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Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 ' 7 bit The New York Times Magazine/September 9,1973 Two astonishingly different persons inhabit our heads If Zeja 0L,"--"a Eefii2olimacibe& ?Er 0,011312Threarma6 By Maya Pines Two very different persons Inhabit our heads. residing in the left and right hemispheres of our Await's, the twin shells that cover the central broth stem. One of them Is verbal, analytic, dominant. The other is artistic but mute, and still almost totally mysterious. This nonspeaking side of the human brain?the right hemisphere?is now the focus of intensive research by brain scientists. ,This sudden surge of interest is probably no accident rit a time when Yoga, Arica, Tibetan exercises and other nonverbal disciplines are enjoying such a vogue. Some re- searchers are eager to give the less intellectual aspects of human personality equal weight with the verbal ones. But beyond this somewhat parti- san approach lies the startling hypothesis that each of us is capable of two incompatible styles of thought. two separate mechanisms for learning. In normal people, the two half-brains are linked together, like Siamese twins, by millions of nerve fibers that fonn a thick cable called the corpus ccliosum. tf this cable is cut, as must be done in certain cases of severe epilepsy, a curious set of circumstances occurs. The left side of the brain no longer knows what the right side is doing. yet the speaking half of the patient, controlled by the left hemisphere, still insists on finding excuses for whatever the mute half has done, and still operates under the illusion that they are one person. The findings of the past decade are extraordi- nary In their Implications. Because of them, brain scientists have begun to wonder whether our nor- mal feeling of being just one persnn is also an lotion, even though our brains remain whole. Are the two halves of our brains integrated into a . single soul? Is one hemisphere always dominant over the other? Or do the two persons in our brains take turns at directing our activities and thoughts? Theologians are watching thls research with 'fascination?and some misgivings--and they are not alone. It has aroused the Interest of many others who are concerned with human identity. As they soon realize, all roads lead to Dr. Roger Sperry, a California Institute of Technology pro- fessor of psychobiology who has the gift of mak- ing?or provoking?important discoveries. Sperry was already famous before he began studying people and ?animals whose brains had been spilt in two. In a series of elegant experi- ments, 'he had shown that there exists a very precise chemical coding system during brain groivth that allows specific nerve cells?for ex. ? Maya Pines Is author of "The BraM Changers; Scientists and the New Mind Control." This article is adapted from a chapter of that book, which will be published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich late next month. ample, those concerned with vision?to find their way through a tangle of other nerve fibers, even when obstacles are placed in their path, and some- how connect with the appropriate cells so as to reach specific terminals in the visual cortex. Next, he began to study visual perception and memory, lie wanted to find out what happened when an animal learned certain discriminations that involved the visual cortex?when It learned, for instance, to push a panel marked with a circle. rather than a square. Where in its brain was that knowledge stored? Ile put the question to a young graduate stu- dent., suggesting that he investigate how cats that between a circle and a square, knowing that the information they acquired would go to only one hemisphere. When he switched their eye patches to cover their trained eyes, however, the cats per. formed just as well as before. Their memory of this skill was intact. This meant either that the knowledge was stored In the central brain stem, well below the twin hemispheres, or that the knowledge acquired by one hemisphere had some- how been transmitted to the other. "Obviously the eorpus callosum was the next thing to test," recalls Or. Myers. "But from the available evidence, cutting it would have no effect. If the surgery is properly done, the rinimvis ore Split-brain problem: A patient whose brain has been surgically divided feels the outline of the figure 3 with his left hand. perceiving ft with his right haff-brnin. Knowledge of it is not transferred to his left half.brain. which controls his right hand. Ashed to indicate the number he has grasped, he does so incor- rectly with his right hand. have learned a new skill with only one eye and one hemisphere transfer this information to the other eye. The young student, Ronald Myers (now chief of the Laboratory of Perinatal Physiology at the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke), worked with this Idea for the next SIX years. First he developed a method of cutting through the eats' optic chinsm (the point at which the Optic lientS meet and cross) so ns to sever the nerve fibers that normally cross from left eye to right hemisphere and vice versa, sparing only those that connect with the sante side of the brain. Despite the surgery, the cats saw quite well. Myers then placed a patch over one of their eyes and trained the one-eyed creatures to distinguish up the next day and you see nothing." By all outward appearances, a split.brain cat or monkey is perfectly normal: It can nm. eat, mate, solve problems as if nothing had happened to it. When surgeons first split the brain of a human being in the nineteen-thirties (to remove a tumor deep in the brain). they did so with much trepidation, ex- pecting a terrible change in their patient, a total deterioration of his psyche. To their amazement. they saw no change at all. The corpus cailosum seemed to serve no purpose, despite its lathe size (it is about 314 inches long and a quarter of an inch thick in humans), "What is the function of the corpus callosum?" professors would ask their students in the nineteen.fortiest as no one knew. . ? In . Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 they sertain recent' Lushth the ht Nur Step ii the a Callost hem's' One 03 this Cl there as if They tweet( as ON the qi cotton from of Phi muffle COrtei se:tab ing El their ' bond evidu ways, had I In unimi brain' ease Malt. half I recOg left.'n whicl us in hovs from child usual tenet Foi Dons' one's synin Segel spins side cells reprt ?at bi the satio instn Wt fixed of Or In Hs have k353.91 . the one ches per- of the tern, the me- next the feet. are re 3 left :or- all key Ave lien ; in in ex- >tal ;71t, urn iize an of leis Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 ?0../ they replied facetiously, "It transmits epileptic seizures from one hemisphere to the other." As recently as 1951, the famed neuropsychologist Karl Lashley saw only one other use for it: "To keep the hemispheres from sagging." Nevertheless, Myers proceeded with the next step in the research plan. Atter cutting through the cats' optic chiasms, he split their corpora ca/losa as well, separating their left and right hemispheres. Then he trained them as before, with one eye covered. When he removed the cover from this eye and placed it over the other eye, however, there was a dramatic change: The cats reacted as if they had never seen the patterns before. They took just as long to learn the di.fference be- tween a circle and a square with the second eye as they had with the tirst. Myers was elated, and the question was finally settled: It was the corpus callosum that transmitted memories and learning from one hemisphere to the other. The thick band of fibers stood resealed as the sole means of com- munication between the two halves of the cerebral cortex. Without it, cats could be trained quite separately with each eye, When Myers tried teach- ing some split-brain cats to select the circle with their left eyes and the square with their right, he found that they learned this without the slightest evidence of conflict. They would act in opposite ways, according to which eye was open?as if they had two entirely separate brains. In animals, a split brain may prove relatively unimportant, for the left and right halves of their brains do exactly the same job. But this is not the case for human beings. Alone among the mam- mals, man has developed different uses for each half of his brain. This asymmetry, which we all recognize when we say whether we're right- or left-handed, is the glorious mechanism through which man is able to speak. It is what separates us from the apes. There are various theories about how it developed and whether it is present right from birth, but it is quite clear that by the time a Child reaches the age of 10, one hemisphere? usually the left?has taken over the task of language. For simpler operations, such as receiving sensa- tions from one's hand or ordering movements to one's foot, the human brain remains generally symmetrical. The nerve impulses that carry mes- sages from one side of the body travel up the spinal column and cross over into the opposite side of the brain, there to stimulate predetermined cells to form a sort of map of the parts they represent. The nerve connections involved are set at birth in an incredibly precise fashion that allows the brain to know instantly where certain sen- s'ations come from and where to aim specific instructions. When tasks become more complex, however, this fixed plan is abandoned. Then the association areas of the brain come into play, and each one develops in its own way, according to experience. Since we have only one mouth (unlike the dolphin, which has (Continued on Page 121) Left visual field Getter of visual field Right visual field Left hemisphere Right hemisphere Artistic. musical ?ability; spatial perception Language and analytic abilities Visual area of cortex Visual area of cortex Corpus callosum Two views of the world: Objects in the left visual field are perceived in the brain's right hemisphere and objects in the right visual field are perceived in the left. Normally, the corpus callosum is intact and perceptions trunRjer through it from one hemisphere to the other. When the corpus is cut, as above, perception is divided. For example, one patient with such a split brain found he could read only words that appeared in the right visual field, since literacy is a function of the left hemisphere. THE NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE/SEPTEMBER 9, 1973 33 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 ? Vertical Fabric Blinds They're the decorator's answer inr dra- matic window, window-wall and slid- ing glass door settings, Handsome, yet practical. The Rimers turn to control the light. Slide aside like a drapery. Choose from dozens of colors and fab- rics to mix or maid,. Call or write for name of nearest dealer. Thrti-Vu Vertical BlindCorp. L15 Fenimore Road Mamaroneck, N.Y. 10543 (3141 630.0352 Er.'8 El El I - FUR Rt.CS.PILLOWS, I SyREAUS,R1,C. (CI 0 0 I Both to you like new in April LAUNDERED, REFRINGED, ,./., RECOVERED OTHER 00?15. 'N ' S?1,11otv and 0.41am MoJe Umbrellas 0 ? Comene.ciol Carpet I by GtolooaT SI UnHed Ro?tel Sew v.ce P e o very ,,..?s. end btocAR, V) '0 R (212)CY 9-0288e.,\N 0 ,,, MI L ireentket Am. ....._ ZIP-JACK loath, /4.Y.10457 1, ._,.........,;.=...,--..