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Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 FO ---------- - - SG1I Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET Copy No. 3 Final Report NOVEL BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION TRANSFER MECHANISMS (NBIT)(U) January 14, 1976 Document No. Contract No. XG-4208(54-20)75S AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA A Division of The Garrett Corporation 2525 W. 190th Street, Torrance, Calif. 90509 SG1A SG1A Approved For Release 200 CW K .CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED Final Report NOVEL BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION TRANSFER MECHANISMS (NBIT)(U) January 14, 1976 Document No. Contract No. XG-4208(54-20)75S Prepared by E.C. Wortz, Ph.D. A.H. Bauer, B. S. R.F. Blackwelder, Ph.D. J . W. Eerkens, Ph.D. A.J. Saur, Ph.D. AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA A Division of The Garrett Corporation 2525 W. 190th Street, Torrance, Calif. 90509 SG1A SG1A Approved For Release 2002/10/21SEfEIR TDP79-00999A000300070001-4 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release (A-RDP79-OO999AOOO3OOO7OOO1-4 Section Page 1 Abstract (U) 1-1 2 introduction, overview, and Conclusions (U) 2-1 3 Application of Advanced Statistical Theories to Novel Biophysical Information Transfer Mechanisms (S) 3-1 4 Electrostatics of Telekinesis (S) 4-1 5 Remote Physiological Sensors (S) 5-1 6 Sensitivity of Human Subjects to Magnetic Fields (U) 6-1 7 Biophysical Information Carrier Mechanisms (S) 7-1 8 Miscellaneous Observations (U) 8-1 9 Speculations on the Nature of Soviet Laboratories Investigating NBIT (S) 9-1 10 Recommendations for Future Research and Development (U) 10-1 Appendix 3ibIiography (U) A-1 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET SECTION 1 ABSTRACT (U) (S) This report presents the results of a review of Soviet research on the biophysics of parapsychological processes. The reviewers centered their attention on novel biophysical information transfer (NBIT) mechanisms. The body of the report treats Soviet application of statistical theories, research done on electrostatics, the development of remote sensors, hypoth- esized carrier mechanisms, human sensitivity to magnetic fields, and performance training to improve?NBIT. Speculations are made with respect to Soviet research organization and as to the direction of future R&D. Conclusions are drawn concerning Soviet progress in understanding and applying NBIT mechanisms. Approved For Release 2002/1~Fn~TA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 207ORET: CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1-2 SECRET Approved For Release T28SP 16/~~ CIA IFAI-kDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET INTRODUCTION, OVERVIEW, AND CONCLUSIONS (U) (S) This document presents the results of a study effort conducted under Contract No. XG-420$(54-20)75S The purpose of the study was to review Soviet research literature concerning the biophysical aspects of parapsychology. The body of this report presents salient features of the study. It is assumed that the readers have a background understanding of parapsychology. In addition, it is assumed that the reader also Is familiar with the questions posed by physical, physiological, biological, psychological, and mathematical approaches to this topic. A distillation of the relevant background material can be obtained from a review of this field presented In Biophysical Aspects of Parapsychology, AiResearch Report No. 75-11096, January 20, 1975, which was prepared in response to the RFP for this study. The technical team utilized in this study and their disciplines are listed below: E.C. Wortz, Ph.D., Psychology/Physiology, Program Manager J. W. Eerkens, Ph.D., Physics A. H. Bauer, B.S., Physics R. F. Blackwelder, Ph.D., Signal Enhancement/Information Theory A. J. Saur, Ph.D., Instrumentation/Engineering (S) The great bulk of the papers reviewed during this study were found to be speculative, unscientific, and sensationalistic, much like the parapsychological literature of the West. There is one big difference, however, between this type of literature in the U.S.S.R and the U.S. The Soviet literature almost invariably shows Interest in the physical and physiological mechanisms. An example is the interest in psychoenergetics, bioplasma, and psychotronics. The term psychotronics was coined by a French journalist after the analogy with electronics, bionics, nucleonics, and others. The Czechs have adopted the term to replace parapsychology. The Russians have devised their own term--psychoenergetics. These new names were chosen to give the field of study an air of scientific or technological respectability. (S) A fundamental question remains: does the name Imply a basic difference in the approach and, if so, what effects can be expected from it? Judging from the available literature, the name does imply a difference in the 2-1 Approved For Release tftt IA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SG1A Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) approach of the Russian and Czech investigators from that of most Western parapsychologists. Some of the differences are outlined below. (1) The Russians do not undertake studies like those of J.B. Rhine, in which remote card readinq or other simple telepathic tasks are carried out repeatedly to gather statistical evidence. The Russians assume the reality of thought transference. Their best experiments are designed to elucidate the physical basis of these novel biophysical information transfer (NBIT) mechanisms. (2) Many of the Russian researchers that publish in open literature in this field pursue their studies on their own time and at their own personal expense. They lack the resources to carry out well designed or long statistical studies. (3) Many Westerners remain convinced that parapsychology will never be explained in terms of physics. They cling to an undertone of a religious-like belief in transcendent mechanisms. The Russians, in contrast, reject such an approach; being doctrinaire materialists, everything has a physical, scientific explanation. Again, this line of reasoning reinforces the trend toward eliciting the physical mechanisms of NBIT. (4) The Soviets would not hesitate to use secrecy or deception to try to gain even a small military or political advantage. This desire to gain a small advantage would undoubtedly lead them to try to develop NBIT means of communication if they assumed that it was technically feasible. Such attempts would obviously be cloaked in secrecy and camouflaged by false information. (S) In reviewing Soviet and Western work on NBIT phenomena, it seems reasonable that serious inter discipttnar`y resear an eve opment_Ts.6eing carried on. Fu ermorelther are seems to be veridical indication that the Soviets have organized laboratories for Just such programs. The word-o~--fhese lI a3orraTor ies, is obviously secret. On the other hand, -Tt- is obvious that many-Fussian workers in this field pursue their research as extracurricular activity, with little or no funding. Thus, there are hints f_secr t work;as we lI as indication that parapsychologica?I--_research_may be in disfavor. It may be that high quality, systematic research is officially approved, well-funded, and well-organized, whereas research in this field from "nonofficial" laboratories may be allowed to founder without funds, thus providing a smoke screen of poor quality work. If the Soviets did indeed establish laboratories for a systematic approach to this problem, in our opinion they are certainly capable of making good progress. (S) The literature surveyed varies widely in degree of sophistication. Most experimental papers give rather vague descriptions and insufficient data to assess the accuracy and importance of claimed results. Upon completion of the review, we found the bulk of what was considered to be creditable work centers around the activities of three principal individuals--Kogan, Adamenko, and Sergeyev. 2-2 Approved For Release 2002/10ge RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) Of the theoretical papers, those by Kogan are undoubtedly the best and reflect the good thinking of an experienced physicist. Using physically acceptable arguments, Kogan demonstrates the possibility that ELF and VLF carrier waves might be part of NBIT mechanisms, and initiates an information theory approach to the study of NBIT. His ideas are much like those of Persinger and strike a resonant chord for all members of the team. (S) The papers by Adamenko, on the other hand, are spotty with respect to knowledge of modern physics and physiology. He utilizes a number of poorly defined and unquantifiable concepts such as "bioplasma," "psi energy," etc. Nevertheless, significant contributions are made by him--particularly his study and explanation of telekinesis in terms of electrostatics. (S) The papers by Sergeyev show the effectiveness of a radar signature expert turned to analyzing electrophysiological events. He shows some interest- ing new possibilities, taking into account that the noise in the signals not only contain statistical random variations, but that the carriers also may have non-stationary drifts. His work also seems to suffer from the lack of an interdisciplinary approach. Furthermore, he is probably responsible for the development of at least one and perhaps two remote physiological sensors. (S) From the review of essentially open Soviet literature, the following conclusions are made: (1) The Soviets have done significant work on signal extraction, statistical, and information theory approaches to novel biophysical information transfer mechanisms. (2) The Soviets have done-creditable work on the electrostatics of telekinesis and have probably now turned their attention to the psychophysiological aspects of the phenomenon. (3) The Soviets have an interest in remote physiological monitors, have developed one or two new instruments, and are probably involved in R&D in this area. (4) The Soviets had and probably still have an interest in the physics of NBIT transmission mechanisms and are probably doing research in this area. (5) There is a developing interest in the Soviet Bloc to apply psycho- physiological training methods (similar to biofeedback) to develop control over NBIT mechanisms. (6) All the Soviet research that has been reviewed suffers from the lack of an interdisciplinary approach. 2-3 Approved For Release 2002/10CC[W1-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 RLI Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) (7) The Soviets are Investigating the psychophysiology of multimodal, programmed stimulation as a method to entrain physiological rhythms and produce changes In states of consciousness. (8) A systematic, interdisciplinary approach to NBIT by the Soviets would require only a modest commitment of resources. A small number of key personnel with an adequate supporting staff of engineers and technicians could make substantial headway in this area. At this stage, In our opinion no unique technological breakthrough is required--only careful investigation. In addition, no unique features such as physical plant, facilities, services, or equipment would specifically identify an NBIT R&D laboratory from other types of laboratories. (S) These conclusions are drawn in spite of the fact that most of the published material we have reviewed is confusing, inaccurate, and of little value from a scientific point of view. In this respect, the review team may have erred in the direction of trying to make too much sense from a small data base. The following sections of the report provide a critical review of Soviet research, by topic, in support of these conclusions. Approved For Release 2002/10/21-4CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 2-5 SECRET Approved For ReleaspligO /I$ IIASAt4-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET SECTION 3 APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL THEORIES TO NOVEL BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION TRANSFER (NBIT) MECHANISMS (S) (U) In the field of theoretical statistics, the Russians are usually considered to be ahead of the Western countries. Kolmogorov and his contemporaries did a considerable amount of work in the 1920 to 1945 era, developed many new theories, and applied them to some classical problems, such as Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence. Directly before and during World War iI, Rice, Shannon, and others in the West developed more advanced