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g Approved For Release !WI:13/06/24 : CIA-RDP794315999A000300060005-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 64, NO. 3, MARCH 1976 A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research HAROLD E. PUTHOFF, MEMBER, IEEE, AND RUSSFI TARG, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE Abstract?For more than 100 years, scientists have attempted to determine the truth or falsity of claims for the existence of a perceptual channel whereby certain individuals are able to perceive and describe remote data not presented to any known sense. This paper presents an outline of the history of scientific inquiry into such so-called paranor- mal perception and surveys the current state of the art in parapsycho- logical research in the United States and abroad. The nature of this perceptual channel is examined in a series of experiments carried out in the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory of Stanford Research Institute. The perceptual modality most extensively investigated is the ability of both experienced subjects and inexperienced volunteers to view, by innate mental processes, remote geographical or technical targets including buildings, roads, and laboratory apparatus. The ac- cumulated data indicate that the phenomenon is not a sensitive func- tion of distance, and Faraday cage shielding does not in any apparent way degrade the quality and accuracy of perception. On the basis of this research, some areas of physics are suggested from which a descrip- tion or explanation of the phenomenon could be forthcoming. I. INTRODUCTION "-TT IS THE PROVINCE of natural science to investigate nature, impartially and without prejudice" [1]. Nowhere in scientific inquiry has this dictum met as great a chal- lenge as in the area of so-called extrasensory perception (ESP), the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by the usual sensory processes. Such phenomena, although under scientific consideration for over a century, have historically been fraught with unreliability and controversy, and validation of the phe- nomena by accepted scientific methodology has been slow in coming. Even so, a recent survey conducted by the British publication New Scientist revealed that 67 percent of nearly 1500 responding readers (the majority of whom are working scientists and technologists) considered ESP to be an estab- lished fact or a likely possibility, and 88 percent held the investigation of ESP to be a legitimate scientific undertaking [21 A review of the literature reveals that although experiments by reputable researchers yielding positive results were begun oNer a century ago (e.g., Sir William Crookes' study of D. D. Home, 1860's) [3], many consider the study of these phe- nomena as only recently emerging from the realm of quasi- science. One reason for this is that, despite experimental results, no satisfactory theoretical construct had been advanced to correlate data or to predict new experimental outcomes. Consequently, the area in question remained for a long time in the recipe stage reminiscent of electrodynamics before the Manuscript received July 25, 1975; revised November 7, 1975. The submission of this paper was encouraged after review of an advance proposal. This work was supported by the Foundation for Parasensory Investigation and the Parapsychology Foundation, New York, NY; the Institute of Noetic Sciences, Palo Alto, CA; and the National Aero- nautics and Space Administration, under Contract NAS 7-100. The authors are with the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA 94025. 329 unification brought about by the work of Ampere, Faraday, and Maxwell. Since the early work, however, we have seen the development of information theory, quantum theory, and neurophysiological research, and these disciplines provide powerful conceptual tools that appear to bear directly on the issue. In fact, several physicists (Section V) are now of the opinion that these phenomena are not at all inconsistent with the framework of modern physics: the often-held view that observations of this type are a priori incompatible with known laws is erroneous in that such a concept is based on the naive realism prevalent before the development of quantum theory. In the emerging view, it is accepted that research in this area can be conducted so as to uncover not just a catalog of inter- esting events, but rather patterns of cause-effect relationships of the type that lend themselves to analysis and hypothesis in the forms with which we are familiar in the physical sciences. One hypothesis is that information transfer under conditions of sensory shielding is mediated by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves, a proposal that does not seem to be ruled out by any obvious physical or biological facts. Further, the development of information theory makes it possible to characterize and quantify the performance of a communications channel regardless of the underlying mechanism. For