-7--...e,-..., < WINTLR STOR AGf YOUR GARDEN UMBRELLA YOU CH MAKE MULTIRCIAL HOUSING WORK! If you want to make quality housing available to all people. you will be interested in joining us in a tax-sheltered real estate partnership. Send for a FREE prospectus NOW to: James Farmer & Morris Milgram PARTNERS IN HOUSING? Dept. MS-1 8702 Crispin, Phi1a., Pa. 19130 This is not an offer to sell these securities. The Off. itlf is Toter only by the prospectus. r-77) es. Lj"02127a (Continued from Page 33) separate phonation mechan- isms on the right and left sides of its body). there is no need for right and left speech mechanisms. In most adults, therefore, the speech centers are limited to one side of the brain, usually the left, though about 15 per cent of left- handers and perhaps 2 per cent of right-handers have speech on both sides. Being left-handed?an in- herited trait?generally means that the two sides of one's brain have not become as fully specialized as among right-handers. The 10 per cent of the population who are left-handed in childhood tend to be ambidextrous, and ac- cording to some recent re- search by the University of Pennsylvania's Dr. Jerre Levy, they often score much lower on tests of perceptual or Motor ability. Furthermore, there are two kinds of left- handers: those whose lan- guage is controlled by the right hemisphere (less than half of the total), and those in whom the left hemisphere controls speech, just as in right-handers. This makes the left side of the brain largely dominant for language in human beings? a near-monopoly that was recognized in the early 18th century, when surgeons ex- amined the brains of people who had lost the power of speech and found severe dam- age on the left side. Why this should be so preordained is apt clear. The left hemisphere tends to become dominant in other ways as well. For ex- ample, it controls the right hand, which does most of man's skilled work with tools. Around the age of 1, notes psychologist Jerome Bruner, babies suddenly master what he calls "the two-handed ob- stacle box," a simple puzzle developed by Harvard's Cen- ter for Cognitive Studies to study how babies learn the value of two-handedness. The baby will learn to push and hold a transparent cover with one hand while the other hand reaches inside the box for a toy, even though nobody has taught him this skill. To Bruner this seems extraordi- nary, for it shows that the baby has learned to distin- guish between two kinds of grip?the power, or "hold- ing," grip, which stabilizes an object, usually with the left hand, and the precision, or "operating," grip, which does the work, usually with the right. Monkeys and apes also develop a precision grip, says Bruner, but only in man, with his asymmetry, does the pow- er grip migrate to the left hand while the precision grip migrates to the right. This ability to specialize is the be- ginning of a long road lead- ing to the distinctively human use of tools and toolmaking. If the left hemisphere does all this, why do we need a right hemisphere? Experi- ments with split-brain cats and monkeys could not shed much light on the differing specialties of man's two hemi- spheres. The study of the two personalities in our brain did not really begin until 1961, when Sperry became inter- ested in a 48-year-old veteran whose head had been hit by bomb fragments during World War It, FEW years after his injury, W. J. had begun to have epi- leptic fits; these became so frequent and so severe that nothing could control them. He would fall down, uncon- scious and foaming at the mouth, often hurting himself as he fell. For more than five years, doctors at the White Memorial Medical Center in Los Angeles tried every con- ceivable remedy, without suc- cess. Finally Drs. Philip Vo- gel and Joseph Bogen cut through his corpus =Boston, and the seizures stopped, as if by magic. There was a rocky period of recovery, dur- ing which W. 3., a man of above-average intelligence, could not speak, but within a month he announced that he felt better than he had in years. He appeared unchanged in personality. He seemed per- fectly normal. Meanwhile, Sperry had in- terested a graduate student, Michael Gazzaniga, in per- forming a series of tests on W. J., together with him and Dr. Bogen. Gazzaniga soon discovered some extremely odd things about his subject. To begin with, W. J. could carry out verbal commands ("raise your hand," or "bend your knee") only with the right side of his body. He could not respond with his left side. Evidently the right hemisphere, which controls the left limbs, did not under- stand that kind of language. When W. J. was blindfolded try the CUSHION-LIFT? ( CHAIR 3 JUST A TOUCH OF YOUR FINGER... and the Cushion-La-Marti raise you stowly and safely to your fret. Provides the help. comfort and independence sought by those afflisited with arthritis. rheumatism. park? inmnism and stroke. Takes the struggle out of gettng up and sittirg down. 08010-KINETICS, INC., 505 CNTS1..StrKi. 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Mons,' /7 to OUAW,41(1:., FUN ONE FULL YEAA Vvf:AF TITtr,..TC ,LACENIE NT %VITEN RETURNED MTH TAG AND SALES SLIP TO T,ONSANTO. 122 he couldn't even tell what part of his body was touched, if it happened to be on the left side. In fact, as the tests pro- ceeded, it became increasingly difficult to think of W. I as a single person. His left hand kept doing things that his right hand deplored, if it was aware of them at all: Some- times he would try to pull his pants down with one hand, while pulling them up with the other. Once he threatened his wife with his left hand while his right hand tried to come to his wife's rescue and bring the belligerenthand un- der control. Gazzaniga, now a professor of psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, recalls that he was playing horseshoes with W. J. in the patient's back yard when W. J. picked up an ax with his left hand. Alarmed, Gazzaniga discreetly left the scene. "It was entirely likely that the more aggres- sive right hemisphere might be in control," he explains. And since he couldn't com- municate with it, he didn't want to be the victim in a test case of "which half-brain does society punish or ex- ecute." Only the left half-brain could speak. The right one remained forever mute, un- able to do any tasks that re- quired