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proved For Release 2003/03/10 :CIA-F7000400030001-7 Final Report Covering the Period January 1974 through February 1975 PERCEPTUAL AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES Part Two: Research Report By: HAROLD E. PUTHOFF and RUSSELL TARG Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory Classification Determination Pending. Protect as though classified SECRET. Certain individual pages of this document are UNCLASSIFIED. However, the association and com- pilation of this material may indicate defense information, the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the national security; hence, an overall classification of SECRET is warranted. P ry r This document consists of 153 pages. Copy No .................... STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE Menlo Park, California 94025 ? U.S.A. proved For Release 2003/03/10: CIA-FSECRcE9"F000400030001-7 Covering the Period January 1974 through February 1975 Part Two--Research Report By: Harold E. Puthoff and Russell Targ Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory SRI Project 3183 Classification Determination Pending. Protect as though classified SECRET. Approved by: Earle Jones, Director Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory Bonnar Cox, Executive Director Information Science and Engineering Division Certain individual pages of this document are UNCLASSIFIED. However, the association and compilation of this material may indicate defense information, the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the national security; hence, an overall classification of SECRET is warranted. SECRET Approved For Release 2003/ 3/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003IC:RIE-qbP79-00999A000400030001-7 I ABSTRACT II PROGRAM RESULTS--APPLIED RESEARCH EFFORT A. Remote Viewing 1. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Targets (Exploratory Research) a. West Virginia Site (S3) b. West Virginia Site (Si) c. Urals Site (Sl) d. Summary of Exploratory Research 2. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Target (Operational Target, Semipalatinsk, USSR) 3. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: SRI-Designated Targets (Exploratory Research, Costa Rica Series) 4. Short-Distance Remote Viewing (Cipher Machine Analog) 5. Short-Distance Remote Viewing (Technology Series) B. Detection of Secret Writing Target Material Screening Tests Page iii 15 17 1. Remote Viewing of Natural Targets Under Standard Protocol 36 Conditions a. Subject Sl (Experienced) 38 b. Subject S4 (Learner/Controls) 40 c. Subjects S2 and S3 (Experienced) 46 d. Subjects S5 and S6 (Learner/Controls) 49 e. Sponsor Subjects (Learner/Controls) 49 f. Summary of Remote-Viewing Experiments (Standard 53 Protocol) 66 2. Four-State Electronic Random Number Generator a. Machine Description 67 b. Data from Experiments 69 B. Identification of Measurable Characteristics Possessed by 76 Gifted Subjects Approved For Release 2003 1C:RlE TDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasUMc0'3I1ASS1"E 0P99A000400030001-7 2. Psychological. Evaluation a. Evaluation by Clinical Psychologist Administering Tests b. Evaluation by Chief Clinical Psychologist 3. Neuropsychological Evaluation 79 _80 83 88 C. Identification of Neurophysiological Correlates That Relate 94 to Paranormal Activity 1. Remote Strobe Experiment 97 2. Mid-Experiment Monitoring of Physiological Parameters During 103 Routine Experimentation in Remote Viewing D. Identification of the Nature of Paranormal Phenomena and Energy 106 1. Experiments with Physical Apparatus 106 a. Experiments with Geiger Counter 106 b. Experiments with Laser-Monitored Torsion Pendulum 107 c. Experiments with Superconducting Differential Mag- 108 netometer (Gradiometer) d. Discussion of Physical Perturbation Effects 113 2. Discussion of Possible "Mechanisms" in Remote Viewing 117 3. Communication Theory Approach to Channel Utilization 121 4. Soviet Efforts 129 5. Conclusions 130 IV PROGRAM SUMMARY REFERENCES APPENDICES A. Remote Viewing Transcript for Subject S6, Learner/Control, First Experiment': B. Instructions to Subject: EEG Experiment C. Universal Randomization Protocol Approved For ReleaU N e /A l FED 999A000400030001-7 *0 60 Approved For Releamp2p(:/p3AQc @Iq,tlll6~p0999A000400030001-7 fto 1. Maps of West Virginia Site Drawn by Subject S3 2. Map and Detail of Site Drawn by Subject Si 3. Artist's Rendering of Site 4. Costa Rica Site Drawings and Photographs 5. Abacus/Clock Drawings and Photograph 6. Video Terminal 7. Typewriter 8. Xerox Machine 9. Drill Press 10. Procedure for Card Sorting by Sequential Sampling 11. Swimming Pool Complex (Sl) 12. Pedestrian Overpass (S4) 13. Bicycle Shed (S4) 14. Tennis Court (S2) 15. Palo Alto City Hall (S3) 16. White's Plaza, Stanford University (S6) 17. Merry-Go-Round 18. Windmill 19. Four-State Random Number Generator Used in This Experiment 20. Data Summary for Subject S2 21. Drawings and Interpretations by Associative Visual Agnosia Patients 22. Shielded Room Used for EEG Experiments 23. Occipital EEG Frequency Spectra of Subject S4 24. Polygraph Data from Subject S4 25. Superconducting Differential Magnetometer (Gradiometer) 26. Gradiometer Data 27. Enhancement of Signal-to-Noise Ratio by Sequential Sampling Procedure 28. Operating Characteristic Curve for Sequential Sampling Procedure 29. Average Sample Number for Sequential Sampling Procedure Approved For ReleINC/L36 SS4-F4Ii'D0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release ,2Q.O Q3/A 1.CAi ff fSQ0999A000400030001-7 1. Subject, Target Selection Procedure, and Figure Numbers for Tech- no1=.~gy Series. 2. Rank. Ordering Match of Drawings to Target Locations (Blind Judging, Te(inology Series) 3. Critical Values of Sums of Ranks for Preferential Matching 4. The Probability of M Correct Guesses of N Distinct Items 5. Key for Secret Writing Experiment 6. Raw Data Call Sheet for Secret Writing Experiment 7. Distribution of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Selection for Subject Si, Experienced. 8. Distribution of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Location for Subject S4, Learner/Control 9. Distribution of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Location for Subjects S2 and S3, Experienced 10. Distribution of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Location for Subjects S5 and S6, Learner/Control 11. Distribution of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Location for Sponsor Subjects, Learner/Control 12. Summary--Remote Viewing of Natural Targets 13. Four-State Electronic Random Number Generator Summary 14, Randomness Tests for Machine Ml Output during Successful Experimental Series 15. Randomness Tests for Machine M2 Output during Successful Experimental Series 1.6. Randomness Tests for Entire Machine Output During Successful Experi- mental Run 17. Subject S2 Selections on Machine Ml during Successful Experimental Series 18. Subject S2 Selections on Machine M2 during Successful Experimental Series 19. Neuropsychology Test Battery 20. EEG Data for Subject S4 21. Geiger Counter Experiment Summary 22. Five-Bit Code for Alphanumeric Characters Approved For Relea _CI A Z4'F FEgMD999A000400030001-7 Approved For Re1eCf3N STffb00999A000400030001-7 As a result of exploratory research on human perception carried out in SRI's Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory, we initiated a program to investigate a perceptual channel whereby individuals can access by means of mental imagery and describe randomly chosen sites remote from their physical location. This ability appeared to be sufficiently well developed in certain individuals to allow them to at times describe cor- rectly--often in great detail--geographical or technical material, such as buildings, roads, laboratory apparatus, and the like. In this final report (Part Two--Research Reportt), we document in detail the 12-month study at SRI of this human information-accessing capability which we call "remote viewing," the characteristics of which appear to fall outside the range of well-understood perceptual or information-processing abilities. This phenomenon is one of a broad class of abilities of certain indivi- duals to access, by means of mental processes, and describe information sources blocked from ordinary perception and generally accepted as secure against access. The phenomenon we investigated most extensively was the ability of individuals to view remote geographical locations (up to several thousand kilometers away), given only coordinates (latitude and longitude) or a person at a location on whom to target. The development at SRI of suc- cessful experimental procedures to elicit this capability has evolved to the point where (a) visiting personnel of the sponsoring organization without any previous exposure to such concepts have performed well under controlled laboratory conditions (that is, generated target descriptions of sufficiently high quality to permit blind matching of descriptions to targets by independent judges), and (b) subjects trained over a two-year period have performed well under operational conditions (that is, provided data of operational significance later verified by independent sources). Our accumulated data thus indicate that both specially selected and un- selected persons can be assisted in developing remote perceptual abilities to a level of useful information transfer. The primary achievement of the SRI program was thus the elicitation of high-quality remote viewing by For summary, see Part One--Executive Summary Approved For Rele e/1,13A.Os94-FI IED0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea /?E/A:Sg ff I 0999A000400030001-7 individuals who agreed to act as subjects. In carrying out this program we concentrated on what we considered to be our primary responsibility--to resolve under unambiguous conditions the basic issue of whether this class of paranormal perception phenomenon exists. At all times the researchers and SRI management took measures to prevent sensory leakage and subliminal cueing, and to prevent deception, whether intentional or unintentional. All experiments were carried out under protocols in which target selection at the beginning of experiments and blind judging of results at the end of experiments were handled inde- pendently of the researchers involved in carrying out the experiments, thus assuring evaluations independent of the belief structures of both experimenters and judges. The program was divided into two categories of approximately equal effort-?-applied research and basic research. In Section TI we summarize the results of the applied research effort in which the operational utility of the above perceptual abilities was explored. In Section ITT we summarize the results of the basic research effort, which was directed toward. identification of the characteristics of individuals possessing such and the determination of neurophysiol.ogical correlates and basic mechanisms involved in such functioning. With an eye toward selection of future subjects, individuals possessing a well-developed natural ability in the area under investigation underwent complete physical, psychological, and neuropsychological profiling, the results of which suggest some hypotheses for developing a screening procedure. The program summary is presented in Section IV. With regard to understanding the phenomenon, the precise nature of the information channel that couples remote locations is not yet under- stood. However, its general characteristics are compatible with both quantum theory and information theory as well as with recent developments in research on brain function. Therefore, our working assumption is that the phenomenon of interest does not lie outside the purview of modern physics and with further- work will yield to analysis and specification. Finally, it is concluded by the research contractor (SRI) that the development of experimental procedures and the accrual of experience in Approved For Relea ibt/A l fbpLZPP999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaJN I43AS HFE00999A000400030001-7 three years of successful effort constitutes an asset that could be utilized in the future, both for operational needs and for training others in the development and use of the remote-sensing capability. A. Remote Viewing As mentioned in the Abstract, the phenomenon we investigated most extensively was the ability of individuals to view remote geographical locations (up to several thousand kilometers away), given only coordinates (latitude and longitude) or a person at a location on whom to target. Individuals exhibiting this faculty include not only SRI participants but also visiting staff members of the sponsoring organization who par- ticipated as subjects so as to critique the protocol. As observed in the laboratory, the basic phenomenon appears to cover a range of subjective experiences variously referred to in the literature as autoscopy (in the medical literature); exteriorization or disassociation (psychological literature); simple clairvoyance, traveling clairvoyance, or out-of-body experience (parapsychological literature); or astral pro- jection (occult literature). We choose the term "remote viewing" as a neutral descriptive term free of occult assumptions or-bias as to the mechanisms involved. We begin our report in subsections 1 and 2 with experiments under the control of the sponsor. These experiments were designed to provide a vehicle whereby the sponsor could establish independently of SRI, some degree of confidence as to the existence of the long-distance remote viewing faculty. 1. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Targets (Exploratory Research) So as to subject the remote-viewing phenomena to a rigorous long-distance test under external control, a request for geographical coordinates of a site unknown to subject and experimenters was forwarded to the sponsor's group responsible for threat analysis in this area. In response, an SRI experimenter received a set of coordinates identifying Approved For ReleaU UCLA M0999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasUf 1A SS I r l E D'4999A000400030001-7 what is hereafter referred to as the West Virginia Site. The SRI experi- menter then carried out remote-viewing experiments with two subjects on a double-blind basis, that is, with target content blind to experimenter as well as to subjects. (Following the experiment both subjects claimed unfamiliarity with the West Virginia area.) The experiment had as its goal the determination of the utility of remote viewing under conditions approximating an operational scenario. a. West Virginia Site (S3)* Date: 29 May 1973, 1634 to 1640 hours, Menlo Park, Cali- fornia. Protocol: Coordinates 38?23'45"'to 48"N, 79?25'00"W, described simply as being in West Virginia, were relayed to experimenter Dr. H.E. Puthoff by telephone, who then relayed this information to subject S3 to initiate experiment. No maps were permitted, and the subject was asked to give an immediate response. The session was recorded on video tape. The oral response is reproduced here from the tape: This seems to be some sort of mounds or rolling hills. There is a city to the north (I can see the taller buildings and some smug), This seems to be a strange place, somewhat like the lawns that one would find around a military base, but I get the impression that there are either some old hunkers around, or maybe this is a covered reservoir. There must be a flagpole, some highways to the west, possibly a river over to the far east, to the south more city. The map in Figure l(a) was drawn by the subject. On the fallowing morning, S3 submitted a written report of a second reading, dated 30 May 1973, 0735 to 0758 hours, Mountain View, California: Cliffs to the east, fence to the north. There's a circular buiading (a tower?), buildings to the south. Is this a former Nike base or something like that? This is about as far as I could go without feedback, and perhaps guidance as to what was wanted. There is something strange about this area, but since I can't know particularly what to look for within the scope of the cloudy ability, it is extremely difficult to make decisions on what is there and what. is not. Imagination seems to get in the way. (For example, I seem to get the impression of something S3 identifies a subject. A key to numerical designations for subjects is available from the sponsor's Contracting Officer Technical Repre- sentative (COT[.). Approved For ReleaI4 Nc/A pE9 ft999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 'iew S4 1 ". L~011 =W13 I 6 FIGURE 1 MAPS OF WEST VIRGINIA SITE DRAWN BY SUBJECT S3 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releau ffefA Prt1b0999A000400030001-7 underground, but I'm not sure.) However, it is apparent that on first sighting, the general location was correctly spotted. The map in Figure 1(b) also was drawn by the subject. b. West Virginia Site (Sl) As a backup test, the coordinates were given to a second subject, Sl. The task was presented to the second subject independently of the first subject, both to prevent collaboration and to prevent any sense of competition. Date: 1 June 1973, 1700 hours, Menlo Park, California. Protocol: Coordinates 38?23'45" to 48"N, 79?25'00"W were given (with no further description) by experimenter Dr. H.E. Puthoff to subject S1 by telephone to initiate experiment. On the morning of 4 June 1973, S1's written response (dated 2 June 1973, 1250 to 1350 hours, Lake Tahoe, California) was re- ceived in the mail: Looked at general area from altitude of about 1500 ft above highest terrain. On my left forward quadrant is a peak in a chain of mountains, elevation approximately 4996 ft above sea level. Slopes are greyish slate covered with variety of broad- leaf trees, vines, shrubbery, and undergrowth. I am facing about 3?to 5? west of north. Looking down the mountain to the right (east) side is a roadway--freeway, country style--curves then heads ENE to a fairly large city about 30 to 40 miles distant. This area was a battleground in civil war--low rolling hills, creeks, few lakes or reservoirs. There is a smaller town a little SE about 15 to 20 miles distant with small settlements, village type, very rural, scattered around. Look- ing across the peak, 2500 to 3000 ft mountains stretch out for a hundred or so miles. Area is essentially wooded. Some of the westerly slopes are eroded and gully washed--looks like strip mining, coal mainly. Weather at this time is cloudy, rainy. Temperature at my altitude about 54?F--high cumulo nimbus clouds to about 25,000 to 30,000 ft. Clear area, but turbulent, between that level and some cirro stratus at 46,000 ft. Air mass in that strip moving WNW to SE. 1318 hours--Perceived that peak area has large underground storage areas. Road comes up back side of mountains (west slopes), fairly well concealed, looks deliberately so. It's cut under trees where possible--would be very hard to detect flying over area. Looks like former missile site--bases for launchers still there, but area now houses record storage area, microfilm, file cabinets; as you go into underground area Approved For Relea 3/ ~0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003SE:RIE-DP79-00999A000400030001-7 through aluminum rolled up doors, first areas filled with records, etc. Rooms about 100-ft long, 40-ft wide, 20-ft ceilings, with concrete supporting pilasters, flare-shaped. Temperature cool--fluorescent lighted. Personnel, Army 5th Corps Engineers. M/Sgt. Long on desk placard on grey steel desk--file cabinets security locked--combination locks, steel rods through eye bolts. Beyond these rooms, heading east, are several bays with computers, communication equipment, large maps, display type, overlays. Personnel, Army Signal Corps. Elevators. 