the past three years, we have had a program in the Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory of the Stan- ford Research Institute (SRI) to investigate those facets of human perception that appear to fall outside the range of well- understood perceptual/processing capabilities. Of particular interest is a human information-accessing capability that we call "remote viewing." This phenomenon pertains to the ability of certain individuals to access and describe, by means of mental processes, information sources blocked from ordi- nary perception, and generally accepted as secure against such access. In particular, the phenomenon we have investigated most extensively is the ability of a subject to view remote geograph- ical locations up to several thousand kilometers distant from his physical location (given only a known person on whom to target).' We have carried out more than fifty experiments under controlled laboratory conditions with several individuals whose remote perceptual abilities have been developed suf- ficiently to allow them at times to describe correctly- often in great detail?geographical or technical material such as build- ings, roads, laboratory apparatus, and the like. As observed in the laboratory, the basic phenomenon appears to cover a range of subjective experiences variously referred to Our initial work in this area was reported in Nature 141, and re- printed in the IEEE Commun. Soc. Newsletter, vol. 13, Jan. 1975 Copyright ?1976 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Printed in U.S.A. Annals No. 603PR004 Approved For Release 2003/06/24: CIA-RDP79100999A000300060005-1 Approved For Release 2003/06/24: CIA-RDP79-0099#A000300060005-1 330 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, MARCH 1976 Fig. 1. Airport in San Andres, Colombia, used as remote-viewing target, along with sketch produced by subject in California. in the literature as autoscopy (in the medical literature); exteri- orization or disassociation (psychological literature); simple clairvoyance, traveling clairvoyance, or out-of-body experience (parapsychological literature); or astral projection (occult liter- ature). We choose the term "remote viewing" as a neutral descriptive term free from prior associations and bias as to mechanisms. The development at SRI of a successful experimental pro- cedure to elicit this capability has evolved to the point where persons such as visiting government scientists and contract monitors, with no previous exposure to such concepts, have learned to perform well; and subjects who have trained over a one-year period have performed excellently under a variety of experimental conditions. Our accumulated data thus indicate that both specially selected and unselected persons can be assisted in developing remote perceptual abilities up to a level of useful information transfer. In experiments of this type, we have three principal findings. First, we have established that it is possible to obtain signifi- cant amounts of accurate descriptive information about remote locations. Second, an increase in the distance from a few meters up to 4000 km separating the subject from the scene to be perceived does not in any apparent way degrade the quality or accuracy of perception. Finally, the use of Faraday cage electrical shielding does not prevent high-quality descrip- tions from being obtained. To build a coherent theory for the explanation of these phenomena, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of what constitutes the phenomena. In this paper, we first briefly summarize previous efforts in this field in Section II. We then present in Sections III and IV the results of a series of more Approved For Release 2003/06/24 ; than fifty experiments with nine subjects carried out in our own laboratory, which represent a sufficiently stable data base to permit testing of various hypotheses concerning the func- tioning of this channel. Finally, in Section V, we indicate those areas of physics and information theory that appear to be relevant to an understanding of certain aspects of the phenomena. First, however, we present an illustrative example generated in an early pilot experiment. As will be clear from our later discussion, this is not a "best-ever" example, but rather a typical sample of the level of proficiency that can be reached and that we have come to expect in our research. Three subjects participated in a long-distance experiment focusing on a series of targets in Costa Rica. These subjects said they had never been to Costa Rica. In this experiment, one of the experimenters (Dr. Puthoff ) spent ten days traveling through Costa Rica on a combination business/pleasure trip. This information was all that was known to the subjects about the traveler's itinerary. The experiment called for Dr. Puthoff to keep a detailed record of his location and activities, includ- ing photographs of each of seven target days at 1330 PDT. A total of twelve daily descriptions were collected before the traveler's return: six