ideas that are now embedded within information theory and communication theory. However, the Soviets have been the first to apply these ideas and techniques to the field of parapsychology. I. M. Kogan seems to have been the leader in this venture and the papers that we have by him are good in that he demonstrates a knowledge of these advanced fields, correctly applies the techniques, and reaches some justifiable and creditable conclusions. Kogan seems to have started working on these ideas in the early 60's. RyzI (Reference 3-1)* states that the Bio- information Section of the Scientific Technical Society of Radiotechnique and Electrocommunication was founded in 1965 and that Kogan was its first director, indicating that Kogan's ideas were viewed favorably at that time. Ryzl further reports that the Bioinformation Section seemed to flourish under Kogan. It organized meetings, seminars, and discussions; he embarked upon a publicity campaign in newspapers and magazines and was concerned with the use of para- psychology as a military weapon. Kogan also headed the section as It under- took some successful experiments involving transmission of images over short ranges. (S) Kogan seems to have been at his peak when he visited the United States in 1969 and gave a presentation at U.C.L.A. on the application of information theory to the problem of telepathy. That paper (Reference 3-2) summarized his work and represents the most advanced work on this topic by anyone. Then publication of his work inexplicably stopped. Judging from the papers that we have, no one else in the U.S.S.R. has reported this line of endeavor. (S) Although this work may have been completely stopped, it hardly seems likely. Considering that Kogan had successfully started to apply these new concepts to parapsychology and had obtained some new information, it is more plausible that this work did not abruptly stop, but is continuing secretly. RyzI (Reference 3-1) indirectly lends credance to this idea by discussing the military work done at Kogan's institute. *ReTerences are presented at the end of this section. 3-1 Approved For Release 2002/'eC3R IA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) It is significant that the Soviets pursued the application of non- stationary analysis to parapsychology, especially in the study of EEG signals. Sergeyev (References 3-3 and 3-4) has been the leader in this effort; he has used both correlation functions and spectral analysis. Under the more common assumption of stationarity, these statistical quantities are independent of time. Since parapsychological events are quite intermittent and occur rather randomly, their statistical functions, such as correlation, spectra, etc., may vary dramatically in time. T (t) ' JRtt?T1 dT. defines as: T (n) (U) Sergeyev thus defines a nonstationary auto-correlation function as: t+T R(t,T) = 1 [X(S) - X(S)][X(S + `r) - X(S + T)] dS T J t where X is the stochastic variable, X Is the average value of X (presumably over time T), Tis a time delay, and T is the averaging time. He does not specify the averaging time T, but T must be of the same order of magnitude as the time scale of the event being studied. (U) Since R(t,T) is a function of the time delay T, Sergeyev suggests characterizing this correlation function by several time scales, which he Thus, T(n) are random functions of time and Sergeyev claims that T(1)/ T(2) is a measure of the nonlinear modulation by the stimuli received through extra- sensory channels. He does not justify nor substantiate this conclusion. (S) Sergeyev has applied this type of analysis in at least two different modes. First, he compares the ratio T(I)/T(2) from a "bioplasmagram" to that obtained from signals external to the body, such as the fluctuations In the earth's magnetic field (Reference 3-4). He claims to have obtained a well- defined relation between these two signals; however, the data shown in his paper do not support the statement that is given in the text. In spite of this discrepancy, Sergeyev's ideas are sound and in view of the intermittent nature of parapsychological phenomena, it seems reasonable to explore nonstationary analysis of the recorded data. RyzI (1968) speaks highly of these new mathe- matical methods and goes on to say that Sergeyev can detect an incoming tele- pathic stimulus by analyzing EEG records. (S) Secondly, Sergeyev (Reference 3-3) has applied these ideas in studying changes in the "bioplasmagram" during emotional stress. He used digital analysis and retained the high-frequency content (i.e., up to 30 kHz) of the EEG. It is obvious after studying the data in his previous paper (Reference 3-4) that he also retained the high-frequency content there as well. Although it is not obvious what type of information is obtained in these higher frequencies, 0 3-2 Approved For Release 2002/103ftEp-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) Sergeyev does believe that they are important in the dynamic functioning of the brain, it is conceivable that frequencies higher than the normal beta wave frequency may be present and would be instructive to study. (S) Also, if a very low frequency (VLF) carrier wave is important in the para- psychological communication channel, a study of these frequencies would be beneficial. SEQUENTIAL ANALYSIS (U) Sequential analysis is a technique for analyzing data that are transmitted over a noisy channel. It was developed at about the same time that the founda- tions of communication theory and information theory were being laid and is des- cribed in the classical book by Wald (Reference 3-5). Since this technique has been used by Ryzl (Referernce 3-6), a brief description of the method is given, followed by a discussion of Ryzi's application. (U) Quite often communication channels are very noisy, which decreases the reliability of the channel. Thus, a common problem is to attempt to improve the reliability by coding techniques. This is often accomplished by sending redundant information. For example, assuming a message consists of a set of binary bits, each bit may be sent several times instead of just once. The average number of times that a bit is sent will depend upon the signal-to- noise ratio of the channel. Thus, one wishes to maximize the reliability of the channel while minimizing the redundancy. (U) Sequential analysis is one technique that will minimize the redundancy under a given set of conditions. This technique allows a bit of information to be sent continually until it is received. The amount of redundancy (e.g., the number of times a bit is sent) is a random variable and cannot be determined in advance. Thus, some additional information must be available in order to decide when to terminate transmission of that bit and proceed to send the next bit. It is the nature of this additional information that determines if sequential analysis can be used and how successful it will be. (U) In practice, there are two different types of problems in which sequential analysis has been quite useful. The first utilizes an additional communication channel. This method assumes a nonpassive sender that continues to send a bit until instructed to proceed to the next one. The additional channel is utilized to send the instructions to the sender. In this case the sender is an active element in the transmission process in that he reacts to instructions sent over the second channel. Since there are two communication channels involved, sequential analysis Is useful under these circumstances only if there are significant differences between the channels. Satellite communications is one example of this method where one channel is very weak and the other quite strong. If the channels were equal in quality and direction, only one would be required, assuming that it had sufficient capacity. 3-3 Approved For Release 2002/10/ ~ RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (U) The second use of sequential analysis utilizes some additional information embedded within a predetermined probability distribution. With this additional knowledge, the receiver can decide with a predetermined probability when the correct bit has been received and then proceed onto the next bit. This pre- supposes that the message Is fixed and available for viewing or reading at the will of the receiver; that is, the sender is completely passive and may have no knowledge that someone Is attempting to read his message. This technique has been used in radar analysis to determine if a target is present in a given sector. The data received from that sector are continually sampled and com- pared with existing Information. After the receiver has gathered sufficient data, he makes a decision and takes appropriate action, such as moving to another sector. A similar method is used in sampling products on an assembly line for quality control. (U) RyzI (Reference 3-6) has attempted to use the techniques from sequential analysis in order to explore the functioning of an extrasensory perception channel. The message he attempted to send was a three-digit number that was coded in binary. The binary representation was a unique sequence of ten white and green cards. The procedure was to select a three digit number at random, determine its equivalent representation in a binary base (0,1), and then use green cards to represent 1 and white cards to represent 0. To ensure that there was no color preference of the subject, a reverse color coding was used in a separate set of ten cards. Another set of ten index cards chosen completely at random was used as an exploratory device to determine apriori if an extrasensory perception channel was functioning. A total of 30 green and white cards were thus selected and hidden from normal sensory perception channels by enclosing them in opaque envelopes. These envelopes were then presented at random to the subject, S.P., who attempted to determine If the enclosed card was green or white. The envelopes were then reshuffled and this procedure was repeated 50 times. (U) Ryzl first analyzed the results from the ten index cards. If he found clear evidence of an extrasensory perception channel existing, he proceeded to analyze the remaining 20 cards that had the encoded number. He does not state what criteria he used to determine if an extrasensory perception channel was operative or not. One can only assume that the subject must have scored relatively high in determining the colors of the initial index cards before the remainder of the cards was analyzed. It may be possible that the technique used to determine whether or not to proceed may have influenced his final results. Without further details, it is impossible to estimate this effect. (S) The remaining 20 encoded cards were then analyzed according to criteria that are clearly specified in Ryzl's paper. In the terms of modern mathematical statistical theories, these criteria define a decision boundary. From the text of the paper, it is not clear how his decision boundary was determined. RyzI fails to state whether the criteria were determined before any experiments were run, whether the criteria were determined after an initial set of experiments, or if the criteria were determined after an initial analysis of the data reported in his paper. It is well known in fields such as pattern recognition, decision theory, etc. that the conditions under which a decision boundary is determined are extremely important to the outcome of Approved For Release 2002/1CRRA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S)the experiment. For example, given a set of data such as recorded by Ryzi, it Is known that a decision boundary can be determined posteriori that will ensure a prescribed set of conclusions as long as those conclusions were arrived at by a unique process. Without this additional information, it is impossible to judge the quality of the results of Ryzl's experiments. (S) Even if it is assumed that the decision boundaries were arrived at in a completely unbiased manner, the data presented by Ryzl do not agree with his stated boundary criteria. For example, the cards Aa and Cc do not indi- cate that they have crossed any of the stated decision boundaries (i.e., they do not satisfy the necessary conditions for making a decision as given by Ryzl). According to his criteria, it appears that he should have gone at least one more step in his sequential analysis and taken another set of data. (S) As stated in his title, Ryzl seems to be offering this technique as a model of extrasensory perception. In actual fact, sequential analysis is not a model of any physical system, but