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July 13, 1973
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 ; ? (Menlo Pat's. Cal.; Novenih,ir .. ? pared for the t7 a of Scienea ;mu nology, W...shingion. D.C., ..11111 6. 2. Ainericuit Societv of lteatia 2, .tet,a-..ratir ; ? 9,i ??? 's (New yoik. P;72i, p. 3. Quantaties expressed as British thermal 110)3 per thousand cubtc. feet---degdee 0,1 repre amf the heating require.ments of a buildiag rela- tive to its size an:I the severity of the climate in uhich it serves. Conversion factors are: from British thermal units to joules, 1055; cubic feet to cubic meters, 2.93 x 10-2. 4. J. C. Moyers, 77:-.? Pubic of nernzii :Iva in Residential Constructic,n: and Conservatiol. of Energy (1).:1.; Z',Za- tivn.11 Laboratory. Report CE,N1.-NSF-ET-9, Oak Ridzo, Tenn., December 1971), p. 29. 5. American Society of Heating, Rdfrigeration, and Air-ConditioMag, Engineers liandt,th4; of Fundanien:als (New York, 1072), pp. 351.- 393. 6. , ibid., p. 421; National Association of Home Builders Research Foundation, In- sida:ion .'.fanual (Rockville, Mil., :971). 7. 11. C. Hottel and T. 13. Howard, :sic,' Energy T,'eb, 'fury-Stare loris anc1 A sscrstne+114 (1\1.1.r. Press, Cambridge, Mass.; 1971). S. Even in lorge power plants each heat is lost. In a typical modern power plant rip- proNimately tv.o-thiriis of the leating value of the fuel eonsnined must be rcjected to . ?2'.ef 1.,:? at is not cf the second it of A uf tins herr could be put ? ,i?e processimi, water purification, ? . air , fur ? i)ep iit :eat of Commorce, The Ene,%gy An (Washington, 13.C., April . . ). L. J. Lazaiidis, Nat. Gas Li press. t. -Practical .Metins of Cor.serv- flie :mil Industrial Market'. (University l'ittdburgh Sdhool ut Er.,2,1miering Library, Piti.burgh, 1971); D. P. Gregory, it Tecimn- f ".?" 2.11'1,71.11- fo ' r css tj I. a. j. -a ai vr-5 D., 1..1. .1 ? . , ? ? ? ; ?. ? f'wi of Enliir ? ? , CLicago, 1971); ? he [won! of Industrial Te,..iulalogy, Chicago, U. 1\.? bnprorin,,,, tile Utilization of ( Steel Mill Applications ,?, Tcchnolot:y, ('hica;;o, 1'172). .,?, imended la imply here that quality ?. :ince is iot considered in acquisi- t. ?, 0. i,..lustrial equipment, but rather that of aa, ices which yield the same product, he c. taper will tend to be preferred, irrespec- t:ve oi energy consumption. Those industrial :tar:mating systems in which energy require- meat'. :ice carried as overhead appear to this tendency. 14. fl a. Department of Housing and Urban De- velopment, International 1)rief, January 1971. IS. National Mineral World Insulation Associa- tion, Impact of Improved Thermal Perform- ance in Conserving Energy (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., April 1972), p. 35. 16. A topning cycle is an additional power gen- crater plant which receives heat at the temperature of combustioo, and rejects heat at ti,d maximum temperatura required by the main plant. ['lie topping cycle utilizes ,,,troerntztre drop between the combustion the bottec 0/ tile plant, to gen- erate power. 17. In 11Hilltirr1C power generation, it would be pussible to reject heat at subatmospheric temi:,ratttres, through radiative techniques, and iTus avert local thermal overloading of lc. t.. core, 13. C. Cadolt, T. 1,;,1,1,13, retothility Study of Total Sites Bureau of Standards Report to 402, Washing:on, D.C., August 1971), 19. K. t.3::;, Institute for Energy Conversion, Univecsd; of Delaware., personal communica- tion 20. Fey, :mail :mils can justify spending more than 3 cents per kilowatt hour for mainte- ? nance; few egn be maintained for less. 21. IL lia; !the-L.. O. A. Lat.inie., D. K. Edwards, SaLii 1,;:e2-,es 1, S,Jiar Energy Sc!. Eng. 13, 193 (,-.);?.). 22. ?If. C. liottel ;Ind A. \I/hillier, "Evaluation of ,.? I-7.71 "r ? ...A. a Y.c, g).1t- ft*.1 ptcli!i010 ::?om t'de but he I ,.s i .Jant from Liarvdrd the rrituce of From an eariy a,ze, say), be lit,; raciiit? for guass- ing cards. .Fri.nids arrawded ior him to giva a dei;-.-:,::ra:lon of card-guess- ber.)re thC. 1!..irvarci fazitity, .:-.)ritrols a small fund ear:la-ked tor rine.ircht on psychic Cie:lumen:). At t'de l'olindation for l'.i?-.cerch on the ?-:titure of Man, in rho :n, North Carolina, 1)e!rnore's carti-.ntessing powers are being aria- International Conference on the User of Solar Energy Proceedings (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1955); II. Tabor, Bull. Res. Cour,.'. Israel SC, No. 1 (1955). 23. Conunittee report, Solar Cells, Outlook for Improved ECiciency (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.. 1972), p. 3, 24. A. Whinier, "Sular house heatinc.,?