 7.8. The activator(S) in zymosan suspen- sions was associated not only with particles; but also with the particle-free solution'. It ,(they) passed through a 0.22- urn filter, but not through a . dialysis membrane. The zymosan activator(s) was Stable at 100? C for 3 h, but after 3 h in 0.2 M H2SO4 at 100? C and then neutralisation with Ba(OH)2 it was not found when assayed: Activation asso- ciated with P. aeruginosa was not Manifest unless the cells were damaged by physical means or by .pretreatment with egg white lysozyme (EC .3.2.147.) (Fig. , 2). Egg,. white lysozyme does not lyse Or kill P. aeruginosa, but alters its Cell Wall". - Immune Plasma was fractionated with (NH4)2SO4 (Table 1). The material, precipitated with 40% saturation (fraction A). contained most of .the prophenoloxidase. The 'material still in solution after 60% saturation(fractiOn B) had Most of the lysozyme activity. Prophenoloxidase in fraction 4 was activated by a chymotrypsin, but not by zymosan alone; however, the prophenoloxidase in fraction 'A ,could be, activated by zymosan if fraction B was also added. If egg white lysozyme Was substituted for fraction B., activa- tion did not occur. The K,s of phenoloxidase activated by zythosan and a chymotrypsin for 4-rriethylcatechol were similar, 1.20 and 1.07 mM respectively. -Figure 3 shows that when prophenoloxidase was diluted before activation 400 300- d . 0 '00- '10,) -0 100- o 2 8 6 23 16 ? 10 P