judgment or interpre- tation based on language. Of course, it was also unable to read. This meant that when- ever he was faced with a page of printed matter, W. J. could read only the words in the right half of his visual field, which projected to his left hemisphere. His right hemi- sphere seemed blind. Reading thus became very difficult and tiring for him. He also found it impossible to write any words with his left hand, al- though he had been able to do so with a little effort be- fore his operation. (He was thoroughly right-handed.) Indeed, from the early tests on W. J. it appeared at first that his right hemisphere was nearly imbecilic. But then came the day when W. J., with a pencil in his left hand, was shown the outline of a Greek cross. Swiftly and surely, he copied it, drawing the entire figure with one continuous line. When he was asked to copy the same cross with his clever right hand, hotveyer, he could not do it. He drew a few lines in a dis- connected way, as if he could see only one small part of the cross at a time, and was un- able to finish the pattern. With six separate strokes, he had made only half of the cross. Urged to do more, he added a few lines but then stopped before completing it and said he was done. It was clearly not a lack of motor control, but a defeat in con- ception?in striking contrast with the quick grasp of his nonverbal half. ("INCE, then, a tantalizing pic- ture of the brain's mute hemisphere has begun to emerge. Far from being stupid, the right half-brain is merely speechless and illiterate. It ac- tually perceives, feels and thinks in ways all its own, which in some cases may prove superior. The only prob- lem is to communicate with it nonverbally, as if it were an exceedingly intelligent animal. There are some revealing movies of the first split-brain patients to be studied in Sperry's lab. (By now, 18 pa- tients have been tested there.) One sequence shows a 12- year-old boy seated before a screen with his eyes fixed on a point in the center of it. When pictures of various ob- jects are flashed to the right or left of this point, each picture is seen only by the opposite hemisphere. A pic- ture is flashed in the boy's left visual field, which is con- trolled by his right half-brain, and the boy says he saw nothing. (That, of course, is the left hemisphere speaking.) But at the same time his left hand (controlled by his right hemisphere) searches behind the screen, rejecting a wide variety of objects, until it fi- nally finds, by touch, what it is looking for: a pair of scis- sors, to match the scissors that the right hemisphere saw on the screen. Jr other frames, W. J. is seen trying to arrange some colored blocks according to a diagram. He has no trouble at all doing this construction test with his left hand. But when his right hand tries, it gets hopelessly mixed up. Im- patiently, his left hand shoots forward to help him, but the experimenter pushes it back. The right hand continues turning the blocks this way and that, achieving nothing. Again the left hand tries to come to the rescue, only to be pushed back. Peeved, W. J. sits on that hand to keep it quiet. But he still can't do the block design with his right hand. When he is told he can try it with both hands, how- ever, the situation grows even worse: the two hands seem to fight for control, with the right hand tearing down what- ever the left hand has built. In spatial abilities, the right hemisphere is clearly tops. It also recognizes faces better than ,the dominant left, as Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 impd Cral It's not our tradition that makes great cigars. Its our cigars that made the tradition. The soul of a fine cigar is its tobacco, and tobaccocrops change in quality from year to year, like wines. So each spring we search anew for young tobaccos with a noble character. We find the tenderest leaves of the most luxurious plants in Java, Brazil, Santo Do- mingo and other faraway places of bright sun and gentle rain. We age them in our own humidified ware- houses. And we blend them, with skills handed from father to son, in the same vast hardwood chambers we used back in 1886, when Gold Label began the Tampa tradition of fine cigars. Because in some things, the old ways are best. See for yourself. Spend an evening with our tradition. .!'111171, 15Z9 3sc PALMA ? JAGUAR ? CORONA DE VILLE ? PAN.ETELA GRANDE ? LIGHT BRIGADE ? SWAGGER ? DINO 124 was shown recently with the aid of some very curious split faces oeveloped. by Dr. Col- wyn Trevarthen and Dr. Levy in collaboration with Dr. Sperry. They cut several pic- tures of faces in two, then stuck some unlikely combina- tions together?the left side of an old man with the right side of a young woman, for instance ? and flashed each . composite picture briefly on a screen. The split-brain pa- tients who were used as sub- jects for this experiment kept their eyes fixed on a red dot in the center of the composite, so that the half-face in their left visual field could be pro- jected only to their right hem- isphere, and vice versa. After each composite picture had appeared on the screen, the patients were shown a choice of faces and asked to "point to the face you saw." Whether they used their right or left hand, they always pointed to the face matching the half that had been flashed on the left side of the screen, the half that had projected to the right side of their brain. This indicates that recognizing faces is a special ability for which the right hemisphere is dominant, the researchers be- lieve. The left hemisphere never had a chance to select its candidate, since the right hemisphere always made the choice first. (Even in a split- brain patient, the right hemi- sphere can still control some movements of the right, as well as the left, hand.) When, instead of pointing, the pa- tients were asked to tell what they had seen, however, they made the