responses from one subject, five from another, and one from a third. The third subject who submitted the single response supplied a drawing for a day in the middle of the series. (The subject's response, together with the photographs taken at the site, are shown in Fig. 1). Although Costa Rica is a mountainous country, the subject unexpectedly perceived the traveler at a beach and ocean setting. With some misgiving, he described an airport on a sandy beach and an airstrip with the ocean at the CIA-RDP79-00999A000300060005-1 Approved For Release 2003106/24 t? CIA-RDP79-00999A000300060005-1 THOFF AND TARG: PERCEPTUAL CHANNEL FOR INFORMATION TRANSFER eni (correct). An airport building also was drawn, and shown to have a large rectangular overhang (correct). The traveler hal taken an unplanned one-day side trip to an offshore island and at the time of the experiment had just disembarked from a plane at a small island airport as described by the subject 4000 km away. The sole discrepancy was that the subject's drawing showed a Quonset-hut type of building in place of the rectangular structure. The above description was chosen as an example to illustrate a major point observed a number of times throughout the program to be described. Contrary to what may be expected, a subject's description does not necessarily portray what may reasonably be expected to be correct (an educated or "safe" guess), but often runs counter even to the subject's own expectations. We wish to stress again that a result such as the above is not unusual. The remaining submissions in this experiment pro- vided further examples of excellent correspondences between target and response. (A target period of poolside relaxation was identified; a drive through a tropical forest at the base of a -runcated volcano was described as a drive through a jungle below a large bare table mountain; a hotel-room target descrip- tion, including such details as rug color, was correct; and so on.) So as to determine whether such matches were simply fortuitous?that is, could reasonably be expected on the basis of chance alone?Dr. Puthoff was asked after he had returned to blind match the twelve descriptions to his seven target locations. On the basis of this conservative evaluation proce- dure, which vastly underestimates the statistical significance of the individual descriptions, five correct matches were ob- tained. This number of matches is significant at p = 0.02 by exact binomial calculation.2 The observation of such unexpectedly high-quality descrip- tions early in our program led to a large-scale study of the phenomenon at SRI under secure double-blind conditions (i.e., target unknown to experimenters as well as subjects), with independent random target selection and blind judging. The results, presented in Sections III and IV, provide strong evi- dence for the robustness of this phenomenon whereby a human perceptual modality of extreme sensitivity can detect complex remote stimuli. II. BACKGROUND Although we are approaching the study of these phenomena as physicists, it is not yet possible to separate ourselves entirely from the language of the nineteenth century when the labora- tory study of the paranormal was begun. Consequently, we continue to use terms such as "paranormal," "telepathy," and the like. However, we intend only to indicate a process of information transfer under conditions generally accepted as secure against such transfer and with no prejudice or occult assumptions as to the mechanisms involved. As in any other scientific pursuit, the purpose is to collect the observables that result from experiments and to try to determine the functional relationships between these observables and the laws of physics as they are currently understood. 2The probability of a correct daily match by chance for any given transcript is p = T . Therefore, the probability of at least five correct matches by chance out of twelve tries can be calculated from 12 12! I i 16\(12-i) P (12- 0! 7 7 = 0.02. i=5 331 Organized research into so-called psychic functioning began roughly in the time of J. J. Thomson, Sir Oliver Lodge, and Sir William Crookes, all of whom took part in the founding of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in 1882 in England. Crookes, for example, carried out his principal investigations with D. D. Home, a Scotsman who grew up in America and returned to England in 1855 [3]. According to the notebooks and published reports of Crookes, Home had demonstrated the ability to cause objects to move without touching them. We should note in passing that, Home, unlike most subjects, worked only in the light and spoke out in the strongest pos- sible terms against the darkened seance rooms popular at the time [5] . Sir William Crookes was a pioneer in the study of electrical discharge in gases and in the development of vacuum tubes, some types of which still bear his name. Although everything Crookes said about electron beams and plasmas was accepted, nothing he said about the achievements of D. D. Home