1330 hours--Looked over general area from original location again--valleys quite hazy, lightning about 30 miles north along mountain ridge. Tempterature drop about 6?F, it's about 48?F. Looking for other significances: see warm air mass moving in from SW colliding with cool air mass about 100 miles ESE from my viewpoint. Air is very turbulent--tornado type; birds in my area seeking heavy cover. There is a fairly large river that I can see about 15 to 20 miles north and slightly west; runs NE then curves in wide valley running SW to NE; river then runs SE. Area to east: low rolling hills. Quite a few Civil War monuments. A marble colonnade type: 'In this area was fought the battle of Lynchburg where many brave men of the Union and Confederate Armys (sic) fell. We dedicate this area to all peace loving people of the future--Daughters G.A.R.' On a later date Sl was asked to return to the West Virginia site with the goal of obtaining information on code words, if possible. In response, Sl supplied the following information: Top of desk had papers labeled "Flytrap" and "Minerva". File cabinet on north wall labeled "Operation Pool..." (third word unreadable). Folders inside cabinet labeled "Cueball", "14 Ball", "4 Ball", "8 Ball", and "Rackup". Name of site vaguely seems like Hayfork or Haystack. Per- sonnel: Col. R.J. Hamilton, Maj. Gen. George R. Nash, Major John C. Calhoun (??). c. Urals Site (S1) After obtaining a reading on the West Virginia Site, Sl volunteered that he had scanned the other side of the globe for a Communist Bloc equivalent and found one located in the Urals at 65?00'57"N, 59? 59'59"E, described as follows: Elevation, 6200 ft. Scrubby brush, tundra-type ground hummocks, rocky outcroppings, mountains with fairly steep slopes. Facing Approved For Release 20031 6! RF- DP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 200310$EGRETP79-00999A000400030001-7 north, about 60 miles ground slopes to marshland. Mountain chain runs off to right about 35? east of north. Facing south, mountains run fairly north and south. Facing west, mountains drop down to foothills for 60 miles or so; some rivers running roughly north. Facing east, mountains are rather abrupt, dropping to rolling hills and to flat land. Area site under- ground, reinforced concrete, doorways of steel of the roll-up type. Unusually high ratio of women to men, at least at night. I see some helipads, concrete. Light rail tracks run from pads to another set of rails that parallel the doors into the moun- tain. Thirty miles north (5? west of north) of the site is a radar installation with one large (165 ft) dish and two small fast-track dishes. The two reports for the West Virginia Site, and the report for the Urals Site were verified by personnel in the sponsor organization as being substantially correct. The results of the evaluation are con- tained in a separate report filed with the COTR. d. Summary of-Exploratory Research The observation of such unexpectedly high-quality descrip- tions early in our program led to a large-scale study of the phenomenon under secure double-blind conditions (i.e., target unknown to experimenters as well as subjects), with independent random target selection and blind judging. The results, presented later, provide strong evidence for the robustness of this phenomenon, one whereby complex remote stimuli can be detected by a human perceptual. modality of extreme sensitivity. Before discussing these results, however, we consider further examples of both operational and operational-analog experiments. 2. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designae Target (Oper- ational Target--Semipalatinsk, USSR) To determine the utility of remote viewing under operational conditions, a long-distance remote viewing experiment was carried out on a sponsor-designated target of current interest, an unidentified research center at Semipalatinsk, USSR. This experiment, carried out in three phases, was under direct control of the COTR. To begin the experiment, the COTR furnished map coordinates in. degrees, minutes, and seconds. The only additional infor- mation provided was the designation of the target as an R&D test facility. The experimenters then closeted themselves with subject Sl, gave him the Approved For Release 2003/0S'EcREITP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/(9fC. MP79-00999A000400030001-7 map coordinates and indicated the designation of the target as an R&D test facility. A remote-viewing experiment on the target was then carried out. This activity constituted Phase I of the experiment. Figure 2(a) shows the subject's graphic effort for building layout; Figure 2(b) shows the subject's particular attention to a multi- story gantry crane he observed at the site. Both results were obtained by the experimenters on a double-blind basis before exposure to any addi- tional COTR-held information, thus eliminating the possibility of cueing. These results were turned over to the client representatives for evalua- tion. For comparison an artist's rendering of the site as known to the COTR(but not to the experimenters until later) is shown in Figure 3(a), with crane detail shown in Figure 3(b). Were the results not promising, the experiment would have stopped at this point. Description of the multistory crane, however, a relatively unusual target item, was taken as indicative of possible target acquisi- tion. Therefore, Phase II was begun, defined by the subject being made "witting" (of the client) by client representatives who introduced them- selves to the subject at that point; Phase II also included a second round of experimentation on the Semipalatinsk site with direct participa- tion of client representatives in which further data were obtained and evaluated. As preparation for this phase, client representatives purposely kept themselves blind to all but general knowledge of the target site to minimize the possibility of cueing. The Phase II effort was focused on the generation of physical data that could be independently verified by other client resources, thus providing a calibration of the process. The end of Phase II gradually evolved into the first part of Phase III, the generation of unverifiable data concerning the Semipalatinsk site not available to the client, but of operational interest nonetheless. Several hours of tape transcript and a notebook full of drawings were generated over a two-week period. The data describing the Semipalatinsk site were evaluated by the sponsor, and are contained in a separate report. In general, several details concerning the salient technology of the Semipalatinsk site ap- peared to dovetail with data from other sources, and a number of specific Approved For Release 2003/SEC R FTDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release of /eMs itV 99A000400030001-7 =CIQ CI ate, WOW Ir .w 10 I" tM (b) SUBJECT EFFORT AT CRANE CONSTRUCTION FIGURE 2 MAP AND DETAIL OF: SITE DRAWN BY SUBJECT Si 10 Approved For Releas L5/LOA 099A000400030001-7 I L; Approved For Release 200ECDP79-00999A000400030001-7 (b) CRANE COMPARISON FIGURE 3 11 Approved For Release 2003SE?Rfi DP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasLIA:!JS-Wl'efy999A000400030001-7 Large structural elements were correctly described. The results contained noise along with the signal, but were nonetheless clearly differentiated from the chance results that were generated by control subjects in compar- ison experiments carried out by the COTR. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: SRI-Designated Targets (Explora- t_oty Research. Costa Rica Series) i'IW eexperimena procedures of Subsections 1 and 2 were designed to provide a vehicle whereby the client could establish, independently of :3 R1, some degree of confidence as to the existence of a long-distance re- mote viewing faculty. Although the results were indicated to be positive, from the standpoint of SRI personnel who could not participate in the o vaLuation phase, it was considered necessary to supplement the above aoxp eriments with a similar set under. SRI control. Therefore, SRI-controlled experiments were undertaken to enable the experimenters to participate directly in the evaluation phase of the remote-viewing experiments. Two subjects (S1 and S4) were asked to participate in a long- distance experiment focusing on a series of targets in Costa Rica. The subjects said they had never been to Costa Rica. In this experiment, one of the experimenters (Dr. Puthoff) spent ten (lays traveling through Costa Rica on a combination business/pleasure a:.rl_p. This information was all that was known to the subjects about the raveler's itinerary. The experiment called for Dr. Yuthorf to keep a detailed record of his location and activities, including photographs, leach. of :-;even target days at 1330 PDT. A total of 12 daily descriptions were coiiected before the traveler's return: six responses from Si, five responses from 54, and one response from an SRI experimenter, wino acted as a subject in one experiment on a day in which S4 was not available and t_he other subject arrived late. :'cat its illustrative value we consider first the single response submitted by the experimenter filling in as a subject. The response, a drawing submitted for a day in the middle of the series, is shown in Figure 4 together with photographs taken at the site. Although Costa Rica Ls a mountainous country. the subject unexpectedly perceived the traveler at a bea:_h and ocean setting. With some misgivings, he described an Approved For Releasb/:~9D999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea J N V/'A SCt ED0999A000400030001-7 AIRPORT IN SAN ANDRES, COLOMBIA, USED AS REMOTE VIEWING TARGET FIGURE 4 AIRPORT IN SAN ANDRES, COLOMBIA, USED AS REMOTE VIEWING TARGET ALONG WITH SKETCH PRODUCED BY SUBJECT IN CALIFORNIA Approved For ReleaUN LA:SS-IctE-D999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release fi%UG:V1Jk: fORM-LQ999A000400030001-7 ric airport on a sandy beach and an airstrip with the ocean at the end (correct). An airport building also was drawn, and shown to have a large rectangular L'verhanv, (correct). the traveler had taken a one-day unplanned side trip i..o an oifshore island and at the time of the experiment had just disem- barked from a plane at a small island airport as described, 4000 kilometers from SRI. The sole discrepancy was that the drawing showed a Quonset-hut type of building in place of the rectangular structure. the above description was chosen as an example to illustrate two Major points observed a number of times throughout the program. First, in opposition to what might be expected, a subject's description does not n.ecessarily portray what might reasonably be expected to be correct (an educated or "safe" guess) but often runs counter to even the subject's own expectations. Second, individuals other than those with putative anor-mal ability" are able to exhibit a remote viewing faculty. The remaining submissions provided further examples of excellent correspondences between target and response. (A target period of pool- side relaxation was identified, a drive through a tropical forest at the base of a truncated volcano was described as a drive through a jungle below a large bare table mountain, a hotel room target description, in- cluding such details as rug color, was correct, and so on.) So as to determine whether such matches were simply fortuitous, i.e., could rea- sonably be expected on tare basis of chance alone, when Dr. Puthoff re- tturned he was asked to blind match the 12 descriptions to the seven target locations. On the basis of this conservative evaluation procedure, which vastly underestimates the statistical significance of the individual descriptions, five correct matches were obtained (two each of subjects Sl ;nd S4, and the single submission by the experimenter). This number of matches is significant at D = 0.02 by exact binomial calculation.* The probability of a correct daily match by chance for any given tran- script is p = 1/7. Therefore, the probability of at least five correct matches by chance out of i2 tries can be calculated from l2 1 999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releaste- ~/1A:S {~TO Approved For ReleaUN j/1A:55ifT'ED999A000400030001-7 Therefore, this pilot study, completely under control of SRI, provided confirmatory data supporting that obtained under sponsor control, indi- cating the existence of an apparent long-distance remote viewing faculty. 4. Short-Range Remote Viewing(Cipher Machine Analog) As a further test of operational utility of the remote viewing faculty, the COTR tasked the contractors with an experiment designed to duplicate as closely as possible an operational situation of current interest, the remote viewing of an abacus-type device. During a trip to the East Coast, the experimenters were to proceed to New York, where they were to purchase locally an abacus to be used as a target in a remote viewing experiment. (The abacus was to constitute a target anal- ogous to a cipher machine of particular interest.) Following the purchase they were to contact a subject who lived there (S3) by telephone with a surprise request to come to the experimenters' hotel room later that day to participate in a remote-viewing experiment. The above steps were carried out in preparation for the experi- ment. In this case the experimenters knew what the target was, an ex- ception to the double-blind rule followed in all our other work. There- fore, while awaiting the subject's arrival, a preamble for the experiment was prerecorded by one of the experimenters (Targ) and carefully checked to ensure against verbal cueing: Hal and I have brought a present for you. We wandered around New York this morning and we bought an object. This object is of the type that one interacts with, and Hal will use it for its normal purpose. Today is Friday, September 26, 1974. As in all our remote viewing experiments, we'd like to ask you to describe the object as you see it rather than attempting to give the object a name. When the subject entered the hotel room, this instruction tape was played by one experimenter (R.T.) while the other experimenter (H.P.) took a large locked suitcase containing the target object into an adjacent room, locked the door, and removed the abacus, shown in Figure 5(a), actions verified earlier as being inaudible. Thus the only available cue was an upper bound on the size. The subject produced the outline drawing I of Figure 5(b) in approximately one minute. (The large purplish-silver object corresponds Approved For Relea JN?f43S HFE00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 (a) ABACUS/CLOCK TARGET (TECHNOLOGY SERIES) (b) SUBJECT S3 RESPONSES I AND II TO ABACUS/CLOCK TARGET He Described Target as "Game Box with Little Balls" Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaU U LA REWD0999A000400030001-7 to the suitcase interior and is not taken to be evidential.) The experi- menter remaining with the subject asked for more detail, and the subject produced the drawing II of Figure 5(b), describing the object as a "game box with little balls." The entire experiment was tape recorded and extreme caution was taken to prevent cueing of any kind. The experiment took place in five minutes total time. Considering the high-strangeness factor of the target item, and essentially total lack of restriction on the possibilities as far as the subject was concerned, the correlation of subject drawings and target was taken as indicative of a potential utility for remote viewing of tech- nological targets, and resulted in a decision to experiment further in this area. After the target was shown to the subject, a short follow-up experiment was carried out to determine whether the position of the balls on the abacus could be determined by remote viewing, but this degree of resolution was found to be beyond the subject's capability. 5. Short-Range Remote Viewing (Technology Series) So as to measure the resolution capability of the remote viewing phenomenon, a series of experiments targeting on remote laboratory equip- ment within the SRI complex was carried out. Thirteen experiments were carried out with five different sub- jects, two of whom were sponsor staff personnel. A subject was told that one of the experimenters would be sent by random protocol to a laboratory within the SRI complex and that he would interact with the equipment or apparatus at the location. It was further explained that the experimenter remaining with the subject was kept ignorant of the contents of the target pool to prevent cueing during questioning. (The remaining experimenter only knew that from time to time, on a random basis, previously used targets would be reinserted into the target pool to provide an opportunity for multiple responses to a given target, and that during sponsor visits the targets might be selected by sponsor staff personnel rather than by the established random protocol procedures.) The subject was asked to describe the target both verbally (tape recorded) and by means of drawings during the time-synchronized 15-minute interval in which the outbound experimenter interacted in an appropriate manner with the equipment in the Approved For ReleYer2UD AYA "CINA 00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releas / 999A000400030001-7 target area. In the 13 experiments eight targets were used: a drill press, comput^r-driven flight simulator (Link trainer), Xerox machine, video terminal, chart recorder, four-state random target generator (used in screening tests described Later), typewriter, and machine shop. Three oL these were used twice (drill press, video terminal, and typewriter) and one %Xerox machine) came up three times. As an example of drawings generated by subjects, all of the subject outputs generated for the latter three (video terminal, typewriter, and Xerox machine) are shown in Figures 6. 