opposite choice and described the half-face on the right, since that was the only thing their verbal side had seen. But they replied strangely, as if in a dream, explaining that they were confused. Sometimes they said, vaguely, that they didn't quite remember. However, they never once complained that there had been anything strange about the picture it- self. In. general, the right hemi- sphere seems better at grasp- ing the total picture, the Gestalt, of a scene. And this talent cannot be limited to people whose brains have been split. It must be a form of specialization in all peo- ple, resulting from a division of labor much like that which gave language to the left hemi- sphere. f'JOW many other special skills or talents are the province of the right hemisphere? Nobody knows. But many of man's more poetic or imagi- native aspects may stem from there. A few years ago, the Russian psychologist A. R. Luria described a composer who became speechless after a stroke, yet went on to com- pose better music than ever before. He could no longer write the notes, but he could play and remember them. Other people who lost the use of their right hemisphere remained able to speak, but could no longer remember melodies. So musical talent, too, appears to be largely located in the right hemi- sphere.. Nor is the right hemisphere totally wordless, after all. With the exception of W. J., who had had more damage to his brain before his operation, the patients examined in Sperry's lab have usually proved able to understand a few written or spoken words ?simple nouns and a few ele- mental verbs ? with their right hemisphere: Some could even add up to 10, as long as this was expressed nonverb- There is thus a lot of brain- power in the mute, inarticu- late hemisphere. Coupled with this comes a full complement of emotions. One part of the movie made in Sperry's lab shows a young woman begin- ning to smile in an embar- rassed way as the picture of a nude is flashed in her left visual field. When she is asked what was on the screen, however, the young woman replies that she saw nothing. Again the nude is flashed on the left side of the screen. This time the young woman blushes. A slow grin spreads across her face, and she even hides her face !in embarrass- ment. But when asked what she saw, she again insists that there was nothing there. Pressed to explain why she was laughing, all she can say is, "Oh, that funny machine!" Just as the right hemisphere can make the whole face laugh (though the left hemi- sphere does not know why), it can make it express dis- pleasure, even after the cor- pus callosum has been cut. "This is evidenced in frown- ing, wincing, negative head- shaking and the like, in test situations where the minor hemisphere hears the major making stupid verbal mis- takes?in other words, where the correct answer is known only to the minor hemisphere," notes Sperry. ?rhe minor hemisphere seems in such sit- uations to be definitely an- noyed by the erroneous vocal response of its better half." At such times, though, the verbal half-brain would be unable to tell why the face to which it is attached frowned Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 Go. boa Ion Blu bre iog for Ide spo: Mee 41), Cab!. San Coc.I Mediu o Ph Name Add,,, Add I. AID( Emery mit, Irn mow h 0 on op. Li enuiprml con Volk. In N Wr Emery Houl 1 M. C. C( P.rnt 500 Ho (.00,, ROC N from the ser after corn- ever nger ould Pm. the here I, but umber Went, rgely hemi- phere all. ge to ation, in sually nd a ords ele- their could ng as verb- brain- rticu- with ement of the 's lab begin- mbar- ure of cr left he is creen, ornan ?thing. led on screen. oman p.e-de - C even arrass- what insists there hy she an say chine!' isphere e face t hemi- why), 'ss dis- he cor- en cut. frown- e head- in test minor e major ? mis- S. where 5 known 'sphere," minor such sit- tely an- us vocal Dr half." ugh, the rould be the face frowndd Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 T40; ci# CABLE CAR UCLOTHIERS S?? rmsrisro, 11.1,1?11,oate ,rorr Nmer I Classic Handsome Lightweight Nylon Boating Jacket 12.93 Good-looking lightweight boating jacket of unlined ny- lon. Navy or Soft Medium Blue. Water repellent. Large breast pocket. Slip-on styl- ing with zippered shoulder for easy "into-and-out-of." 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The left hemisphere will usually deny that the left hand can do anything like retrieving, out of a grab bag, some object previously felt by that hand. When asked to do this for the first time, Sperry's subjects generally complain that they cannot "work with that hand," that the hand is "numb," or that they "just can't feel anything" or "can't do anything with it." If the left hand then pro- ceeds to do the job correctly, and this is pointed out to the patient, the speaking half will reply, "Well, I was just guess- ing," or, "Well, I must have done it unconsciously." It never even acknowledges the existence of its twin. Much mystery surrounds the behavior of the two half- brains in normal people. No- body knows whether these twin halves also ignore each other, actively inhibit each other, cooperate, compete or take turns at the controls. Sperry believes that they mostly cooperate, because of the 200 million fibers connect- ing them. But there are other opinions. The best clues come from children and adults who have had terrible accidents. If a child's left hemisphere is de- stroyed by a head injury or tumor before he is 5 or may- be even 10 years old, he can learn to speak again?some- times after a year of silence. His right half-brain will slowly take over the job. Not so for adults, who regain some speech after a stroke only if they have enough uninjured tissue remaining near the in- jury, on the left side. They cannot use their right half- brain for speaking. If a young child is injured in the right hemisphere, however, he will also experience