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Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Dec. 15, 1973 vol. 104, no. 24, 369-384 LE TA Li \VES .1-1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 I v INUN 17 1 J, v., $19.50. Comprehensive reference, reviews the historical development and all that has be- come known about the imprinting phenom- enon, explores future prospects and tech- niques in imprinting research. TEXTBOOKS booksOF THE WEEK Books of the Week is an editorial service for readers' information. To order any book listed, or any U.S. book in print, please remit retail price, plus 25f handling charge for each book to Book Order Service, Science News, 1719 N St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. All books sent postpaid. THE BRAIN REVOLUTION: The Frontiers of Mind Research-Marilyn Ferguson-Tap- linger, 1973, 380 p., $9.95. Presents for the general reader an overview of breakthroughs in research concerning altered states of con- sciousness, the brain, and scientific interest in psychic phenomena. CERAMIC FORMULAS: The Complete Compendium-John W. Conrad-Macmillan, 1973, 309 p., color chart, $10.95. Sourcebook for students and professional ceramists, a guide to clay, glaze, enamel, glass, and colors. THE CHESAPEAKE BAY IN MARYLAND: An Atlas of Natural Resources-Alice Jane Lippson, Ed.-Johns Hopkins, 1973, 111/2x 111/2, 64 p., illus. by editor, 26 maps, $8.95; paper, $3.95. Documents handsomely a tide- water region rich in oysters, clams and crabs. spawning grounds for valuable fish species, and home to wintering waterfowl. CONTENT AND CONTEXT: Essays on Col- lege Education-Carl Kaysen, Ed.-McGraw, 1973, 565 p., $12.95. Report prepared for The Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, traces the history of the undergraduate curric- ulum itself, and subjects some of the major divisions to careful scrutiny. CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS IN BIOIN- ORGANIC CHEM1STRY-Stephen J. Lip- pard, Ed.-Wiley, 1973, 454 p., diagrams, tables, $24.95. Covers in depth developments in metalloprotein redox reactions, chemis- try, alkali metal ion transport, and lanthanide ion NMR probes. THE ENVIRONMENTAL REVOLUTION- Richard S. Lewis, Ed.-Science & Public Af- fairs Bk, 1973, 164 p., illus., paper, $3.50. Collection of important articles that appeared in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists in the last four years. EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGY: The Politics of Collaboration-Roger Williams-Wiley, 1973, 214 p., $13. An assessment of the rea- sons behind the commitment to collaborate, the process of collaboration, its control and evaluation. THE FIRST CITIES-Dora Jane Hamblin and Editors of Time-Life Books-Time-Life, 1973, 160 p., color-plates, photographs, draw- ings, map, $7.95. Deals with the emergence of the earliest centers of civilization that flour- ished between 8000 to 1500 B.C. in the land mass between the eastern Mediterranean and India. THE GENETIC FIX-Amitai Etzioni-Mac- millan, 1973, 276 p., $7.95. Both scholarly and controversial, sociologist presents a time- ly examination of the broad implications and complexity of issues society must face as technological knowledge advances. GHAR PARAU-David Judson-Macmillan, 1973, 216 p., colorplates, photographs, maps, $10. Detailed account of a major cavers' ex- pedition in the deep limestone caverns of the Zagros mountains in Iran. HOW TO MAKE AND BREAK HABITS- Jhan Robbins and Dave Fisher-Wyden, 1973, 214 p., $5.95. Systematic attempt to show the reader how to go about applying behavior modification techniques to stop overeating, smoking and other undesirable habits. IMPRINTING: Early Experience and the De- velopmental Psycho-biology of Attachment- Eckhard H. Hess, foreword by Konrad Lo- iti. 1,111,1 1973, 24114,15., drawings, $7.95. Breezily written, very practical handyperson's guide for both sexes. INDUSTRIAL DISRUPTION-C. Northcote Parkinson, Ed.-Leviathan Hse (Hippo- crene), 1973, 181 p., illus. by Fran Woy, $9. Probes with a team of experts the question of why modern society is so frequently dis- rupted by industrial disputes. THE RUSSIAN SCIENTIST-Albert Parry- Macmillan, 1973, 196 p., photographs, map, $5.95. Examines the personalities and con- tributions of Russian scientists, from Lomon- osov in the 18th century, to Kapitsa and Sakharov. THE SCHOOL IN THE HOME: A Primer for Parents of Preschool Children Based on the Works of Dr. A. A. Berle, Sr.-Thomas W. Evans-Har-Row, 1973, 195 p., $6.95. Based on the premise that the home is the natural and best place for encouraging a happy intellectual curiosity, fed by questions and answers, the book describes one time- proven method and its application today. THE SCULPTURE OF LIFE-Ernest Borek -Columbia U Pr, 1973, 181 p., illus., $10; paper, $2.95. Precise in meaning, with style and wit, microbiologist tells in layman's terms about current developments in the exploration of cell growth and differentiation. THE SEVEN AGES OF MAN-Robert R. Sears and S. Shirley Feldman, Eds.-Wm. Kaufmann, 1973, 145 p., illus., $7.95; paper, $2.95. A readable survey of human biological and psychological development, originally pub- lished as a series in New Society. THE SOCIAL LIFE OF THE LION: A Study of the Behavior of Wild Lions (Pan- thera leo massaica [Newmann]) in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya-Judith A. Rudnai- Wash Sq E (Univ. Park), 1973 8x12, 120 p., photographs, diagrams, maps, $14.50. Field observations on ranges, activity patterns, in- dividual activity, social behavior, reproduction, and predation. THE SOLID-LIQUID INTERFACE-D. P. Woodrilff-Cambridge U Pr, 1973, 182 p., photographs, diagrams, tables, $10.95. Dis- cusses the state of our knowledge of the solid- melt interface, from basic physical processes underlying all melt growth techniques, to spe- cial problems of dendritic, eutectic and crystal growth. STONE: Properties, Durability in Man's En- vironment-E. M. Winkler-Springer-Verlag, 1973, 230 p., photographs, diagrams, tables, $33.70. Reference work appraises the stability and durability of stone, the weathering of monumental stone through moisture, salts and rust, fire resistance, frost action, and silicosis. Discusses stone preservatives. TO UNDERSTAND IS TO INVENT: The Future of Education-Jean Piaget-Grossman, 1973, 148 p., $7.50. Written for the general public, book explains the author's concepts of genetic psychology and the stages of learning through which each child must pass. WHO'S LISTENING? A Handbook of the Transactional Analysis of the Listening Activ- ity-Franklin H. Ernst Jr., M.D.-Addresso'set 1973, 3rd ed., 223 p., diagrams, $5.95. Synop- sis of TA and summary of the activity of lis- tening and hearing, followed by clinical ex- amples of TA applied in treatment. THE WORLD IN FIGURES-Victor Show- ers-Wiley-Interscience, 1973, 585 p., photo- graphs, tables, $14.95. A digest of up-to-date and comparable statistical information about 250 countries, 1600 cities, 2000 other geo- graphical and cultural features, completely cross-referenced and indexed. THE YOU DON'T NEED A MAN TO FIX IT BOOK: The Woman's Guide to Confident Home Repair-Jim Webb and Bart Housman, BIOLOGY-James D. Ebert, Ariel G. Loewy, Richard S. Miller and Howard A. Schneider- man-HR&W, 1973, 798 p., photographs, drawings, two-color diagrams, tables, $12.50. Outstanding text, for both student and lay- man, presents within a comprehensive frame- work, in depth and with accuracy, a full survey of the life sciences, together with ex- cellent visual material. THE ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR POWER- D. J. Bennet-Wiley, 1973, 220 p., diagrams, $15. Introductory text, deals with the prin- ciples of power generation from nuclear fission, discusses theory of nuclear reactors, heat transfer and fluid flow, thermodynamic aspects, and operating characteristics of nu- clear reactors. EXPLORING THE COSMOS-Louis Ber- man-Little, 1973, 478 p., photographs, drawings, diagrams, tables, $12.95. Intended to acquaint the general reader or liberal arts student with the role and relevance of astron- omy, the history of cosmology, celestial dadia- tion, earth, moon, solar system, sun, galaxies, stellar evolution, and space astronomy. FINDLAY'S PRACTICAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY-Revised and edited by B. P. Levitt-Halsted Pr, 1973, 9th ed., 442 p., photographs, diagrams, $11.75. Modernized throughout, with new chapter on electrical measurements and transducers; new experi- ments range from thermistor, and molecular spectroscopy to homogeneous catalysis, ? and rotational viscometer. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PLANTS: A Text-Manual-Joe H. Cherry-Columbia U Pr, 1973, 204 p., illus., $12. Designed to provide students with a wide range of pro- cedures in areas of research, from experi- ments on enzyme purification, mitochondria isolation, nucleotide identification, to protein synthesis, and bio-assay of plant hormones. THE PERIODIC TABLE: Experiment and Theory-J. S. F. Pode-Halsted Pr, 1973, 180 p., illus., paper, $3.75. Short text shows how Mendeleev's ideas correlate the diverse facts of chemistry, then shows how this framework can be accounted for in terms of modern ideas of structure and bonding. PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY-J. An- thony Deutsch and Diana Deutsch-Dorsey Pr, 1973, rev. ed., 732 p., illus., $15. Text organizes experimental findings around ques- tions which arise from the study of behavior, while theories are used to organize and sharpen the basic issues presented. PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS AND THEIR CELLS-James A. Goss-Pergamon, 1973; 457 p., photographs, diagrams, tables, $15. Introductory text, also useful as general ref- erence to the subject. PROBLEMS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol. 1-Harish D. Merchant, Ed.-Gordon & Breach, 1973, 476 p., diagrams, tables, $29.50. Advanced text, presents mathematical framework to enable the student to solve by himself the analytical problems and calcula- tions at the end of each chapter. PROBLEMS OF OUR PHYSICAL EN- VIRONMENT: Energy, Transportation, Pol- lution-Joseph Priest-A-W, 1973, 389 p., photographs, diagrams, tables, $10.95. In- tended to teach physical principles using the environment as motivation. VEGETATION OF THE EARTH in Rela- tion to Climate and the Eco-Physiological Conditions-Heinrich Walter, transl. from 2nd German ed. by Joy Wieser-Springer- Verlag, 1973, 237 p., photographs, diagrams, maps, paper, $5.90. Text gives an overview of the factors responsible in nature for pre- serving the physiological integrity of the plant world. An abridged form of the au- thor's original two-volume study (1964, 1948). 