-a pagel,.. Confinence U.,('S EntYKY (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 53) 25. R. A, . . Tybout and G. 0. G. Lot, Na;. Resourc. J. 10, 263 (1970). 26. In this comparison it is assumed that the consumer will own and maintain tho solar device, but such an arrangement may be neither necessary nor desirable. 27. It. C. Hottel, "Residential uses of solar energy," in International Conference on Uses of Solar Energy (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1955); G. Pheijcl and B. Lindstrom, New Sources of Energy, United Nations Conference, Rome, 21 to 31 August 1961, p. 207-223. 28. D. N. W. Chinnery, CS/2 (S. Air. Coune. (1967). 29. Res.) Res. Rep. No. 243, pp. 1-79 7) 29. S. J. Richards and D. N. W. Chinnery, ibid., 14o, 237, pp. 1-26 (1967). 30. The average cited here was obtained over a period during which cloudy and sunny wcatlicr obtained. 31. For example, in certain industrial areas local efforts to decrease air pollution started with conversion of both industrial domestic com- bustion equipment from coal and oil to gas, at this point. Ihe Sa;Tle attlt,Iment applies to domestic heating iiquipmant: 52. Such a giant 0 tI aiso ba ele to supply a large quantity of residual fuel oil to those installations capable of using it. However, for tuepurposas of c.,ziataun;; tile ,osts of sopplying energy for domestic consumption, I compare the cost of the plant to its ca- pacity to supply gas, which is its pridicipal function. 33. .The thermodynamic notion of quality (or more precisely, .availabiliLy) is a measure of the. extent to which the form of energy can be converted to work. 34. "Refuse-fueled power station," Technol. Rev,. May 1972, p. 62. ? ly7.ed switched to :lit year after get- thiL; d rrom Harvard in psycho.An as.iistant holds tip play- ing cards cil,:loscd hi black envelopes, bile1:),:!flore guesses at them, some.- ;hues t-)ne `2y one, sometimes for several cards in .tilvan,ee. With certair, guesses he is particularly confident or being correct, and says so before the card is tdken frctm its envelope. In an ex- periment :ecently reported by Kelly to the Ilarvdrd ps:,?chology faculty, Del- more made 20 such "confidence calls," 14 of which were correct. Asked how .he makes the guesses, Delmore says by hick. How does one make a lucky guess? "By forming a visual image and then rationalizing it. Like having an image of seeing a butterfly, and then seeing the butterfly." ? Parapsychology-the scientific study of telepathy, claikvoyance, and other manifestations of the inexplicable-is un(lerfroing a minirenaissance, although without any assurance that the rebirth will be reeo!mized Os legitimate by the at or scientific orthodoxy. The card-g?nessina experiments at Durham itlustrale both the hope and despair of the parapsychologists' predicament. Young s?,:ientists are still prepared to risi: their good name and fortune to work in the field, yet even when results arc produced by experimental design-3 that would-be accepted without demur in an ordinary science, the mainstream scientific community refuses to be im- pressed or even very interested. Rigor- Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 reas primi is one thing, proof he more my skepn- wt ms tounoation supports LIITCC full- appareotly absurd another. chi:a : .eitea away, Expeiiments of my time scientists. Helmut Schmidt, a Despite unrelenting, discouragedient own, cule*e.ting in the one on Apollo quantum physicist who used to work from their more orthodox colleagues, ;4, so fascinated me that I launched for Boeing, is interested in the ability f i and a lack of any very remarkable into it as a full-time study." of psychic subjects to prediet Ot n- breakthrough in their own field, the With a stall of nine, Mitchell's insti- fluence) the behavior of a random parapsychologists have nonetheless per- tute is enn.,ged in educational activities number generator. Walter 3. Levy, a severed. There. arc about a score of and in raising funds from public and psychologist, studied .ESP in ani- full-time researchers in the country, private sources for research in ESP.. mals, and B. K. Ktinthtunani, also a and many others who are involved Some 25 deserving projects have, been psychologist, has worked on the per- part time or intermittently. The Para- lined up. Mitchell himself is editing a sonality characteristics of gifted ESP psychological Association boasts more hook, Psychical Rsearch?A Challenge subjects. Rhine, although his work re- than 100 full members in this country to Science. Younger physicists, he he- mains mostly unacknowledged