ever achieved that status. Many of his colleagues, who had not observed the experiments with Home, stated publicly that they thought Crookes had been deceived, to which Crookes angrily responded: Will not my critics give me credit for some amount of common sense? Do they not imagine that the obvious precautions, which occur to them as soon as they sit down to pick holes in my experiments, have occurred to me also in the course of my pro- longed and patient investigation? The answer to this, as to all other objections is, prove it to be an error, by showing where the error lies, or if a trick, by showing how the trick is per- formed. Try the experiment fully and fairly. If then fraud be found, expose it; if it be a truth, proclaim it. This is the only scientific procedure, and it is that I propose steadily to pursue [31. In the United States, scientific interest in the paranormal was centered in the universities. In 1912, John Coover [6] was established in the endowed Chair of Psychical Research at Stanford University. In the 1920's, Harvard University set up research programs with George Estabrooks and L. T. Troland [7] , [8] . It was in this framework that, in 1930, William McDougall invited Dr. J. B. Rhine and Dr. Louisa Rhine to join the Psychology Department at Duke University [91. For more than 30 years, significant work was carried out at Rhine's Duke University Laboratory. To examine the existence of paranormal perception, he used the now-famous ESP cards containing a boldly printed picture of a star, cross, square, circle, or wavy lines. Subjects were asked to name the order of these cards in a freshly shuffled deck of twenty-five such cards. To test for telepathy, an experimenter would look at the cards one at a time, and a subject suitably separated from the sender would attempt to determine which card was being viewed. Dr. J. B. Rhine together with Dr. J. G. Pratt carried out thousands of experiments of this type under widely varying conditions [10] . The statistical results from these experiments indicated that some individuals did indeed possess a paranor- mal perceptual ability in that it was possible to obtain an arbitrarily high degree of improbability by continued testing of a gifted subject. The work of Rhine has been challenged on many grounds, however, including accusations of improper handling of statis- tics, error, and fraud. With regard to the statistics, the general consensus of statisticians today is that if fault is to be found in Rhine's work, it would have to be on other than statistical grounds [11]. With regard to the accusations of fraud, the Approved For Release 2093/06/24 : CIA-r9700999A000300060005-1 3.2 Approved For Release 2003/06/24 : CIA-RDP79-00969APAOL3Np6g00?4-1IEEE, MARCH 196 tr ost celebrated case of criticism of Rhine's work, that of G R. Price [12] , ended 17 years after it began when the ai cusation of fraud was retracted by its author in an article ei titled "Apology to Rhine and Soal," published in the same jc urnal in which it was first put forward [13]. It should also 134 noted that parapsychological researchers themselves re- c ntly exposed fraud in their own laboratory when they er countered it [14]. kt the end of the 1940's, Prof. S. G. Soal, an English mathe- m itician working with the SPR, had carried out hundreds of card guessing experiments involving tens of thousands of calls [15]. Many of these experiments were carried out over ex- te ided distances. One of the most notable experiments was cc nducted with Mrs. Gloria Stewart between London and Antwerp. This experiment gave results whose probability of occurring by chance were less than 10-8. With' the publication of Modern Experiments in Telepathy by Soal and Bateman (b )th of whom were statisticians), it appeared that card guess- ink, experiments produced significant results, on the average.3 he most severe criticism of all this work, a criticism diffi- cu t to defend against in principle, is that leveled by the well- known British parapsychological critic C. E. M. Hansel [17] , wl o began his examination of the ESP hypothesis with the stated assumption, "In view of the a priori arguments against it we know in advance that telepathy, etc., cannot occur." Therefore, based on the "a priori unlikelihood" of ESP, Hansel's examination of the literature centered primarily on th( possibility of fraud, by subjects or investigators. He reN iewed in depth four experiments which he regarded as providing the best evidence of ESP: the Pearce-Pratt distance series [18] ; the Pratt-Woodruff [19] series, both conducted at Duke; and Soal's work with Mrs. Stewart and Basil Shackle- toi [15] , as well as a more recent series by Soal and Bowden [211]. Hansel showed, in each case, how fraud could have been committed (by the experimenters in the Pratt-Woodruff and Soal-Bateman series, or by the subjects in the Pearce-Pratt ane Soal-Bowden experiments). He gave no direct evidence that fraud was committed in these experiments, but said, "If the result could have arisen through