370 science news, vol. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: science news rrr' A Science Service Publication Vol. 104/Dec. 15, 1973/No. 24 Incorporating Science News Letter OF THE WEEK jupiter gets curioser and curioser 372 correcting deficient genetics 373 a ferromagnetic organic compound 373 science at the south pole 374 when the doctor should pull the plug 375 through space with mariner 375 RESEARCH NOTES aerospace science and society physical sciences behavioral sciences 379 379 380 380 ARTICLES meditating toward inner peace 376 city lights, astronomers' nights 381 DEPARTMENTS books letters 370 371 COVER: The growing popularity of meditation has prompted Western scientists to investigate the workings of this ancient Eastern tradition. The lotus position helps meditators sit perfectly still and breathe freely. See p. 378. (Photo: R. J. Trotter) Publisher E. G. Sherburne Jr. Editor Kendrick Frazier Senior Editor and Physical Sciences Dietrick E. Thomsen Senior Editor and Behavioral Sciences Robert J. Trotter Biological Sciences Joan Arehart-Treichel Science and Society John H. Douglas Space Sciences Jonathan Eberhart Writer/Copy Editor Lisa J. Shawver Assistant to the Editor Esther G ilgoff Production Manager Davide Daemon Books Margit Friedrich Circulation Manager Lawrence Cope Advertising Scherago Associates, Inc. 11 W. 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10036 Fred W. Dieffenbach Sales Director Copyright (L, 1973 by Science Service, Inc., 1719 N St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Republication of any portion of SCIENCE NEWS is strictly prohibited. Subscription Department 231 West Center Street Marion, Ohio 43302 Subscription rate: 1 yr., $10; 2 yrs., $18; 3 yrs., $25. (Add $2 a year for Canada and Mexico, $3 for all other countries.) Change of address: Four to six weeks' notice is required. Please state exactly how magazine is to be addressed. Include zip code. Printed in U.S.A. Second class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Established as Science News Letter in mimeograph form March 13, 1922. Title registered as trademark U.S. and Cana- dian Patent Offices. Published every Saturday by SCIENCE SER- VICE, Inc., 1719 N St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. (202-785-2255). Cable SCIENSERV. to the editor CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 ESP or magic Robert J. Trotter's article on ESP and ASC (SN: 11/10/73, P. 298) is a superb piece of reporting on the challenging new development in parapsychology at Maimo- nides Medical Center in Brooklyn. I espe- cially like the example of the writer (a senior editor himself) serving as a demon- stration subject; that would be hard to beat. Also the place and space you gave the article impress me greatly. May this fine piece help these men at Maimonides to support their promising but precarious program! J. B. Rhine, Ph.D. Durham, N.C. I was almost ashamed to find an article about ESP featured in your fine magazine. As an amateur magician with a fair back- ground in science I am disgusted. I ?know enough about this subject to know as "researchers" are being taken in. P. M. deLaubenfels Corvallis, Ore. Your article on ESP is most informative. It is my belief, however, that people are attracted to this science more by the wish it were true, rather than by convincing statistics. G. A. Baker Dept. of Psychiatry New Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto, Ontario In regard to the article on "ESP and ASC" by Robert Trotter, Charles Honor- ton states that "We will have to adopt the strategies of science rather than the men- tality of magicians," in relation to the study of "psychophysical problems." Being a young scientist and amateur magician, I must object to this statement. Profes- sional magicians make their living from their trade and know magic inside and out. Professional psychophysicists are in the same category, but one cannot do the work of another. A good sleight-of-hand man can fool anybody but another sleight- of-hand man. So, the mentality of a magi- cian is not something to be looked down upon since they may be the only people who can pick the psychic fraud from the genuine article and save the researchers much of their valuable time and money. Also, may I remind Trotter that he is a er and not a magician ana tneretore is in no position to judge whether Uri Geller has used magical means to accom- plish his feats. Steven Okulewicz Staten Island, N.Y. Science and technology Suggesting that the Opinion Research Corp. poll was flawed by leading ques- tions, Richard W. Lasher (SN: 10/6/73, p. 211) takes exception to the finding that ". . . the general public feels that science has changed the quality of life." Then, without citing chapter, verse, or other authority, reader Lasher decrees that . . . it is not the function of science to change the quality of life." Good Grief! Mr. Lasher would do well to buy some new glasses and some post-Renais- sance dictionaries. First, "science," as a held, is not once referred to in the poll: Every one of the five quetsions is phrased in terms of "Science and Technology" (emphasis mine). Your article reporting the poll (SN: 9/8/ 73, p. 151) clearly concerns science and technology, those three words appearing together ten times. The word "science" appears alone four times but, within the context, it is obviously interchangeably used with "science and technology." Only once, and quite incidentally, is there even a hinted differentiation ("opinion . . . de- pends on the particular field of science or technology . . ."). Second, "science," as the word is un- derstood and used today, most certainly affects the "quality of life." One need mention only the social sciences, political science, or (for heaven's sake!) even mil- itary science. Mr. Lasher may have in- tended to address himself to "pure" sci- ence (defined, not altogether facetiously, as study having no known application to society), but, even there, an attempt to argue that there is no effect on the qual- ity of life is folly, or, at best, an ex- ercise in pedantry. Yesterday's "pure" science is today's way of living: One can trace a direct path from the failure of Michelson and Morley's ether drift ex- periment to the atomic destruction of Hir- oshima. And who, watching a delayed telecast, in color, via satellite, would ar- gue that the semiconductor work of Bar- deen, Brattain and Shockley was not sci- entific, on the one hand, or that it had no effect on the quality of life, on the Other? Lawson E. Richtmyer Potomac, Md. SCIENCE SERVICE Institution for the Popularization of Science founded 1921; a nonprofit corporation Board of Trustees?Nominated by the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE: Athelstan Spilhaus, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Deborah Partridge Wolfe, Queens College of City University of New York; Bowen C. Dees, The Franklil Institute. Nominated by the NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: Frederick Seitz, Rockefeller University; Gerald F. Tape, Associated Universities; Allen V. Astin, National Academy of Sciences. Nominated by the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL: Glenn T. Seaborg (President), University of California, Berkeley; Gerald Holton, Harvard University; Joseph W. Berg Jr., National Research Council. Nominated by the JOURNALISTIC PROFESSION: 0. W. Riegel (Secretary), Washington and Lee University; Norman Cousins, "World"; Julius Duscha, Washington Journalism Center. Nominated by the E. W. SCRIPPS TRUST: John Troan, Pittsburgh Press; Milton Harris (Treas- urer), Washington, D.C.; Edward W. Scripps II (Vice President and Chairman of the Executive Committee), Edward W. Scripps Trust. Director: E. G. Sherburne Jr.; Assistant Director: Dorothy Schriver; Business Manager: Donad R. Harless; Things of Science: Ruby Yoshioka. december 15, 1973 371 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 science news- OF THE WEEK Digesting the data on Jupiter and its moons MAGNETOSPHERf Permanently cloaked in impenetrable clouds, Venus has a popular reputation as the solar system's planet of mystery. But for the teams of scientists now poring over data from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft's flight past Jupiter last week, the giant planet might well assume the title. Even a quick look at the incoming storehouse of information shows a truly alien world (SN: 12/8/73, p. 356). As the researchers begin their months of painstaking analysis, their early im- pressions are only confirmed. A heat map of the planet, compiled by the spacecraft's infrared radiometer and impossible to make from earth, verified what is still one of Jupiter's most conspicuous curiosities: that it gives off about two and a half times as much heat as it gets from the sun. Despite the planet's frigid temperatures, says infrared experimenter Guido Munch Of California Institute of Tech- nology, if the sun were somehow cut off it would take a week to lose all the heat trapped in the dense atmosphere. The controversial giant red spot, Jupiter's most prominently visible fea- ture, is still an enigma, but Pioneer- 10 has provided more food for thought, thanks largely to remarkable images provided by the photopolarimeter of Tom Gehrels of the University of Ari- zona as well as to the temperature mapping. The spot, says Munch, may well turn out to be a free-floating vor- tex born in some Hadean thermal dis- turbance below. Future investigators may discover that it looks like a giant tower of russet cloud, reaching, says Gehrels, perhaps five kilometers above the rest of the cloud tops. Laborious, computer-assisted efforts by Arizona's William Swindell to refine the pictures may, in fact, reveal that Pioneer man- aged to record a special prize: an im- age made at such a low sunlight angle that the red spot is casting a long 372 AXIS OF ROTATION MAGNETOPAUSE PIONEER 10 TRAJECTORY NASA A thick-centered disc of dense, energetic