difficulty with speech, though an adult would not. . "The young child has speech and language on both sides of his head," Gazzaniga be- lieves. "He is, to some extent, a split brain, whose hemi- spheres tend to develop in- dependently and duplicate each other." At birth, the corpus calfosum is only partly developed. It isn't until a child is about 2 years old that the link between his two hemispheres becomes really functional, so that everything experienced by one side is in- stantly available to the other. At that point, duplication of learning becomes less fre- quent, and true specialization begins. By the age of 10, domi- nance for speech?and prob- ably for other skills as well? is fixed. Tasks of synthesis, spatial perception and music apparently go to the right side. The left side gets all the sequential, verbal, ana- lytical, computerlike activi- ties. And, strangely, "excel- lence in one tends to interfere with top-level performance in the other," Sperry notes. To avoid bottlenecks, eventually most of the traffic flows in one direction, while few op- portunities arise for the other hemisphere to develop its own skills, The "traffic cop" in this case may well be the corpus callosum. The speech learned by the right hemi- sphere in early childhood is thus functionally suppressed. In time, it may be lost or perhaps erased. IN California recent- ly, two young psy- chologists have been study- ing how normal people use or suppress their hemi- spheres. When you write a letter, for instance, does the left side of your brain show more electrical activity than the right? By pasting elec trodes on the scalp of volun- teers, Drs. Robert Ornstein and David Galin of the Lang- ley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, in San Francisco, have found that this is indeed the case, at least in right- handed people. The left side of their brains produced the characteristic fast waves of attention or activity, while the right side relaxed with slow, high-amplitude waves, including the alpha rhythm, When the volunteers were asked simply to think about writing a letter, thus elimi- nating the effect of muscle movements, the pattern was exactly the same. Their right half-brain again relaxed, idle, and their left half showed fast waves. A similar pattern appeared when they read a column of print, did mental arithmetic, made up a list of verbs beginning with the let- ter "R," and completed sen- tences. But exactly the re- verse happened when they tried to reproduce designs with four-colored blocks, re- member musical tones or draw with an Etch-a-Sketch: This time, the left side of the brain had more alpha rhythms, as if it were turned off, while the right side showed fast waves. "Our opinion is that in most ordinary activities, we simply alternate between cognitive r14 DESIGNERS FURNITURE CENTER INTERNATIONAL INC. ; A OTTC OR.G THE OFG WALT UNIT, CUSTOM 1,CTE TO 'TOUR 5PEO,E,GAT,005 ITT STALESS 571/1 0,0 ANT 0, Cr, MATERIALS... AMOT.C. OTHER DT1.0 ORIGINALS.. ,5 T,E CCorst, Cr THE errett I711E15A1.0,1. GO,LEET,,, RE, ET..,TT P10511105, ERUETON 571.NIEE.5 S 1,11 VECTA T110010, E,ETETAS 0.57 LT,B0 5111,11,1 5551105 1101Sf rn,D .0,12er 79 FIND 77 .57 DCC 1....tr,..,ONA.L. 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The 1740 House iso country inn ? worthy of note because of the stout determination of the hosts to give visitors a place to stay that is quiet, charming and memorable. Twenty-four air-conditioned bed- rooms, each with bath and terrace, overlooking the Delaware River. Swimming, boating, fishing, tennis . . . and proprietors who know a thing or two about making you welcome. We'll he glad to send you Our brochure and driving directions. 1,LMBERVILLE, PA. IMA3 Tel.: 215-297-5581 modes, rather than integrat- ing them," declare Ornstein and Galin. "These modes corn- plement each Other but do not readily substitute for each other." Thus, when people are asked to describe a spiral staircase, they may begin by using words, hut soon switch to hand gestures. Ideally we should be able to turn on the appropriate hemisphere and turn off the other, whenever the task re- quires it. But in fact we can- not always do it. "Many per- sons are dominated by one mode or the other," observes Dr. Ornstein. "They either have difficulty in dealing with crafts anti body movements, or difficulty with language." Culture apparently has a lot to do with this. Children from poor black neighborhoods generally learn to use their right hemisphere more than the left?they outscore whites on tests of pattern recogni- tion from incomplete figures, for instance, but tend to do badly at verbal tasks. Other children, who have learned to verbalize everything, find this approach a hindrance when it comes to copy:rig a tennis serve or learning a dance step. Analyzing these movements verbally just slows them down and interferes with direct learning through the right hemisphere. "We don't have the flexi- bility we could have." says Ornstein. "We are under the illusion of having more con- trol than we really do." Early in life, it seems, many of us become shaped either as "left' hemisphere types," who func- tion in a largely verbal world, or as "right-hemisphere types," who rely more on non- verbal means of expression. These are two basically dif- ferent approaches to the world. So fundamental are these differences that they influ- ence even the direction in which our eyes turn when we think. This was discovered by Dr. Merle Day, of the V.A. hospital in Downey, Ill., but learned it from Dr. Ernest Hilgard, of Stanford Univer- sity, while talking to him about his work on hypnosis. Dr. Hilgard suddenly stared at me, leaning close to my eyes, and said, "Count the number of letters in Minne- sota." I did so, avoiding his gaze to concentrate better. "You looked to the right," announced Dr. Hilgard when I finished. This meant that my left hemisphere was more easily activated than