merely offers a technique for analyzing messages and other information in the presence of noise. Its limitations in analyzing communication channels for extrasensory perception are even more restricted because of the requirement that additional information must be imposed upon the problem as discussed earlier. Thus, it is difficult to con- ceive why sequential analysis would be used in circumstances such as remote viewing if another channel is accessible to the viewer. That is, if conditions allowed two channels of communication as in Ryzl's experiment (such as an ESP and voice channel, say), then use of the voice channel exclusively would be preferable because of its higher efficiency. However, the method with feedback could be very useful in training subjects in extrasensory communications because it can provide immediate feedback of results to the receiver. Sequential analysis could be used in remote viewing in a "radar" context where the sender is completely passive and the receiver slowly scans the scene. In this case, an effort would have to be expended earlier in order to develop the underlying statistics necessary for determining the proper decision boundaries (i.e., the subject would require training to be able to determine when he had received a portion of the message and should proceed to the next). (S) In terms of remote viewing as described by Puthoff and Targ (Reference 3-7), the methodology of sequential analysis can be a useful tool for both training and analyzing viewed results. In this context, the technique could initially be used as a means of analyzing data obtained in a training session. This would involve a sender at a site that was sending one Item of information at a time (e.g., tree). After the receiver in the laboratory had made a decision, he could be informed of the correctness of his decision so that training would occur. The sender would then be instructed to proceed to the next item of the message. Simultaneously, a more mathematical version of this technique could possibly be tested by using some concepts from pattern recognition together with EEG signals. After a sufficient amount of data had been gathered in the training mode, this Information would form the basis for making decisions in a mode with no active sender. Other than for use in a training mode, we fail to see how the ideas borrowed from sequential analysis by Puthoff and Targ can be applied to optimize the S/N ratio in remote viewing. Approved For Release 2002/1018 C1 4-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 ;r Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET POSSIBLE SOVIET DIRECTIONS (S) It is purely speculative to guess what type of work the Russians are now doing in this area. Obviously, they have a great interest in para- psychology. Mutshall (Reference 3-8) says that they have opened seven new laboratories to study these phenomena since 1960. Kogan had just started to apply information theory to these problems and seems to have developed this technique to the point of usefulness before publication of his work ceased. Although information theory cannot explain the physical mechanism of the NBIT communication channel, it is a very useful tool to analyze the data quantitatively. Kogan had already used this to yield new information (e.g., the information rate dropped as distance traversed increased). More advances from this avenue of approach can be expected, such as (1) qualifying the information to be transferred, (2) designing experiments more amenable to analysis, and (3) studying coding and encoding techniques. (S) Sergeyev's published work suggests that he is possibly continuing his study of nonstationary analysis of NBIT phenomena. In particular, it seems strange that he did not publish or even mention the use of his techniques for cross-correlations or cross-spectra. Since he almost always was comparing two different signals (EEG and the earth's magnetic field), a nonstationary analysis of the cross-correlation between these signals seems more appropriate than the single channel analysis he published. (S) It also could be expected that Sergeyev has pursued nonlinear analysis and modeling of NBIT events. He reported (Reference 3-4) that he found a modulation of the EEG at a frequency fi-f2 when lights were flashing at frequencies fl and f2. If only linear mechanisms were involved, there would be no energy or modulation of the spectra at a frequency of f1-f2, thus suggesting that nonlinear mechanisms may be responsible for this behavior. This phenomenon should be verified and explained, if possible. (S) The Soviets should have a vested interest in remote viewing, which interestingly is never mentioned in the available literature. Based upon the experience of Puthoff and Targ (Reference 3-9), it is not too difficult to set up an experiment in this area, and it seems reasonable to assume that the Russians have probably successfully done so. The next step is obviously to improve the efficiency of the transmission process. Here, the ideas from information and communication theory become important tools because they can be used to determine the amount of information transferred, and thus represent a quantitative measure of success or failure. This tool can then be used to measure the effect of different variables such as distance (which Kogan has already done), directivity, shielding, and the type of information transferred. Mutshall says Kogan has studied this also. It is more reasonable to assume that this work has continued than that it was terminated at this level of development. 3-6 Approved For Release 2002/1 R . -RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 ad Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 UNCLASSIFIED 3-1. R'zl, Milan, 1968, "Parapsychology in Communist Countries of Europe," International J. of Parapsychology, Vol. 10, No. 3, p. 263. 3-2. Kogan, I.M., 1969, "The Information Theory Input of Telepathy," from UCLA symposium entitled "A New Look at ESP." 3-3. Sergeyev, G.A. "Principles of Spectral Analysis of Bioplasmagrams During Emotional Stress", Kontrol Sosto+ aniya Cheloveka-Operator, 1970, P. 18. 3-4. Scrgeyev, G.A., "Some Methological Problems in Parapsy," Telepatie a Jasnovidnost, 1970, p. 79. 3-5. Wald, Abraham, Sequential Analysis, John Wiley, New York, 1947. 3-6. R~zl, Milan, "A Model of Parapsychological Communication," J. of Parapsychology, 1964, pp. 18 to 30. 3-7. Puthoff and Targ, "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances," PROC. IEEE, 1976. 3-8. Mutshall, Vladimir, "The Present State of Research in Telepathy in the Soviet Union." 3-9. Targ, Russell, and Harold Puthoff, "Information Transmission under Conditions of Sensory Shielding," Nature 251, 1974. Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-'DP79-00999A000300070001-4 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2002/iQ/2 CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRtt THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 3-8 SECRET Approved For Release 2 t2JtlCLCtAI.RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET SECTION 4 ELECTROSTATICS OF TELEKINESIS (S) (U) According to the published reports, there are several investigations of telekinesis (i.e., moving material objects without touching them) that have occurred at various times and places in Communist Bloc countries. In work done in Leningrad by Vasii'yev and his associates, Ws. Nina Kulagina (also called Neija Mihailova) exhibited remarkable psychokinetic ability. Benson Herbert, Milan RyzI, Zdenek Rejdak, and Viktor Adamenko, among others, have discussed or commented on Mrs. Kulagina'a feats. In Moscow, Adamenko worked with another subject, Alla Vinogradova, who is more skilled in telekinesis than Nina Kulagina. Benson Herbert and others also have reported some of the work of Julius Krmessky of Bratislava, who moves hanging mobiles. As tele- kinetic subjects, the women seem to be superior to the men: Vinogradova and Kulagina are said to be able to move objects on a table top weighing as much as 100 gm. (S) Viktor Adamenko has advanced an explanation for observed phenomena of telekinesis that is more interesting psychologically than physically. In the article "Some Problems of Biological Electrodynamics and Psychoenergetics", he theorizes that the physical force causing the objects to move is due to static electric charges on the objects and electrical fields generated by the subject. It can be shown (as discussed subsequently) that electrostatic forces can indeed be strong enough to produce some of the effects reported. Anyone living in dry climates is quite familiar with electrostatic forces: static electricity discharges from the finger when one walks across the room to the light switch, and articles of clothing stick together and crackle with corona discharge when removed from the gas clothes drier. (S) Dr. Adamenko's descriptions of the observed phenomena are easier to deal with than his theoretical expositions. An example is his article in The A.R.E. -Journal, 'Vol. viii, No. 2, pp. 76 to 77, March 1973, cited on page 4 of the Annotated Bibliography of Selective Psychoenergetic Activites, July 1973. In the work with Ms. Vinogradova and others in Moscow, Adamenko used a dielectric cube, 50 cm on an edge, as a table. Various small objects were placed on the upper surface of the cube. Ms. Vinogradova was able to induce an electric charge on the cube, after which she could then move small objects on its sur- face. With biofeedback training, other subjects were able to duplicate Vinogradova's feats. There must have been some effect that reduced the coefficient of friction between the moved object and the cube, since Adamenko writes at some length about the reduced friction and theorizes that the electric field of the cube polarizes the air molecules and reduces their number of degrees of freedom from six to two. in addition, Adamenko states that the field is inhomogeneous and produces a net flow of the air molecules, which tends to buoy up the objects on the cube. Elsewhere he states that the electric field is as great as 10,000 v/cm. This value is approximately the maximum electric field that can exist in dry air because of corona discharge and ionization of the air molecules at higher field strengths. The explanation of air molecules providing the buoyant force to overcome sliding friction is necessary because 4-1 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 S P79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) electrostatic forces alone could not, in the situation described by Adamenko, levitate objects weighing more than a gram or so, and because the coefficient of sliding friction is in the range 0.1 to 0.3 for nonlubricated surfaces. (U) The concept of a conductor at ground potential near a charged dielectric surface as the mechanism for generating an electric field whose direction and magnitude can be altered is illustrated In simplified form in the Figures 4-1 and 4-2. In Figure 4-1, a plane conducting surface Is placed parallel to the dielectric. The resulting electric field is uniform and normal to the two parallel surfaces. If the extent of each surface is much larger than the distance between them, the field Is not changed by moving the plates closer together or farther apart. In Figure 4-2, the plates are not parallel. In this case, the electric field is nonuniform and has a component parallel to the dielectric slab. CONDUCTING PLANE AT GROUND POTENTIAL DIELECTRIC SLAB WITH UNIFORM SURFACE CHARGE Figure 4-1. Electric Field Between Parallel Plates (Title, U; Figure, U) RESOLUTION OF FIELD INTO NORMAL AND PARALLEL COMPONENTS RELATIVE TO DIELECTRIC SLAB ELECTRIC FIELD ELECTRIC FIELD OBJECT CONDUCTING PLANE at I . DIELECTRIC SLAB Figure 4-2. Electric Field Between Non-parallel Plates (Title, U. Figure, U) 4-2 Approved For Release 2002/191~RErA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET. (U) In the case Illustrated in Figure 4-1, the object experiences no force parallel to the surface of the slab. In the case shown in Figure 4-2, the electric field is not normal to the slab. Hence, if the object has an electrostatic charge, it will experience a force that tends to move it parallel to the plate, either toward or away from the region of closest approach between the dielectric slab and the conducting plate. It will experience a force in the same direction, but weaker if the effect is due to polarization of the object rather than an unbalanced charge. (U) The human body is a conductor. According to Adamenko, the conductivity can be varied at will to affect the field. He does not try to explain in detail the physiological mechanism involved. Even with constant conductivity, the human subject can vary the field near the dielectric surface by positioning his (her) body, arms, hands, etc. (U) There are two possible mechanisms whereby a small object on the dielectric surface can be moved by the electric field--particularly a nonuniform field. The first mechanism is that the small object is itself electrostatically charged. The second is that it is electrically neutral but can be polarized. An electric. dipole in a nonuniform electric field experiences a force in the direction of the field. (S) The work reported by Viktor Adamenko on telekinesis appears to be genuine information and not disinformation. The experimental arrangement he describes can be analyzed on the basis of electrostatic theory, with predicted results in substantial agreement with the results reported. Adamenko's theoretical explanation appears to be a mish-mash of classical electrostatics and para- psychology. It appears probable that Adamenko himself is a believer in the psi field because he tries to incorporate it into his theoretical framework. (S) in terms of application to the transmission of intelligence, the telekinetic work of Adamenko does not seem to lead anywhere. However, it does point up the ability of certain individuals to develop an ability to influence the ambient electrical field, apparently by volitional control over physical and physiological processes (e.g., electrical conductivity of the skin). In addition, we must not overlook the possibility that the psychophysiology of this phenomena may have relevance to NBIT transducer mechanisms. 