particles rings Van Allen's Jupiter. shadow, which could reveal the height of its bulge. So great are Jupiter's at- mospheric pressure and gravity, and so low its temperature, according to Munch, that such atmospheric "cells," if such they are, probably take hun- dreds of years to ? rise to the cloudy summit. Ultraviolet measurements from Pi- oneer, again impossible through the blanket of earth's atmosphere, confirm that primeval hydrogen is still in Jupi- ter's atmosphere, glowing, as expected, about 100 times more brightly than the helium that is also present. The relative amounts of the two gases, however, must be determined from months of detailed computer study by Darrell Judge of the University of Southern California, who also hopes to compare his results with current estimates 'Of the gases' relative abundances in the uni- verse. The vast magnetic and particle fields surrounding Jupiter' are as confusing as the planet itself. An early consensuS seems' to he that the magnetic field bulges out into what Pioneer project scientist John H. Wolfe of A SA de- scribes as a "soggy doughnut," almost 10 million miles in diameter. The great- est concentrations of the energetic pro- tons and electrons trapped by the field are in a sort of disc that is thicker the nearer it is to the planet's surface, says James A. Van Allen of the University of Iowa, finally expanding to follow the strong inner part of the magnetic lines of force. In this inner section, adds John A. Simpson of the University of Chicago, the particles are strongly bound to the 'field lines; it is the weaker grip of the outer field that may be letting them break loose, perhaps ac- counting for ?some of the turbulence recorded by Pioneer's instruments on the edge of Jupiter's influence. Jupiter was not the spacecraft's only target, however. Four of its dozen moons also received their first close scrutiny: ? lo, nearest to the planet, is also so dense, says John Anderson of Jet Propulsion Laboratory, that it is "far out of line" with the rest of ?Jupiter's satellites. It may have condensed in an anomalously heavy part of the gaseous cloud ,that formed the solar system or, suggests Andersen, it may even' have been born elsewhere and -captured by Jupiter's gravitational field (possibly from among the inner planets since its density resembles that of Mars). More important, however, was the discovery that Io has an atmosphere of sorts. It is so rarified, theorizes Arvydas* Kliore of JP L, that it may be an on-again off- again feature composed of surface par- ticles that only occasionally get warm enough to evaporate; another possibility is that it is the remainder of an ancient, thicker atmosphere which got so cold in eons past that most of it simply snowed out. ? Europa, second of the four moons discovered by Galileo, was the only one to show an appreciable "sweepiiig" effect in clearing the energetic protons and electrons from part of Pioneer's path,. perhaps because the spacecraft passed closest behind Europa's wake. The effect seemed to occur at all energy levels, at least for the electrons, al- though its effectiveness in helping pi- oneer survive is not yet known. Europa was also found to be slightly 'denser than earth-based predictions suggested ?3.07 grams per cubic centimeter, compared to about 3.00. ? Ganymede was just the opposite- 1.93 instead of an expected 2.03?a difference Of about a tenth the mass of earth's moon, yet . . . ? Callisto, like Europa, turned out to be denser than anticipated-1.65 grams per cubic centimeter versus 1.3. And still the decision awaits for Pioneer 11": will it go to Saturn? El science news, vcil. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approv Genetic repair in Mainrnak ? In the l0?0's Henry Harris of OX- ford University came up with an elabo- rate scheme for fusiiig different kinds of cells cOnsisted of putting a. particular virus with a particular en- zyine on its,. surface in the presence of two kinds Of dells to be fused. The viral enzyme fused the two kinds of cells so that the hybrid Cell contained the genetic material and the cytoplasmic material from both. Using this technique, a, team of re- searchers at Duke University Medical Center, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and the Natibnal Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has managed to correct genetically deficient cells in tissue culture, then return the corrected cells to living mammal, where they function normally. This is the first time that such an achievement has been made. It offers a potential course for correcting a number of human genetic abnormalities. The researchers are Nelson L. Levy and Ralph Synderman of Duke Uni- versity, Roger L. Ladda of Walter Reed and Rose Lieberman of the NIAID. They report .their findings in the latest PRO- CEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. They corrected a genetic deficiency in a strain of mice that does not make one kind of protein. .The pro- tein is the fifth in a series of .11 pro- teins known as "complement." Com- plement proteins provide the punch behind antibody reactions. When an antibody recognizes a foreign Cell it ac- tivates the first protein in the comple- ment serf& That protein activates the next proteill in the series, and so oh. A protein toward the end of the series destroys the foreign bell. To correct the ?nonproduCtiori of the fifth complement protein in the Mice, the investigators had to first determine which cells, in mice usually make. the protein. They took variotis cells ffem normal mice, cultured the cells, then assayed them to see which made the protein. It turned out to be macro- phages from the spleen. They then took spleenic Macrophages from the intiFe deficient in the protein and showed that the .macrOPhages were indeed not able to make the protein. The macrophages, then, were the genetically deficient (protein deficient) cells to deal with. They set about trying to correet the deficiency in. the macrophhges. Using Harris's cell-fusion technique, they fused kidney cells from normal,, mice with the protein-deficient maerophages. The kidney cells did riot make the pro- tein tWat the macrophages laeked, but they did 'have the chromosome that makes the proteih. So when the kidney december 15, 1473 ed cells fused with the macrophages, cyto- plasmic influences in the deficient mac- rophages were able to turn on the usually silent chromosome from the kidney cells. Once the chromosOme was activated, the hybrid cells started making the protein that the macro- phages lacked. The team took the hybrid cells, now making the desired protein, and in- jected them into mice lacking the pro- tein. The mice continued to make the protein, and it had all the right proper- ties,. including complement activity. The technique that Harris devised and that the researcher's have elabo- rated "is a potential way to correct human genetic abnormalities?" Levy told SCIENCE NEWS. "It could be ac- complished in the same way that we did in the mouse, except that in man We would have a problem that we did not have in the mouse, on one hand, and we would lack a problem that we did have in the mouse, On the other." The problem they didn't have was rejection by the mice that received the hybrid cells. The reason that the mice did not consider the hybrid cells for- eign is that the kidney cells iricorpo rated into the hybrid cells came from mice closely related to the recipient mice. If cells from two persons were For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 and then injected into one of persons, the recipient would prob- ably reject the hybrid cells as foreign. This is because the two individuals are not related. There is a way around the problem, though. "What you do," Levy says, "is select out populations of cells that are normal, because they make the right protein, but are com- patible with the person to whorn you want to give them back." When asked whether such selection would be pos- sible, Levy replied, "Oh yes. In fact, experiments like these have been re- ported from several laboratories." The advantage Levy said they would have over their mice experiments is that most human genetic deficiencies (protein deficiencies) are partial rather than absolute. Because the complement protein was new to the recipient mice, they made antibodies against it. But if a protein that an individual is par- tially deficient in is injected into him, he would probably not make antibodies to it because his body is used to it. A number of protein-deficiency con- ditions might be corrected by their technique, Levy believes?hemophilia, immunoglobulin diseases, enzyme de- ficiencies. Ladda and some investiga- tors at Duke University hope to use the technique to correct some of them. An organic free-radical ferromagnet Ferromagnetism is a condition, in which all of the elemental microscopic magnets in a sample of a given sub stance line up in the same direction so that there is a large overall field in the substance. Ferromagnetism is the basis of permanent large-scale mag- nets. As its name, which contains the Latin word for. iron, indicates, it, is found mainly in certain metals and minerals. A long-standing ambition. of physi- cists and chemists has been the dis- covery of a Artie organic ferromagnet. Up to now they have found some cases in which the elemental Magnets of a substance may line up in pairs or in a one-dimensional line, but a stibstance with the true three-dimensional,, long- range order of true ferromagnetism has eluded them. Now it appears that such a truly ferromagnetic organic sub- stance has been found. The report is - by M. Saint-Paul and Cl. Veyret of the organic physical chemistry labora- tory of the Center for Nutlear Studies at Grenoble, France. The substance involved is the crystal of the suberate of bi (2;2,6,6-tetra- methyl-4-piperidino1-1 -oxyl). In metal- lic or mineral ferromagnetism the ele- mental magnets that have to be lined up are either atoms or ions; in the organic case the elemental magnets are free radical, molecules with an odd number of electrons. The substance in question contains the nitroxide group, a particular combination of carbon nitrogen and oxygen that lends great stability to molecules that contain it. A whole chemistry of such substances has been developed over the last 15 years, but their physical properties are just beginning to be studied: It appears that the process that causes the ele- mental magnets to line up may proceed by a direct relation. between the ni- troxide groups rather than by various intermediaries as occurs in other cases. Calculating the mathematical relation involved will give specialists in theo- retical chemistry a fine problem to Work Out, remarks LA RECHERCHE. The Curie point for this suberate, the temperature below which ferip- niagrietism appears spontaneously, is no more than 0.38 degrees K.,. about a third of a degree above absolute zero. Therefore as LA RECHERCHE re- marks, it is hardly a suitable substance for making permanent magnets. How- ever the lowness of the Curie point is something of a benefit to pure scien- tists studying ferromagnetism since at that level many activities of the crystal that affect magnetism are suppressed so that the study of pure magnetism is facilitated. 