7, and 8. A summary of subject and target selection procedure is given in Table I. L ',s is apparent from the illustrations alone, certain of the ex- periments provide circumstantial evidence for an information channel of useful bit rate. This includes experiments (Experiments 4 and 13) in which sponsor staff personnel participated as subjects to observe the protocol. 1'u obtain independent objective judgment of the quality of the remote viewing of technological targets, various analyses based on blind judging were employed. In the first judging procedure, a judge was asked to blind-match the drawings alone (i.e., without tape transcripts) to the targets. Multiple subject responses to a given target were stapled together, and thus there were seven subiect-drawing response packets to be matched to the seven different targets for which drawings were made. (No drawings were made for the Link trainer.) The judge did not have access to our puotograpns of the target locations, used for demonstration only (as in Figures 6 through 8), but rather proceeded to each of the target locations by list. While standing at each target location, the judge was required to rank order the seven subject-drawing response packets (presented in random order) on a scale one to seven (best to worst match), as shown in Table 2. The statistic of interest is the sum of ranks on the diagonal, lower values indicating better matches. For seven targets, the sum of ranks could range from seven to forty-nine. The probability that it given sum of ranks s or less will occur by chance is given by: alt Approved For Relea,((/3 SCE00999AO00400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 m v SUBJECT (S4) DRAWING OF "BOX WITH LIGHT COMING OUT SECOND SUBJECT (V2) SAW A COMPUTER TERMINAL OF IT . . . PAINTED FLAT BLACK AND IN WITH RELAY RACKS IN THE BACKGROUND THE MIDDLE OF THE ROOM" Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasUN to 95.II 399A000400030001-7 TECHNOLOGY SERIES TYPEWRITER TARGET s~vs f? Mso&e u4 a Ys aw "tu% 0tap 11Lw odaI - a me" 4, 2pw~s. srcEl+ foeuow -C '!4 9y4L w*d it ut;i 4 r aaccowt FIGURE 7 DRAWINGS OF A TYPEWRITER TARGET BY TWO SUBJECTS 20 Approved For ReleasLW. 00 A%IJS4 D99A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 m v TARGET LOCATION: XEROX MACHINE (TECHNOLOGY SERIES) FIGURE 8 DRAWINGS BY THREE SUBJECTS (S2, S3, AND V3) FOR XEROX MACHINE TARGET When subject (V3) was asked to describe the square at upper left, the subject said, "There was this predominent light source which might have been a window, and a working surface which might have been the sill, or a working surface or desk." Earlier the subject had said, Approved IFS" 12Mgaf4Vi2lbOl3P0,4:'CIIR--WbVDp9aC MgA,b( M0f oXyO * . " Shown at right. C z TO ADD INTEREST TO TARGET In LOCATION EXPERIMENTER WITH 1 HIS HEAD BEING XEROXED V9 N T v Approved For ReleaTia,QQ/1Q :ff itB999A000400030001-7 Experiment Target Target Selection Procedure* Subject 1 Link trainer a SRI-S4 2 Video terminal a SRI-S4 3 Drill press a SRI-S4 4 Xerox machine b Sponsor-Vl 5 Xerox machine b SRI-S2 6 Random number c SRI-S4 generator 7 Machine shop b SRI-S4 8 Typewriter b SRI-S4 9 Typewriter c SRI-S3 10 Chart recorder c SRI-S3 11 Xerox machine c SRI-S3 12 Drill press c SRI-S3 13 Video terminal c Sponsor-V2 *Target selection procedures a. Outbound SRI experimenter selects target site arbitrarily after leaving subject area. b. Visiting sponsor staff member selects target site arbitrarily after leaving subject area. c. Standard protocol, in which a target is issued to outbound experimenter by division director who selects the target by random number technique from a target pool stored in a secure safe. Approved For ReleaU N(C3/'A 5CRYWc0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea IAQL A AFDP9?0999A000400030001-7 TO TARGET LOCATIONS (BLIND JUDGING, TECHNOLOGY SERIES) Subj ect Place Drawing Visited Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Video terminal 1 7 5 6 4 3 2 Random number generator 4 6 5 7 2 3 1 Xerox machine 6 1 2 5 7 4 3. Machine shop 5 2 1. 3 4 6 7 Drill press 7 3 5 1 2 4 6 Typewriter 3 7 5 6 1 2 4 Chart recorder 4 7 5 3 6 1 2 Note on judging procedure: When standing at target locations shown on left, each of the seven subject-drawing response packets (originally labeled in random order) are rank ordered one to seven (best to worst match) by the judge. Statisitic of interest is the sum of ranks on the diagonal, lower values indicating better matches (see text). The sum in this case (18) is significant at p < 0.04. Approved For Release X003/Q3/"1 Q K!V999-0999AO00400030001-7 Approved For ReleaseUNCILpI lf*D99A000400030001-7 Prob(s or less) = -1n-- N s k (n) (i-N l) A =0 n-l where s = obtained sum of ranks N = number of assignable ranks n = number of occasions on which rankings were made takes on values from zero to the least positive integer k in (i-n)/n. Table 3 is a table to enable easy application of the above formula to those cases in which N = n. The sum in this case (1.8) is significant at p < 0.04. In tie second judging procedure, another judge was given 12 subject-response packages, which included drawings and tape transcripts, and asked to blind match, without replacement, the 12 response packages to 12 target locations, which he visited. (The thirteenth location, the machine shop, included in the first judging, was left out of this judging by an oversight.) In the forced-choice matching without replacement, (that is, each response packet used only once), the judge obtained four direct hits, the Link trainer (Experiment 1), video terminal (Experiment :2), drill press (Experiment 3) and Xerox machine (Experiment 5). (The Link trainer, for which no drawings were made, was matched on the basis of tape--recorded transcript alone. It is a standard computer-controlled flight simulator that resembles the cockpit of an aircraft. It was cramped quarters for tie outbound experimenter who flew the trainer ac- cording to a printed flight plan book laid over his arm. The windows were frosted and translucent. Subject S4 gave a description of the ex- perimenter crowded into a very small space illuminated by gray diffuse light and with a long paper, such as a waiter's towel, over his arm. Although not unambiguous, the subject's description was nevertheless essentially devoid of incorrect statements.) As indicated by Table 4, the probability of obtaining by chance four direct hits out of 12 matches is p = 0.015; thus, this judging pro- cedure also indicates that, from a statistical standpoint, there is significant evidence of useful information transfer. In a third judging procedure the COTR arbitrarily selected the Approved For Relea LILl&.,S x-kFJ-E-999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 TABLE 3 Critical Values of Sums of Ranks for Preferential Matching C z Ir Number of Assignable Ranks (N) Probability (One-Tailed) that the Indicated Sum of Ranks or Less Would Occur by Chance ----- } - ~' - _ _ 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.,04 ,0.025 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.001fi3.0005 10-4 10-5 10-0 10-7 4 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 5 11 10 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 6 16 15 13 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 7 22 20 18 18 17 15 14 12 1 12 11 9 8 8 29 27 24 24 22 20 19 17 16 15 13 Il 9 8 9 37 34 31 30 29 26 24 22 21 20 17 14 12 10 10 46 42 39 38 36 33 31 29 27 25 22 19 16 13 11 56 51 48 47 45 41 38 36 34 32 28 24 20. 17 12 67 61 58 56 54 49 47 43 41 39 35 30 25 22 C z tA T v This table applies only to those special cases in which the number of occasions on which objects are being ranked (n) is equal to the number of assignable ranks (N). Each entry represents the largest number that is significant at the indicated p-level. Source: R. L. Morrisl Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 V N 1 2 F3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 ... .5000 3333 .3750 .36667 .36806 .36786 .367882 .367879 .367879 .3678794 .3678794 1 1.000 .. .5000 .3333 .37500 .36667 .36806 .367857 .367882 1 .367879 .3678795 1 .3678794 2 .5000 ... .2500 .16667 .18750 .18333 .184028 .183929 .183941 .1839396 .1839397 3 .1667 ... .08333 .05556 .06250 .061111 .061343 .061310 .06131:17 .0613132 4 1 .0417 ... .02083 .01389 .015625 .015278 .015336 .0153274 .0153284 5 .00833 ... .00417 .002778 .003125 .003056 .0030671 .0030655 6 .00139 ... .000694 .000463 .000521 .0005093 .0005112 7 .00020 ... .000099 .000066 .0000744 .0000728 8 .000025 ... .000012 .00000>3 .0000093 9 .000003 ... .000001.4 .0000009 10 .000000 ... .0000001 11 .0000000 ... 12 .0000000 Source: N. Feller2 m v Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003S:1C:RIE-TDP79-00999A000400030001-7 data of Experiment 3 (drill press/S4) as a test case. An analyst of the sponsor organization, blind as to the target and given only the subject's taped narrative and drawings (Figure 9), was able, from the subject's description alone, to correctly classify the target as a "man-sized ver- tical boring machine." In general, it appears that use of multiple-subject responses to a single target provides better signal-to-noise ratio than target iden- tification by a single individual. Further, our observation is that most of the correct information is of a nonanalytic nature pertaining to shape, form, color, and material rather than to function or name. That is, we often observe the correct description of basic elements and patterns coupled with incomplete or erroneous analysis of function. As a result, we have learned to urge our subjects simply to describe what they see as opposed to interpreting the perceived data. One should not infer that analytic functioning in the remote viewing mode is never observed, however, as indicated by codeword retrieval in the West Virginia Site experiment discussed in Subsection 1-B above, and by the sponsor-staff-member-generated response of Figure 6. B. Detection of Secret Writing (SW) Target Material To determine whether documents containing secret writing (SW) could be differentiated from other documents, SRI carried out a double-blind experiment under sponsor control. Twenty-seven numbered envelopes con- taining target drawings of variable content and preparation, sealed and specially secured by the sponsor, were submitted to SRI researchers for sorting. The goal was the differentiation of the 12 envelopes containing the SW drawings from the envelopes containing either pencil drawings (6) or blanks (9). This distribution was the only datum given to researchers and subject. The key, shown in Table 5, remained under sponsor control until the experiment was completed and the data were submitted to the COTR. A series of sorting runs to detect SW material was carried out with SRI subject Sl. The series consisted of 24 runs through the 27 cards, choosing 12 cards each run, the goal being to choose the 1.2 SW cards. Thus, each run consisted of a sort into one of two binary channels, non- SW or SW, say (0,1). The numbered envelopes containing the target Approved For Release 200SEic Ri T DP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releas QQ3/f ftoA ( 9?jQ.q(Q99A000400030001-7 BELT DRIVE FOR DRILL PRESS (CAN BE SEEN ONLY FROM ABOVE MACHINE) TARGET: DRILL PRESS (TECHNOLOGY SERIES) SUBJECT (S4) DRAWING OF DRILL PRESS SHOWING BELT DRIVE, STOOL AND "VERTICAL GRAPH THAT GOES UP AND DOWN" Approved For Releas q4 311 %S jjff tQd@99A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 20035ftC:RIE -DP79-00999A000400030001-7 KEY FOR SECRET WRITING EXPERIMENT (Kept blind to experimenters until experiment completion) Card No. Target Material Target Content 1 Pencil Large X 2 Pencil Small A Pencil Large A Blank Blank Blank Blank Pencil Large 0 7 Pencil Small x 8 Pencil Small o 9 Blank Blank 10 Blank Blank 11 CD-294 Small A 12 CD-294 Large X 13 CD-294 Large A 14 CD-294 Small o 15 Blank Blank 16 CD-294 Small x 17 Blank Blank 18 CD-294 Large 0 19 CD-175 Large 0 20 Blank Blank 21 CD-175 Large X 22 CD-175 Small A 23 Blank Blank 24 Blank Blank 25 CD-175 Small o 26 CD-175 Large A 27 CD-175 Small x Approved For Release 200971'FOl%&A~RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release ~q /1A :?~.f T76~9~Q999A000400030001-7 material were randomized before each run and placed inside unnumbered opaque envelopes betore being presented to the subject for sorting. The annpropriate analysis technique for a binary sort (0,1) is the method known as sequential sampling. The sequential method gives a rule of procedure for making one of three possible decisions for each card tol_iowing a given binary sort: accept 1 as the bit being carried 1w the card; reject 1 as the bit being carried by the card (i.e., accept 0); or continue sampling of the card under consideration. The sequential sampling procedure differs from fixed-length statistical analysis procedures in that the number of sorts required to reach a final decision on a card ;pit. is not fixed before sampling, but depends on the results accumulated with each sampling run. The primary advantage of the sequential sampling procedure as compared with the other methods is that, on the average, fewer sorts per final decision are required for an equivalent degree of rre-pliability. Use of the sequential sampling procedure requires the specification of parameters that are determined on the basis of the following consid- orations. Assume that a labeling bit (0 or 1) is being carried by each card. From the standiDoint of the sorter, the probability of correctly identifying the bit being carried is some value p because of chance alone. An operative sensing channel could then be expected to alter the proba- bility of correct identification to a higher value p = p, + '. Good psi functioning on a repetitive task is observed to result in = 0.12, as reported by RyzL." Therefore, let us assume a baseline psi parameter ,1~ h=0..12. The question to be addressed in the case of sorting 12 SW cards from among 27 cards is whether a given card is sorted into the SW channel at i low rare p commensurate with the hypothesis H0 that the card in ques- tion is a non-SW card, or at a higher rate pl commensurate with the hy- pothesis H, that the card in question is indeed an SW card. The decision- making process requires the specification of four parameters: (1) p,_k: The probability of sorting incorrectly a non-SW (0) card oto tile SW (1) channel. In the sort of 12 SW cards from among 27, the probability of correctly sorting a non-SW (0) card into Approved For Release ( ( I f jkSSg1'JECV9A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 UNCLASSIFIED the non-SW (0) channel is p = pc + 'fib = 15/27 + 0.12 = 0.676. Therefore, the probability of a non-SW (0) card being incor- rectly sorted into the SW (1) channel is 1 - p = 0.324 = p 0. (2) p 1: The probability of sorting correctly an SW (1) card into the SW (1) channel. In the sort of 12 SW cards from among 27, the probability of correctly sorting an SW (1) card into the SW (1) channel is p1 = Pc + l'b = 12/27 + 0.12 = 0.564. (3) a: The probability of rejecting a correct identification for a non-SW (0) card (designated in statistics as a Type 1 error). We shall take a = 0.1. (4) (3: The probability of accepting an incorrect identification for an SW (1) card (designated in statistics as a Type II error). We shall take 0.1. (Lower values for a and result in increased accuracy, but at the ex- pense of requiring longer runs. Therefore, a compromise must be made between the desire to maximize reliability and to minimize redundancy.) With the parameters thus specified, the sequential sampling procedure provides for construction of a decision graph as shown in Figure 10. A cumulative record of sorts of a given card is compiled run by run until either the upper or lower limit line is reached, at which point a decision is made to label the card as 0 (non-SW) or 1 (SW). As indicated in Figure 10, during the 24 runs carried out, SW cards 13, 18, 21, 22, 25, 26, and 27 correctly emerged through the upper limit line to be labeled SW, along with pencil cards 1 and 2 and blank card 17, the latter three incorrectly. We note that five of the six CD-175 cards ended up correctly sorted. With regard to the lower limit line, pencil cards 3, 6, and 8, and blank cards 4, 20, and 23 correctly emerged through the lower limit line to be labeled non-SW, along with (incorrectly) SW cards 12, 16, and 19. Thus, of the 19 cards that emerged through the limit lines, 13 are correct. Although we cannot rule out the possibility of obtaining 13 correct choices out of 19 labelings by chance (p = 0.09 by Approved For ReleaU MQL/A S JFF iFo 999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 m v SW-27 SW-26 SW-13 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 RUN NUMBER, N DECISION 3 CONTINUE SAMPLING DECISION 2 ACCEPT "0" AS THE BIT BEING CARRIED 9,4 ?14,2 24 5 ,7,0 11,15 1 -1 1 18 20 22 24 UPPER AND LOWER LIMIT LINES GIVEN BY: E1 = d1 + SN, Eo = -do + SN, d1 = -R log 1 a do = log p1(1-P0) - - po(1-P1) log (1-po (1-p1) log p1(1-p0} Po(1-P1) FIGURE 10 PROCEDURE FOR CARD SORTING BY SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING Po = 0.324, p1 =0.564,a=0.1,/3=0.1 BROKEN LINE SHOWS SAMO SAMPLING SEQUENCE FOR CARD NO. 25 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 DECISION 1 ACCEPT "1" AS THE BIT BEING CARRIED Approved For Rele1NL3/L3AOS 94-FIt f'D0999A000400030001-7 exact binomial calculation*), the result indicates a tendency toward cor- rect labeling that could be explored further. With an increased number of runs, the probabilities for a and (3 errors can be reduced while still permitting a large percentage of labelings to be made. (For completeness we include the raw data call sheet as Table 6.) A second shorter series of 18 sorting runs through the 27 cards to choose the six pencil cards yielded chance results. * Recognizing that the probability of a correct choice by chance is the probability that an SW card is sorted into the SW channel, or a non-SW card is sorted into the non-SW channel, we have 12 12 15 15 p(corr) = 27 x 27 + 27 x 27 = 0.506. From this the probability of at least 13 correct choices by chance out of 19 tries can be calculated from 19! p 1!