a trick, the experiment must be considered unsatisfactory proof of ESP, whether or no, it is finally decided that such a trick was in fact used" [17, p. 18]. As discussed by Honorton in a review of the field 121], Hansel's conclusion after 241 pages of careful scrutiny therefore was that these experiments were not "fraud-proof" and therefore in principle could not serve as conclusive proof of ISP. Even among the supporters of ESP research and its results, thee remained the consistent problem that many successful subjects eventually lost their ability and their scores gradually drifted toward chance results. This decline effect in no way erased their previous astronomical success; but it was a disap- pointment since if paranormal perception is a natural ability, one would like to see subjects improving with practice rather than getting worse. One of the first successful attempts to overcome the decline effect was in Czechoslovakia in the work of Dr. Milan Ryzl, a chemist with the Institute of Biology of the Czechoslovakian Academy of Science and also an amateur hypnotist [22]. Through the use of hypnosis, together with feedback and 3Recently, some of the early Soal experiments have been criticized 1161. However, his long-distance experiments cited here were judged in a double-blind fashion of the type that escaped the criticism of the earl/ experiments. reinforcement, he developed several outstanding subjects, one of whom, Pavel Stepanek, has worked with experimenters around the world for more than 10 years. Ryzl's pioneering work came as an answer to the questions raised by the 1956 CIBA Foundation conference on extra- sensory perception. The CIBA Chemical Company has annual meetings on topics of biological and chemical interest, and that same year they assembled several prominent parapsy- chologists to have a state-of-the-art conference on ESP [231. The conference concluded that little progress would be made in parapsychology research until a repeatable experiment could be found; namely, an experiment that different experi- menters could repeat at will and that would reliably yield a statistically significant result. Ryzl had by 1962 accomplished that goal. His primary con- tribution was a decision to interact with the subject as a per- son, to try to build up his confidence and ability. His protocol depended on "working with" rather than "running" his sub- jects. Ryzl's star subject, Pavel Stepanek, has produced highly significant results with many contemporary researchers [24] - [29]. In these experiments, he was able to tell with 60-percent reliability whether a hidden card was green side or white side up, yielding statistics of a million to one with only a thousand trials. As significant as such results are statistically, the information channel is imperfect, containing noise along with the signal. When considering how best to use such a channel, one is led to the communication theory concept of the introduction of redundancy as a means of coding a message to combat the effects of a noisy channel [30]. A prototype experiment by Ryzl using such techniques has proved to be successful. RyzI had an assistant select randomly five groups of three digits each. These 15 digits were then encoded into binary form and translated into a sequence of green and white cards in sealed envelopes. By means of repeated calling and an elaborate majority vote protocol, Ryzl was able after 19 350 calls by Stepanek (averaging 9 s per call) to correctly identify all 15 numbers, a result significant at p = 10-15 The hit rate for individual calls was 61.9 percent, 11 978 hits, and 7372 misses [31]. Note Added in Proof: It has been brought to our attention that a similar procedure was recently used to transmit without error the word "peace" in International Morse Code (J. C. Carpenter, "Toward the effective utilization of enhanced weak-signal ESP effects," presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York, NY, Jan. 27,1975). The characteristics of such a channel can be specified in accordance with the precepts of communication theory. The bit rate associated with the information channel is calculated from [30] R H(x)- Hy(X) (1) where H(x) is the uncertainty of the source message containing symbols with a priori probability pi: 2 pi log2 pi (2) i=1 and H (X) is the conditional entropy based on the a posteriori probabilities that a received signal was actually transmitted: 2 Hy(X) = E p(i, i) log2 Pi(i)- i,j=i Approved For Release 2003/06/24: CIA-RDPJ-00999A000300060005-1 (3) PU HOF F AND TARGAPPEPWRICEPraikkeLabS940941016a4rOPI#BPPF719400999A000300060005-1 Fc r Stepanek's run, with pi= 1, pj(j)= 0.619, and an average time of 9 s per choice, we have a source uncertainty H(x)= I bit and a calculated bit rate R 0.041 bit/symbol or RIT 0.0046 bit/s. (Since the 15-digit number (49.8 bits) actually was transmitted at the rate of 2.9 X 10-4 bit/s, an increase in bit rate by a fat tor of about 20 could be expected on the basis of a coding scl eme more optimum than that used in the experiments. See, for example, Appendix A.) I Jr. Charles Tart at the University of California has written ex ensively on the so-called decline effect. He considers that ing subjects attempt to guess cards, or perform any other re r etitious task for which they receive no feedback, follows the classical technique for deconditioning any response. He thi s considers card guessing "a technique for extinguishing psy chic functioning in the laboratory" [32] . 