except and abroad. almost all of whom hold heves, are becoming interested in ESP by the converted, is beginning to re- a Ph.D. or master's degree in a scion- because of a prevailing disillusionment ceive recognition at least as an impor- title sobject. To talle with, parapsychol- with establishmeot paradigms. Study of tant figure in the history and social ogists are serious and sober men, not psychic phenomena is now moving into relations of 20th-century science. A oliviously different from other scien- a new phase of investigation, which, historian of science, Seymour Maus- fists except that their belief in extrasen- Mitchell opines, "has probably brought kopf, and a sociologist, -Barry Poss, sory perception (ESP) places them be- us to the verge of expanding our both of Duke University, are studying, yond the pale of ordioary scientific knowledge of science as dramatically respectively, the early history of Rhine's di:;r:oorse. as Einstein did." investigations and the effect on his leyisie a little too hopefully, para- Mitchell's institute, founded this group of being regarded as outsiders ptieltal[eists holieve that cracks are March, is the newest venture in para- by the scientific community.. to appear in the scientific psychology. The best known, to. which .Rhine's is not the only group Of ESP menumental indifference. the Post Othee delivers rnaii addressed researehers boasted b; the otherwise . iee.'o)logy itself has taken a new "ESP, USA," is the Foundation for unremarkable town of Durham. The years, breaking out of 'Research on the Nature of Man Psychical Research Foundation (PRF) ft;traditional card-guessing, statistic- (FRNN1). J. 13. Rhine. the grand old split off from the Rhine fold in 1960 -nrist.ina exercise into more adventur- man of parapsychology, set up the form- in order to pursue the question of at nnd provocative fields, such as the dation a few years before retiring from survival after death?an issue Rhine of ir,SP in animals and during the parapsychology laboratory at Duke does not consider amenable to scien- a7teoed states of consciousness. In .the University, Durham, in .1962. While at title study. The PRF supports a single ro. sr :le world, the zeitgeist, as parapsy- Duke, Rhine and his associates initiated full-time researcher, W. G. Roil, who ei.olt,gi,ts like to refer to it, has 'toyed the card-guessing experiments- which has carried out several investigations their favor. The values of the have formed the dominant trend in of poltergeists. Robert L. Morris, a iierculture have rendered outright psychical research until the last few psychologist who works part time at itility to parapsychology less fashion- years. The heyday of Rhine's career the foundation, has carried out studies en?. After many rebuffs, the parapsy- was in the 1930's when he established,, of psychical faculties in animals. recently ad- by methociologY his critics eventually The South is also home to the larg- ceased to deomte, statistical evaleaee in tor;tisfesthe A A As, lealth has recently awarded two grants for parapsychological research. Seme 75 educational institutions to-oof...!-n-olt the country offer courses on parapsychology, many of which are for crcdit. And a larger public became aware of the scientific pursuit of ESP ''len lunar module pilot Captain Edgar D. :;litcheli performed a card-guessing e. oerin.ent during the voyage of Apollo 11. There is a wide variety of approaches among the several parapsychological research groups. Since leaving NASA, Mitchell, for example, has set up the Institute of Noetic Sciences, to further studies of human consciousness, in- cluding Cie tietat for 11'. Mitchell started rending tiie paraps;a:hological journals and the works of people such as J. B. Rhine, one of the founders of modern parapsychology, and, he says, " found much to tny surprise that Clairvoyance (the extrasensory per- ception of events, for example, mind- reading), precognition (awareness of events before their actual occurrence), and psychokinesis (the iniluence of physical events by mental powers, such as determining the fall of a dice) are all phenomena that Rhine believes to he expi:-:riiec :tally established. . t SiO.:neeted Though said to have been a fighter in his younger days, he is now philo- sophical about what he considers the short shrift his subject has received at the hands of the orthodox scientific community. "Our ideas have not re- ceived fair treatment, but I never ex- pected them to, so I am not upset," Rhine remarks. "We have kept busy, we've been treated better than we thought we would be." Rhine is no longer active in