4-3 Approved For Release 2002/10/22E6.2DP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 4-4 Approved For Release 4gg?If1'~UN EDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET SECTION 5 REMOTE PHYSIOLOGICAL SENSORS (S) (S) A remote sensor is an instrument for measuring a physiological response of the human body without the use of electrodes or other means of contacting the body. In the literature reviewed, there are references to one or more remarkable remote sensors developed by Dr. Gennadij Aleksandrovic Sergeyev.* It is claimed that one of these instruments will measure the electro- encephalogram of a person at a distance of 5 m. The instrument is classified and no credible description of it is available--only allusion to its existence. One must keep in mind that there is reason to doubt the Russian claim. If the instrument is to register the EEG, it must remotely sense the electromagnetic field associated with the EEG potentials. These potentials are typically of the order of tens of microvolts. American investigators have measured EEG signals with electrodes placed a few centimeters from the head. These electrodes sensed the electric field generated by the brain. David Cohen (Science, Vol. 161, pp. 784 to 786) has measured the magnetic field associated with the EE( by means of a search coil several centimeters from the head. At larger distances from the head, the electric and magnetic EEG fields become drowned in noise. The following discussion is a speculative attempt to guess the operating principles of the instrument. (S) It is possible that a sensitive electric or magnetic sensor, or some combination of the two, would detect electrical signals from a human body at a distance of 5m. Although it is unlikely that the output of such an instru- ment would be a direct measure of the EEG, it would provide information of Interest to a police interrogator, such as the strength and rate of the heart beat, the tensing and relaxation of muscles, the depth and rate of breathing, and perhaps the electrical properties of the skin. The uses to which the instrument would be put are reasons enough for official secrecy about its operating principles. Moreover, the story that a remote sensor is a remote EEG sensor would be a natural way of trying to hide the real purpose of Dr. Sergeyev's invention. Some support to the speculation that the invention is a remote lie detector is provided by the statement in the Ostrander and Schroeder book (Psychic Discoveries behind the Iron Curtain, Prentice-Hall, 1970 p. 20) that Sergeyev is a mathematician at the Uktomskij Laboratory run by the Soviet military. (S) In reviewing the available literature, five references have been found that may help shed some light on the Sergeyev invention(s). First, Ostrander and Schroeder (Psychic Discoveries, pp. 73 to 74) report Sergeyev's assertion that Nina Kulagina, who reportedly exhibits remarkable telekinetic ability, generates a pulsating magnetic field whose amplitude is not much weaker than the magnetic field of the earth, according to measurements made with his remote sensor. Second, the reporter Anatolij Kongro, writing in the journal Znanije- Sila, discusses work by Sergeyev and his students in measuring emotional states *Sergeyev also referenced as Sergeev in the literature. 5-1 Approved For Release 2002/`!Wr" T4-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 20021Uft fIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (S) of a subject by a remote sensor. No description of the instrument is given .in the article. Third, in an article entitled "Detection of Telekinesis by Semiconductors," there is a description of a remote sensor. The sensor consists of a metal disc suspended in a vessel of water. The disc is coated with a semiconductor and appears to be electrically connected to an EEG recorder. The patient is connected to the other (ground) input of the recorder. (S) The fourth reference, a paper entitled "The Method of Registration and Statistical Processing of the Bloplasmogram" by Sergeyev, Shushkov,* and Griasnuhin, contains the intriguing statement that the sensitivity of the bioplasmagram detectors is increased by placing them in water. A doubling of the output is claimed. Although It Is claimed that these detectors respond to electromagnetic radiation, this reviewer is unfamiliar with any simple detector whose sensitivity would be enhanced by immersing it in water, except possibly a proton resonance detector for the magnetic field. A small acoustic detector (such as a hydrophone) consisting of a piezoelectric or magneto- strictive material with appropriate electrical connections might exhibit greater sensitivities to sound when Immersed in water. The greater sensitivity would be achieved because of the improved match of acoustic impedances between water and detector as compared with the poor match between air and detector. In addition, the physical size and shape of the water container might provide a larger sensitive area for detecting sound than the detector alone. (S) A speculative conclusion from the previously cited literature, together with the known fact that Sergeyev is a mathematician who has published articles on the application of information theory to parapsychology (see, for example, G.A. Sergeyev, "Some Methodological Problems of Parapsychology" In the journal Tele atle a Jasnovidnost, Prague, 1970, pp. 79 to 87) is that the Sergeyev remote sensor does exist and is. an instrument for measuring electric and magnetic fields generated by a human subject at a distance of a few meters. Because of background noise, sophisticated analysis of the signal generated by the instrument is required to extract useful information. The instrument is probably a research tool and apparently has been used with some success on subjects that generate strong electric or magnetic fields (e.g., Nina Kulagina). The coated disc in a vessel of water is probably mostly a Russian fairy tale if we discount the possibility of an acoustic sensor; however, the mention of water suggests that possibly magnetic fields are detected with a proton resonance magnetometer. Certainly water would be a poor medium for detecting electric fields because of Its high dielectric constant. The instrument probably comprises several sets of electric and magnetic field detectors arranged such that the noise due to extraneous fields can be reduced by signal extraction techniques. Also referenced as Suskov in the literature. 5-2 Approved For Release 2002/1C[111f-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002//(Q fIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (S) In the fifth reference, an article entitled "A New Detector for Registering the Physiological Functions of the Organism", by G. A. Sergeyev, G.D. Shushkov, and E. G Griasnuhin, a set of noncontacting electrodes used to measure changes in the dielectric properties of the patient is dis- cribed. It may well be that this instrument is completely different from the Sergeyev remote sensor. On the other hand, these noncontacting electrodes may, in fact, be the Sergeyev sensor and the other published Information may be a complete fabrication. If it is assumed that the des- cribed sensor is different from the Sergeyev remote sensor, it can be concluded that the instrument comprises noncontacting electrodes arranged electrically to sense small changes In the dielectric constant of the human body. The electrodes are silver, probably formed by depositing silver on plates of barium titanate. They are built into a rubber covering that Insulates them electrically from the body and holds them in a fixed geometric configura- tion with respect to a portion of the body. The two terminals of a high- voltage supply (e.g., a battery) are connected to the two silver electrodes, with a large resistance in series with one electrode. A change in the dielectric constant of the body causes a change in the capacitance between the electrodes. The resulting flow of charge either to or from the electrodes produces a measurable potential difference across the resistance. This potential difference is amplified and constitutes the output of the instrument. (U) The resistance or other details of the signal conditioning and amplifying system are not explicitly mentioned In the article. Instead, the theory of the instrument based on the bioplasma hypothesis is described, as is the notion that there are maser effects in living organisms which lead to the emission of free electrons and protons, and thereby to changes in the elec- trical properties of the surrounding air. An analysis also is presented to show that the observed signal is not due merely to the piezoelectric effect in barium titanate. (S) The fact that barium titanate is used to support the silver electrodes is irrelevant to the operation of the sensor, but relevant to the evaluation of the paucity of the report. It is likely that silver-plated barium titanate slabs happened to be available to the investigators. Because of its piezo- electric properties, barium titanate has a variety of uses In military weapons and instruments, such as hydrophones for underwater sound detection and shock-actuated detonators for explosive devices. As previously noted, Sergeyev works in a military research and development laboratory where barium titanate would be available. It has been previously reported that much of the Russian parapsychological work to which we have access Is done as an avocation by the investigators without official support or sanction. In such circumstances, the use of silver-plated barium titanate as an inexpensive and available substitute for solid silver electrodes is understandable. Approved For Release 2002/10/EDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) Other types of remote sensors mentioned in the available literature seem quite simple and conventional. For example, V. Puskin (Pushkin) wrote (in an article published in the Moscow Journal Znanije-Sila,"Knowledge- Strength", No. 10, 1972, pp. 4 to 49, about a sensor used to demonstrate that the power shown by Alla Vinogradova to move objects without touching them was due to the electrostatic charges induced on the objects. The sensor in this case was.a simple neon glow lamp. When the object was dis- charged by means of the neon lamp, it could no longer be moved. (S) A broader question regarding remote sensors is to determine or predict types of sensors that logically would have been or would be developed in the course of following the indicated lines of investigation. Perhaps the Russians have, in fact, developed such Instruments; perhaps they are going to do so. Perhaps they have tried and have not been successful. Possible sensor developments discussed in the following paragraphs are not meant to be exhaustive; rather, they are speculative and offered as examples of what may or might be. (S) A tunable antenna for detecting