373 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Science at the bottom of the world Science News Editor Kendrick Frazier is on a report- ing trip to Antarctica. These are some of his preliminary impressions after two days there, which included a visit to the South Pole. The story was filed from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, headquarters of the U.S. scientific re- search efiort on the continent. He will report on several of the science programs in detail after his return. this is the busy season at McMurdo. It is the Antarctic surnmer, a time of continuous daylight, and scientists pass through almost daily on their way to and from outpost stations or temporary field research sites. The main, and virtually only, activity in Antarctica is scientific research. Sixty-five projects involving 175 U.S. scientists are under way during the 1973-74 summer. They range from studies of how a protein in fish living in Antarctic waters keeps them from freezing to observations of trace elements and possible global air pollutants at the South Pole, from penguin biology to historical glaciology, from drilling into the continent to triggering electron showers in the at- mosphere. They are being performed not just to better understand Antarctica but also to learn how it affects the global en- vironment and to make special use of the continent's unique capabilities as a natural scientific laboratory. The National Science Foundation funds the U.S. Antarctic Research Program. McMurdo, the main U.S. station in support of such efforts, is a strange mixture of mundane civilization and raw and beautiful nature. Looking out from any promon- tory, one can see in the foreground power lines, water pipes, muddy roadways, dirt-covered piles of snow, and a trash dump. But to the west, across miles of glistening sea ice, looms a range of majestic mountains, cold, lonely and formidable, part of the Transantarctic Mountain Range that traverses a large portion of the continent. Beyond them begin the vast expanses of the Antarctic ice cap. Twenty miles to the north of McMurdo, rises snow- covered Mt. Erebus, a 12,400-foot-high volcano, a cloud of smoke hovering over its summit. The December temperatures at McMurdo seem un- expectedly mild. It reached a pleasant 33 degrees F. on the day of our arrival. By early January icebreakers will have broken through to McMurdo, and the continent will then soon have its first delivery by ship of cargo and fuel. Until then all supplies and fuel are delivered by air. For the past decade, the station hag had a nuclear gen- erating plant but it has been shut down since last year, when it was discovered that insulation containing chlo- rides around the reactor .pipes had become wet, a condi- tion that could lead to widespread corrosion. The problem is considered too costly to repair. The small, 1,800 kilo- watt plant is considered obsolete, and is being painstaken- ly dismantled and taken away. Under She terms of the Antarctic treaty, all radioactive materials have to be re- moved from the continent. A conventional power facility is being expanded by addition of two new diesel generators. In contrast to the diverse natural setting at McMurdo, the South Pole station, 840 miles inland, sits amid a broad, flat, featureless sheet of snow and ice. The elevation is 9,186 feet. Some 8,850 feet of that is ice. During our visit there this week, the temperature was minus 26 degrees F. but there was practically no wind. That, and the relatively bright sunlight, made conditions more pleasant than bitter. The United States has operated the station at the South Pole since 1957, but the accumulation of blown snow is gradually crushing it, so a new station is being built about a half mile away. Its main feature is a 52-foot-high, 164- foot-diameter geodesic dome, housing three individual buildings for scientific laboratories, living quarters, dining hall, meeting hall, post office and other facilities for about 50 persons. The geodesic dome, built of aluminum struts covered by triangular aluminum panels, is completed. One can climb up the exterior ladder to the top and get a remark- able view of the South Pole ice cover, the telltale signs of the present research station buried beneath the snow, and the construction activity at the new site. The new pole station is being constructed by a 165-man Navy Seabee detachment with additional assistance from a private con- struction firm that will have the task of getting the new station into shape for occupancy in the 1974-75 season. Twenty-two men, including nine scientists and techni- cians and thirteen Navy support personnel, spent the en- tire 1973 winter at the South Pole station. What's it like? One of the two winter residents still not relieved of duty is Gary Adair, a young seismology technician operating a seismic station that records earthquakes around the world. Since the pole is at the convergence of all lines of longitude, the data help especially to identify their lati- tude. Adair has been at the subsurface pole station con- tinuously since Christmas Eve of 1972. "We didn't have a whole lot of problems," .he says, "but there's so little variety of where to go and what to do." It was too cold, he discovered (often around minus 100 degrees) to go outside "just for pleasure." Would he do it again? Not doing the same job, and "not for the next four or five years." The people at the South Pole station are obviously not working in ideal conditions. But they are well-fed and well-clothed, their quarters and living areas are com- fortably warm, and they are supported by modern com- munications and a massive air logistics effort. This is the age of systematic scientific study in the Antarctica. One cannot help thinking back almost 62 years to the lonely tribulations of Amundsen and his men, the first to reach the pole, and Scott and his men, who lost their lives after reaching it a month later. One gains an awesome respect. 374 science news, vol. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 AMA passes 'death Wirth dignity' resolution "I request that I be allowed to die and not be kept alive by artificial means or heroic measures. I ask also that drugs be mercifully administered to me for terminal suffering even if . . . they may hasten the moment of death." At its annual meeting in Anaheim. Calif., last week, the American Medical Association cleared the way for such statements as this to be used in provid- ing "death with dignity" to terminally ill patients. By signing such a statement. the patient, or his family if he is un- conscious, can have himself removed from such devices as artificial respira- tors or kidney machines and allow doc- tors to administer heavy doses of pain- killing drugs, thus easing and probably speeding his death. An AMA survey of various churches revealed strong support for allowing a patient to choose his own fate, once a doctor has carefully explained the op- tions, but most rejected the idea of euthanasia and the AMA made no fur- ther mention of the subject. The convention also turned away from a controversial motion by some of its own members urging a legislative definition of death. Again the issue cen- ters around life-prolonging machines that can keep some vital signs going even after the "death" of the brain. Many doctors are eager to have some legislative protection so they cannot be sued for taking an organ for transplant out of a person whose brain has ceased to function but whose heart did not stop until the machines were turned off. The current AMA position is that any legalistic definition of death, such as cessation of brain waves, is "inflexible" and that individual doctors should re- main free to define death using "cur- rently accepted criteria." The AMA resolution marks the first time that the AMA has really faced up to the moral and legal implications of artificial prolongation of life, or tried to establish a uniform policy concern- ing death. At present, acceptable prac- tice varies widely from "blue-starring" patients beyond help (signifying that "heroic" efforts are not to be made to prolong their lives) to instances of callously keeping the bodies of "gorked" patients functioning until a suitable re- cipient can be found for organ trans- plant. Much more discussion like that in Anaheim will have to come before the profession has fully worked out an ethical approach to the challenges of life-prolonging medical technology, or the public has fully understood the tech- nology's implications for the ever- widening region of uncertainty between life and death. CI december 15, 1973 NASA Composite lunar photos from Mercury-bound Mariner will aid moon-mapping. With Mariner 10 en route to Mercury On its way to Mercury, Mariner 10 has noticed a nebula. A nebula, in fact, which ought to be invisible. The result, says Bruce Murray of California Institute of Technology, head of Mariner's scientist team, may be "the start of a whole new field of as- tronomy." Launched Nov. 3, Mariner 10 was quietly cruising toward its double goal of close passes by Venus and Mercury early next year, when a peak appeared in the data from one of its instruments, a far ultraviolet spectrometer designed primarily to look for traces of an atmos- phere on Mercury. The instrument was turned on because it was being used to chart hydrogen and helium distribution in the solar system, measurable by their ultraviolet glow. The peak, says A. Lyle Broadfoot of Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, represented "tremendously in- tense- radiations from the Gum Neb- ula, a gaseous cloud left by the ex- plosion of a star, some 128 light years away. The radiations indicated tempera- tures ranging from 50,000 to 100,000 degrees F., 10 times the surface tem- perature of the sun and about twice as hot as any stellar objects seen by ultra- violet light from earth or even the Or- biting Astronomical Observatory satel- lite. The hottest point was the star Gamma Velorum. Yet some astronomers wonder why the Gum Nebula was visible at all to the unmanned space probe, let alone at such blazing temperatures. This partic- ular nebula was thought to be a virtual antique, a cosmic relic so far past its prime that one scientist wondered that it would still be emitting any detectable heat whatsoever. Mariner's unexpected finding may oblige astronomers to revise their views on the decay of nebulas, as well as on the violence with which a star's internal cycle-of fire can keep it going. Finding the life in the spry, old neb- ula has not been Mariner's only accom- plishment of its journey. Its two tele- vision cameras, in test runs to check them out for their Venus and Mercury roles, have provided about 1,000 sur- prisingly sharp photos of the earth, moon and stars. Some of the lunar photos will be used to help pin down surface features on moon maps presently being refined from Apollo and other data. In addi- tion, the views of the moon's virtually airless wastes have given the Mariner experimenters an idea of what they can expect during the Mercury flyby. where fine detail is important to such tasks as crater-counting. The photos of earth, which show fea- tures down to tiny, individual storms. are similarly valuable for comparison with the planned pictures of the cloud structure of Venus. Mechanically, Mariner seems to be doing well. The two camera heaters which failed to con-ie .on after launch are still off, but the camera tempera- tures have stabilized, and there seems to be no distortion from any tempera- ture differentials in the optical systems. Scientists at Jet Propulsion Labora- tory, from which the mission is being controlled, are, however, studying one seemingly small but puzzling irregular- ity. On Nov. 21. when they commanded the spacecraft's gyros to turn on in preparation for a rolling scan of the ultraviolet sky, a small drop in power appeared in Mariner's data-processing system, then corrected itself. The roll maneuver was cancelled for the time being, but then when the same gyros were commanded again on Dec. 7, this time with more telemetry channels open to report whether there might be un- wanted power surges in some electronic systems, the same thing happened. Now the search is on for a possible short cir- cuit or other "glitch." CI NOTE TO READERS The Dec. 22 and Dec. 29 issues of SCIENCE NEWS will be combined into a single, expanded year-end issue that will carry a review of the important science stories of 1973. 375 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 (nE BiGnGie.) by Robert J. Trotter The work ethic was having trouble recruiting jobbers. There were rumors that God was dead. Sancrosanct insti- tutions (big government, big business, higher education, the nuclear family, etc.) were under attack from within and without. Such was the setting of the sixties that left many young people ideologi- cally aimless and confused. With what were they to fill their time ,and their heads? Many of these searchers turned to a practice that has been the opiate of the Eastern masses for several mil- lennia?meditation. Fdr years, meditation has remained a mysterious, cultist, semi-religious type of experience that had no meaning for the .rational Western mind. But medi- tation is not all that mysterious, and techniques have been developed that can be communicated and learned by anyone. Consequently, in the past few decades, literally hundreds of thousands of Westerners have learned and are using some of the many methods of meditation. The techniques differ but most of them aim at the same goal: achievement of a profound state of rest while maintaining a relaxed alertness. Some attain the goal through physical excesses, as in "hatha yoga"; others concentrate on a particular overt func- tion, such as the respiratory rate; still others require rigorous concentration on a single object or concept as a means of eliminating all contact and flow from conscious experience. This rather ill-defined and vague "profotind state of rest" is not as ob- scure as it sounds. Everyone experi- ences a similar state of relaxed aware- ness during the tfew moments immedi- ately before going to sleep. With a little training and practice, such a state can be prolonged and reached at will--in a quiet room or even in the midst of a noisy crowd. People who meditate reg- ularly report that it has altered their 376 Meditation is becoming a popular relaxer and escape mechanism in Western societies. Researchers are finding that many of the claims for meditation seem to have physiological correlates. lives in a variety of ways. They say they experience greater serenity and inner peace; they frequently mention having more energy and greater steadi- ness in pursuing goals, and greater effi- -...iency in ordering priorities so that less effort is wasted. They report that anxi- ety, aggression and hostility are re- duced. But these reports are all subjective, says Edward Taub of the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Md. In many areas of study, he notes, such subjective reports have been found to have little correspondence with out- ward reality as perceived by others. "Our traditions of thought, then, com- pel us to seek verification of the self- reports through more objective meas- ures," said Taub as chairman of a symposium on the psychobiology of meditation at this year's meeting of the ,--Vt4stg science news, vol. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 yid C.) American Psychological Association. The physiological effects of medita- tion have always been of some interest to researchers. In 1935 a French cardi- ologist took a portable electrocardio- graph to India in order to check out Yogis who claimed to be able to volun- tarily stop their heart beat. One Yogi was apparently able to, but subsequent studies were inconclusive. In recent years more extensive studies have been performed in the United States. One of the first of a spate of recent papers was published by Robert Kieth Wallace in SCIENCE in 1970 (SN: 4/11/70, p. 370). He found that medi- tation is accompanied by a number of physiological changes?decreases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. Wallace, Herbert Benson and Archie F. Wilson of Harvard Medical School followed up in the AMERICAN JOURNAL RErt ritcrt M 3A-trzu ig-r4 ktsrPogrd4 It t It vidyarit ciividyarh ca yas tad vedobhayam saha avidyayci mrtyuth tirtvii vidyayamrtam agnate. vidyam?knowledge in fact; ca?and; avidytim?nescience; ca?and; yalt?a person; tad?that; veda?knows: ubhayam?both; saha?simultaneously; avidyayii?by culture of nescience; mrtyum?repeated death; tirtvii? transcending; vidyari?by culture of knowledge; amrtam?deathlessness; ainute?enjoys. TRANSLATION Only one who can learn the process of nescience and that of transcendental knowledge side by side can transcend the influence of repeated birth and death, and enjoy the full blessings of im- mortality. Mandalas, such as the one at the left, are often used as objects for medita- tion. Concentration on increasingly complex designs is said to prolong one's experience of time. Mandalas are usually round and, according to Carl G. Jung, represent the unity of the self. Drawing: M. C. Escher, Escher Foundation, Haags Gemeentemuseum?The Hague december 15, 1973 Mantras, such as the one above trans- lated from Sanskrit, are also used a.. aids to meditation. A tnantra can be a complete thought or a single sonorous sound or word (Ommm) that is re- peated over and over. Mantras are supposedly assigned according to the user's personality. Sri is6panisad by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada OF PHYSIOLOGY in 1971 with the first Major study of the physiological effects of meditation. . In 'this study and in subsequent ones, Wallace and Benson ?(and many other researchers) have worked with one particular type of meditation?TransL cendental Meditation, or TM. They chos'e TM because cOnsistent physio- logic changes ,were nOted during its practice, because subjects found little difficulty, in meditating during experi- mental measurements and because a large number of subjects were available who had received uniform instruction froth an organization specializing in teaching TM (student's international Meditation Society, which teaches TM aceording to a Method popularized in this country by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi). Taub agrees with the choice of TM. He explains: TM is said to be an entirely mechanical process which attains its goals automatically with constant prac- tice. It requires no faith or belief and does not involve intense cOncentration or control of the content of conscious- ness. TM's practice requires no intel- lectual analyses and can be learned by people of all 'backgrounds, ages and education. It does not call, for recourse to a reclusive style of living, but inte- grates well with a normal active life style. The basic technique of TM can be learned in the course of a 90-minute session of individual instruction. It is then 'practiced for 20 minutes, twice .a day, during which the Meditator sits in a comfortable position with eyes closed. The subject has been assigned a suitable sound. Or thought (mantra). Without attempting to concentrate specifically on this cue, the meditator Merely per- ceives the mantra and experiences it freely. As other thoughts enter the mind, they may be examined and dis- carded?they are not to be ?followed logically and allowed to lead to other 377 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 a; Declassified and Approved For meditators report, leads to a finer more creative level of thinking. The total experience is pleasant and is sup- posed to produce a state of relaiation that gives rise to dramatic short-term and long-term effects on behavior. Presuming a physical rather than a spiritual cause for these