my right, he explained. Since electrical stimulation in the right side of the brain makes both eyes veer to the left, and vice versa, looking to the right while thinking showed that the left hemisphere was pre- ferred. However, it also meant that I was not very hypnotiz- able, since various experi- ments have shown the right hemisphere to be more amen- able to hypnosis. People who look to the left tend to prefer nonverbal tasks, to favor their right hemisphere, and to be easily hypnotized. An unusu- ally large proportion of those who look to the right, as I did, turn out to be scientists, re- searchers, writers or others who spend much of their time at analytic tasks. When the habit of always using the same side of the brain becomes too pro- nounced, -it can narrow one's personality, Drs. Ornstein and Galin. believe. The two re- searchers are currently work- ing on a test -that may enable them to tell which half-brain a person chronically favors, and whether this habit inter- feres with the ability to shift dominance to the other side when necessary. They plan to try it out on people who are really specialized, like Ralph Nader (a left-hemisphere type who has no hobbies of any kind) and right-hemisphere potters, dancers and sculptors ("preferably people who have trouble with language"). They expect to find significant dif- ferences between the two groups. This shook' give them a tool with which to guide children or adults to new as- pects of themselves, to open them to a full range of ex- periences. VENTUALLY, they , hope people will learn to activate the left or right hemisphere vol- untarily. This has already been tried in their lab. With electrodes on their scalp to record changes in their brains' electrical activity, and ear- phones to inform them in- stantly of how they are do- ing, half a dozen volunteers have attempted to increase the asymmetry between their two half-brains. So far the re- sults appear promising: Nearly all of the volunteers have managed to activate one hemisphere more than the other, through feedback. They have produced as much dif- ference between their two hemispheres in this way as when actually concentrating on mental arithmetic or draw- ing. One subject produced even more asymmetry through biofeedback than through a change of tasks. Some training of this kind may prove particularly useful for children who suffer from what is generally called dys- Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 !exit disl. tie f intet or cent cann yion or C cum and even they right othet ordtn have At a Scien Or, ; their (welt perha of tl spher tha t an ac spatia the there on bc If y her ha\ Vir, Coi mo. her you nl glit hat Ce- ant tiz- eri- ght en- vIto tfer heir be JSU- lose did, re- hers ime rays ' the pro- me's and re- fork- table train vors, mer- shift r side an to 3 are lalph type ' any phere iplors have ,They it dif- two :them guide w as- open af ex- 1, they c will e left vol- dready . With alp to brains' d ear- nri in- ire do- Inteers ;crease n their the re- Nearly ; have e one in the k. They Ich dir- k. two way as itrating r draw- roduced through ough a us kind y useful er from led dys- Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 ? %qr./ ? IL) toxin, or specific learning disabilities?a variety of sub- tle perceptual difficulties that interfere with reading, writing or spelling. About 10 per cent of the nation's children cannot process the informa- tion received from their eyes or ears with sufficient ac- curacy. Despite normal vision and hearing, and normal or even superior intelligence, they may confuse left and right or up and down, or give other evidence of poor co- ordination. Their symptoms have baffled doctors for years. At a National Academy of Sciences conference in 1969, Dr. Sperry suggested that their problem may be "an overly strong, or extensive, perhaps bilateral, development of the verbal, major-hemi- sphere type of organization that tends to interfere with an adequate development of spatial gnosis [knowledge] in the minor hemisphere." If there is verbal development on both sides of the brain, the right hemisphere's special skills cannot fully emerge. At the same time the dual ver- bal systems may compete for dominance in reading or writ- ing, leading to what Gaz- zaniga calls a problem in decision-making?"Like a hus- band and wife trying to decide what to have for break- fast; one of them's got to take the lead." If these chil- dren don't have a well-estab- lished decision system, and then receive two different in- terpretations of the world, they may be confused or slowed down. Through prac- tice, they might learn to rely on one hemisphere tnore than the other, thus straightening Out. their lines of command. All these attempts at mak- ing better use of the hemi- spheres' specialties pale be- fore the urgency of aiding people who have lost one hail of their brain through a stroke. The most pathetic of these patients are those who (Continued on Page )32) Split-brain pioneer Dr. Roger Sperry observes a split-brain patient on videotape in his Cal Tech laboratory. 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THE NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE/SEPTEMBER 9, 1973 12 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2014/01/09: CIA-RDP79-00999A000200010094-2 11IP ?11 Advertisement To Lose 12 lbs. In Only 1 Week- Eat! Eat! Eat! NEW YORK ? Do you really want to lose weight? Not just tin itsi-bitsi ounce a week or a puny pound a month. but all that sagging flesh that adds years to your age. spoils your looks and destroys your figure! If you have failed to permanently slim down before, why don't you try what a number of successful fat-fighters have done and stuff your tummy full while watching the bulges disappear like magic overnite? flow would you like to wake up to- morrow and discover you're 3 pounds less? And more youthful and slimmer each succeeding day! The secret? It's easy once you forget all your old no- tions about dieting. 