(19-i)! (0.506)1(0.494) 9-1 = 0.09 i=13 Approved For ReleaU d6A &S l 999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea tl4.?t-rfP,7g-6999AO00400030001-7 `CABLE 6 RAW DATA CALL SHEET FOR SECRET WRITING EXPERIMENT SE CT 12 PER RUN) Card Ch osen I' P P I B P P P B B SW SW SW SW B SW B SW SW B SW SW B B SW SW SW 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 , 12 13 14 1.5 16 17 18 19 20 21. 22 23 24 25 26 27 Run # I x x x x x x x x x x x x 2 x x x x x x x x 3 x t x x x x x 4 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 6 x x x x x x x x x 7 x x x x x x x x x x x x 8 x x x x x x x x x x x 99 x x x x x x x 1x x x x x x x 1.2 x x x x xx x x x x x ]3 x x x x x x x x x x x x 14 x x x x x x x x x x x x 1-5 x x x x x x x x x x x 16x x x x x x x x x x x 117 xxxx x x x x x x x x 18 x x x x x x x x x x x x 9 x xxxx x x x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x x 21 x x x x x x x x x x X x 122 x x x x x x x x x x x x 23 X x x x x X x x x x x x 24 x x x x x x x x x x x Approved For Relea 0k/ fl fbtED999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release NCEMISTfISO999A000400030001-7 In addition to experimentation carried out under conditions appropri- ate to assessing the operational utility of paranormal abilities, approx- imately 50 percent of the program effort was devoted to a basic research effort that included: (1) Identification of measurable characteristics possessed by gifted individuals, (2) Identification of neurophysiological correlates that relate to paranormal activities, (3) Identification of the nature of paranormal phenomena and energy. A. Screening Tests To meet the above objectives, the first prerequisite was the estab- lishment of criteria capable of differentiating individuals apparently gifted in paranormal functioning from those who were not. This pre- requisite was met by carrying out a series of screening tests under fixed protocol conditions. The tests were designed to ensure that all conven- tional communications channels were blocked, and that the outcomes could be sufficiently unambiguous to determine whether paranormal functioning occurred. Individuals gifted in certain areas of paranormal functioning could then be differentiated from those who were not on the basis of whether their results differed significantly from chance. Two experimental paradigms were utilized as screening tests on the basis that these tests had been useful for such purposes prior to this program (in the sense that certain apparently gifted individuals did exceedingly well in at least one of these tests, whereas the results of unselected volunteers did not differ significantly from chance expecta- tion). The tests were (a) the remote viewing of natural targets, and (b) the determination of the state of a four-state random target generator. The first type of test constitutes a so-called "free-response" paradigm in which the subject originates freely about contents of his awareness; furthermore, the channel in general may involve both direct perception of the remote site and perception of the mental contents of an observer at the site. In the second type of test, on the other hand, the target Approved For ReleaseUN /{QAS5 F*ED 9A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 0 /1 M96999AO00400030001-7 UNCSS is more abstract (an electronic state), the target is blind to all par- ticipants, and the subject's choice is precisely constrained. For- the purpose of screening, a result is considered unambiguously paranormal if the a priori probability for the occurrence of the result fy chance, under the null hypothesis, is p 0.50 To G 85 87 86 88 346 0.058 > 0.99 From B 85 82 90 87 344 0.395 > 0.90 R 91 91 83 92 357 0.591 > 0.80 Initial states 8 14 9 13 44 2.364 > 0.50 All states 365 353 356 372 1446 0.622 > 0.80 Nondiagonal transitions 261 252 257 267 1037 0.466 > 0.90 Diagonal transitions 96 87 90 92 365 0.468 > 0.90 TABLE 15 Randomness Tests for Machine M2 Output During Successful Experimental Series by Subject S2 (Runs 1 through 8, 17 through 44, and 81 through 100) Buttons Number Binomial Yellow Green Blue Red of Trials Chi-Square probability Transitions Y 108 120 111 124 463 1.458 > 0.50 To G 107 131 136 119 493 4.095 > 0.20 From B 126 124 138 135 523 1.061 > 0.70 R 118 115 140 129 502 3.100 > 0.30 Initial states 16 15 13 12 56 0.714 > 0.80 All states 475 505 538 519 2037 4.149 > 0.20 Nondiagonal 351 359 387 378 1475 2.247 > 0 50 transitions . Diagonal 108 131 138 129 506 3.960 > 0.20 transitions Approved For ReleUN"A~:~IkrRUP7500999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasU 0,1"I . ~tjfftbPNA000400030001-7 NUL Buttons Number Chi-Square Binomial or probability Yellow Green Blue Red Trials Transtions Y 204 199 199 216 818 0.944 > 0.80 To G 192 218 222 207 839 2.578 > 0.30 From B 211 206 228 222 867 1.397 > 0.70 R 209 206 223 221 859 1.009 > 0.70 Initial states 24 29 22 25 100 1.040 > 0.70 All states 840 858 894 891 3483 2.364 a > 0.50 Nondiagonal 612 611. 644 645 2512 1.736 > 0.50 transitions Diagonal 204 218 228 221 871 1.399 > 0.70 transitions Approved For ReleasbMd b~/1A:91~-rp1'f -~+ 999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReIeUeNCIL cS SJ.FiE D o999A000400030001-7 With regard to the possibility that the subject developed an optimum strategy based on slight, even though nonsignificant, machine departures from chance expectation, it is sufficient to determine the most favorable strategy based on machine statistics and examine whether use of such a strategy would be capable in principle of producing a re- sult as significant as that produced by the subject. For machine Ml the optimum strategy, according to Table 17 is: if in the initial state, press green; if yellow, press yellow; otherwise, pass. Use of such a strategy would, in the 44 runs carried out, result in 14 correct initial state selections and a scoring fraction 96/355 = 0.2704 on the remaining 44 x 24 = 1056 transitions, resulting in 300 hits. For machine M2 the optimum strategy, according to Table 18, is: if in the initial state, press yellow; if red, press blue; other- wise pass. Use of such a strategy would, in the 56 runs carried out, result in 16 correct initial state selections and a scoring fraction 140/502 = 0.2789 on the remaining 56 x 24 = 1344 transitions, resulting in 391 hits. Thus, an optimum strategy derived from the machine distri- bution post hoc yields a scoring fraction 691/2500 = 0.2764, significantly less than the observed scoring fraction 0.2936. In any case, it is clear from an examination of the compilation of subject choices (Tables 17 and 18) that subject selections, although extremely nonrandom, differed widely from those strategies favorable to the production of results based on machine statistics. Further, there is no evidence of learning to sup- port the hypothesis that a successful strategy was developed. A more detailed analysis of strategies, confirming these conclusions, was carried out by the sponsor under the direction of the COTR. When subject S2 was asked to repeat the entire experiment at a later time, he was able to replicate successfully a high mean scoring rate (27.88/100 average over 2500 trials, a result whose a priori proba- bility under the null hypothesis is p = 4.8 x 10-4). We thus conclude from the machine study that of the six subjects tested, one subject (S2) was able to generate a significant and replicable result. From these results, we conclude that there is evidence for the existence of a human perceptual capability whereby electronically Approved For ReIeANA~Ad':~ILFRRTJ00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasI Z / EAS S IIfffU99A000400030001-7 Transitions Y To G From 43 R Pass Initial states All states TABLE 17 SUBJECT S2 SELECTIONS ON MACHINE Ml DURING; SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENTAL SERIES (Runs 9 through 16 and 45 through 80) Buttons Yellow Green Blue Red 51 45 30 149 73 14 362 47 12 17 58 36 4 174 35 13 2 37 13 6 106 141 70 38 82 108 19 458 73 30 16 110 116 1 346 TABLE 18 SUBJECT' S2 SELECTIONS ON MACHINE M2 DURING SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENTAL SERIES (Runs 1 through 8, 17 thresh 44, and 81 _throu h 100) 67 77 54 179 125 To G 68 2 14 107 38 From 13 50 22 2 40 15 R 208 96 38 31 111 Pass 105 33 22 129 348 Initial states 21 7 1 27 0 All states 519 237 131 513 637 Approved For ReleasUMtlA SIS-PH!-?999A000400030001-7 Approved For Rele4NC3/L3 S -HFEO0999A000400030001-7 stored information can be accessed by means of a perceptual modality not mediated by physical parameters as yet identified. The characteristics of such a channel can be specified in accordance with the precepts of communication theory. The bit rate asso- ciated with the information channel is calculated from8 R = H(x) = Hy(x) , (1) where H(x) is the uncertainty of the source message containing symbols with an a priori probability p. i 2 H(x) IT P; log,,P, (2) and Hy(x) is the conditional entropy based on the a posteriori probabil- ities that a received signal was actually transmitted, Hy(x) = L P(i,j) log2 pi(j) (3) i,j=l For S2's first run, with pi = 1/4, p.(j) = 0.2936, and an average of 30 s/choice, we have a source uncertainty H(x) = 2 bits and a calculated bit rate R = 0.007 bits/symbol R/T = 2 x 10-4 bits/s .In a larger study for NASA, devoted specifically to the question of whether learning could take place, 147 subjects were screened.9 Of these subjects, six showed a positive learning slope significant at the 0.01 level or better; the binomial probability of this occurring by chance is 3.8 x 10-3. At the other extreme, no subjects had a negative slope at the 0.01 level or better, in contrast to those six who had a positive slope at the 0.01 level. The slopes of the remaining 141 subjects (448,000 trials) were found to be normally distributed. Approved For ReleUJYCaLA(5SIL RbE0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release R 1 A q5 f tj999A000400030001-7 B. Identification of Measurable Characteristics Possessed Gifted Subjects 1. Medical Evaluation The medical evaluation of program participants was assigned to the Palo Alto Medical Clinic. Coordination of the program was handled by Dr. Robert Armbruster, Director of the Clinic's Department of Environ- mental Medicine. The testing procedures fall into six categories: (I) General. physical examination, including complete medical and family history. (2) Laboratory examinations, including SMA-12 panel blood chem- istries, protein electrophoresis, blood lipid profile, urinalysis, serology, blood type and factor, pulmonary function screening, and 12-lead electrocardiogram. (3) Neurological examination, including comprehensive and electroencephalogram (sleeping and routine). (4) Audiometric examination, including comprehensive, Bekesy bone conduction, speech discrimination, and impedance bridge test. (5) Ophthalmologist examination, including comprehensive, card testing, peripheral field test, muscle test, dilation funduscope, and indirect ophthalmoscopic and fundus examination. (6) EMI brain scan. The detailed subject-by-subject test results are on file with the sponsor. Following are the summary evaluations prepared by Dr. Armbruster. a. Subject Sl (Experienced) This 55-year-old male completed an extensive medical evaluation recently in conjunction with special studies being performed at SRI for personnel gifted in paranormal functioning. Aside from a duodenal ulcer in 1952, his past medical history was essentially normal. At present significant defects on physical examination were small, bilateral inguinal hernias, and dental caries. An electrocardiogram was interpreted as abnormal, showing characteristics of coronary artery disease. Approved For Relea* /0{1A:S5 f IIED999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releasli ffethsSWTED 99A000400030001-7 Si was advised of this report by letter on August 9, 1974, with recommendations for further evaluation by a cardiologist.* Laboratory data--including waking and sleeping electroencephalo- grams, protein electrophoresis, complete blood count, serology, and urinalysis--were normal. He has blood type AB, Rh positive. Blood chemistries were essentially normal with the exception of slight elevations of uric acid and cholesterol with marked ele- vation of triglycerides. Ophthalmological examination revealed a minimal refractive error corrected easily to normal. An extensive neurological examina- tion and history were considered normal. The EMI computerized brain scan was considered negative except for slight enlargement of the right ventricle. No significance can be presently placed on this finding. Audiometry revealed a mild bilateral high-frequency hearing loss at 3000 cps secondary to past exposure to high noise levels. b. Subject S2 (Experienced) This 31-year-old male research scientist completed an extensive medical evaluation recently in conjunction with special studies being performed at SRI for gifted psychic personnel. His past medical history reveals a right inguinal herniorraphy and appendectomy. Physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Laboratory data--including electrocardiography, protein electrophoresis, audiometry, pulmonary function, serology, blood chemistries, urinalysis, waking and sleeping electroenceph- alograms, and EMI brain scan--were normal. Ophthalmological exam revealed a myopic refractive error cor- rectable to 20/15 bilaterally. Neurological examination was negative. History revealed the presence of periodic muscular contraction headaches. Migraine headaches have been completely relieved since institution of biofeedback training. c. Subject S3 (Experienced) This 40-year-old male research consultant completed an extensive medical evaluation recently in conjunction with special studies being performed at SRI for gifted psychic personnel. His past medical history, other than a case of hepatitis while in the Armed Services, was essentially noncontributory to this study. Physical examination was entirely within normal limits. In spite of follow-up medical treatment, we note with sadness his death in July 1975 due to a coronary. Approved For Re lea I'9-?999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releasp_2Q0 /03/ W 7 9 J 0,L b00999A000400030001-7 Laboratory data--including electrocardiography, protein electro- phoresis, audiometry, pulmonary function, complete blood count, serology, urinalysis, and EMI brain scan--were normal. Blood chemistries were normal with the exception of moderate elevation of blood lipids. He has blood type A, Rh positive. He has myopic astigmatism correctable to 20/20 bilaterally; other- wise a normal ophthalmological examination. Neurological history, examination, and both sleeping and waking encephalograms were reported as normal. d. Sul? ect S4 1Learner/ Contro.l) This 53-year-old female photographic consultant completed a med- ical. evaluation recently in conjunction with special studies being performed at SRI for gifted psychic personnel. Except for several surgeries, her past history is essentially noncontribntorv to her medical record. Her physical examination was normal with the exception of a minor gynecological problem. Laboratory data--including electrocardiography, protein electro- phoresis, audiometrv. pulmonary function, complete blood count, sere,logy, 'lood chemistries, and urinalysis--were normal. Blood type is 0, Rh positive. Ophthalmological examination was normal except for a mild cuii ctable refractive error. Both waking and sleeping electroencephalograms were normal as were the neurological history and physical examinations. The EMI brain scan was reported as suggestive of very mild frontal atrophy. No other abnormal features are noted. e. Subject SS (Learner/Control) This 54-year-old male staff scientist completed an extensive med- ical evaluation recently in conjunction with special studies being performed at SRI for gifted psychic personnel. His past history reveals a duodenal ulcer in 1964 but is other- wise not significant. Physical examination was essentially neg- ative. Laboratory data--including electrocardiography, lipoprotein elec- trophoresis, complete blood count, serology, blood chemistries, blood lipids, urinalysis, and EMI brain scan---were normal. Audi- ometry revealed a mild bilateral perceptive-type hearing loss at 4000 cps probably due to noise exposure. Pulmonary function suggested mild pulmonary obstructive disease secondary to ciga- rette smoking. Ophthalmological exam was normal except for a corrective refrac- tive error. Neurological history revealed rare migraine aurae without headache. Neurological examination was entirely normal. Approved For ReIe a 2pQ 13110 , gt TEff0999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasUDn3et1 tItfpF'7-p-QQ999A000400030001-7 f. Subject S6 (Learner/Control) This 34-year--old female completed an extensive medical examina- tion recently in conjunction with special studies being performed at SRI for gifted psychic personnel. Her past medical history was essentially noncontributory except for the vague but unlikely possibility of Reiters Syndrome. Laboratory data--including electrocardiography, protein electro- phoresis, audiometry, pulmonary function, complete blood count, serology, blood chemistries, urinalysis, and EMI brain scan--were normal. She has blood type A, Rh positive. Ophthalmological examination, with the exception of a moderate but corrected myopic astigmatism, was within normal limits. Although her waking EEG was abnormal, her sleeping EEG and neurological examination were perfectly normal. It was not considered necessary or advisable to pursue this mild abnormality any further, especially in view of a normal neurological exam and EMI brain scan. The patient was not made aware of this minor deviation. Neurological history substantiates period muscular contraction headaches. g. Summary of Medical Evaluation In summary, it appears that the medical profiling is noncontributory to the study, all subjects showing essentially normal medical profiles without any discernible spread among the subjects. 