effects, Benson and Wallace examined meditators on a variety of physiological scales. Results with 36 subjects revealed: blood flow in the arm increases during TM by about 32 percent, oxygen consumption decreases during TM by about 17 per- cent, electrical resistance of the skin inereases by an average of about 200 percent, brain wave patterns indicate an alert wakefulness and carbon dioxide elimination decreases. This seeming "quiescence of the sympathetic nervotis system," the researchers note, iS the opposite of the fight-or-flight reflex. It is overstimulation of this fight-or-flight reflex by the stresses of modern life that is thought to be a cause of hyper- tension and some psychosomatic dis- eases. kit should be well worthwhile," Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 LI %.,111.1',1 alt.,' in Los tivity and greatly decreased hours of Aiteles studied the effects of TM on narcotics addicts in a Federal prison in New Mexico. He found that pris- oners become less compulsive and more sociable in their behavior after two months of regular meditation (SN: 9/8/73, p. 152). Orme-Johnson also studied staff members at the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Control and Prevention Center in Fort Bliss, Texas. MMPI tests before and after 10 weeks of medi- tation indicated that subjects practicing TM achieve a reduction in symptoms of anxiety, more maturity and more or- ganized thought and behavior. The results of these and other studies indicate that TM may be a useful tool, but there are some drawbacks. In al- most every case, the subjects have been persons who elected to become medita- tors. This fact alone sets meditators apart from other hypertensives, drug users, neurotics and searchers. Those who decided to become meditators and who followed through had already dis- played the will power that is sometimes enough to change a habit or a complete life style. Subjects who did not follow through with TM (even though they originally intended to do so) received none of its benefits. Perhaps they did not really believe in or want the changes that TM is supposed to produce. Perhaps they need another kind of help if some sort of change is really neces- sary. No one can be forced to medi- tate. Meditation is not a shot-in-the-arm cure all. For instance, Arthur Vassi- liadis of the Stanford Research Institute has found that three months of TM does not produce a statistically im- portant change in a meditators heart beat. Only after nine months of con- scientiously practiced TM is there a significant reduction in heart rate. A While meditation does seem to pro- duce beneficial effects in certain sub- jects, researchers are still not agreed on how these effects are produced. The original work of Wallace and Benson indicated which physiological processes might be involved but, says Taub, there is no clear interpretation of the data yet. More recent ?work by Gary E. Schwartz at Harvard, for instance, in- dicates that Wallace and Benson's find- ings are not as clear-cut as they seemed. Schwartz points out that the personality of the tester, as well as that of the sub- ject, might be an important variable. (Wallace, an easy-going and interested experimenter, gets somewhat different results than a less sympathetic person does.) The work of Wallace and Benson is still valid, says Taub, even though newer data are providing a different interpretation. But even without a co- herent interpretation, he concludes, the data on TM are "suggestive and excit- ing." psychotherapy. Another therapist has reported success in treating cases of claustrophobia and perfuse perspira- tion. And another report claims that TM can lead to a better marriage by releasing the tensions of daily life. Many of these claiins are related to the reduction in anxiety that TM sup- posedly produces in regular practition- ers. A similar lessening of anxiety is often achieved through drugs, so some researchers have investigated the effects of meditation on drug users. One thing they have found is that meditation, un- like drugs, does not require increased doses as the user becomes habituated. In fact, most steady meditators usually stop drug use. Benson and Wallace con- ducted a studY with I*2 subjects. They fouhd that after about 21 months of practicing TM, almost 96 percent of those who had been trafficking in drugs had ceased doing so. More than 95 percent of the subjects who used drugs illegally since starting TM had tried to Wallace and Benson concluded, "to in- vestigate the possibilities for clinical application of this state of wakeful rest and relaxation." Such possibilities have since been in- vestigated. Benson and Wallace worked with 22 hypertensive subjects and re- ported that regular practice of TM resulted in reduced blood pressure. Other researchers have reported that TM appears to be beneficial in the treatment of bronchial asthma and dis- eases involving inflammation such as swollen gums. TM has even been found to increase auditory ability. Psychological as well as physiological conditions respond to the practice of TM. On psychological tests, meditators display significantly less verbal hostility than nonmeditators. One psychiatrist has reported that patients who practice TM show a fastef-than-average rate of improvement in the course of psycho- therapy. With some patients TM has 378 discourage others from non-medical use of drugs. Prior to TM, 78.3 percent had 'used marijuana and hashish and 22.4 percept were heavy users. After 22 months of meditation, the number of users of these drugs had fallen off to 12.2 And 0.1 percent respectively. Simi- lar results were reported for LSD, opi- ates (heroin, etc.), amphetamines, bar- biturates, alcohol and tobacco. W. T. Winquist of the University of California at Los Angeles has also examined the relationship between TM and drug use. He found that after at least three months of TM, 84 percent of those who were regular users of marijuana had stopped, 14.5 peicent had substantially decreased and only about 1.5 percent increased use of the drug. According to Winquist, 49 percent of the users stated that their use of drugs decreased because life became more fulfilling after starting meditation. David Orme-Johnson of the Maha- science news, vol. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 aerospace ?? sciencvana society Whither the aimless astronauts? With only a single team of U. S. astronauts scheduled to see space in the next six years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is tightening its belt, reorganizing and consolidating its manned spaceflight activities. There are 37 astronauts left on active flight status, but only 10 currently have a mission, the prime, backup and support crews for the three-man Apollo-Soyuz rendezvous plus Apollo Soyuz Test Project Special Assistant Eugene Cernan?and that will begin and end in. 1975. Not until the planned space shuttle gets going, in 1979 at the earliest, will any more Space berths be open. As a result, NASA is absorbing its present Flight Crew Op- erations Directorate, in charge Of training, scheduling and other activities, into Flight Operations Directorate, which was formerly concerned only with planning .the missions themselves and related procedures. The enlarged FOD will be directed by Kenneth S. Kleinecht, now manager of the Skylab program. The 11 scientist-astronauts will be assigned to offices in the Science and Applications and Life Sciences Directorates, working on crew aspects of various potential jobs for the space shuttle. Of the 16 pilot-astronauts not working on the Apollo-Soyuz project, 15 will be assigned other shuttle- related jobs by the end of Skylab. The 37th man is Charles Conrad, veteran of Gemini 6 and 11, Apollo 12 and Sky- lab 1, who is resigning Feb. 1 for a job with a Denver cable television company. Venus drops acid Droplets of sulfuric acid more concentrated than the acid in a car battery have been identified in the cloud tops of Venus. The discovery was made using spectra bbtained through a 30-centimeter telescope aboard a jet? flying at 45,000 feet. Compared with laboratory spectra of clouds contain- ing such materials as iron chloride, liquid water, ice, mer- cury, ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid, the Venus clouds best matched sulfuric acid concentrations of more than 75 percent. James B. Pollack, who headed a nine-person research team from the NASA Ames Research Center in the project, says that the droplets probably lie in the top 10 kilometers of a 33-kilometer-thick cloud layer that extends down to about 32 kilometers above the veiled planet's surface. The 'brilliance of Venus' cloud tops could be largely due to the fact that the acid droplets seem to be in the highly reflec- tive one-micron size range. Some theorists have previously pointed out that the presence of sulfuric acid, an effective drying agent, could account for the surprising lack of water vapor in Venus' predominantly carbon-dioxide clouds. Will Pioneer 10 be found? The starbound Pioneer 10 spacecraft, already millions of miles beyond Jupiter, carries a message-bearing plaque in case some alien civilization should find it. A 17-year-old student is now working out the chances. Bruce Allen, of Los Alamitos High School in California, is preparing a series of computer programs to tell him what stars are near Pioneer's path (Aldebaran in Taurus is first), whether they could have life-supporting planets, and even whether the light angles will be right to let strong tele- scopes see the probe coming. The chances, he acknowledges, are small. december 15, 1973 A warning on disasters . . . Just before Christmas a year ago, at midnight on the 23rd of December, Managua, Nicaragua was destroyed by an earthquake measuring 5.6 on the Richter scale. By sunrise, one percent of the 420,000 inhabitants were dead, another four percent were injured, 60 percent were fleeing the city and 70 percent were homeless. Among reScue work- ers from many nations was a group of scientists, *hose task was to determine the human impact of the quake and recommend ways of reducing the impact of future dis- asters. The Dec. 7 SCIENCE has their report. Though civil order broke down almost immediately, re- sulting in widespread looting, and two full days passed be- fore successful mobilization of local emergency organiza- tions, Managuans were lucky