low-frequency, very-low-frequency, or extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic radiation could be used. The Russians believe both in mental telepathy and in a prosaic physical mechanism for it. The most probable mechanism is electromagnetic radiation. A tunable antenna could be used in two types of experiment: trying to detect the radia- tion from the telepathic agent and trying to generate radiation of the right frequency to interfere with telepathic reception. (S) A neutrino detector may be used. Both the Russian Je. Parnov (Nauka 1 Religija, No. 3, pp. 48 to 49, 1966) and the American Martin Ruderfer ("Neutrino Theory of Extrasensory Perception" in Abstracts: 1st International Conference on Psychotronics, Vol. 2, Prague, pp. 9 to 13, June 1973) have suggested neutrinos as the means of transmitting thought from one mind to another. One of the collaborators in the present study, J. Eerkens, has a plausible hypothesis about the production and detection of neutrinos that could be experimentally tested by relatively modest expenditures for equip- ment and labor. (S) A magnetic field or field gradient detector could be used. The Russians and other Eastern Europeans are greatly interested in dowsing, or finding ground water. A currently popular theory of dowsing is that the human body is sensitive to small changes (temporal or spatial) in the magnetic field of the earth, such as might be produced by water near the surface of the ground. If the human body can generate as well as sense magnetic fields, such human magnetism might be the basis of some. form of thought transference or psycho- kinesis. It is reported that Nina Kulagina warms up her psychokinetic powers by causing a compass needle to move (Ostrander and Schroeder, "Psychic Dis- coveries behind the Iron Curtain" p. 68) and Dr. Sergeyev claims that Kulagina generates a pulsating magnetic field not much weaker than the mag- netic field of the earth (ibid., pp. 73 to 74), according to measurements made with his remote sensor. Approved For Release 2002/10/23E]2DP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) A noncontacting temperature detector may be used. V. Adamenko and others have shown interest in the properties of human skin in three separate lines of investigation. First, Adamenko ascribes some electrostatic properties to the skin to support his theories about telekinesis. Second, he has developed a tobioscope for investigating the electrical properties of the acupuncture points on the skin. Third, he has written joint articles with the Kirlians about photographing the skin with the Kirlian apparatus. It seems natural that eventually he or other workers in Russia will be curious about other properties of skin, such as temperature. Two American investigators, Barrett and Myers, have recently reported a technique of subcutaneous temper- ature measurement by measuring microwave radiation from the skin (Science, Vol. 190, pp. 669 to 671, November 14 1975). One might expect the Russians to develop remote temperature monitors, either on their own or by copying the American techniques. Such a monitor would be a useful adjunct to a remote lie detector, and its development would probably be supported by the Military or the Secret Police. (S) In addition to work on the development or application of remote sensors, one can expect the Russians to try to develop data processing equipment to handle the signals from an assembly of several sensors. In their published work, the Russians have shown Interest in various types of correlation analysis. For example, G. A. Sergeyev has published a paper dealing with nonstationary random functions and their application to parapsychological phenomena (Telepatie a JasNovidnost, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1970, pp. 79 to 87). It would be natural for Dr. Sergeyev or others to attempt to mechanize his methods of statistical analysis by a special-purpose electronic signal processor. The difficulty may be that the Russians are not very advanced in electronics and would hesitate to develop such a piece of equipment. Nevertheless, it would seem to be a logical next step. 5-5 Approved For Release 2002/10 2 : C A RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release O CL DP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET SECTION 6 SENSITIVITY OF HUMAN SUBJECTS TO MAGNETIC FIELDS (U) (S) An Interesting facet of the present study Is the fascination of Russian and Czechoslovakian parapsychologists with the effects of magnetic fields on human beings, as well as the presumed ability of human subjects to generate magnetic fields. Presman (A.S. Presman, "Electromagnetic Signaling In Animate Nature", Moscow, 1974) presents a survey'of the effects of weak magnetic and electric fields on living organisms, such as the ability of birds to use the earth's magnetic field as a cue in navigation. There is, in fact, a respect- able body of experimental evidence in reports published both in Iron-Curtain countries and in the West on the effects of magnetic fields on the growth of plants, the orientation of simple animals, and the like. Presman is mainly interested in the possibility that electric and magnetic fields can be used by complex animals for information transfer. He theorizes that humans have largely lost this ability through evolutionary disuse following the develop- ment of speech, a much more efficient method of communication. Those few individuals who have the ability to communicate by electromagnetic signaling are, in Presman's view, evolutionary throwbacks. (S) There is some evidence that human subjects can detect small changes in a magnetic field. Harvalik (Z.V. Harvalik, "A Biophysical Magnetometer- Gradiometer," Virginia Jour. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 1970, pp. 59 to 60) reports that about $0 percent of subjects tested were sensitive to magnetic field changes in tests where the field was generated by an ac or dc current passing through damp ground. Harvalik, a Czech-American, proposes that dowsers are able to sense changes in the earth's magnetic field due to moisture in the ground. The sensing organs are the muscles of the forearms. The dowsing rod is an amplifying and indicating device for the slight twitching of the muscles responding to the changes in magnetic field strength. Native Czech writers also are fascinated with dowsing, as evidenced by reports by the following authors cited in the Annotated Bibliography prepared by Skaidrite Maliks Fallah: Boleslav and Boleslav, p. 13; Bradna, p. 14; Drbal and Rejdak, p. 19; and Kaderavek., p. 36. We have seen only the abstract of the Harvalik paper in the Annotated Bibliography. It appears that the paper presents actual experimental data. Actual data on the sensitivity of humans to weak magnetic fields are scarce, a situation that should be remedied by research. (S) A related question to magnetic field sensitivity is the ability of a human subject to generate a detectable magnetic field. Adamenko alleges that a Russia psychic (Nina Kulagina) generates a pulsating magnetic field when she-is demon- strating telekinesis. Belief in the existence of such an ability is speculative at present. However, the concept of volitional human generation of a magnetic field is consistent with present knowledge of physics and biology. 6-1 Approved For Release 2002/10/1ERDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) It is worthwhile to conclude this brief discussion of human magnetism with a review of some of the better known magnetic effects. With regard to generating a field, the.two known mechanisms are current loops and ferro- magnets. It is known that the body generates circulating currents; pre- sumably these currents can be enhanced and controlled volitionally by bio- feedback training. Several effects are known that might be used by the body to detect a magnetic field or field gradient; some of these are outlined below: Hall Effect--An ion moving In a magnetic field experiences a force perpendicular to its direction of motion and perpendicular to the direction of the field. The resulting displacement of the moving Ion creates an electric field in the direction of its displace- ment. The Hall Effect is sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field and not particularly to the field gradient. Force on Magnetic Dipoe--A molecule having a magnetic dipole moment tends to align itself parallel to a uniform magnetic field. Molecules having this property would act as tiny compass needles. A second effect is that a dipole experiences a net force In the direction of a field gradient. Thus, an assembly of such molecules would experience two forces in a magnetic field: a twist or torque tending to align them with the field and a tension tending to pull them in the direction of Increasing field strength. Zeeman Effect--A magnetic field changes the energy separation of a group of closely related quantum levels in a molecule. Usually the effect is to remove the energy degeneracy of a set of quantum states. Such states have Identical energies In the absence of a magnetic field. The splitting of energy levels could have subtle chemical effects, inasmuch as many metabolic processes involve small changes in the total energy of a given molecule. Certain chemical reactions could proceed in the presence of weak magnetic fields, with small Zeeman splitting, but would be inhibited or altered by large fields due to the increase In energy level separation among the affected quantum states. (S) One would expect to see Soviet research dealing with biological, physiological, or psychological interactions of these three effects if they are systematically engaged In research on NBIT. 6-2 Approved For Release 2002/10L2J --C1Q-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 THIS PAGE I-S UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK SECRET Approved For Release 2 ~ag/g1U&PAr PP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10UCC~JF-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 BIOPHYSICAL INFORMATION CARRIER MECHANISMS (S) (S) In several papers, I. M. Kogan reports experiments and hypotheses concerning telepathic information, and describes information theory aspects of the observed phenomenon; he developed rationale for transmission mechanisms. Essentially, his thesis is that the energy required is about 10-8 to 10-20 joules. He hypothesizes that the transfer of information is advanced by ultra- long electromagnetic waves in the spherical waveguides formed by the surface of the earth and the ionosphere. In our opinion, the work of I. M. Kogan is creditable and the best thought out of any of the work reviewed. (S) Observing that experienced physicists such as Kogan took serious notice of parapsychology from 1966 to 1969 and that almost nothing profound has appeared on the subject in the Soviet literature in the last 5 yr suggests that further theoretical and experimental developments along the lines out- lined by Kogan are continuing underground in the Soviet Union. Kogan posed too many interesting and challenging questions for himself and his colleagues not to have delved into them further. Based on the well-known predilection of Soviet physicists to solve difficult and challenging problems and their excellent training in modern physics, the possibility that a team of Soviet physicists is at work to systematically uncover and learn the physical mecha- nisms of parapsychological events is highly probable. Had Kogan not presented such a clear and sound proposal 6 yr ago, one might have wondered if Soviet physicists have any interest at all in novel biophysical Information transfer (NBIT) mechanisms. Clearly, if one could find out where Kogan is working and what he is doing, this question would be answered. (S) Assuming that the U.S.S.R. started a special NBIT program some time in 1970, by now they should have developed some sensitive instruments to detect, monitor, and analyze VLF and ELF radiations for possible information content, as Kogan suggested should be done. Also, they must have been instrumental in developing sensors to monitor fluctuations in the human body's electric and magnetic fields, and they may have a team of scientists studying the properties of bio-organic molecules and their response to electromagnetic ELF/VLF radiation. In fact, the suggested experiments given in Section 10 may well be much like what was proposed 5 yr ago by such a group. The Russians may now be implementing the next logical step, namely to reinforce, enhance, or aid NBIT in certain trained or gifted individuals after having