2. Psychological Evaluation The psychological evaluation of the program participants was assigned to the Palo Alto Medical Clinic. Coordination of the program was handled by Dr. J.E. Heenan, Chief Clinical Psychologist of the Clinic's Department of Psychiatry. The testing itself was carried out by Dr. Karen Nelson, Clinical Psychologist at the Clinic. The tests administered included: (1) In-depth interviews, including objective events and subjective views relating to the discovery and enhance- ment of paranormal capacities; socioeconomic, cultural, familial, religious environment; outstanding emotional peaks, traumas; values, motivation, interpersonal style. (2) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (3) Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test (4) Benton Visual Memory Test Approved For Relea9el L/'0[/A:55-FI )ED999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release iQOdQ3/J0C5 -MPJU0999A000400030001-7 (5) Wechsler. Memory Scale (6) Luscher Color Test (7) Strong Vocational Interest Blank (8) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (9) Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS) ;10) Rorschach Inkblot x;11) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) The detailed test results for each subject are on file with the COTR. Due to the personal nature of the data we present here only the summary evaluations, first by the clinical psychologist who administered the tests and interviewed the subjects in depth, and second by the chief clinical psychologist who analyzed the data on a blind basis. a. Evaluation by Clinical Psychologist Administering Tests The following is quoted from the psychologist's report: During late summer and early fall, 1974, six subjects were re- ferred to the Clinic for testing for the parapsychology study at Stanford Research Institute. Three of the subjects were desig- nated as sensitive subjects and three of the subjects were desig- nated as controls. It was planned that I would do the testing without knowledge of which subjects were considered sensitive and which subjects were considered controls. However, in the course of my contacts with these subjects, it proved impossible not to know which subjects belonged to which group, since I was to inter- view each person in depth. Since personal experience with appar- ently extrasensory perception is a fairly dramatic event, subjects could not avoid talking about these events and still be honest in an in-depth interview. Consequently, a secondary plan was developed in which 1 would do the psychological testing and write individual reports or each subject, and the Chief Clinical Psychol- ogist, Dr. Heenan, would read the test blind and see whether he could pick out three test records which seemed more similar to each other than the rest, thereby discriminating between sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. intellec t uei i_ Functioning All of the subjects in this study displayed distinctly above- average intellectual abilities. Most subjects reached the superior range, and several of the subjects reached the gifted range. As it happened, the control subjects tended to show higher average intellectual functioning scores than did sensitive subjects, although the difference could not be said to be significant, given that: there were only three subjects in each group. Two of the subjects from the sensitive group showed highly variable Approved For Rele_sp~2Q Q3/AO~ ji-FIFEV0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea JC:Ll&.SiS-kFIIE-D999A000400030001-7 subtest scores within their intelligence test battery. That is, some of the subskills would be'extremely high and other subskills would be extremely low, The variable patterns shown are consistent with ambivalent motivation as regards learning tasks and academic situations. I was able to spot no consistent trends as to which subskills tended to be high and which sub- skills tended to be low. For all six subjects, verbal and per- formance skills tended to be about evenly balanced, and memory skills were approximately what would be expected, given the in- telligence scores attained. The number scores on memory tests as well as the performances of the subjects themselves reflect a slight tendency toward better memory for material which is organized logically or which appears in a meaningful context than for rote memory material. In the control group, this tendency seems less pronounced and in fact one subject showed a clear preference for rote memory material. The subjects themselves did not feel that any of the intelligence test material tapped skills or propensities on their part which might be linked to their extrasensory capabilities, and since the patterns of strength and weakness within the test profiles varied so widely, I am inclined to accept their judgment with one possible exception. It is possible that sensitive subjects tend to be holistic perceivers rather than analytic perceivers; that is, to perceive in Gestalt rather than analytic elements. This might underlie the tendency for better short term memory of contextual logical material. Psychological tests which are directly relevant to this difference in perceptual style appear not be standardized as yet and so it is difficult to follow this lead. Personality Functioning When looked at from the point of view of psychopathology, the indicators both in projective and in objective testing do not appear to me to show marked trends, either for the six subjects taken together or for the subjects in each group. There does appear to be an interesting similarity in defensive style, par- ticularly when this is taken together with a similarity in interests and vocational aptitude, which can be seen in a large number of the subjects both in sensitive and control groups. To elaborate, all six subjects tended to have high feminine scores on the masculinity-feminity scale of the MMPI. That scale does not measure sexual orientation but rather sex role stereotype. For example, a person who is highly active in expressing his aggression, who is self assertive and who adopts "masculine" interest in, say, sports, mechanics, etc., is likely to get a high masculine score; a person who tends to be fairly passive in expressing aggression, even manipulative, who tends to be interested in the arts, in music, in aesthetic sensitivities, is likely to gain a high feminine score. Both the men and women in this group of subjects tended to have high feminine scores. The trend is seen again in the vocational aptitude survey, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, wherein all of the subjects tended to achieve high scores in music, art Approved For ReleasU i1AssiFrE-IU99A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 UNCLASSIFIED and writing, but particularly in writing was this consistent. The score on writing aptitude appeared to be above average for the general population in each subject and for several of the subjects it was one of the highest scores obtained. These two trends in the objective personality test data can be compared with anot.ner trend found in the projective test data, namely on the Rorschach. Here, the responses of the subjects tended to emphasize animal or human movement and to de-emphasize color. This pattern is common in people wno tend to be introspective, to have a rich inner fantasy life. and in fact to prefer that kind of expression of :.heir emotions to interpersonal expression. The capacity to stand back from one's feelings, observe them, analyze them, even to :-savor them, is common among artists and particularly among wri*_ers. Unfortunately, two of the subjects (Sl and S3) from the sensitive group were highly defensive about test-taking and their defen- siveness was most pronounced in the projective personality tests. The result was that they gave very minimal records, very few responses, and were close-mouthed in talking about their responses. Hence, the pattern to which I refer can be seen more clearly in the control subjects than in the sensitive subjects even though it appears to occur for all six subjects. In ,one course of the testing, the control subjects began to tell me that as they participated in the SRI study, they appeared to be developing more and more sensitivity on the experiments per- formed and each was not certain that he should be properly cla:-;sified as a control subject. In talking with Dr. Puthoff, I learned that they did appear to be showing some sensitivity but that their performances were not reliable and so they still couid be said to be importantly different from the sensitive subjects. If the sensitive subjects could be induced to be less defensive in test-taking, it is possible that their records wouid show a pattern which could be distinguished from that of the control subjects. Since that is not the case, we are left with a dilemna. A tendency toward artistic interests, a rich fantasy life and an introversive style of emotional expression may be accidental in all of these six subjects. It may be characteristic of persons who are willing to participate in parapsychological studies. It may be characteristic of persons who have some extrasensory capacity, whether great or small, or it .nay relate to some other variable which happens to be common to L.hese six subjects. Should the pattern of emotional style and aesthetic interest prove relevant to extrasensory capacity, it would seem that the Rorschach gets at the most fundamental level of this quality. The objective tests are more likely to be measuring the end products of that fundamental level of emotional expression. Sin::e my reading of projective test material is likely to be colored by my acquaintance with the subjects and what they said about themselves, i will be interested to see whether Dr. Heenan 82 10 Approved For Release 200 3/03 /10 c l IF3Pj9?Q0999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasU f t/1A SIR-rF E D999A000400030001-7 can discern the same pattern, and for my own curiosity I would like to be able to test the sensitive subjects again, without them having read this report, to see whether I could put them more at ease on a second contact and get more productive records from them. Two of these subjects (Si and S3) said frankly that they were alienated at the thought of psychological testing because their experience was that people with extrasensory capac- ity were written off as nuts and that psychologists and psychi- atrists always examined them with an eye toward any pathology they could discover. If they could be reassured that that was not the point of interest and at the same time not be coached as to what kinds of responses I was interested in, another session of projective testing might be productive. Karen L. Nelson, PhD Clinical Psychologist Palo Alto Medical Clinic b. Evaluation by Chief Clinical Psychologist (On a Blind Basis An effort complementary to the overall analysis performed by Dr. K. Nelson was carried out by Dr. J. Heenan, Chief Clinical Psychol- ogist, Department of Psychiatry, Palo Alto Medical Clinic. He took on as a task the ferreting out of responses to specific test items to deter- mine whether a particular cluster of items might serve as the core of a screening procedure. Dr. Heenan's analysis was carried out on a blind basis, that is, without knowledge of which subjects were labeled sensitive and which were labeled control. The following is quoted from Dr. Heenan's report: I have finished going over the psychological test data on the six subjects tested and this is a summary of my thoughts, impressions, clinical judgments, guesses and comparisons of various dimensions. The six persons tested are labeled S1 through S6. Subject Sl would not take the TAT test and did not return the EPPS test, and there is not a Strong vocational interest test in the file on him. I included him in the comparisons on the tests which he did take. What I did was formulate some hypotheses and then examine the test data, ranking people according to what their tests reflected on those hypotheses, and from that arrived at which subjects might have, according to the hypothesis, a more than ordinary ability to communicate by non-ordinary means. First of all, I examined all the test data rather carefully from a clinical psychologist's point of view and without any specific hypotheses--that is, on the basis of my overall intuition--made guesses, for each battery of tests, whether or not I thought this person would be likely to have unusual abilities. On this basis I guessed subjects S3, S6 and S4 as the most likely ones to have been high achievers Approved For ReleaU10~/AfPf~DQ999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 03/J 0c ~-P.j ff0999A000400030001-7 in your experiments. The Following is a series of hypotheses on the Rorschach Ink Blot Test and following each hypothesis are the three subjects who Kest fit that hypothesis from the test data. HYPOTHESIS #1 . White space responses reflect lower ability to use non-ordinary means of communication. Results: Subjects S3, S6 and S4 have the fewest white space responses and therefore, according to this hypothesis, would have the higher ability among this group. HYPOTHESIS #2. Preoccupation with minor details (Dd) will be inconsistent with the ability to communicate by non-ordinary mean;. Results: Subjects S3, S6 and S4 reflect the least use of minor details in Rorschach responses. HYPOTHESIS #3. Those persons with the highest percentage of human movement responses will be those most likely to be able to communicate by non-ordinary means. Results: Subects S4, S6 and S2 are the three highest in this regard. HYPOTHESIS #4. The use of instant whole responses will be greater in those persons with the ability to communicate by non-ordinary means. Results: Subjects S3, S6 and S4 are the highest in this regard. HYPOTHESIS #5. Using shading responses as an index for anxiety, those who have the most. shading responses will do the least well in communicating by non-ordinary means. Results: Subjects S4, Sl and S2 have the most shading responses. HYPOTHESIS #6. Those subjects able to communicate best by non-ordinary means will tend to be more childlike in their general approach toiae and this will be reflected by higher animal content percent on the Rorschach test. Results: Subjects S5, S4 and Si. HYPOTHESIS V. (This hypothesis is relevant to Hypothesis #6.) Those subjects with the most animal movement responses will tend to be able ti communicate more by non-ordinary means. Results: Subjects S4, S6 and S2. HYPOTHESIS #8. The persons who most use color in their re- -------------- sponses will be most likely to be able to communicate better by noon-ordinary means. Results: There ir: no spread among the subjects on this particular scorir; determinant. HYPOTHESIS X19. Those subjects using the most emotional deter- minants will be most likely to be able to communicate by non-ordinary means. Results: Subjects S3, S6 and S4 have the most use of emotional determinants on the Rorschach Test. Approved For ReleeRelf3/&OC~~-FJILj170999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releappq .gp2U ffff999A000400030001-7 On the MMPI, the following hypotheses were checked out. HYPOTHESIS #1. Subjects who show the most unusual configurations on the MMPI will be those most likely to be able to communicate by non-ordinary means (scores above 70). Results: Subjects S3, S6 and S2. HYPOTHESIS #2. Those subjects who reflect the most emotional energy as measured by the Ma score will be most likely to com- municate by non-ordinary means. Results: Subjects S6, S3 and S2--the opposite of this hypothesis is that those with the lowest Ma scores were subjects Sl, S5 and S4. HYPOTHESIS #3. Those subjects who show the most interest in human interaction will be most likely to do well in non-ordinary com- munication as measured by the Si score; the rank among the sub- jects from highest to lowest is S5, S4, S6, S2, Sl, S3. There- fore, subjects S5, S4 and S6, according to this hypothesis, would be the successful ones. HYPOTHESIS #4. Those subjects showing the most depression would be least likely to be able to communicate by non-ordinary means; the rank on the depression score among the subjects is from highest to lowest--S6, s4, s3, s2, S1, S5, with S6, S4, and S3 being the predicted least likely to do well at your tasks, and subjects S2, Sl and S5 the most likely. The Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale hypotheses were simple and easy to check. The first hypothesis on the results of the Wechsler, HYPOTHESIS #1, is that higher intelligence as measured by the IQ score will reflect higher ability to communicate by non-ordinary means. Using the Full Scale IQ score, the rank from highest to lowest on IQ is subjects S5, S2, S6, S4, Sl, and S3. Therefore, S5, S2, S6, according to this hypothesis, would be the subjects most likely to have succeeded. There is very little difference in the ranking in general, using the verbal IQ and the performance IQ. Taking a closer look at the subtest scores of the Wechsler, the following hypotheses were checked out. HYPOTHESIS #2 on the subtest scores: Persons with the highest ability in visual motor coordination. as reflected by the Block Design subtest, will be most likely to be able to communicate by non-ordinary means. The rank on the Block Design subtest from high to low is S5, S3, S6, S4, S2, and Sl. HYPOTHESIS #3. Those with the best immediate memory as reflected by the Digit Span subtest will be the most likely to achieve in the non-ordinary communication modality. The rank for subjects from highest to lowest on Digit Span is S3, S6, S4, S5, S2, and Si with very little spread among them. Other aspects of the Wechsler which were specifically checked out were the Picture Completion subtest and the Arithmetic subtest. The rank from highest to lowest in Picture Completion is Si, S2, S5, S3, S4, S6, and the rank on the Arithmetic sub- test is S5, S4, S2, S3, Si, and S6. I did not have a hypothesis about these particular subtests since they are reflections of Approved For Rele NC/L3AOSS4-FlIED0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releasg Z00(Q3/10 iCF3P~~9~Q0999A000400030001-7 higher IQ, which was already covered before. Careful review of tl;e Strong Vocational Interest Blank results, tabulating various scored categories and profile configuration, revealed no pattern that separated any group of subjects from any other group of subjects. This, however, is a multi-dimensional test with many varialDles and perhaps a more complex statistical analysis, such as analysis of variants, may show some clusters not visible to this examiner. On the Bender Gestalt Visual Motor test, the simple hypothesis was made that the higher the ability to reproduce better designs, the more likely would be the person's ability to communicate by non-ordinary means. The Bender test results were ranked according to