1 art's injunctions of the mid-sixties were being heeded at Mamonides Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, by a team of researchers that included Dr. Montague Ullman, who was director of research for the hospital; Dr. Stanley Krippner; and, later, Charles Honorton. These three worked together for several years on experiments on the occurrence of telepathy in dreams. In the course of a half-dozen experimental series, they found in their week-long sessions a number of subjects who had dreams that consistently were highly descriptive of pictorial ma lerial that a remote sender was looking at throughout the nig at. This work is described in detail in the experimenters' book Dream Telepathy [33]. Honorton is continuing work of his free-response type in which the subject has no precon- cei red idea as to what the target may be. Li his more recent work with subjects in the waking state, Ho rorton is providing homogeneous stimulation to the subject wh ) is to describe color slides viewed by another person in a rernote room. In this new work, the subject listens to white nolie via earphones and views an homogeneous visual field imposed through the use of Ping-Pong ball halves to cover the subiect's eyes in conjunction with diffuse ambient illumina- ti() a In this so-called Ganzfeld setting, subjects are again able, now in the waking state, to give correct and often highly aci Irate descriptions of the material being viewed by the SCE ler [34]. Ii Honorton's work and elsewhere, it apparently has been the step away from the repetitive forced-choice experiment tha has opened the way for a wide variety of ordinary people to lemonstrate significant functioning in the laboratory, with- ow being bored into a decline effect. 1 his survey would be incomplete if we did not indicate cer ain aspects of the current state of research in the USSR. It is clear from translated documents and other sources [35] that many laboratories in the USSR are engaged in paranormal research. Since the 1930's, in the laboratory of L. Vasiliev (Leningrad Ins itute for Brain Research), there has been an interest in the use of telepathy as a method of influencing the behavior of a per on at a distance. In Vasiliev's book Experiments in Mental Su3gestion, he makes it very clear that the bulk of his labora- tor i's experiments were aimed at long-distance communica- do I combined with a form of behavior modification; for ex, mple, putting people at a distance to sleep through hyp- no: is [36] . 333 Similar behavior modification types of experiments have been carried out in recent times by I. M. Kogan, Chairman of the Bioinformation Section of the Moscow Board of the Popov Society. He is a Soviet engineer who, until 1969, published extensively on the theory of telepathic communication [37] - [40]. He was concerned with three principal kinds of experi- ments: mental suggestion without hypnosis over short dis- tances, in which the percipient attempts to identify an object, mental awakening over short distances, in which a subject is awakened from a hypnotic sleep at the "beamed" suggestion from the hypnotist; and long-range (intercity) telepathic com- munication. Kogan's main interest has been to quantify the channel capacity of the paranormal channel. He finds that the bit rate decreases from 0.1 bit/s for laboratory experiments to 0.005 bit/s for his 1000-km intercity experiments. In the USSR, serious consideration is given to the hypothesis that telepathy is mediated by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic propagation. (The pros and cons of this hypothesis are discussed in Section V of this paper.) In general, the entire field of paranormal research in the USSR is part of a larger one concerned with the interaction between electromagnetic fields and living organisms [41] [42] At the First International Congress on Parapsychology and Psychotronics in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1973, for example, Kholodov spoke at length about the susceptibility 01 living systems to extremely low-level ac and dc fields. Ile described conditioning effects on the behavior of fish resulting from the application of 10 to 100 ?W of RF to their tank [431 The USSR take these data seriously in that the Soviet safety re- quirements for steady-state microwave exposure set limits at 10 pW/cm2, whereas the United States has set a stead" state limit of 10 mW/cm2 [44] . Kholodov spoke also about the nonthermal effects of microwaves on animals' central nervous systems. His experiments were very carefully carried out and are characteristic