research. e7,1.diOUr f ps1-1 cholOgy at the University of Viigieia, Charlottesville. Head of the division is - Ian Stevenson, a psychiatrist who has traveled around the world gathering case histories suggestive of reincarna- tion. Other members of the division include J. Gaither Pratt. a long-time colleague of Rhine's at Duke, and Rex Stanford, a psychologist who studies ESP in altered states of consciousness, such as when the brain is in the re- laxed state associated with production of alpha waves. Also at Virginia is Robert L. Van dc Castle, director of the dream laboratory, who has investi- gated ESP among primitive peoples such as the Cuna Indians of Panama. The oldest psychical research estab- lishment in tile country is the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPS) in New York City. Quartered in an elegant townhouse next to Central Park. the ASPR's mandate is the sci- 13 JUL Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 139 outtereeists, reinear- .4111k . Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 porni ex_ by bilot. tne society's - of activity independent periences. A new kind of psychical experiment that is somewhat more search. 7:::ceently he ser:. t\,,?c? on a round-the-world air trip in oreor ()id school parapsychologists like amenable to scientific study is the in- to explore the effect of distance on Ilhinc doubt the value of studying the vestigation of ESP during sleep, partic- ESP. Another project is the investig,a- more esoteric aspects of the occult, ularly the periods of dreaming marked likMAIWOW.1111.0,16.1,401WWW,....-mummullamm. Energy Policy, Phase H In an encore to his April energy message, President Nixon, on 29 June, let out the long-awaited details of his proposal to reshuffle the federal energy establishment. For good measure, he also suggested some ways the public and the govern- ment could reduce energy consumption (tum down thermostats 4 degrees, navel less, and slower) and he went F. uiF'vav toward meeting Democratic call for a 0. 0;1 or energy ? 10 yoros.N:xor; is 5-year efort; $130 million, brin9ing the I for the year to about Ta orcoed rco:?gcnizc.ilon,. de- 1.:;y lho White House as a re- .d and improved version of one that -Id it e last session of Congress, is:eel:etc.:: (Se:- 29 June)... But in one -novel twisi, ? White House appears to have 're- o_nted in form, if not in substance, ? : recently dismantled Office of Science Technology and the President's -co Advisory Committee. The names ' changed, and their missions are roar; but the functions of a new Terelidentic:1 Energy Policy Office and its R & D advisory committee (whose r:7 are yet to be copointed) seem much, 1110 same. Four no ./ eotities ?-.?:%-ie.roeci from the :----oogoo, the letter three: of which must A lso are coir- o-o.cke ;OW:: juHdiCii0111,11 o , Policy Office and its .?,ee replocii a 6-month- old pol;cy trio o.eirato of Henry Kissin- aer, Geeroe tihuhi, or.d the Water- Jolin A small staff reoiereieilezi "e? House energy counseler Dii).oria will be ex- pot Jul. The Poeident named John R?, governor of Colo- rado, cis diroctor of the new office. A Department of Energy and Nat- ural Resources (DENR) combines the existing Interior Department (minus its coal and other energy Re., D programs) with the Forest Service and parts of the Soil Conservation Service (both now in the Agriculture Department), with "planning and funding" elements of the Army Corps of Engineers, and with the interagency Water Resources Coun- cil. The National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration would be re- moved from the Commerce Department and linked with the Geological Survey in the DF.NR. 4) iei uerjylesearcil aria uevetop- n-ient ,,:`,.c.!:.Hri..:!rcnion would be com- posed of ho 2 & 0 side of the AtorAic ill;C1U3 AEC's regulatory functions, plus $100 million worth of R & D from the Interior Department. 0 A Nuclear Energy Commission woucl be made up of the licensing and regulatory side of the Atomic Energy Commission (which would, on paper, coc.i^ bo hcdcd by a-.five-n-le.mber . commission.. Dixy Lee 'Ray is 'rumored to be a leading contender to head the new R & D agency and Interior Secretary kogers C. 3.. 1.,'iorion is widely men- tioned as q candidate for Secretary of the DENR.