in many ways. Nearly 75 per- cent of the homeless were able to find shelter with relatives because of an extended family system. The absence of pri- vate cars and a large pool of public transportation facili- tated rapid evacuation. The international comMunity re-. spOnded quickly and efficiently, with U. S. Army engi- neers working alongside a Cuban relief team. The authors reach some- sober . conclusions abotit the implication of the Managuan experience to potential dis- asters in industrialized countries. So-called "seismic re- sistant" buildingS may not collapse but still become un- functional, as did the major Managuan hospitals. A break- down of public, order, they say, could easily occur in American central cities. Extended families are not the norm here and large numbers of refugees would have to be , evacuated and cared for?a task greatly hampered by a transportation system based on private cars and rela- tively delicate freeway overpasses. The Managua earthquake was relatively low-energy, they recall, and another "perhaps 1000 times greater, can be expected on the West Coast of the United States within the lifetime of most readers of this article." . . . and weapons In his addreSs accepting the 1973 Charles Lathrop Par- sorts Award of the American Chemical Society, Charles C. Price warned that as public attention on scientific Matters has shifted to concern with energy and the environment, nuclear weapons have greatly proliferated and pose an even greater threat. Price, a past president of the society, said that in just the last three years, U.S. nuclear warheads have increased from 4,000 to 10,000, despite ,SALT talks. Particularly objectionable, he said, was the absence of any Government employee with even part4irrie responsi- bility for planning total disarmarrient. "Under President Eisenhower and President Kennedy, the U.S. Government supported a top-level civilian effort devoted t6 planning for and negotiating the revolutionary Dial of general and com- plete disarmament. . . . After President Kennedy's assassi- nation, planning and negOtiation for this goal were aban- doned." * * The editors of SCIENCE AND GOVERNMENT REPORT say they have been inquiring among knowledgeable people about the probability that nuclear weapons exist in the Mideast, following the revelation by a highly placed Egyp- tian spokesman that his country has attempted to become a nuclear power. They conclude that Israel has locally pro- duced enough plutonium to build a bomb more or less anytime they want, while recent efforts to bring home Egyptian scientists working abroad, perhaps to staff the secret Egyptian nuclear research center, look suspicious. 379 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 physical sciences' behavioral sciences A new solar cycle begins Down near the, sun's south pole evidence of the begin- ning of a new 11-year cycle of solar activity has been seen. The evidence Consists of new sunspots and is reported in the Dec. 1 ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS by Bruce A. GilleSpie, Jack W. Harvey and William C. Livingston of Kitt Peak National Observatory and Karen Harvey of the Lockheed Solar Observatory in Burbank, Calif. The obE:er- vations were done with Kitt Peak's McMath Solar Telescope. The new cycle will be the 21st since astronomers began recording these :things in 1755. As uSual, the first evidence for the new cycle appears about a year before the_minimum activity point Of the previous cycle, Which is expected in 1975. Activity belonging to the new cycle begins to appear in the polar regions of the sun, while that of the dying old cycle draws near the solar equator. The cycles thus overlap in time but not in space. The peak of the new cycle is expected about 1980. Alcator at 100,000 gauss Alcator, the thermonuclear fuSion niachine at the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology, has achieved a magnetic field of 100,000 gauss according to art anhouncement by the institute, ?Alcator is a deviee of the class called tokamak, in which the Magnetic field is used to confine a plasma of ions and electrons in a toroidal spade in the hope of in- ducing energy.yielding fusions among the nuclei of the plasma. ? . . , The field Of 100,000 gauss, a very high field fer any kind Of magnetic application, iS the highest ever achieved in a fusion device. The previous record was 60,000 gauss, which was reached in a French experiment at Fontenay-adx-Roses near Paris. :It is not expected that a field of such great, strength will be .needed for the operation Of a fusion reactor, if and when one comes to be. Fifty thousand ganss is believed sufficient. The higher fields are being stUdied to gain an understanding of how plasma confinement varies with in- creasing magnetic field, information that Will be important for the design of eventual fusicin reactors. The rettird field was produced by cooling Alcator'g electromagnets to a temperature of 71 degrees K., lessening their electrical re- sistance and allowing them to carry higher currents and produce the strong field. A europium gas laser Efficient and powerful lasers that emit frequencies in the visible part of the spectrum have developed from -the, use of metal vapors as the active material. Yet, as P. A. Bokhan, V. M. Klirrikim and V. E. Prokop'eV Of the. Institute of AtmOSpheriC Physics of the Siberia; Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences, point Out in JETP LETTE4S (Vol. 18, No. 2), there remains quite a number of metals whose possible lasing properties have not been investigated, espe- eially 'the rare earths. To fill some of the gaps the three Siberian physicists have been experimenting with the? laSing :possibilities of rAre earths. So far they have succeeded in producing a laser that uses ionized europium vapbr. The europium is mixed with helium and energized by an electrieal discharge. The lasing comes in pulses of between 3 and 150 microsecond with a maxium pOwer of 50 watts. Radiation at a wavelength of 1.361 microns appears at low helium pressure. At higher helium pressures the spectral lines at 1.002 microns and at 1.017 microns also appear. 380 An antique toolkit Crudely chipped pieces 9f volcanic nick have been identi- fied as the earliest "tool kit" used by humans. Anthropolo- gist Glynn Isaac of the University of California in Berkeley has found nearly 600 Such tools during four years of field work in Kenya. Last week at the second annual Louis Leakey Memorial Symposium in San Francisco, Isaac ex- plained that the stones, found in patches among groups of broken animal bones, have been dated at 2.5 million years of age. Isaac, co-leader With Richard Leakey of the Kenya expe- dition, saYS the "simple stone implements which took about five or six blows to produce" are, very important because they provide infornAtkcin about the origins and life-styles of early humans. Finding the stones ambng broken bones, for instance, indicates that the primitive tool users were meat eaters whO. liked ,tb:,establish central bases of operation and food-sharing :collectives. Gazelle, waterbuck, pig, porcu- pine and hippopotamus may have- been part of the meat diet. Bones of all of these animals were found with the stones. Although it is difficult to determine ? the func- tion of the tools with certainty, Isaac noted that humans have always ?hact difficulties in breaking up animal car- casseS without implements. In additiOn to the 2.5 million-year-old tools, Isaac has un- earthed thouSands of tools estimated to be 1.3 million years old. The later implements varied considerably from the early tools in numbers as well as sophistication. Comparing them to the older ones yields more infOrrhation. The later toolS,,says Isaac; were made with a definite purpose in mind and took 15 or 20 blows to produce. They also included much larger specimens, which indicate that they were made by a "muscular, beefy character." During the one' million years separating the early site from the. later one, Isaac says, our ancestors obviously "became quite slaphappy about inaking tools:" Suieide: An occupational hazard? Suicide rates are highest among job holders who have the least opportunity for Significant social contact, says Leonard L. Linden of the University of Georgia's Institute for Behavioral Research. He examined national death rates and found that professionals with opportunity for deep, meaningful relationships, in the course of their work, such as doctors and lawyers, were less suicide prone than others, stich as farmers, who ladked these social opportunities and had the highest suicide rates. "The most important factor," he stresses, "is not occupation per se, but how the work affects individual social contacts." Tackling football fever Just in time fbr the Super Bowl, the American Medical Association has published Comments in Sports Medicine. The volume, edited by Timothy T. Craig, warns coaches to take it easy on their teams during halftime. Stimulating an athlete, it says, is one thing, but when the excitement reaches an anxiety. level, player performance is likely to be ad- versely affected. The event itself and the spectators will usually create enough psychological arousal for any athlete, says the AMA. In addition to supplying psychological, nutritional and physical fitness facts for coaches and players, the book urges that sports arenas have facilities available to cope with the spectator who becomes overexcited and suffers a heart attack. science news, vol. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 ?ere?O ?Weed &WM eee,1?? ? Sueone ?Okmbetmile ?Aed "Z*?} ?Coeson Son Fronosco Men, ? P.P., . A Mt Anil, Shoshone ? eon,. ?? ? ?OeInno Paso Robles City lights rule out large areas of California as pO:ssible observatory sites. Walker/Proc. Ast.ron. Soc. Pao. o ? ? Bo?e? ? BOW., ? 