of a new dimension in paranormal research The increasing importance of this area in Soviet reseal ch was indicated recently when the Soviet Psychological Association issued an unprecedented position paper calling on the Soviet Academy of Sciences to step up efforts in this area [451 They recommended that the newly formed Psychological Institute within the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Psychological Institute of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences review the area and consider the creation of a new lab,,ratory within one of the institutes to study persons with unusual abilities. They also recommended a comprehensive evaluation of experiments and theory by the A::adeiny of Sciences' Insti- tute of Biophysics and Institute for the Problems of Informa tion Transmission. The Soviet research, along with other behavioristicalF., oriented work, suggests that in addition to obtaining overt responses such as verbalizations or key presses from a subject it should be possible to obtain objective evidence of informa tion transfer by direct measurement of physiological parame- ters of a subject. Kamiya, Lindsley, Pribram, Silverman, Walter, and others brought together to discuss physiological methods to detect ESP functioning, have suggested that a whole range of electroencephalogram (EEG) responses ,rich as evoked potentials (EP's), spontaneous EEG, and the contingent negative variation (CNV) might be sensitive indicators of the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by usual sensory processes [46]. Early experimentation of this type was carried cut by Douglas Dean at the Newark College of Engineering. In his Approved For Release 2003/06/24: CIA-R003-00999A000300060005-1 Approved For Release 2003/06/24 se; rch for physiological correlates of information transfer, he us d the plethysmograph to measure changes in the blood vcnume in a finger, a sensitive indicator of autonomic nervous sy ;tem functioning [47]. A plethysmographic measurement vy s made on the finger of a subject during telepathy experi- m-nts. A sender looked at randomly selected target cards consisting of names known to the subject, together with names ur known to him (selected at random from a telephone book). TI e names of the known people were contributed by the sub- je? t and were to be of emotional significance to him. Dean fo and significant changes in the chart recording of finger blood volume when the remote sender was looking at those names known to the subject as compared with those names raildomly chosen. 'Three other experiments using the physiological approach have now been published. The first work by Tart [48], a later work by Lloyd [49], and most recently the work by the authors [4] all follow a similar procedure. Basically, a subject is closeted in an electrically shielded room while his LEG is recorded. Meanwhile, in another laboratory, a second person is stimulated from time to time, and the time of that stimulus is marked on the magnetic-tape recording of the subject's EEG. The subject does not know when the remote stimulus periods are as compared with the nonstimulus periods. With regard to choice of stimulus for our own experimenta- tion, we noted that in previous work others had attempted, without success, to detect evoked potential changes in a sub- ject's EEG in response to a single stroboscopic flash stimulus observed by another subject [50]. In a discussion of that experiment, Kamiya suggested that because of the unknown temporal characteristics of the information channel, it might be more appropriate to use repetitive bursts of light to increase Ulu probability of detecting information transfer [51]. There- fo-e, in our study we chose to use a stroboscopic flash train of 10-s duration as the remote stimulus. n the design of the study, we assumed that the application of the remote stimulus would result in responses similar to thuse obtained under conditions of direct stimulation. For ex umple, when an individual is stimulated with a low- frequency (< 30 Hz) flashing light, the EEG typically shows a decrease in the amplitude of the resting rhythm and a diving of the brain waves at the frequency of the flashes [52]. We hypothesized that if we stimulated one subject in this manner (a putative sender), the EEG of another subject in a remote room with no flash present (a receiver) might show changes in alpha (9-11 Hz) activity and possibly an EEG driving similar to that of the sender, or other coupling to the sender's EEG [53]. The receiver was seated in a visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded, double-walled steel room about 7 m from the sender. The details of the experiment, consisting of seven runs of thirty-six 10-s trials each (twelve periods each for 0-Hz, 6-Hz, and 16-Hz stimuli, randomly intermixed), are presented in [4]. This experiment proved to be successful. The receiver's alpha activity (9-11 Hz) sh awed a significant reduction in average power (-24 percent, p (0.04) and peak power (-28 percent, p