discovered the basic communication carriers. (S) If experiments which generate special ELF/VLF waves are being conducted, it may be possible to intercept and analyze them because they will travel across the world. Thus, an opportunity may exist during the initial test phase to do some elint work. However, as discussed subsequently, these man- manipulated VLF and ELF frequencies may be very monochromatic and undetectable by the usual relatively broad-band radio frequency detectors. For example, it would be like finding the red emission line of a 1-mw Helium-Neon laser Approved For Release 2002/18E RETA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/2SEQ]N -&DP79-00999A000300070001-4 (S) emitted from a satellite to the earth and observed against a background full of bright direct sunlight. With the proper narrow-band filter, such a line can be observed, of course, but the frequency must be known. (S) It is rational to assume that the Soviets pursued the investigation of various physical methods that might serve as novel biophysical information transmission mechanisms. Whether or not ELF/VLF mechanisms explain para- psychological events may be a moot question if these mechanisms can be utilized for human information transfer. In order to (1) evaluate the credit- ability of the hypothesis, (2) evaluate where the Soviets might logically have gone In their work, and (3) display the type of thinking involved to know what information to seek In other fields, a short speculative study on the possible carrier mechanisms for novel biophysical information transmission (NBIT) was undertaken. A review of possible NBIT transmission mechanisms that are compat- ible with current modern physics yields three schemes. (1) Very-low frequency (VLF) and extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves (2) Neutrinos, based on the photon theory of neutrinos (3) Quantum-mechanical ('Y ) waves, based on the schizo-physical interpretation of basic QM theory Presently, most U.S. and Soviet experiments on NBIT and the use of the law of parsimony would point to ELF/VLF mechanisms, but the other two possibilities cannot be ruled out. In this section, these three possibilities are briefly examined. SPECULATION ON VLF AND ELF MECHANISMS (S) In the VLF or ELF transmission scheme for NBIT it is hypothesized that atmosphere-produced naturally occurring ELF electromagnetic waves in the 3-to- 300 Hz region (so-called "Schumann" waves) or in the 3000-to-30,000 Hz (VLF) region propagate over the surface of the earth and interfere with the natural frequencies (alpha and other bio-organic oscillations) in the human brain or directly with objects. This results in an interference pattern that is either an amplified signal (by stimulated emission) or a scattered wave pattern that contains the information that was present in the brain wave oscillations or object. The atmospheric ELF and VLF carrier wave spreads the interference pattern over the surface of the earth (in two dimensions), and certain gifted people can pick off the interference patterns and reconstruct the originals. (S) In this scheme, it is vital to know whether a second human is necessary to convert the viewed object into transmittable and decodable (by the viewer) information or whether the interference patterns of entire scenes (buildings, forests, etc.) are directly decodable by an NBIT receiver. *The hypothesized processes bear some resemblance to holography. However, the wavelengths are much larger than the objects, while in holography the opposite Is true. 7-2 Approved For Release 2002/1R~lA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10AWC RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 RE r (S) Another Important feature in ELF/VLF transmission may be that the carrier frequency is not constant, but randomly floating (within a certain range) so that it is difficult to pick off the information waves for subsequent decoding by an instrument, unless special receiving circuits are built that can instanta- neously search for and detect the floating value of the carrier frequency. At any rate, the interference pattern probably will be highly nonlinear, and although radio-receiving techniques should be a guide, much thought must be given to the many possible ways in which information can be imparted to and retrieved from an ELF/VLF wave with a floating base frequency. (S) Because the frequency is so very low for natural ELF waves, it is difficult to see how significant quantities of information can be transmitted by them.* However, the VLF wave frequencies are high enough that reasonable rates of transmission are conceivable. (S) Instead of the scattering interference scheme proposed or alluded to by most parapsychological researchers, considerable stronger carrier-wave utiliza- tion results from carrier-wave amplification and modulation by stimulated emission in resonant bio-organic liquid crystals. The latter scheme is discussed in a subsequent part of this section. (U) For naturally occuring reservoirs of VLF and ELF radiation, some portions of the ELF and VLF region can exist in mode patterns that are trapped by the spherical annular waveguide bounded by the earth's surface and ionosphere (References 7-1 through 7-6). The ELF modes are three-dimensional, annular, spherical groundwaves whose characteristic wavelength is the earth's circum- ference, while the VLF waves are TMno and TEno earth-curvature that follow ribbon-like modes with open sides whose characteristic wavelength is the altitude of the ionosphere. The two different types of standing wave modes that the Ionosphere can support are illustrated in Figure 7-1. (U) The lowest frequency waveguide resonance in the ELF region is at 7.8 Hz, or at a wavelength of 38,462 km, which is approximately equal to the earth's circumference. The next waveguide resonances for spherical annular modes are at 14.1 Hz (X = 21277 km), 20.3 Hz (X = 14,778 km), 26.4. Hz (X = 11,364 km), and 32.5 Hz (% = 9231 Km). They have been called the Schumann waves (Reference 7-1) after Schumann, who first calculated the eigenvalues of these spherical annular elgenmodes of trapped waveguide radiation (see Figure 7-2). Under solar activity, Schumann waves with 1 my/m field strength (= 2.65 x 10-9 w/m2) have been observed (References 7-1 and 7-2). (U) The other type of elgenmodes that the earth's surface and ionosphere can capture and support in a near-resonant manner are similar to those that are propagated in microwave waveguides (References 7-7 through 7-9). They are ribbon-like and have open sides, much like the eigenmode,.; in a lasor, except that reflections occur between the earth's surface and the ionosphere, and the wave travels around the earth instead of being a standing wave. Since TEno modes are less attenuated by the ionosphere than TMno.modes, trapped VLF radiation (noise) Is probably mostly polarized horizontally. *The maximum bit rate dB/dt is equal to twice the frequency: dB/dt = 2v. Approved For Release 2002/11 CRE -RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 +.~ worm me lem r %NOW iftwmit MOW ilrre r ~T s~ wbow wrr.~r Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 INONSPHERE (E-LAYER) C n (a) THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPHERICAL ANNULAR GROUND-WAVE MODE AT 14.1 Hz IN THE ELF REGION (b) RIBBON-LIKE TEno TRAPPED MODE IN THE VLF REGION Figure 7-1. Illustration of Two Types of Ionosphere-Supported Trapped Electromagnetic Wave Modes EARTH SURFACE Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 UNCLASSIFIED Figure 7-2. Standing Waves of the Radial Electric and Horizontal Magnetic Field in a Concentric Shell Cavity Excited by a Vertical Electric Radiator at the Two Lowest Frequencies (after Reference 7-2, p. 41). (These Waves are also Called Schumann Waves.) 7-5 Approved For Release 2001'1A79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/1 ?2? fIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (U) The trapped frequencies with the strongest intensities in the VLF region .Ile between 2000 and 20,000 Hz (References 7-1 through 7-7), or X = 150 km and ).= 15 km. Sharp increases in electron density in the ionosphere occur at 60-to-90 km (D-layer), 110-to-120 km (E-layer), and 200-to-350 km altitudes (F-layer). The least attenuated, and thus most intense naturally trapped, VLF radiation is found at 10,000 Hz (X = 30 km), as shown in Figure 7-3, which gives the observed pulse from a distant nuclear detonation.* (S) The frequencies at which wavegulde modes are least attenuated are Influenced by three factors: (1) the reflectivity of the waveguide boundaries (which decreases with increasing frequency for the ionospheric layers), (2) the low-frequency cutoff, which is the lowest frequency at which a fixed waveguide geometry can support a given mode, and (3) the high-frequency mode .losses. For the spherical annular earth-ionosphere waveguide which gives rise to the ELF resonant frequencies, a high-resolution spectrum is shown in Fig- ure 7-4 (see Reference 7-2), while the measured VLF spectrum of ribbon modes is shown in Figure 7-5. (S) Since each waveguide mode has a minimum in its attenuation-versus- frequency curve, the attenuation losses tend to suppress propagation at high frequencies while at low frequencies the cutoff frequency prohibits support of a propagating wave. Thus, an optimum frequency exists for each mode. If a flat earth Is assumed, the attenuation of mode TEno (n = 1, 2, 3) for ribbon modes is approximately given by Equation 7-1 (Reference 7-8). 1/2 1/2 / 1.088 x 10-6 h-3/2 npion pearth / Pcopper). (km) f/fc) a - ( f/fc r h f nepers I + 2w (T4 C km *Reference 7-2 calculates TMno modes emitted from radio stations to be least attenuated at f = 18,000 Hz, if reflected by the D-layer at 70 km. Experi- ment gives 10,000 Hz for peak radiation, however. **1 neper/km = 1 e-fold/km = 10 = 4.3433 db/km. In(10) Approved For Release 2002/1 I~+R 4-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 4(10') w 3 (103 ) 7(103) 6(103) T 5003 ) 2(103) 1 (103) mmom ?w r111rfi iii ii Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 1-_I-f1T111 FIT" 1- BROADBAND a = 0.005 I I I I I I I I i I1 103 FREQUENCY, f, Hz 104 I I ---L--L-i I I I 1[ 6 105 106 S-1943 'Figure 7-3. Observed Pulse Waveform of a Distant Nuclear Detonation (After Reference 7-6) Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2 NtAftb DP79-00999A000300070001-4 I I ~ I I I 11 20 30 40 FREQUENCY, Hz Figure 7-4. High-Resolution Measurement of Schumann-Wave Radiation Near Kingston, R.I. (After Reference 7-2, p. 40). I' p' 7-8 Approved For Release 20021 1'/cI_ FFIEP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 20021d-AW 79-00999A000300070001-4 169 ~ MAXWELL ALASKA SUMMER 1963 0 1600-200Q -~-Q---- 0800-1200 N 1610 z ELF (Schumann) Waves MI KHAYLOVA 1 ~ I-- DAY TIME tea, - -- 6000 KMa ?' -'- AVERAGE DISTANCE 102 105 103 FREQUENCY, Hz 104 Figure 7-5. Measured Atmospheric "Noise" in the ELF and VLF Regions (After Reference 7-2, p. 42). 7-9 Approved For Release 2002/U1$4 g iRDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 0ipt.DP79-00999A000300070001-4 where h is the effective height of the wavegulde, n is the mode number, 1/2 1/2 pion pearth/pcopper is the effective resistivity ratio of the ionosphere/earth and that of copper, f is the frequency of interest, and fc is the cutoff frequency given by: fc - _ n ( 1S2`000 ) Hz (TEno) h(km) (7-2) (S) The parameter w is the width of the waveguide, or since the sides of the ribbon-mode waveguide are open, the width of the source radiation. For thermal earth radiation from land masses or other random sources, a probability distribution of widths may be assumed, given by p =exp-(w/LE)2. where LE is the flatness scale of the land and is estimated to vary from LE = 0.01 km for mountainous terrain to LE = 100 km for fiat deserts. The probability averaged expression for a Is then still given by Equation 7-1, with w given by: W (land)= W = L (7-3a) Over the oceans on the other hand, w can be quite large. It might appear that w =cocould be assumed, but this cannot be correct physically because the curvature of the ionosphere and earth put a limit on how wide a strip of earth might still be considered flat at the wavelength K = c/f. Some- what arbitrarily, it is assumed that the approximate rectangular cross- section formed by the earth's surface, the ionosphere layer, and two radial lines passing through the center of the earth should not deviate by more than 1/20 wavelength from an exact rectangular. Since X- 2h, this means h n Ax < 10n Thus, the arc section Sion = 0 (6371 + h) passing through the ionosphere layer should not exceed arc on the earth's surface Searth = 0(6371) by more than 0.1 h/n. For w this yields the relation: w 6371 0.1 637.1 n n (ocean) , km , where n is the mode number of the TEno ribbon mode. Approved For Release 2002/1?t2Tq A-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 20Q V[2AS?nffP79-00999A000300070001-4 (U) If (f/fc).