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Hartford Pub. Corp.) (Continued front Page 127) strain to speak, write, ex- press themselves, but cannot., because the left side of their brain has been damaged by a blocked blood vessel. With only their right hemisphere available, they are speechless. Yet there is some preliminary evidence that they may be trained to communicate again, in a rudimentary way. Surely the right hemisphere of a human brain is cleverer than the whole brain of a chimpanzee, Gazzaniga rea- soned. And if chimpanzees can be taught to converse through sign language or plas- tic symbols, as they appear to have been recently, why couldn't stroke victims learn to communicate as well? Fired up with enthusiasm after a visit to Santa Barbara-, where Dr. David Premack had taught a chimp to communi- cate by means of plastic sym- bols, Gazzaniga suggested to a graduate student, Andrea Velletri Glass, that she start reading up on aphasia (the inability to speak) and pre- pare for a great project. For the next two years, Mrs. Glass worked with a series of speechless patients at N.Y.LL's Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, half an hour a day, five days a week. Her first patient was an 84-year-old woman who could neither speak nor understand speech, but who could see that Mrs. Glass was young and smiling at her. She responded, smil- ing feebly back. Mrs. Glass then showed her some kitch- en objects: two identical pots, for .instance, and a spoon. She indicated that she want- ed the woman to pick out the two objects that were alike, and se repeated the procedure with two forks and a knife, and two bananas and an orange, liffer patient under- stood very rapidly. (With chimpanzees, teaching the concepts "same" and "differ- ent" is a long and tedious business.) Then came the first "word"?a green, doughnut- shaped cutout that Mrs. Glass had made out of construe- tion paper. Laying out the two identical pots on a table, she placed the cutout be- tween them. With her mobile, expressive face, she urged her patient to do the same. It did not take the old woman long to figure out that she should insert the cutout be- tween all objects that were the same. She did so, with her good left hand. Her re- ward: a big smile and expres- sions of joy on Mrs. Glass's face. Next she learned the word "different"?a hexagon made of orange paper. With- in two months, she had a vocabulary of some 12 sym- bols that she could pick out and place in the appropriate order to make simple state- ments, such as "Andrea pours water." She knew nouns, neg- atives and a question mark, but verbs were extremely dif- ficult. "We've had 12 patients so far," says Gazzaniga, "and it works! That is, it works if they are still bright-eyed. If they are emotionally flat, if they don't want your smile, why should they arrange those shapes to please you?" And the success of the pro- cedure also depends on wheth- er the patient's memory is still good?some were ap- proaching senility at the time of their strokes. Dr. Premack's chimpanzees have learned much more lan- guage than these patients, but only after highly inten- sive lessons (several hours a day for two years) rather than short lessons for two months. This raises the pos- sibility that the stroke victims, too, could develop a working (Continued on Page 1.36) Solutions to Lust Week's Puzzles 4.0 AMSEL GREENE: PULLET SUR- PRISES ? From monochrome and polychrome, words within his experience, a pu- pil rightly as- D A Os D?TE -1 I NT R A S..CAL ',TORS AIN-.Er/EiR.075 coos wo E-N TIVE.N-U-R E U 0U5AR 5 ER .1.5.1 P_.5 K S-E J4 A T.E OKK.Ofi it asic I t ST S P t A Old A.O U 0(5 M-A.PM1B.0 N.K NOSY gb L ? 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Enriched and individualized academic programs. . Daily extra.curricular activities and instructional assistance. ? Excellent teachers and supervision. . College guidance that assures expert placement. ? Convenient public and private transportation. BAYSIOE, N.Y. 113S4 I NASSAU: S4 FULTON AVENUE HEMPSTEAD, LT, 11500 TEL: (112) BA 4-4401 TEL: (51G) 538.5512 CUEENS: 51.35 220th STREET *EIALLEN CENTER FOR EDU('A'flON * ? SPri-ing IVertichenter A- lower ('ortneefient ? The private day school for children ? ? AGES 5-17, GRADES K-12 ? ? e ? e * ? ? A full academic program, plus on-going counseling services for ? O children and parents. ? ? A thorough psychodiagnostic service, including psychiatric, psycho' ? educational, neurological, speech and optometric evaluations, ? ? 9 Individual tutoring durIng or after school hours. ? ?The Hallen Center's program is eligible for approval under P.L. 4407 ? ? fa ? Contact: Dr. Leonard Kingsley, Director (914) 939-0024 ? 6+4 Ora 589, 258 Willett Avenue, Port Chester, N.Y. 10573 *** with learning disabilities and minor emotional problems THE FOUNDED 1874 EllAILST7] SCHOOL Ca-educational, College Preparatory, Grades 1-12, Small classes. Transporta- tion available. Accredited by The Middle States Association and The New York State Board of Recent,. 229 N. BROADWAY, YONKERS, N.Y. 10701 (914) YO 3.5195 FRENCH NURSERY AND KINDERGARTEN (From 3 years old) illy,: your children the opportunity to learn French while at play. They can acquire perfect pronunciation for future cultural and social advantages by starting early. ? From Hursery through Al) Grades ? Small Classes, Individual Guidance LYCEUM KENNEDY 1.yeee Moderate Francais 114 E. 76th St., N.Y., UN 1-8990 ?the school of open concepts `.);-!Fic) a-,--, - j i AN OPEN EDUCATION EXPERIENCE Nursery through Elementary o FOREIGN LANGUAGE?BERNIE TAUGHT fl SMALL CLASSES ? MALE/FEMALE TEACHERS O ACADEMIC AND CREATIVE WORKSHOPS 11 _ 38-25 213th ST., BAYS1DE, N.Y., Tel: 631-3601 BORO HALL ACADEll-r "ALWAYS IN THE LEAD" IONYSOS School of Europe and Americo 336W. 95 St. ( Riverside Dr.) " for oges 3.17 A Motral