---2.G. OST is Long Live STPO . The foil and declino of the Office ni Scicnr (OST) ended nO with ;he transfer of many cf 1)31's functions to the Na- tional Science Foundation (NSF). The surprise announcement of the Admin- istration's decision to abolish osi came early this year (Science, 2 February), but the office has continued to operate during a transition period. In recent months, however, OST has been per- ceptibly fading away, with a few staff members taking up duties in the suc- cessor unit in NSF and others retiring Russell C. Dre from federal service of taking other jobs inside or outside government. loforeizeion on what was to replace OST. has been lackingflout on 2 'July . ? . NSF -Director H. GUyford Stever, who cs responsible under the reorganization for advising the President on science and technology questions, unveiled his basic plan. Stever announced forma- tion of a Science and Technology Pol- icy Office (STPO) in NSF: and the ap- pointment of Russell C. Drew, a physi- cist with government experience, to head the new office. Drew served on the OST staff from 1966 to 1972 and cum2ntly heads the Office of Naval Research branch ()Moe in London. At 0:51 Drew dealt \?,itli a range of problems including air traffic control, space science and technology, biomec!ical R e, D related to aerospace cetivities, and telecommunications. Drew did his undergraduate work at the University of Colorado and earned his Ph.D. in physics From Duke in 1961. The news release accompanying his appointment to the STPO post notes that he had "experience in re-entry systems technology and nuclear weap- ons in connection with the Polaris pro- Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 "I- Ink ' " - Ililth sP"'"1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 1-tta tar o; conninunny mcLoo oo-on cents:: al Niaintonides Brooklyo and professor of psychiatry at the Sate University of New York. With colleal.tues at the Mairnonicles results are statistically sig- itificzult?lhhough they do not yet ap- pear to have been definitely corrobo- rated by other investigators. Last year gram" and was involved over a period of years with the civilian space grain. Stever is quoted as sayiro, "I am espociali! tobli pro- this means that no,v ian i forward rapidly to help acl,ance national goals in science and technology through those new functions assigned by the President. Dr. Do.2w's copertise and experience will be most helpful in this regard." tl!ic point the new office has a of three OST alumni as staff -co.! 'other appoiiltments ace o?,,i.ctoo! in the near future. The NSF lit, however, is to be consider- sinoller. in size than was OST 'he Last December OST about- d'.) pecp:e, ?.:11 rf? tHrn professionals. Afro7.7(ly en board and expected to C.;' !inuo to be active in the general -.otos tiny tended at OSI' are F. 0;1- RHIte, who dealt with natural re- problems, particularly with min- ( resources; Edward J. Euraer, Jr., (7 sc:k.;;;iisi we in health and environmental ct OST on loan from the Defense Da- oortmerit. At OST Lyon hondioci aero- recess matters and was increasingly tot-.nce,rned with advanced technology. i.yon has also been serving as c special assistant to Stever on administrative issues pertaining to the new office. Be- cause of a squeeze on office space at hoacicivarters, the STPO will, for 1.te bein,j, occupy office: in the it E'ocut1'' Office Puildincsnear the Mouse in which OST has been situated. The pattern at OST over the years has been of c staff composed of a small core of career government types with a larger number of specialists in various areas recruited from govern- ment u?.-.encies: ,':?:?,orsities, and industry who sloyocl for periods of a year to several years. The dean of the OST staff, David Z. Beckler, whose service in the White House science advisory apparatus antedated the creation of OST a decade ago, has retired from fedora! service. Fr'cnk R. Pagnotta, who was OST's administrative officer for. 7 years, moved to the Central telli- -ce itr,j.:tncy as an executive assistant in the office of the director, James R. Schle.singer. The OST staff member most directly involved in biomedical research ques- tions, Leonard Laster, has retired from federal service to become executive directbr of the National Academy of Sciences' new Assembly of Life Sci- ences. The job inorr.ct ''' a;uct or cotpeo- ence seems to have held up and, in addition to a few OST people who .returned to their own businesses or set up shop ,on their own, "everybody got goad j6L,," parently also applies to OST secre- taries, most of whom will be working in other federal agencies. Every3rhi: connected to the 0.',1?W NSF policy office stresses that a lot of de- tails remain to be worked out. On such issues as. what use will be. Mode of . outside adviseis io repiece nie dent's Science Advisory Committee, as one po, 1,, io; of thinking to Restored HP-V,I Funds May Be Buried by Regu)ation Congress is trying valiantly to re- sore fund; for some of the health programs :Ivit President Nixon wants to either because they are not working or because, as demon- stration projects, they have proved their worth and should be taken over by local or state governments. In a move to thrwart the Administration's intent to abolish the regional medical programs, the family planning and popuiatic.