>> 1, a minimum attenuation (according to Equation 7-1) occurs at: or above oceans; fmin. ptten. (oceans) r n x 150, 0001 / 6 x 637.1 11 /2 n 1/.2 (44I5 3/2 ` 1 h Thus, above oceans for the TE1q modes with h = 70 km, fmin = 7.39 fc = 15,835 Hz, while for h = 120 km, fmin = 5.64 fc = 7055 Hz, and for h = 300 Km, fmin = 3.57 fc = 1784.8 Hz. The ratio pl/2 may be expressed by: ion Pearth/P copper 1/2 1/2 p ion. pearth o - copper a 9.02 x 10-12 w2 2 - ~5 8 pcopper I/2 . A IV A -3 0,1/2 // 11l U ion. earth5 X 10 1 /W4 2 = 0.1834(-/ V C For the D-layer of the ionosphere (h = 70 km), the following approximation can be made (Reference 7-2). 1/2 1/2 pion. pearth P coppe r D-layer, h = 70 km 100 7-11 Approved For Release 2TWASIF RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 UNCLASSIFIED (U) Here, the conductivity of copper for RF frequencies is 5.8 x 103 mho/m (Reference 7-8); the average earth conductivity is taken as 0.005 mho/m;* the square of the plasma frequency equals w2 = 3.18 x 103 Ne (m-3), with Ne the electron density (m-3); and the collision frequency vc = 1.38 x 108 p(torr), where p is the atmospheric pressure. It is assumed further that an exponential atmosphere exists such that In the D-layer (Reference 7-3) the following Is true; 4.717 x 108 exp { 0.15 (h-70) } electrons m3 (7-7) With Equations 7-3 and 7-6, the attenuation relation (Equation 7-1) becomes: = 5X 106 exp-j 0.15 (h-70)} , (7-9) For the other ionosphere layers, another constant in place of 1.09 x 10-5 must be used. However, the remainder of Equation 7-9 remains the same. (U) The result (Equation (7-9), which was derived by fitting the rectangular waveguide relations of microwave theory to the ionosphere-earth ribbon--mode problem, is only approximate. More exact calculations have been made in References 7-3 through 7-6, which treat the ionosphere more realistically as a series of slabs.** The assumption of a sharp waveguide boundary inherent *Over oceans, o--. 2 mhos/m, while over lakes, or 0.001 mho/m and over dry desert sand, a- varies from 0.1 to 0.0001 mho/m. Over land masses, an average value of 0.005 mho/m may be assumed. (AIP Handbook, 2nd edition, pp.. 5-284, McGraw-Hill.) **Unfortunately, all calculations made in References 7-2 through 7-6 were done with h = 70 km and for a source with vertical polarization (TMno waves from a vertical radio-station antenna); furthermore, all mode effects in the horizontal direction at the edges are ignored. For a horizontally polarized TEno source, the attenuation is less than that calculated in these references. Many dependencies on frequency and earth magnetic field are similar, however. Approved For Release 20qlNa2AS P79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/1MIq?Pff-00999A000300070001-4 (U) in Equation 7-9 cannot correctly predict all the VLF propagation features that have been observed. One of these features is that the earth's magnetic field rotates the incoming refracting/reflecting wave such that for TMno waves, less attenuation occurs for waves traveling from West to East than for waves traveling from East to West.* For North-South and South-North polar travel, where the earth's magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of travel, there is no difference in attenuation. (U) In Figure 7-5, the measured frequency envelopes of the natural wavegulde trapped radiations in the ELF and VLF regions are shown side by side. The intensity levels shown in Figure 7-5 depend strongly on such factors as thunderstorms, solar flares (ionospheric disturbances), and whether it is day or night. The VLF contour shown in Figure 7-5 agrees reasonably well with a sum of the various modes given by Equation 7-9. To obtain the relative intensities of the TE10, TE20, etc. modes, one must consider that during the travel of a wave around the circumference of the earth (40,000 km In 0.1333 sec), it is attenuated by exp-(40,000 a). If a source emits steadily R Watts/(m2 Hz) of energy at frequency f, the buildup in the atmosphere due to the guiding effect by the ionosphere will be: R f) w I - exp(-40,000 a(f)) ' m2 ? Hz (U) From a comparison of calculations with Equations 7-9 and 7-10a, and the VLF curve in Figure 7-5, it appears that the assumption of reflections from the E-layer at h = 120 km by waves propagated over oceans give-better agree- ment between observations and calculations than if supra-oceanic reflections from the D-layer (h = 70 km) are assumed.** With h = 120 km, a TE10 peak occurs at about 7055 Hz and a TE20 peak occurs at 9977.3 Hz, while with h = 70 km, the TE10 peak Is at about 15,835 Hz and the TE20 peak at 22,394 Hz according to Equation 7-4b.*** Observations give a peak at 10,000 Hz. The D-layer at 70 km seems to disappear at night, during which only a weakened E-layer at 120 km remains (Reference 7-10). This may explain why the observer spectrum of Figures 7-3 and 7-5 peaks at 10 kHz and not at 18 kHz. Reference 7-6 does not indicate at what time of the day the data of Figure 7-3 were obtained, ,but even if the nuclear detonation occurred in daylight, the waves may well have traveled over a darkened portion of the earth before reaching the observers. *For the TEno waves, this effect may be reversed (?) **Of course, Equations 7-3b, 7-4, and 7-9, are only approximate, and it is not possible to deduce from them with certainty that the observed reflections actually occur primarily in the D-layer or E-layer. ***Reference 7-2 calculates 18,000 Hz for the peak of the envelope of TM reflections at h = 70 km with n = 1,2,3,4,..... 7-13 Approved For Release 204 A&%Kg)P79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (S) Having determined that the earth's ionosphere can trap the portions of the ELF and VLF spectrum shown in Figure 7-5, it remains to determine from where such radiation may originate. When viewed as a black-body, the 2900K earth can be shown from the Rayleigh-Jeans law to provide: dR - 40 2 w dv = 9.728 x 10 v(Hz) T(?K) = 2.821 x 10- 37 v(Hz) ' (7-10b) m 2 Hz which at v = 104 Hz yields dR/dv = 2.821 x 10-29 w.m-2? Hz:1 . Assuming a width of approximately 5000 Hz for the VLF peak, this amounts to 1.41 x 10-25 w/m2. Si ilarly for the ELF trapped radiation, we find approxi- mately 6.35 x 10-4 w/m2. (U) Normally, these radiations would be lost to space, but because of the trapping effect by the earth's ionosphere, they accumulate up to a level where the leak rate through the ionosphere equals the supply rate. For a leak rate of Tr = 0.01 through the ionosphere, for example, the level of trapped radiation will be (1/Tr) = 100 times the amount given by Equation 7-10, or 1 .41 x 10-23 w/m2 for the VLF region and 6.35 x 10-32 w/m2 for the ELF region. Since this level is far below what has been observed, other sources must exist. (S) In their review articles, Persinger, et. al. (Reference 7-1) mention that VLF waves with intensities on the order of 10'7 w/m2 have been observed by Reiter in connection with unstable air masses, while both VLF and ELF waves appear to be created by ionospheric disturbances. However, even in the absence of such sources, VLF and ELF levels well above the levels that are predictable from earth black-body radiation and the ionospheric green- house-effect (with believable transmission (leak) fractions of 0.001 to ' 0.01 from the ionosphere) have apparently been observed (Reference 7-1); thus, other possible sources must be sought. (S) One speculation Is that large bio-organic molecules may possess quantum levels of excitation in the 104 Hz (VLF) or 30 Hz (ELF) regions. If such is the case, organisms (for example a forest) could be responsible for providing nearly monochromatic ELF and VLF radiation at levels that are far above that of Maxwell-Boltzman or Rayleigh-Jeans thermal earth radiation. Also, it Is possible then that resonant amplifying interactions can take place between organisms and radiation in these frequency regions. Resonant interactions of radiation with matter are much more efficient than those due to scatter- ing, and it appears more likely that a resonant interaction Is responsible for NBIT transmissions than one based on scattering if VLF or ELF are indeed involved. These possibilities are considered in some detail in the next part of this section. (S) In searching for possible quantum interaction resonances between matter and electromagnetic waves in the 10 or 104 Hz region, stimulated amplifica- tion of VLF and ELF waves by large bio-organic molecules In the liquid crystal state provides a model. One could consider the hyperfine transi- tions that are known In the kHz region (for example, for iodine due to nuclear magnetic octupole interactions (p. 142 of Reference 7-14), and in the 10 Hz ~7(-` 114c Approved For Release 2002c1'f'A1'Y'I`GLIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) region due to nuclear electric hexadecapole (16-pole) interactions (p. 133 of Reference 7-14). However, the interaction cross-sections are extremely small compared to the usual electric dipole Interactions, and it is not too likely that these interactions play a role in the ESP phenomena under investigation. (S) It is well known that in living organisms large organic molecules exist which are arranged in regular patterns and form liquid crystals (References 7-15 and 7-16). Also, from recent studies of nematic liquid crystals (Refer- ence 7-17), it is known that many large organic molecules have appendages at an angle to the main chain which possess strong dipole moments. When an electric field is applied, the molecules align their long chains along the field and the appendages cause the scattering and refraction of light in preferential directions causing opaqueness in certain directions; this effect is utilized in display technology (Reference 7-18). When the applied field is lifted, the molecules become randomly oriented and the liquid becomes transparent again. When certain additives are added, however, the return of the liquid crystal to a random orientation is slowed considerably and may take hours (this is used in displays with memory). However, it has been found (Reference 7-18) that if radio frequency radiation in the kHz region is applied to the liquid, the hindered relaxation is overcome and instant random reorientation can be effected (this is used to wipe out memory). This is most likely due to the absorption of rotational quanta by the macromolecules which cause rotation of the appendage chain about the main chain as illustrated in Figure 7-6. (S) The energy quanta associated with the rotation of large molecules (with or without appendages) can easily fall in the kHz range. The usually studied rotational levels of molecules are those of relatively simple ones such as CO, NH3, SF6, H20, etc. For these molecules, the fundamental rotational quantum is given by : h h VB __ 8n2 I - 8rr2 ?F2 This has an energy or frequency value that falls in the microwave region (gHz = 109 Hz), since ? and r2, and thus the moment of inertia I = ?r2, of such molecular rotors are relatively small. For a large blo-organic molecule, however, r can be.10 to 100 times larger than the value of a typical diatomic or simple polyatomic molecule, while ? can be 100 to 10,000 times larger. Thus, the product pr 2 for such a large molecule can well be 103 to 107 times larger than the corresponding value of a simple molecule. Hence, the values of the rotational constants vB of some large bio-organic molecules lie between 10 and 106 Hz. 7-15 Approved For Release 2002/10/213 jlP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 0 - CH3 _-I C % -0 / I 7 I C 7 Y o / N. "./ APPENDAGE DIPOLE ROTATION ROTATION ENERGY LEVELS ARE: h Erot J 421 ?7 1, 2, 3, .... Figure 7-6. illustration of a Non-aligned Appendage Dipole in a Macromolecule (Reference 7-18) and its Rotational States Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 200 W rUffEr79-00999A000300070001-4 (U) The emission rate constant (Einstein coefficient), the absorption cross-section, and stimulated emission cross-section of rotational levels in molecules are as given below (from Reference 7-19). (A rot )Spont. mn emiss ion 1 `~nm rot)absorption = 2.6833 X 10-21 v w (R mn n mn) rot (Hz) (cm2) sec-1 = 0.0960 vmn wm(R2 Mn) 9(v'vmn'Avmn) rot rot 6mn ) = 0.0960 vmn wn(R2 g(v,v,Avn) stimulated mn) rot mn m (Hz) (cm2) (Hz- I) where the upper level Is labeled m and the lower level n. The function g(v,v A v ) is the line-broadening function to be discussed later, while the r)}ational transition matrix element Rmn and statistical weights wk are given by: ( Rmn ) f (J , W) do 2 , cm2 rot Wk = 2Jk + I Here, d 0 is the permanent dipole moment length (Reference 7-19) of the molecule, and f(J, W) = Jm for a simple diatomic rotor. However, for an asymmetric-top rotor with three different principal rotation axes, f(J, W) is a function of the two quantum numbers J and W (W is a semi-quantum number with non-integer values). cm2 cm2 Approved For Release 24 bASS Ii-DP79-00999A000300070001-4 (Hz) (cm2) (Hz-1) Approved For Release 2002/~ cJA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (S) Assuming that the large blo-organic molecule under consideration is constrained to rotate only about Its main axis (as is the case In a liquid crystal), it can be described by a diatomic-like rotation for which f(J, W) = Jm , even though it has three principal axes. Here, Jm is the quantum number of the upper level of the unhindered rotation, which transi- tions from level Jm to Jn . Also, do is the dipole moment length about the main axis. For such transitions, vmn = 2 Jm vB to first-order, so Equations 7-12 through 7-14 become: (Arot 11 mn spout. emission 2. 