quality in form, Gestalt and accuracy, and the following ranks were. obtained. From highest to lowest, subjects S4, S3, S6, S5, Si, and S2. No other evident material was reflected on the Bender designs. It appears to me that according to most of the hypotheses I came up with, subjects Si, 36 and S4 are the most likely candidates. The results of the Luscher and TAT tests, after careful examina- tion, do not suggest any systematic means for breaking this group of six into two groups of three. However, on the TAT subjects S3, S6 and S5 appeared to this examiner to reflect more spontaneity and childlike exuberance for living and there- fore might. be inferrec to possess more sensitivity or awareness to non-cognitive dimensions of experience; therefore, I think subjects S3, S6, and S4 are the most likely ones to have done the experiments well. I also note that those who couldn't apparently were learning how, and therefore apparently whatever this. ability is, it is a learnable one--of course, if such com- munisation does exist. that should be true since we all come with essentially the same basic equipment. J.E. Heenan, PhD Chief Clinical Psychologist Palo Alto Medical Clinic On a post hoc basis, we can examine the various hypotheses suggested by Dr. Heenan anc: determine which ones tend to correlate with observable paranormal functioning. However, given the small sample size, no significant conclusions can be drawn--rather, these points simply suggest hypotheses to be examined in future testing. On the basis oz t he remote viewing and random target generator experiments, experienced subjects Sl through S3 and learner/control S4 performed reliably in contrast to learner/control subjects S5 and S6. There were four tests which tended to correlate with this partition in the sense that three of the four successful subjects lacked a trait Approved For Relea fV ffH qC"TPflM999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releowe/Q3/~ 0s I?b00999'0004000300017 which was possessed by both of the unsuccessful subjects. These were the traits considered in Rorschach Hypothesis #5, MMPI Hypothesis #3, and WBIS Hypotheses #1 and #2; the four hypotheses suggested by Dr. Heenan were all counterindicated, that is, the responses suggested as probable for successful subjects were found to hold for the unsuccessful ones. On the basis of this small sample, therefore, one might consider investi- gating the following traits as potentially indicating a lesser ability in paranormal functioning: low anxiety index as indicated by low degree of shading response in the Rorschach, a high degree of interest in human interaction as measured by the Si score of the MMPI, an exceptionally high IQ (gifted range) as measured by the Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale, and excellent visual motor coordination as reflected in the Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale. It must be emphasized, however, that although subjects scoring highest with regard to the above factors did least well in the tests of paranormal functioning, all sub- jects scored higher than the norm in these psychological factors, so it would be erroneous to extrapolate on the basis of these data that low scoring might indicate paranormal ability. It is simply that extremely high scores are observed to correlate negatively with success on the particular paranormal tasks investigated. Finally, we reiterate that the correlation as observed on the basis of such a small sample may be gratui- tous and should therefore only be considered as a basis for further hy- pothesis testing. Approved For Relep EAS SI fF4FE?DOO999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea,sg NOeUS S I F I E Do999A0004ooo30001-7 3. Neuropsycholo ic-al Evaluation Neuropsychological profiles on the six subjects were obtained by the administration of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychology Test Battery as well as other tests known to be sensitive to brain dysfunction. These tests have proven useful in predicting, for example, both the presence and location of brain damage in a variety of neurological diseases. Since, when no damage is present these tests also reflect abilities dependent on brain function, it was hoped that some meaningful pattern of test performance would emerge for the program subjects. The testing and evaluation was handled by Dr. Ralph Kiernan, Clinical Neuropsy- chologist, Department of Neurology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California. The following is his evaluation; All subjects were given the folowing tests: (1) Halstead Category Test (2) Tactual Performance Test (3) Speech Perception Test (4) Seashore -Rhythm Test (5) Finger Tapping Test (6) Trail Making Test (7) Knox Cube Test (8) Raven Progressive Matrices (9) Verbal Concept Attainment Test (10) Buschke Memory Test (ll) Grooved Pegboard Tests Two additional tests were added after several subjects had been tested and were not administered to all subjects. These (12) The Gottschaldt Hidden-Figures Test (13) The spatial relations subtest of the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. A description of these tests along with subject scores is given in 'Table 19. Since other psychological testing was completed previously on these same subjects at the Palo Alto Medical Clinic, the results of two of these tests (The Wechsler Adult In- te1Lisence Scale and the Benton Visual Retention Test) were consulted in the overall neuropsychological evaluation. Verv few of the results are common to all six subjects. In fact, the only ones that are common involve general Approved For ReleaU JM/H J J 1 f 1 C LJ 999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 51 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Y 0 Halstead Category Nonverbal test requiring abstraction of conceptual relationships. 7 14 33 26 6 28 Test Score: Total errors. p 15 15* SD 5 5 Tactual Performance Requires placement of 10 geometrically shaped blocks in their Test correct locations on a formboard while blindfolded. 16.4 11.8 7.7 7.7 11.4 6.9 u 11.4 14.7 Separate RT, LT, and bimanual trials. SD 3.6 4.8 Score: Total time (minutes). Speech Perception Discrimination of nonword speech sounds. p 4 5.5 Test Score: Total errors. 4 2 0 2 5 3 SD 3 2.5 Seashore Rhythm Test Discrimination of nonverbal rhythms. Score: Number correct. 27 25 28 29 26 29 P 26 25.5 tD 3 3 MAX Finger Tapping Test Measure of finger oscillation rate for 10-second period, RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT p 50/43 44/39 both RT and LT hand trials. Score: Number taps per 10 seconds. 53/50 53/49 48/47 54/53 47/47 48/43 SD 6/6 11/1 Trail Making Test Requires connecting numbered circles in order from 1 to 25 (Part A) . Paper and pencil task. Score: Total times (seconds). 40 16 18 19 30 27 p 26 33 SD 11 9 Trail Making Test Requires connecting alphabetic and numbered circles by alterna- 62 (Part B) ting 1+A*2-'-B, and so on. Score: Total time (seconds). 56 50 55 50 54 53 p 79.5 SD 16 31.0 Knox Cube Test Measure of attention span and immediate visual memory. 13 13 Score: Number correct. 1.3 14 13 16 17 17 S SD 4 4 MAN 18 18 Raven Progressive Nonverbal intelligence test involving spatial matrices. 35 42 Matrices Score: Number correct. 39 53 49 55 60 54 SD 10 10 MAX 60 60 Verbal Concept Requires abstraction of verbal conceptual relationships. p 21 21 Attainment Test Score: Number correct. 22 24 27 23 21 24 SD 5.4 5.4 MA) 27 27 Buschke Memory Requires learning a 20-word list in a maximum of 12 trials with Total: Total/ List Test repetition of words omitted after each trial. Score: Maximum 14/20 17/20 18/20 19/20 20/20 20/20 18/12 number words correctly remembered; List: Number words consis- List: p SD 3/2* tently remembered. 8/20 14/20 11/20 16/20 15/20 16/20 MAY 20/20 (8 Crials)(7 tria s) Grooved Pegboard Requires insertion of 25 pegs in their holes in a pegboard. RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT RT/LT l RT/LT p 61/66 70/7 Test Both RT and LT hand trials. Score: Total time (seconds). 76/74 69/70 58/67 59/67 72/70 48/50 SD 9/9 10/1 Spatial Relations Requires mental rotation and identification of figures rotated Subtest of the PMA in two dimensions. Score: Number correct minus number of errors. 60 52 p SD 28 14 28 14 Gottschaldt Hidden Requires tracing outline of simple figure hidden within lines Figures Test of more complex figure. Score: Time and number correct. Poor Avg. V. good Outst. Outst. None Available TABLE 19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TEST BATTERY Description V ~/? m v Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaU N A &SIOEgD 999A000400030001-7 intelligence as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. All subjects were in the bright average to very superior range of intelligence with full scale IQ's ranging from 116 to 134, the average IQ being 125. Performance IQ's tended to be slightly higher than Verbal IQ's (126 average ver- sus 123). All other test performances ranged widely from the mildly below average to the very superior range. A consistent pattern of test results does emerge, however, when four of the subjects are looked at in a single group. These four subjects are S3 through S6. All tests which depended heavily on spatial abilities were extremely well performed by these subjects. The block design subtest of the WAIS is the most sensitive subtest to brain injuries which disrupt spatial abilities. Although these subjects obtained excellent WAIS scores in general, their near-per- fect performances on this subtest are significantly better than most of the other subtest scores. The Tactual Per- formance Test (TPT) is also very sensitive to brain dys- function involving spatial abilities. This test was ex- tremely well performed by these subjects with three of them obtaining total times of 7.7 minutes or less. Times of less than eight minutes are very rarely achieved on this test. The TPT and block designs are two of the most sensi- tive tests to variations in spatial ability. A third test, the spatial relations subtest of the Primary Mental Abilities test, was given to only two of the four subjects in this group. Again, very superior scores (quotient scores greater than 130) were obtained by each. This test is not highly correlated with general intelligence, and high scores in- dicate special proficiency in visual-spatial ability. Two additional tests which appear to measure general ability but which depend upon visual-perceptual ability for their correct performance were performed in the superior range. These are the Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Gottschaldt Hidden Figures. Other test performances varied substantially among these four subjects. Three of the four had difficulty on the Category Test and on the Buschke Memory Test. No sensible interpre- tation of these results is readily apparent. The two remaining subjects, Sl and S2, were quite different in their test. performances from the above group. S2, who obtained the second highest full scale IQ, did well on the spatial tests described above but not as well as any of the four above. His spatial abilities appeared to be less well developed than his verbal skills. Sl was even less like the group than S2. His spatial test performances were only average for his age, and the TPT and Gottschaldt tests were poorly performed. 90 Approved For ReleaUN9;/"SSd-EdFEO0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea ~q (~cT/A9..g0999A000400030001-7 In summary, the single, most compelling conclusion from the test data is that six subjects studied are of significantly above-average intellectual ability. In addition, there is consistent evidence that four of the six subjects were parti- cularly proficient on measures of visual and tactual spatial ability. The performance of tests which measure this ability is most seriously impaired by lesions which involve the right, posterior cerebral hemisphere. There is more than presumptive evidence that normal performance of these tests is mediated by the right hemisphere. Therefore, at least four of the subjects obtained test results consistent with proficiency on these right hemisphere related tasks. It should be pointed out that this finding can be, at best, considered as a basis for hypothesis formation regarding paranormal ability. Verification of such hypotheses would depend on the results of future research. The test results for S2 are not in conflict with the above interpretation. Those obtained for Si, however, are in conflict with this hypothesis and are not readily reconciled with it. As pointed out above, further research is necessary to elucidate the relationship between spatial abilities, the right hemisphere and paranormal abilities. Nonetheless, it can be said at this point that many of the tasks per- formed by the group of subjects at SRI have at least a superficial resemblance to performances which require right hemisphere function. The similarities include the highly schematicized drawings of objects in a room or of remote scenes. Verbal identification of these drawings is often highly inaccurate, and the drawings themselves are frequently left-right reversed relative to the target configuration. Further, written material is generally not cognized. These characteristics have been seen in left brain-injured patients and in callosal sectioned patients. More relevant, perhaps, than right hemisphere functioning per se are the resemblances to a class of functioning known as associative visual agnosia. Associative visual agnosia involves the inability of a patient to name or otherwise identify objects which he is capable of seeing. Such patients who do not have more generalized intellectual impairment are rare, and only a few have been described in the neuro- logical literature. Several of these patients have demon- strated the ability to copy with pencil and paper the pic- ture or object which they failed to name. It is this quality which impressed me as being similar to the remote viewing performances of the SRI subjects. In a recent review of such casesiO five patients were found who had the ability to draw an object without being Approved For Rele*jpfe/t 3/&S("I"FE00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaDR EIA iFjprE9I0999A000400030001-7 SSr able to name it. 'These are the patients reported by Mack et al. (1975)10, Albert et al. (1975)11, Davidenkov (1956)12, Rubens and Benson (1971)13, and Lhermitte and Beauvois (1973)1'. Drriwings and attempted namings of pictured material for one of the patients in the studies is shown in Figure 21. In attempting to name an object, these patients would gen- erally produce inappropriate names which, nevertheless, reflected some visual form characteristics of the object in question. Their attempts seem forced and made in piece- meal fashion to various characteristics of the picture rather than to the picture as a whole. In similar fashion Te:.uber's patient (1975) described the figure below as an apple with a worm and wormholes in it. The above description and many of those in the references clearly illustrate that the patient sees the object and is able to respond to at least some of its visual characteris- tics. Most of the drawings in the references are sufficiently complete so that an observer would be able to name the object represented. Yet the author of the drawing cannot do this. This type of defective performance was frequently seen in t:he SRI subjects when they were producing drawings in the remote viewing experiments. Two obvious differences exist, however, between the patients with associative visual agnosia and the SRI subjects. The SRI subjects are able to name objects appropriately when pictures are presented directly to the visual modality. The patients cannot do this, and, in addition, these patients have a variety of other visual disabilities. The latter difference is to be expected since the patients have substantial brain injury. The location of brain damage in associative visual agnosia is fairly well established. Two disconnections appear necessary in order to produce this symptom. One involves destruction of the Left visual area as evidenced by the right homomonous hemianopia invariably found in these patients. The second involves isolation of the right visual area from speech areas in the left hemisphere. This can be the result of extensive destruction of left visual association areas or of damage to the posterior portion of the corpus cali_osum. The net. result of these injuries is that objects can be seen because of visual input to the right hemisphere visual area but that they cannot be named because of isolation of this area from left hemisphere language areas. Use of these objects and the drawing of pictures of them can be accomplished because of intact pathways within the right hemisphere. Approved For Relealj fq"/yQ p1 EIY999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release V CTA 95IF BP99A000400030001-7 FIGURE 21 DRAWINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS BY ASSOCIATIVE VISUAL AGNOSIA PATIENTS Copies of line drawings. Patient was unable to identify any before copying. After making copy, his identifications were top left, key - "I still don't know"; top right, pig - "Could be a dog or any other animal"; bottom left, bird - "Could be a beach stump"; bottom right, locomotive - "A wagon or a car of some kind. The larger vehicle is being pulled by the smaller one." Approved For ReleastjlObAS$4IFPtEcD99A000400030001-7 Approved For Releastfl NCT MFITH 999A000400030001-7 It remains to speculate on the meaning of the similarity between the patients described above and the SRI subjects. It should first be rioted that the similarities are more than superficial in that the verbal descriptions attempted by some of the SRI subjects bear a striking resemblance in kind to those of the patient shown in Figure 21. It is as if they are struggling with similar difficulties in verbal- izing the image which they can readily draw. In this regard the lateralization involved is consistent with other indica- tions of right hemisphere function in the SRI subjects. A highly speculative hypothesis is that during remote viewing the subjects "see" a grossly degraded image which is not distinct. enough to encode directly into a verbal label. Hence the piecemeal verbalization similar to that found in patients with associative visual agnosia. In summary, it would appear that the neuropsychological data are compatible with the hypotheses that (1) information received in a putative remote viewing mode is processed piecemeal in pattern form (consistent with a low bit rate process but not necessarily requiring it) and (2) the errors arise in the processes of attempted integration of the data into larger patterns directed toward verbal labeling. C. Identification of tleurophysiolo ig cal Correlates That Relate to Paranormal Activities ThLs part of the program had as its goal the identification of neurophysiological correlates of paranormal activity. The existence of such correlates is hypothesized on the expectation that, in addition to obtaining overt responses such as verbalizations or key presses from a subject, it should be possible to obtain objective evidence of informa- tion transfer by direct measurement of some physiological parameter of a subject. Kamiya, Lindsley, Pribram, Silverman, Walter, and others brought together to discuss physiological methods to detect ESP function- ing, for example, have suggested that a whole range of electroencephalo- gram (LEG) responses--such as evoked potentials (EPs), spontaneous EEG, and the contingent negative variation (CNV)--might be sensitive indi- cators of the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by usual sensory processes.16 The purpose of this part of the study was twofold: (a) to obtain information about the neurophysiological state associated with paranormal Approved For ReleasUM 1A S'S?E0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Rele N /t3 0S -M1E o999A0004OOO30001-7 activity in general, and (b) to determine whether physiological correlates could be used as an indicator of paranormal functioning, hopefully to provide indicators that differentiate between correct and incorrect responses to a paranormally applied stimulus so that an independently-determined bias factor could be applied during the generation of data by a subject. Early experimentation of this type was carried out by Douglas Dean at the Newark College of Engineering. In his search for physio- logical correlates of information transfer, he used the plethysmograph to measure changes in the blood volume in a finger, a sensitive indica- tor of autonomic nervous system functioning.17 A plethysmographic measurement was made on the finger of a subject during paranormal communication experiments. A sender looked at randomly selected target cards consisting of names known to the subject, together with names unknown to him (selected at random from a telephone book). The names of the known people were contributed by the subject and were to be of emotional significance to him. Dean found significant changes in the chart recording of finger blood volume when the remote sender was looking at those names known to the subject as compared with those names randomly chosen. Two other early experiments using the physiological approach were also published. The first work by Tart 18 and the later work by Lloyd 19 both follow a similar pattern. Basically, a subject is closeted in an electrically shielded room while his EEG is recorded. Meanwhile, in another laboratory, a second person is stimulated from time to time, and the time for that stimulus is marked on the magnetic tape recording of the subject's EEG. The subject does not know when the remote stimulus periods occur. At SRI three facilities are in use for the purpose described above. One is a standard EEG facility under the direction of Dr. Charles Rebert, Life Sciences Division. This facility consists of a visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded, double-walled steel, room, as shown in Figure 22, a Grass Model 5 polygraph, and an Ampex Approved For Rele NC/L3jS?4-F1I f()0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releae~/0 1k:.SS-WIt~q-~999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releast2pN31A SI5 f P1E-D999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaU (bAUDP?91999A000400030001-7 SP-300 magnetic tape recorder. The second facility is a standard EEG facility under the direction of Dr. Jerry Lukas, head of SRI's Sleep Studies program. This facility consists of two sound-isolated rooms with appropriate signal lead connections, an eight-channel polygraph for recording visually, and a magnetic tape/computer processing/printer readout that provides on-line processing of the polygraph data. In our configuration we obtain a hardcopy printout of five-second averages of eight channels of polygraph information 15 minutes following a. 15-minute run. At present we monitor broad band alpha (7 to 14 Hz) and beta (14 to 34 Hz) brainwave components from the left and right occipital regions, galvanic skin response, and two channels of plethysmograph data (blood volume and pulse height). The third facility is a smaller, semiportable four-channel polygraph with a GSR channel, reflected-light plethysmograph indicating blood volume/pulse height, one channel of unfiltered EEG activity, and a fourth EEG channel with zero-crossing digital filtering. The last permits percent-time measurements in any band, with upper and lower band edge settings in one-hertz increments. Two lines of investigation were pursued in the SRI program. The first was basic in nature, an effort to determine whether, in a re- peatable experiment under laboratory conditions, the remote viewing of a specific stimulus (strobe light in another laboratory) would provide any evidence of EEG correlates. The second involved mid-experiment monitoring of a number of physiological parameters during routine experimentation in remote viewing. 1. Remote Strobe Experiment The following is a description of the first line of experi- mentation, the remote viewing of a strobe light stimulus. With regard to choice of stimulus, it was noted that in previous work others had attempted, without success, to detect evoked potential changes in a subject's EEG in response to a single flash stimulus observed by another subject.20 In a discussion of that experiment, Kamiya suggested that because of the unknown temporal characteristics of the information channel, it might be more appropriate to use repetitive bursts of light Approved For ReleaU e11 iINF S:SJ 999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release/~'31t0.A J$bD99A000400030001-7 to increase the probahlility of detecting information transfer. 21 There- fore, in our study we chose to use a stroboscopic flash train of ten seconds duration as the remote stimulus. In the design of the study, we assumed that the application of the remote stimulus would result in responses similar to those obtained under conditions of direct stimulation. For example, when an individual is stimulated with a low-frequency (< 30 Hz) flashing light, the EEG typically shows a decrease in the amplitude of the resting rhythm and a driving of the brain waves at the frequency of the flashes.22 We hypo- thesized that if we stimulated one subject in this manner (a putative sender) the EEG of another subject in a remote room with no flash present (a receiver) might show changes in narrow band alpha (9 to 11 Hz) activity and possibly an EEG driving similar to that of the sender, either by coupling to the sender's EEG,23 or by coupling directly to the stimulus. We informed c=ur subject (S4) that at certain times a light was to be flashed in a sender's eyes in a distant room, and if the subject perceived that event, consciously or unconsciously, it might be evident from changes in his EEG output. The instructions to the subject are in accordance with requirements governing activities with human subjects (see Appendix B). The receiver was seated in the visually opaque, acoustically and electrically shielded double-walled steel room shown in Figure 22. The sender was seated in room about seven meters from the receiver. A Grass PS-2 photostimulator placed about one meter in front of the sender was used to present flash trains of ten seconds duration. The receiver's EEG activity from the occipital region (Oz), referenced to linked mastoids, was amplified with a Grass 5P-1 preamplifier and associated driver amplifier with a bandpass of 1 to 120 Hz. The EEG data were recorded on magnetic tape with an Ampex SP 300 recorder. On each trial-, a tone burst of fixed frequency was presented to both sender and receiver and was followed in one second by either a ten second train of flashes or a null flash interval presented to the sender. Thirty-six such trials were given in an experimental session, consisting Approved For ReleaJJMC(GL/A5SIf I ED 999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaI f ?/A JPf LDD999A000400030001-7 of 12 null trials--no flashes following the tone--12 trials of flashes at 6 fps and 12 trials of flashes at 16 fps, all randomly intermixed, determined by entries from a table of random numbers. Each of the trials generated an 11 second EEG epoch. The last 4 seconds of the epoch was selected for analysis to minimize the desynchronising action of the warning cue. This 4 second segment was subjected to Fourier analysis on a LINC 8 computer. Spectrum analyses gave no evidence of EEG driving in any receiver, although in control runs the receivers did exhibit driving when physically stimulated with the flashes. Data from seven sets of 36 trials each were collected from the subject on three separate days. This comprises all the data collected with this subject under the test conditions described above. The alpha band was identified from average spectra, then scores of average power and peak power were obtained from individual trials and subjected to statistical analysis. Figure 23 shows an overlay of the three averaged spectra from one of the subject's 36-trial runs, displaying differences in alph.t activity for the three stimulus conditions. Mean values for the average power and peak power for each of the seven experimental sets are given in Table 20. The power measures were less in the 16 fps case than in the 0 fps in all seven peak-power measures and in six out of seven average-power measures. Note also the reduced effect in the case in which the subject was informed that no sender was present (Run 3). It seems that overall alpha production was reduced for this run in conjunction with the subject's expressed appre- hension about conducting the experiment without a sender. This is in contrast to the case (Run 7) in which the subject was not informed. Siegel's two-tailed t approximation to the nonparametric randomization test24 was applied to the data from all sets, which in- cluded the two sessions in which the sender was removed. Average power on trials associated with the occurrence of 16 fps was significantly less (-24%) than when there were no flashes (t = 2.09, d.f. = 118, P < 0.04). Approved For ReleaU 100UA D~Fo 999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release r2QA~11 ~ItfBR7t~Q999A000400030001-7 . . 5 Hz 10 Hz 15 Hz THREE CASES -- 0, 6 and 16 Hz flashes (12 trial averages) FIGURE 23 OCCIPITAL EEG FREQUENCY SPECTRA, 0 TO 20 Hz, OF SUBJECT S4 ACTING AS RECEIVER, SHOWING AMPLITUDE CHANGES IN THE 9 TO 11-Hz BAND AS A FUNCTION OF STROBE FREQUENCY Approved For Releast Rfp 9 1A SSFII E. 99A000400030001-7 Approved For Release 2003/03/10 : CIA-RDP79-00999A000400030001-7 TABLE 20 EEG Data for Subject S4 Showing Average Power and Peak Power in the 9- to 11-Hz Band, as a Function of Flash Frequency and Sender. (Each Table Entry is an Average Over 12 Trials) M v Flash equency Sender 0 Average Power 6 16 Peak Power 0 6 16 J.L. 94.8 84.1 76.8 357.7 329.2 289.6 R.T. 41.3 45.5 37.0 160.7 161.0 125.0 No Sender 25.1 35.7 28.2 87.5 95.7 81 7 (Subject . informed) J.L. 54.2 55.3 44.8 191.4 170.5 149.3 J.L. 56.8 50.9 32.8 240.6 178.0 104.6 R.T. 39.8 24.9 30.3 145.2 74.2 122.1 No Sender 86.0 53.0 52.1 318.1 180.6 202 3 (Subject not . informed) Averages 56.8 49.9 43.1 214.5 169.8 153.5 -12% -24% -21% -28% (P 3:1, re- spectively, paralleling our results.28 d. Discussion of Physical Perturbation Effects One significance of the perturbation of remote sensitive equipment lies in the indication that the remote-sensing channel may * Superconducting Technology Cryogenic Magnetometer. 113 Approved For ReleU jLAC6614fiJ&D0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releas9 / 5f 1EI999A000400030001-7 possess a bilateral aspect. That is, there is the possibility that an information-bearing signal can be coupled from an individual to a re- mote location as well as in reverse, thus implying that the information channel under consideration may sustain information transfer in either direction. The above concept has a rigorous basis in quantum theory in the so-called "observer problem," the effect of an observer on experi- mental measurement. In quantum theory it is recognized that although the evoi_ution of a physical system proceeds deterministically on the basis of" Schrodinger's equation (or its equivalent), the result of a calcula- t.E_on is not in general the prediction of a well-defined value for some experimental variable. Rather, it is the prediction of a range of possibi.ii.ties with a certain distribution of probabilities. In a given neasuremenr, however, some particular value for a variable is actually obtained, which implies that an additional event--so-called state vector collapse--must take place during the measurement process itself and in manner that is unpreaictable except probabilistically. Analysis of the significance of this latter process leads inescapably to the conclusion that to the degree that consciousness is involved in observation and measure- ment (and it always is), to that degree consciousness must also be seen to interact with the physical environment and to participate in the collapse ni the state vector. Efforts to extract quantum theory from this conclu- ;i.on by. for example, an infinite regression of measuring apparatus, have proved unsuccessful. These conclusions, arrived at by theorists such as Wigner,.9 imply the possibility of nontrivial coupling between consciousness and quantum states of the physical environment at an extremeiy fundamental level. Such a realization has led to theories (it paranormal phenomena modeled on the basis of this so-called "ob- ;server problem" in quantum theory. =b The phenomena implied by the observer problem are generally unobservable on the gross macroscopic scale for statistical reasons. This is codified in the thermodynamic concept that for an isolated system. entropy (disorder) on the average increases, effectively masking the microscopic observer effects. It is just this requirement of Approved For Relea ftG iAS SIEI Ea999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReIe# 'LAS Folf tE7D0999A000400030001-7 isolation, however, that can be expected to be weakened under conditions of efforts at paranormal perturbation via the remote-sensing channel, and it can be argued that observer effects would be maximally operative in just those situations where the intrusion'of consciousness as an ordering phenomenon could result in a significant local reversal of entropy increase. These considerations lead to the following series of conceptualizations or hypotheses around which future experiments can be designed. (1) Researchers in the area of willed pertur- bation effects appear to be plagued by results whose amplitudes have a signal-to-noise ratio near unity, regardless of the process or mechanism involved. This may indicate that, rather than simple perversity, what is being articulated by the experimental results is a coherence pheno- mena involving partial mobilization of system noise, as if the components of the noise spectrum had been brought into phase coherence, and thus the mag- nitude constraint. The subject would thus appear to act as a local negentropic (that is, entropy- decreasing) source. If true, it may be more advantageous as a practical matter to work with extremely noisy systems, rather than with highly constrained or organized systems, so as to maxi- mize possible effects due to the introduction of order. (2) Willed perturbation effects often appear to be more the result of coincidence that the effect of a well-defined cause. Again, rather than being the result of the perversity of nature, the ob- served goal-oriented synchronicity may indicate that physical systems are more easily manipulated Approved For ReIeUNI?3IQAS $II\F1JED00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release_ 0 /999A000400030001-7 at. the Y obal level of boundary conditions and !?lurscraiuts rather than at the level of mechan- isi. 'thus, the apparency that a given result may be explained away by a coincidental but "natural" event needs to be explored more fully. tinexpeccea- but natural causes may be the effect .3i a :at?r i_es of causal links, outside the defined t,xl)erl_r~eatal boundaries but representing an un- ioresee=r of least resistance. At worst, such b?a=1sa i inks may in fact be unobservable in the erase of the hidden variables concept in quan- s.:um theory, but nevertheless act as instruments of the W it L. (_3) Wilted perturbation effects appear to be ni r?lrti Wa iiy spontaneous; i.e., it is difficult cr evoke such effects "on cue," with the result hat the phenomenon is often considered to not be under aooc control, and therefore not amenable -o controlled experimentation. This difficulty is so pronounced that it is likely that we are :~bservin- some macroscopic analog of a quantum r.rrd u., an event similarly unpredictable in Lir:.fe ex eft as a probability function. it the analogy is correct, experimentation in this area rimpiv heeds to be treated in the manner or, for x mne. weak photon experiments. (4) 1'o:.-3 bly related to Item (3), the more closely Arne actcmvts to observe willed perturbation effects, the less likely one is to see them, a factor con- >idered -)v many to support hypotheses of poor 4,bservaL.fraud, and the like. To a sophis- a:-icatec observer, however, simple dismissal does Approved For Releas1200 fPP9D999A000400030001-7 "- TMMA *IF *a Approved For Rele NC/e31&OCSi fg171Y0999A000400030001-7 #AF not stand up under scrutiny. Invoking again the idea of a microscopic analog of a quantum transition, we may, as observers of delicate phenomena, be witnesses to observer effects generally associated with the uncertainty prin- ciple. Paradoxically, from the subject's view- point, the production of the phenomena may also be an observer effect, perturbing as it does the expected behavior of a piece of instrumentation. In this model the scrutiny of psychokinetic pheno- mena under laboratory conditions could in prin- ciple be considered to be a collective phenomena involving interfering observer effects in a manner known to occur at the microscopic quantum level. (5) Finally, it may be useful as a guiding prin- ciple to continually recognize that all of the phenomena we deal with in macroscopic psycho- energetics are totally permissible at the micro- scopic level within the framework of physics as presently understood. It is simply that time reversibility, tunneling through barriers, simul- taneous multiple-state occupation, and so on are generally unobservable as gross macroscopic phen- omena for statistical reasons only, as codified in the concept of increasing disorder (entropy). Therefore, it may be appropriate to consider an individual with psychokinetic abilities primarily as a source of ordering phenomena of sufficient magnitude so as to restructure the otherwise random statistics of the macroscopic environment. 