-m research program, the Hill- Burton program for hospital construc- tion, community health center pro- tit The NIMI-f seems to have given only one previous grant for psychical re- search, an award made in 1971 to Peter Phillips. a theoretical physicist at f?'") 0 I? ? fl ..std d grams, cod others, the House and Senate hove passed legislation that would extend these activities for 1 year. Subsequently, Nixon obligingly signed the bill into law, even though the $2.2 billion it would give the Depart- ment of Health,. Education, and Wel- fare (HEW) for. these activities was almost twice the amount the Adminis- tration had said it was willing to spend. In signing the law, Nixon is- sued a statement saying, "While the authorization levels are higher than 1 believe desirable, they will not damage our overall fiscal position if the Con- gress now follows my budget recom- mendations in the,s pro- cess." Another reason that these authori- ? zations will not damage "our overall fiscal position"- is that much of the Congress tries, but apparently the Ad- ministration tries harder. It promulgated a regulation in the 21 May Federal RegiJor that has received ::;tie atten- tion but that could do much to keep the - money Congress wants spent on these social programs .right in th.e federal trecosury. 1-;;;, that, in order to qualify to receive ?cis" must s!iow that 'nay con becoiro:t fl needy rouiHy- based operations. Unhappy with this turn of events, Representative Pau! G. Rogers (D?Fla.) points out that, because these programs are for the poor, it is unreasonable to assume that they might become self- sufficient. He maintains that the regula- tion will "doom all migrant health pro- grams, all neighborhood health centers, all family health centers, and about half of the community mental health centers." Rogers has written to HEW Secretary Caspar Weinberger suggest- ing that the department's action may be illegal unless it can show that Con- gress, in passing the legislation in the first place, intended that potential economic self-sufficiency be a criterion for funding the programs. He has rot yet received a reply.?B.J.C. 111??????????????=1?1101111111?????????????=401.11???????? 13 JULY 1973 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 141 Declassified and Approved the Washinir,ton UniversitySt. La who works part time o.; psychical research, used the NIMH grant in work with an ESP teaching machine, but got null results which he did not publish. Ho is now ins osti- a pho.noniclion kno,An as psy- chic photography (an apparent ability to influence photographic film by the power of the mind). By borrowing a mailing list from a man who runs a witchcraft school. Phillips has been able to locate six individuals who claim or appear to be able to imprint mental impressions on film. ? Another group of physicists inter- ested in psychic phenomena are Russell Tarz and Harold PutholT of the Stan- ford Research Institute. Both worked in plasma and laser physics before be, .comine, inlet-est:2d in psychic phenome- na. Lt.e many of the yours.; school of p:.irapsyehologists, they are InlifitC1"- .2.1 in ariiiit?ing trare statistical b?i?tie,,e that is For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 Nur choiogists. rhe Hodgson fund 1-la?-iard, for eYlrople, endowed for .-Lsea:ch on psychic phenomena, has been used periodically by members of the 1-arvard faculty to investigate mat- ters sii,21) as water divinirut and ESP. iJefore going to Delmore, the fund was most -,-ecently employed by an under- gra:Ma::::., physics major to construct a long-period, ultrasensitve ?pendulum, which be attempted to move by psy- choknesis. He, would look at the pen- dulum through a window, mentally pushing it one way for 30 seconds and then the other, for an hour at a time. For weeks the pendulum showed not a shadow of movement before giving what appeared to be the first positive results. "Ten days later," says Edwin B. Newman, a member of the Har- vard p.sychology facility, "the student graduated and went oft to theological school and we never saw him again." other aelniemie :\ret.i.T? t? tho about the process itself. At presenz aro, rcccn:.div such physic. instrit- ents ?:is a id en Not all rarhpsi-chblo,tt," is done bv st.Ifile,ecitl-yt interested in the t.' possibihi- an c::7cri.reiti.t "perfect textbook demonstration of the laws of eit,,.t.,ce-). The history of the field, he itt,clies, is characteriTed by 1 - rc .1 15 ? ?. D S JD ?;1 The Ifoi,se i em antious CO:11Miitee c: catch distress in the astronomy ,:tormutin]ty last voted to elimir,ate flO million that the tit,e 'Very Large: in 'Appi-orri:dions ihaf ,_:tni,...i.ruction begin. So the Hrnedi pro;,,-...cts of the new 'viii not he 1;nown until ii f c.tourierence rimi;:itc, the cli:.t.,tence. A 11ii?