15 x 10-20 vJ4(2J - I) dB o (Hz) (cm2 sec-1 (?rrot) = 0.192 vB J2(2J+ 1) do 2 9(v,vmnAvmn absorption (Hz) (cm2) (Hz-1) cm2 (7-18) ~?Ymnt) = 0.192 vB J2(2J - I) d2 g(v,vmn,Avmn) , cm2 (7-19) stimulated emission (Hz) (cm2) (Hz-1) In Equations 7-17 through 7-19 J = Jm for brevity, that Is, J is the rotational quantum number of the upper level of the transition. (S) Taking typical values of do = 3 Angstrom = 3 x 10-8 cm, vB = 103 Hz, and J = 10, we get values like: Arot mn rot Tmn rot absorption Tmnt = 3.6765 x 10-21 , sec-1 2.72 x 1020 sec = 7.67 x 10 12 years 3.63 x 10-10 9(v)vmn~wmn) (Hz- I) cm2 7-18CT Approved For Release 2002/1#ECREik-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET. rot 6s t i m. 3.28 x 10- 10 gv, v,?,,,pv,??) , cm2 emission (Hz-I) Clearly, the lifetimes of these rotational levels are infinite if they depend on spontaneous decay via emission of a photon. Thus, their population must be controlled by molecular collisions or crystal-field (electri.c or magnetic) excitation/deexcitaflon processes. Stimulated deexcitation and absorption by electromagnetic field radiation can be quite significant. (S) If there is an incident flux of Fp photons cm-2 sec-1 with frequencies .in the vicinities of the resonant rotational transitions and there are Nn molecules/cm3 in lower state n, and N m molecules/cm3 in upper state m in an organism, the absorption and stimulated emission rates in the organism will be as follows (Reference 7-19). /Qrot ll mn absorption dvcP rot(v Nn dv 1 0. 192 v J2(2J + I) d 2 N G)V F F , absor?ptions (7-24) _ B o n = V sec ? cm3 mn and similarly: ~Dmnt, = 0.192 v6 J2(2J- 1) do Nm dv~ ) emissions (7-25) stim. v =v sec. cm3 emission mn Here f dF1p (dFdv 9(v'vmn, vmn) d= ) if dF' is not monochromatic v dv v=v dv mn (Reference 7-19). The net number of outgoing photons or gain will be: trot mn (prot 1 `` mn /stim. emission = 0. 192 do v (Q rot t nm labs J2(2J+ I v = vmn photons sec* cm 3 7-19 Approved For Release 2002/101Nql~-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (7-26) Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) The photons emitted from the organism according to Equation 7-26 are going in the same direction and are coherent with the incoming flux dFcp /du. If they are emitted from an area of AT cm2 at right angles to the beam dt~1p/du from a volume VT in the organism, and if the resonance line-breadth is,&umn. the ratio of outgoing to incoming photons, or amplification by the organism, is: (dF /dv) (p v = vmn Qvmn m n N -N and the frequency of the resonance was: (S) Taking again typical values of: UB = 103 Hz d_=3 x 10-8 cm Equation 7-27 becomes: LT(cm) 2. 1856 x 1014 1W (Hz) (0.905 WLm - 1T1_n where lm and inn are the molar concentrations (moles/cm3) of the upper excited (m) and lower excited (n) populations of resonant biomolecules in the organism. Taking further reasonable values of LT = 10 cm and in* = (0.905 mm -inn) = 10 moles/cm3, we get: 2. 19 x IO 9 Avmn (Hz) which can be quite large If Aumn Is not too large. - 7-20 Gmn / (ATAvmn) Approved For Release 2002/1(KC-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 0. 192 LTv Edo (2J + 1).J Z Approved For Release 2002/101?RDP7900999A0003000700014 (S) For the amplification to be possible, It is necessary thatn1m > inn by at least 10 percent (if J = 10). Such inversions can easily exist with the very low quanta of energy that are needed (10,000 Hz = 4.8 x 10-7 ?K) for the rotational levels of a large molecule. If excited by random collisions, the most probable J-level for the rotation of a gaseous molecule is given by: T (? K) I /2 Jmost 0.589 IV (cm- I) ~ (7-32a) probable B which for T = 300?: and v = 103 Hz = 3.33 x 10-8 cm-1 would give J = 55,877. Actually, for such a high Bvalue of J, stretching corrections would have to be added to the energylevel,expression ero = J(J + 1) hvB used in driving, and this would make Jmax much smaller. iowever, EquatioN 7-32a does not apply to a liquid crystal of large molecules aligned on and off by bioelectric fields. The rotations of appendaged.long-chain species like the one shown in Figure 7-6 are not excited by random collisions in that case. In liquid crystals composed of aligned large blo-organic molecules, it is necessary that all molecules rotate with the same quantum number J for dissipation forces to be minimum. The minimum total energy, and thus most probable distribution of states, would In this case correspond to some constant value of J rather than a Boltzmann distribution*, and Equation 7-32a becomes instead: ( T (? K) 1 /2 t 1) Jmos t N probable vB (cm ) Here, N is the number of molecules in the liquid crystal. Taking N = 107, T = 300?K, and uB = 10' Hz gives J most rob. 18 (according to Equation 7-32b), which is more reasonable.** p (U) Returning to Equation 7-31, the usual expressions for doppler, collision, and natural line-broadening of the rotational absorption emission lines of gaseous molecules are given below (Reference 7-19). cif one molecule rotated faster than its neighbor, its appendage would collide with the appendage of its neighbors. Only if all molecules rotate with the same frequency are such collisions avoided. Statistical mechanics allows precisely such a stationary minimum energy solution if the energy levels are constrained like this (see p. 277 of Reference 7-20). The Boltzmann distribu- tion only results if the rotational energies are free to take on any quantum values. **N 107 molecules with molecular weight M = 106 amu, gives a total liquid crystal mass of 1.66 x 10-11 gram, which Is still very little. ~r7~-211 Approved For Release 2002/10~D1EC4&-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/"Wh IA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 V = 7.6246 x 10-7 v TI/2 M 1/2 , Hz mn/Doppler mn (Hz) ('K) (amu) (Avmn)COI, is.ion ab (P) p (atm) = 3.384 x 108 ?ab (amu) T (? K) Arot mn 4 Hz , The largest of these three determines the line width of a gaseous molecule. (S) For umn = 10 Hz, T = 300?K, and M = 10,000 amu, we obtain (Av n)doppler = 1.32 x 10- Hz, while (Aumn )Natural = 9.2 x 10 Hz according Io Equations 7-20 and 7-35. Collision-broadening as given by Equation 7-34 would not apply to an assembly of aligned rotating biomolecules, but assuminq that It did, we would have (Au mn)ColIision = 9.2 x 108 Hz, If Gab 1000 N2, 4ab= 10,000 amu, p = 1 atm, and T = 300?K. Thus, if random collisions could occur in the liquid crystal (for example, perpendicular to the crystal axis), 'Y'.,10 . (U) In crystals, the main broadening effect is due to local crystal fields. For electronic transitions in solid luminescent crystals, the broadening effects have been studied theoretically, but no theory yet Is available for the effect of the field on rotational transitions of aligned rotating bio- molecules in liquid crystals. An educated guess would be that at most Avm /vmn _ -10-3, in analogy with electronic transitions in crystals for which 10'IQ < Avmn /v < 10-3. For,vmn = 104 Hz, Avmn = 10 Hz, and thus the following is on. ~tained from Equation 7-30: Y = 2 x IO13 LT(0.905 7nm - an) or from Equation 7-31, with LT = 10 cm and (0.905 nlm = ) = 10-6 moles/cm3: n Y - 2x 10' ~r7-22 Approved For Release 2002/1&?CRETA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10/21 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 SECRET (S) The result (Equation 7-37) is rather surprising and shows that if liquid- crystal-like assemblies of biomolecules exist in organisms, which we know is very likely the case (References 7-15 and 7-16), these organisms are capable of coherent and monochromatic amplification of incoming electromagnetic waves in the kHz region by more than a millionfold. Not only can the incoming waves be amplified, but If the liquid-crystal rotational levels are modulated by bioelectrochemical potential fluctuations induced by the brain of a man, for example, the outgoing field will carry this modulation information. A second person, gifted to perception and demodulation of this kHz wave- modulated information, could then conceivably "read" the first person's mind. Thus, NBIT could be explained. (S) Aside from the possibility of explaining NBIT between men, the interesting picture that emerges from the above-given analysis is that for very large biological molecules, resonant interactions with low-frequency radiation fields occur primarily via absorption and stimulated emission. Spontaneous emission can be entirely ignored. This is completely opposite to the thinking of 40 yr ago, which indicated that atoms and molecules interacted with the radiation field mostly by spontaneous emission and absorption. '(S) In the 1930's, Einstein first introduced and showed the necessity of a stimulated emission process in addition to absorption and spontaneous emission, but it was considered small and negligible. Not until 15 yr ago, when masers and lasers proved to be feasible, did one realize that simulated emission can play a significant role. Of course, one was still dealing with well-known light molecules such as CO21 N2, CO , H20, etc. Now, by extending recent know- ledge of the lasable and masable lighter molecules to heavy organic molecules, spontaneous emission may be almost entirely ignored. From the nanosecond life- times of excited electronic states, the milliseconds for vibrational states, and hours for the rotational states of small molecules, we have to consider relative lifetimes of billions of years for the rotational levels of biomolecules. (S) To illustrate some possible consequences of these new notions, one could preferentially pump liquid crystals of macromolecules to some particular desired J-level, and as long as the liquid crystal properties remained intact and no mechanical or electromechanical deexcitation mechanism came into play, these levels would remain pumped up at the particular J-level indefinitely. (S) A forest with trees possessing large biomolecules in a liquid crystal state may be "charged up" to some high J-level by the advancing kHz waves generated from a rain-front or storm. This might trigger a chain of physio- logical events in the tree to prepare itself for storing water. 7-23 Approved For Release 2002/i [V -RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 Approved For Release 2002/10g~ -EA RDP79-00999A000300070001-4 (S) Although the resonant frequency is low ( 10 - 104 Hz ELF and VLF), the resonance is very sharp (very monochromatic) and must be exactly matched by v = 2 vBJ for a particular liquid crystal with quantum number J. With Avmn between 10-4 and 1 Hz, experimentally finding such a resonance may be very difficult with ordinary RF equipment. (S) It is quite likely that many liquid crystal subdomains actually make up an organism or organ in a living thing, and that each domain can have a different J-value, there being a distribution of the domains over the J- values. Since a domain of aligned biomolecules with the same J may contain some 107 molecules. each with M = 106 amu, its weight is only 10-11 gm. Therefore, some 1012 domains may make up a 10-gm liquid crystal portion of an organ or organism. The total spectral coverage and resonance detectability of 10 11 domains with a J distribution over say 1