00. ? ;Crowe,. ? P.m Los Optical astronomy is a science that is done in the dark. Astronomers would like to foregather on?mountaintops. with the inky black night that gives them the hest view of the Celestial bodies they wish to studly. ' ? But their researches are bedeviled by an age-old problem that is now becoming 'acute: city lights. Several of our largest observatories are find- ing that their monntains- are no longer isolated. Urban 'sprawl laps " around their bases, and in the telescopes the Great White Way competes with the Milky Way. - For centuries people have tried to turn night into day .and have instinc- tively, sought the light that astronomers wish would go away. Witness A. A. Hoag, W. B. 5choening and M. Coucke of Kitt Peak National Observatory writ- ing in the PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRO- NOMICAL SOCIETY oF THE PACIFIC: 'Hu'mans ingfinctively shield thernselveS from the Wonderful awe' Of the universe. The trend fro_ni campfire to lighted megalopolis has been a one-way demon- itration of increased skill in this art.'' Lighted-Megalopolis may attract those down ?on the farm, but, astionorpers haye a history of running from it. The' problem is now more acute than evei' because urban growth May leave them december 15, 1973 Angele n0.0 San Diego with no place to run. Back in the 1930's, when the 200-inch telescope was being planned, it waS determined that the Mt. Wilson ObservatorY Was not the place to put it. Mt. Wilson stands' just above downtown pa?0eriai and the competition from the lights of LOs An- geles was deemed fCtO strOng for the faint objects (disthitt galaxies) the telescope was intended to 'study. The inbre isolated Palomar Mountain was chosen as the site. Today PalOmar is beginning' to feel the lights of Los An- . gees and San Oleg?. Where to run next? The experience of the University of California's Lick Observatory illustrates the tightness of the bind. When Mt. Hamilton was selected as the Observa- tory's site in 1875, San Jose was a small toWn. (The ciey's pppulation in 1900 is listed at 4590.) Today Sari Joe is a' metropolis of 445,779, (19.70 census). The results of that growth have been .Variously, detrimental to the observa, tory; according to a study made by Merle F. 'Walker Of Lick. 'The sky over Mt. Hamilton has brightened measurably over the last 20 years (the period -Of the greatest popu- lation influx to the Santa Clara Valley below Mt. Hamilton). Looking toward the zenith the faintest objects that can by Dietrick E, Thomsen be detected with photographic plates or image tubes are now about one magni- tude brighter than would be possible at a completely dark location. Looking 45 degrees above the horizon in the' direc- tion of San Jose, the faintest observable object is 1.5 magnitudes brighter than could be seen at a dark location. Putting all that in a slightly different way, for observations with photographic plates or image tubes the 120-inch tele- scope at Lick (one of the world's largest) is only about as effective as a telescope of 60- to 76-inch aperture lo- cated at a dark site. At Mt. Hamilton it now takes between 2.5 and 4 times as long to achieve a given photometric Ecision for an object of a given mag- nitude as it Would at a completely dark site.. In addition, the spectral character- istics of the city light interfere with the spectra' of celestial objects. Lines char- acteristic ot mercury from the mercury vapor street lamps of San Jqse appear on the spectra of celestial objects taken at Mt. Hamilton, and they become darker and darker as time goes on. , For these reasons Lick's managers have decided that any new large capital equipment that the observatOrY may build should not be set un on Mt. Hamilton. Looking for possible new 381 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 sites Walker prepared maps of Cali- fornia and Arizona on which he drew exclusionary circles around regions where urban light pollution was too strong for good observatgry siting. The limits he used for sky illumination were those?still tolerable?found at Palo- mar: a sky brightness of 0.1 magnitude at the zenith and 0.2 magnitude at 45 degrees above the horizon in the direc- tion of the nearest city. The resulting maps exclude vast segments of terri- tory, and when they are combined with the other criteria for a goofl astro- nomical siting?lots of clear weather and low atmospheric turbulence?very few places remain. That is why Walker urges a program to identify good sites and preserve them from light pollution. Both the American Astronomical So- ciety and the International Astronom- ical Union have appointed committees for this purpose. The place the Lick people favor most as an escape hatch is Junipero Serra Peak in the Santa Lucia Mountains, somewhat south of Lick's present loca- tion. Junipero Serra lies between the 3650-62 4047 4078 4358 Ii ft 11n1 1 11 111 if '11l 1 1 1 II I 11 1 1 1 11 1 1 11 1 t1 11 11 11 11 14 J r 1 11 1 ?tltllI ii II I I 1 11111111 11 111 1 1 ." ; II 1 1 11 1 1 Li. 11 1 11 1 A...11 1 UT 1960 Sep.19 1967 Oct. 4 1972 Aug. 12 USAF DATA Acquisi- tion and Processing Program Above: The United States lit up at night as seen by an Air Force satellite. Left: Spectral lines of mercury vapor (numbered) from the street- lights of San Jose appear in the spectrum of the nebula at FG Sge taken with the Lick Observa- tory's Crossley reflector. The intruding lines get darker as time goes on. Walker/Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. So. .ern California and the San Fran- cisco Bay Area conurbations, both of which are reaching toward it. At the moment the observatory has no money and no plans to build anything there, and thus is in a bad situation to try to affect what happens there. There are also potential problems because the lo- cation is in a national forest and there are conservationist groups that would like to see nothing at all built there, not even an observatory. To preserve Junipero Serra would require control of lighting in the Salinas Valley. That might be achieved by legis- lation on lighting similar to that adopted in Tucson, where, as Hoag, Schoening and Coucke point out: ". . . astron- omers have taken the perhaps quixotic view that something can be done about the lighting situation." Tucson is surrounded by observa- tories (including Kitt Peak, the Smith- sonian Astrophysical Observatory's southern station and the Steward Ob- servatory of the University of Arizona), and it takes its "astronomy industry' seriously. The Tucson astronomers suc- ceeded in getting the city to require the shielding of outdoor lighting so that it shines down but not up and to require that the spectral characteristics of out- door lighting be such that emission of wavelengths shorter than 4,400 ang- stroms is curtailed. (Ultraviolet light is particularly bad for astronomers.) Late- ly the Arizona astronomers have per- suaded the state legislature to pass enabling legislation so that Counties and unchartered municipalities could enact similar ordinances. Now they are trying to get Pima County to pass such an ordinance. A county regulation would cover suburbs outside the city's cor- porate limits and the territory immedi- ately adjacent to the observatory moun- tains themselves. "The ordinance won't reduce the light," says Hoag, and the light will continue to increase as a function of time. What the ordinance will do is reduce the slope of the in- crease. With this, good conditions can be preserved at Kitt Peak "not indefi- nitely" but for some time to come. The brightening at the zenith over Kitt Peak is now about 0.1 magnitude and more subtle features such as the gegenschein and the zodiacal band are easily seen at appropriate times, which means that the environment is quite acceptable for observations. In places that are not as lucky and that have no controlling legislation, the situation will probably deteriorate even if the energy crisis shuts off a few lights and urban growth slows. Municipalities are moving from incandescent lamps to the brighter mercury-vapor lamps and the even brighter sodium-vapor ones. If something isn't done, American astronomers may wind up without a place to stand. 0 382 science news, vol. 104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010091-5 Declassified and Approved This RADIOMETER! The only light operated motor! Now make an exceptional, dis- tinctive and wonderfully unique PERSONALIZED gift, nobody but you can give?Nothing else Quite like it. $4.00 HARRY ROSS Scientific & Lab Products 61 Reade St., N.Y., N.Y. 10007 People / / Resources Population film, "Beyond Conception." Will-known medical films on Vas, Ab, and IUD. Exhibits. Popu- lation Dynamics, 3829 Aurora Ave., N., Seattle 98103 DIGITAL:THEORY,DESIGN CONSTRUCTION LOGIC NEWSLETTER* SAMPLE COPY $ 1.00 LOGIC NEWSLETTER P08252 PI WA LDWICK,N.J. 07463 SCIENCE TEACHERS. Volunteer PEACE CORPS. Two years In local school systems of develop- ing countries overseas. Develop curricula/ teaching aids, train teachers, participate in team teaching workshops. 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From inter- views at large university laboratories to visits to out-of-the-way ecological field sites, from multi- hotel meetings in major metropolises to single- subject symposiums in small college towns, our reporters go where the science news is. They are your witness to the world of science, whether it be a manned space shot or a biological specimen under new kind of electron microscope. We figure that during the past 18 months, they have iraveled more than 135,000 miles in their efforts to keep SCIENCE NEWS readers well in- formed. When they're back in Washington, they find plenty to keep them busy there. Washington is the richest source of science news in the United States. There's a whole acronymatic alphabet full of science-based agencies to report on and gather news from: NIH, AEC, NSF, OST, NAS, NRC, NAE, NOAA, DOT, NASA, USGS, NIMH, HEW, FDA, HUD, EPA, CEQ. To say nothing of the science committees of COngress and the science pro- nouncements of the White House, just six blocks from the office Of SCIENCE NEWS. When they have some time at their desks, SCIENCE NEWS reporters have rich lodes of research results at their fingertips. We regularly receive some 344 scientific journals from around the world plus my- riad assorted publications?many fine science stories come from our examination of them. Whenever there's a source to be consulted or fact to be che4ed, they never hesitate to reach for the long-distance telephone. science news The point is that we go out of our way to obtain the' most authoritative and most timely science news possible. We think that's what you want . . . and deserve. Declassified and ,Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000260616091-5 -)YiErk hjilideultilit .!113,411111-1Thtort, - Eilfririfffl:(1 : ? ? ; ?- * 4 ? 'WITT& - J-.rialaYraft=ril:;-; ? ' ? - . ,