-e staff memi7et said that the has no intention of kill- nC explain. that "in cr !*),-):::-,d National Set- a this time." site in he for ... since ;964 on Aeademy of Sciences 5!2 r ,.); 11.N; fr,,,tittne of 'tech- 1 lie Vt A a, lop puinrify. cinpha'sis out limits rr,..1 hell on the nct`.d 101 the 11,.:V/ \?:.ttl?)Wd harriers on 1:ew line, of enquiry." ccil,ituRs the t.iritat ne..;.: equipment item in h;,?!:;,:i. The ,Vimthi,,tration requesktil $579 million in tmr MI:P 974; he Senate committee settled on S1;1 the Ifouse committee on 310 million less.?C.H. the elusive nature of the evidence: "Every time we get our hands on some- thing, it slips through our fingers like quicksilver." If academic psychologists used to be atheists in the matter of ESP, there are signs. that more are taking an agnostic view. But it is more their hostility than their skepticism that has diminished. Although the parapsychol- ogists have now amassed an impressive volume of apparently careful experi- mental literature?chiefly in the Jour- nal of Parapsychology and the Journal of the ASPR?critics charge that the published work represents an artifact, in as far as it tends to be only the successful experiments that get re- ported, while the presumably more nu- merous null results no unremarked. Parapsycholo.gists also suffer from the disadvantage or being enthusiasts; they are not neutral scientific obseriers in tii? sense :hat they arc tiireadly school thauL PSI' cal-ia. are siiti to satisfy the demand for a repeatable that_ ESP is en i,licrihiiieut and uncertain phe- nomenon that, by its very nature, cannot be produced on demand. "You have to prepare yourself for wortt in this field," admonishes Rhine. "You can't expect :results like setting out a rain gauge." This being the case, the road to belief in ESP is arduous. Helmut Schmidt of the FRNM, for example, says it would take 2 months in his lab- oratory for him to convince someone of the existence of ESP. - The. fai.:t. I:hat psycholog.ists are sonic- '?.vhiat more p'rreparai to give the para- psychologists a hearing says Much . about the ever-delicate relationship be- tween the two communities. By and large, psychologists do not read the parapsychological literature, and their impressions are mostly derived from the in-xis media. (One of the more c,,,i1V.iims of psychical re- scarehts is that rrt.,iiii.tream journals?Sc./citric included?will either not cisc thein space or demand un- reasonably high standards of proof.) re.tearch illrcctor of tire ASPR, hinds it -distressing that the changed attitude of the scientific community sceins to he ino,-e related to change in popul.tit interests than to reading our research reports." But one way or anoth,N-, the para- mchologists are breaking sonic ground. "The parapsychology group has not faded away, and I think they pectability npdassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6 , C:XeCtiliVc secrett,ry the last 9 years of the NIMH s.udy section that awarded till part his re- search grant. -They are perfectly well trained, respectable scientific investiga- tors. They are sincere and serious and they deserve a _chance." (Asked if there had been much debate in the NIM1 I. council about the Ullman grant, Lasky says theie had not, because the council had oIher, more controversial matters to deal with.) Surveys among the scientific com- munity hint at some of the complexity in the change of attitude toward psy- chic phenomena. Polls conducted among members of the American Psy- chological, Association. in 193'8 and 1952 indicated that the attitude toward the study of ESP had become signifi- cP-fly more favorable between the two dates. "1-1s same (i:; .s v.-as ie- omit out to its readers by New art scientific maga- te. cetorily?from 1500 readers. :.tt2s1. them scientists, and 29 percent l?tlither ,tlegrees?showed that a. ILC respondents believed -Pto he an established fact and ot,?,?Ctico- yercent considered it a ,dy Not so heartening for is that. Jess than a of the sample thought that they tacl:ling their problem in the ri-,tht way. More than half considered parapsychology was making lot Ic if any progress": as against v. hid.. only 4 percent view it as a -rsetidoscience" (New Scientist, 25 ,l!littary 1973). .-Vthot,?:11 progress is being, -77-D 4- ? ?? :1 ;-- -(. ?71 - ? 1:?'T stm lace one sanie set. .11 internal problems. Maybe 'ot.-:ca, or: tlte lack of any unifying theory about psychic phenomena, there seems to he little debate or even doc- trinal differences between the various centers. "You hesitate to say some- in this field," one's ideas are nonsense FeCil.:11:S one psychical researcher. An- other problem is money. There are numerous rich widows, prepared to support attempts to put them in touch with their late husbands, but parapsy- cholOgists cannot risk their credibility with the scientific community by ac- cepting this kind ?of money. In fact, they would have had trouble keeping their heads above water were it Oct for the success of the Xerox Corpora- tion. Chester E Carlson, the inventor of xerography. left some 2 percent of his estate for psychical research. The FRNM, the ASPR, and the University of Virginia are said to have received about S1 million each from the Carl- son bequest. Another important patron is the Chicago publisher and Nixon crony W. Clement Stone, who has settled some S200,000 on the FRNM and at one time was a regular visitor at the foundation's meetings. A less well- known benefactor of psychical research is James Kidd, an Arizona gold miner who disappeared from the world with- out a trace in 1946 but left a will (discovered 18 years later) which re- vealed an estate of .$270,000 and in- structions that the sum be spent on "research or some scienonic prod r of a soul of the himian body which leaves sts Seek t - ? 1.'D The effort by environmentalists to eliminate the 1:se of the chlorinated hydrocarbon n.',Iieldes seems to have settled H.-1 our of attrition in which clear-cut vi,:tOries are few and the frustrations many. The clearest vic- tory to date was the nearly total ban last year by the administrator of the 111.1l: Wail I VP, .4..tu the legacy to a local neurological institute. The decision was contested by the ASPR, which won its case last year after 6 years of litigation. The Kidd legacy was not only a windfall but proved the parapsychologists could at least convince .a court of the serious- ness of their intentions. And dead donors, be it said, do not give the same trouble as the living. One para- psychologist who has relied on private patrons for support describes his ex- perience. as -rather like working with Renaissance Popes?the level of in- telligence and corruption is about the same." "Among the scientific professions of the Western world," Rhine remarked in a lecture given in London in 1965, "there has grown up a conviction that the. universe, is physical, and that any- thing that does not fit the physical picture is unreal and should be ignored if it cannot be disproved. . . . The natural result is a silent boycott of any unassimilable claim that arises, and this is the real opposition para- psychology has now to encounter." Even a profession, however, can change its mind, sometimes overnight ?as witnessed by the medical profes- sion's sudden acceptance of acupunc.-- lure. The climate is-probably now more favorable than ever for parapsycholo- gists to break the boycott and secure a fairer hearing for their claims. But there is proostoly yet to go before parapsychology becomes assiiniiabie into scienee.?Nicitm.As \V.\ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) against use of DDT. Yet, al- though DDT has been the most widely and llcayily used of tile chlorinated hydrocarbons, several others remaining on the market all share, in varying degree, the same characteristics re- garded as undesirable and dangerous in DDT?persist-once and mobility in the environment, a tendency toward "bio- magnification" at higher levels of the food chain, and a broad, nonspecitic biocidal effect. The persistent pesticides still available for various specified uses include mirex, chlordane and hepta- chlor, and aldrin and dieldrin, these last two deemed by some to be an especial- ly serious threat because of their birth toxicity and pronounced tumorigenic effect on test animals. A current priority of the Environ- mental Defense Fund (FDF). the en- vironmental law group that has led the fight against persistent pesticides, is to bring about a ban of aldrin and diet- drin, which must be thought of together because aldrin converts to dieldrin in 13 JULY 1973 143 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010090-6