2. Disscussion of Possible "Mechanisms"in Remote Viewing With regard to the wider problem of the remote-viewing channel itself, beyond the specific aspects of equipment perturbation via 117 Approved For Rele.UNC/.3S54-II?D0999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasiA3M Ct1A:S604-0D999A000400030001-7 ,144 this channel there is considerable current interest in quantum theory in the implications brought on by the observation- 0,31 of nonlocal correlation or "quantum interconnectedness" (to use Bohm's term `) of distant parts of quantum systems of macroscopic dimensions. Bell's theorem 3 emphasizes that no theory of reality compatible with quantum theory can require spatially separated events to be independent, but must permit interconnectedness of distant events in a manner that is "contrary" to "common.sense" 351,36 This prediction has been experimentally tested and confirmed in the recent experiments of, for example, Freedman and ulauser. 0,31 F.H. Walker and 0. Costa de Beauregard, independently proposing theories of paranormal functioning based on quantum concepts, argue that observer effects open the door to the possibility of nontrivial, coupling between consciousness and the environ- ment, and that the nonlocality principle permits such coupling to transcend spatial and temporal barriers. 26,37 IM alternative hypothesis (that is, alternative to the specifically quantum hypothesis) has been put forward by I.M. Kogan, Chairman of the Bioinformation Section of the Moscow Board of the Popov Society, USSR. He is a Soviet engineer who until 1969 published "!xrensively in the open literature on the theory of paranormal communi- cation. t8-41 His hypothesis is that information transfer under con- ditions of sensory shielding is mediated by extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves in the 300- to 1000-km region, a proposal which does not seem to he ruled out by any obvious physical or biological facts. Experimental support for the hypothesis is claimed on the basis of: slower than inverse-square attenuation, compatible with source-per- cipient distances lying in the induction field range as opposed to the radiation field range; observed low bit rates (0.005 to 0.1 bit/s) compatible with the information-carrying capacity of ELF waves; apparent ineffectiveness of ordinary electromagnetic shielding as an attenuator; and standard antenna calculations entailing biologically generated currents yielding results compatible with observed signal-to-noise ratios. Approved For ReleaCoIS/AIEISQ999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaU CL/A 9?0999A000400030001-7 M. Persinger, Psychophysiology Laboratory, Laurentian University, Toronto, Canada, has narrowed the ELF hypothesis to the suggestion that the 7.8-Hz "Shumann waves", and their harmonics propagating along the earth-ionosphere waveguide duct, may be responsible. Such an hypothesis is compatible with driving by brain-wave currents, and leads to certain hypotheses, such as asymmetry between east-west and west-east propagation, preferred experimental times (midnight to 4:a.m.),and expected negative correlation between success and the U index (a measure of geo- magnetic disturbance throughout the world). Persinger claims initial support for these factors on.the basis`. of a literature search.42,43 On the negative side with regard to a straightforward ELF interpretation as a blanket hypothesis are: (a) apparent real-time descriptions of remote activities in sufficient detail to require a channel capacity in all probability greater than that allowed by a conventional modulation of an ELF signal: (b) lack of a proposed mechanism for coding and decoding the information onto the proposed ELF carrier; and (c) apparent precognition data. The hypothesis must nonetheless remain open at this stage of research, since it is con- ceivable that counterindication (a) may eventually be circumvented on the basis that the apparent high bit rate results from a mixture of low- bit-rate input and high-bit-rate "filling in the blanks" from imagina- tion; counterindication (b) is common to a number of normal perceptual tasks and may therefore simply reflect a lack of sophistication on our part with regard to perceptual functioning; 44 and counterindication (c) may be accommodated by an ELF hypothesis if advanced waves as well as retarded waves are admitted .27,45 Experimentation to determine whether the ELF hypothesis is viable can be carried out by the use of ELF sources as targets, by the study of parametric dependence on pro-- pagational directions and diurnal timing, and by the exploration of interference effects caused by creation of a high-intensity ELF environ- ment during experimentation, all of which are under consideration as part of a proposed follow-up program in our laboratory. 119 Approved For Rele M 51IR4 "V00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Rele ( 3/ASCMMED0999A000400030001-7 The move arguments are not intended to indicate that we understand the precise nature of the information channel coupling remote events and human perception. Rather, we intend only to show that modern theory is not without resources that can be brought to hear on the pro- blems at hand, and it is our expectation that these problems will, with further work, yield to analysis and specification. Approved For Rele CI S5JI-FIIFED0999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleiNCv S5d-Fd1ED0999A000400030001-7 3. Communication Theory Approach to Channel Utilization Independent of the mechanisms that may be involved in remote sensing, observation of the phenomenon implies the existence of an infor- mation channel in the information-theoretic sense. Since such channels are amenable to analysis on the basis of communication theory techniques, channel characteristics, such as bit rate, can be determined independent of a well-defined underlying theory in the sense that thermodynamic con- cepts can be applied to the analysis of systems independent of underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the collection of data under specified conditions permits headway to be made despite the formidable work that needs to be done to clarify the underlying bases of the phenomena. One useful application of the communication channel concept was the utilization of such a channel for error-free transmission of informa- tion by the use of redundancy coding. The experiment was carried out by Dr. Milan Ryzl, a chemist with the Institute of Biology of the Czecho- slovakian Academy of Science. He reasoned that a paranormal channel exhibits the attributes of a communication channel perturbed by noise, and that redundancy coding could be used to combat the effects of the noisy channel in a straightforward application of communication theory.8 Ryzl had an assistant randomly select five groups of three decimal digits each. These 15 digits were then encoded into binary form and translated into a sequence of green and white cards sealed in opaque envelopes. With the use of a subject who has produced highly significant results with many contemporary researchers, 46-51 he was able, by means of redun- dant calling and an elaborate majority vote protocol, to correctly identify all 15 numbers, a result significant at p = 10-15. The experi- ment required 19,350 calls, averaging nine seconds per call. The hit rate for individual calls was 61.9 percent, 11,978 hits and 7,372 misses. 4`i' Note added in proof. It has been brought to our attention that a similar procedure was used to transmit without error the word "peace," in inter- national Morse Code; J.C. Carpenter "Toward the Effective Utilization of Enhanced Weak-Signal ESP Effects," presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York, Jan. 27, 1975. 121 Approved For Rele.9d AD'3'YAP& Al-URTY00999A000400030001-7 Approved For Releas / 999A000400030001-7 discussed in the section on the random target generator, the bit rate is calculated from R = H(x) - (t,, (x) where H(x) is the uncertainty of the source message containing symbols with a priori probability p. it (x) Pilog.,Pi and HV (x) is the conditional entropy based on the a posteriori probabil- ities that a received signal was actually transmitted, P(i,j)Iog2P1(j) For the above run, with D. = 1/2, pj(j) = 0.619, and an average time of nine seconds per choice. we have a source uncertainty H(x) = 1 bit and a calculated bit rate 0.041 ?-lts/symbol or ?i/'t' = 0.0(146 bits/second. Since the 15-digit number (;49.8 bits) was actually transmitted at the rate of 2.9 x 10-4 bits per second, an increase in bit rate by a factor of about 20 could be expected on the basis of a coding scheme more optimum than that used in the experiments. The actual bit rate is roughly the ;ame as that observed in our random target generator experiment discussed earlier. An excellent reaundancy coding technique for a communication channel is the sequential sampling procedure used earlier in Section II-B for the sorting of SW from non-SW cards. In this application of the se- quential sampling procedure, one would first express the message to be sent as a series of binary digits, encoded, for example, as shown in ']'able 22. The sequential method then gives a rule of procedure for making one of three possible decisions following the.receipt of each bit: accept 1 as the bit being transmitted; reject 1 as the bit being transmitted Approved For Relea li' /& :59Wt'~D999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleJNI"SQA-FIJFED0999A000400030001-7 Five-Bit Code for Alphanumeric Characters E 00000 Y 01000 T 11111 G,J 10111 N 00001 W 01001 R 11110 V 10110 I 00010 B 01010 0 11101 0 10101 A 00011 1 01011 S,X,Z 11100 2 10100 D 00100 3 01100 H 11011 4 10011 L 00101 5 01101 C,K.Q 11010 6 10010 F 00110 7 01110 P 11001 8 10001 U 00111 9 01111 M 11000 10000 Note: Alphabet characters listed in order of decreasing frequency in English text. See, for example, A. Sinkov, Elementary Cryptanalysis --A Mathematical Approach.52 (The low frequency letters, X,,Z,K,Q, and J have been grouped with similar characters to provide space for numerics in a five-bit code.) In consideration of the uneven distribution of letter frequencies in English text, this code is chosen such that 0 and 1 have equal probability. (i.e., accept 0); or continue transmission of the bit under consideration. As discussed earlier, use of the sequential sampling procedure requires the specification of parameters that are determined on the basis of the following considerations. Assume that a message bit (0 or 1) is being transmitted. In the absence of a priori knowledge, we may assume equal probability (p = 0.5) for the two possibilities (0,1) if an encoding procedure like that of Table 22 is used. Therefore, from the standpoint of the receiver, the probability of correctly identifying the bit being transmitted is p = 0.5 because of chance alone. An operative remote Approved For Relek) 20D;tM~iE k 11 -00999A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaseJt 3?tA9SII DP99A000400030001-7 sensing channel could then be expected to alter the probability of cor- r re.ct identification to a value p = 0.5 + q., where the parameter ~ satis- f es 0 1I,I < 0.5. (The quantity may be positive or negative, depending on whetner the paranormal channel results in so-called psi-hitting or psi- missing.) Good psi functioning on a repetitive task is observed to result i_ w= 0.1.2, as reported by Ryzl.4 Therefore, to indicate the design procedure, let us assume a baseline psi parameter 0, = 0.1 and design a communication system on tnis basis. he question to be addressed is whether, upon repeated trans- mission, a given message bit is labeled a "1" at a low rate p commensurate with the hypothesis H that the bit in question is a "0", or at a higher ill rate PI commensurate with the hypothesis H1 that the bit in question is indeed a "I". The decision making process requires the specification of tour parameters: f : The probability of labeling incorrectly a "0" message !,it. as The probability of labeling correctly a ""0"' as "0 ' is p = 0.5 + 'U = 0.6. Therefore, the probabii i ty of labeling incorrectly a "0" as a "I" is p,: The probability of labeling correctly a '1T' message bit .z a "I". . -> iven by p 1 = 0.5 + t~ = 0.6. m . : The probability of rejecting a correct identification for a "t:" ((Type I error). We shall take a = 0.01. The probability of accepting an incorrect identification r a (Type II error). We shall take 6 = 0.01. With the parameters thus specified, the sequential sampling pro- c-c=~dure provides for construction of a decision graph as shown in Figure Thee equations for the upper and lower limit lines are, respectively, + sn - 10 0-M Approved For Releases /OL/A: 4ED 999A000400030001-7 ftff 41A, Approved For Release UNI'.3Yt0 St"E 9A000400030001-7 z w 50 Q0 z cn w Ha 40 ~- c3 30 LL Q Ow Cr 2 20 M DECISION 1 Accept "1" as the Bit Being Transmitted 2 w DECISION 2 Accept "0" as x 10 the Bit Being w > F- Transmitted F- z < 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 FIGURE 27 ENHANCEMENT OF SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO BY SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING PROCEDURE (p0 = 0.4, p, = 0.6, a = 0.01, a = 0.01) Approved For ReleasUNCLLA f 99A000400030001-7 Approved For Releas fqf43iI1 A. ISY7 L D999A000400030001-7 1 1--n log- -- A cumulative record of receiver-generated responses to the target bit is cuimmpileci until either the upper or lower limit line is reached, at which point a decision is made to accept 0 or 1 as the bit being transmitted. Channel reliability (probability of correctly determining message being transmitted) as a function of operative psi parameter i is plotted in Figure 28. As observed, the sequential sampling procedure an result in 90 percent or greater reliability with psi parameters of the order of a few percent. Figure 29 indicates the average number of trials required to reach a decision on a given message bit. The average number of- trials falls oft rapidly as a function of increasing psi param- eLers y . ?molementation of the sequential sampling procedure requires the transmission of a message coded in binary digits. Therefore, the target space must consist of dichotomous elements such as the white and green cards used in the experiments by Ryzl. ii coueration. a sequence corresponding to the target bit (0 or 1) is sent and the cumulative entries are made (Figure 27) until a decision is reached to accept either a 1 or U as the bit being transmitted. At a prearranged time, the next sequence is begun and continues as above until the entire message has been received. A useful alternative. which rei_ieves the percipient of the burden of being aware of his self- contradiction from trial to trial, consists of cycling through the entire un ssage repetitively, entering each response on its associated graph until a decision has been reached on all message bits. I-om the results obtained in such experiments, the channel bit rate can be ascertained tor the system configuration under consideration. Approved For Release ? ~`.-L'A. 11 1~ LF 99A000400030001-7 Approved For Release/~'31~0A 4c D99A000400030001-7 >- cm c 0.6 M -0 y O OJ Q.rpi 0.4 E J M E 0.2 I I I I I I 11 +0.4 +0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0 (psi parameter) FIGURE 28 RELIABILITY CURVE FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING PROCEDURE (po = 0.4, p, = 0.6, a = 0.01, 0 = 0.01) Approved For Releas1Na :LlA sl5-&RK-a99A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleasF1(,~0l/p3/10~ ~Vrffu"AO00400030001-7 d-,...i +0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 j (psi parameter) t GUHF 29 AVERAGE SAMPLE NUMBER FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING PROCEDURE (p0 0.4, p1 = 0.6, =e=O101,f3=0.01) Approved For Release NCL0 SRfKE(D9A000400030001-7 Approved For Relea e" W1 . J-I!TPOO999AOOO4OOO3OOOl-7 Furthermore, bit rates for other degrees of reliability (i.e., for other p0'pl' a, and S) can be estimated by construction of other decision curves over the same data base and thus provide a measure of the bit rate per degree of reliability. In summary, the procedures described here can provide a speci- fication of the characteristics of a remote sensing channel under well- defined conditions. These procedures also provide for a determination of the feasibility of such a channel for particular applications. 4. Soviet Efforts This discussion would be incomplete if we did not mention certain aspects of the current state of research in the USSR. Since the 1930s in the laboratory of L. Vasiliev (Leningrad Institute for Brain Research), there has been an interest in the use of paranormal communication as a method of influencing the behavior of a person at a distance. In Vasiliev's book Experiments in Mental Suggestion, 53 he makes it clear that the bulk of his laboratory's experiments were aimed at long-distance communication and what we would today call behavior modification; for example, putting people to sleep at a distance through hypnosis. The behavior modification type of experiment has been carried out in recent times by I.M. Kogan. He was concerned with three principal kinds of experiments: mental suggestion without hypnosis over short distances, in which the percipient attempts to identify an object; mental awakening over short distances, in which a subject is awakened from a hypnotic sleep at the "beamed" suggestion from the hypnotist; and long-range (intercity) paranormal communication. 39 ,Kogan's main interest has been to quantify the channel capacity of the paranormal channel. He finds that the bit rate decreases from 0.1 bits per second for laboratory experiments to 0.005 bits per second for his 1000-km intercity experiments. As indicated earlier, in the USSR serious consideration is given to the hypothesis that paranormal communication is mediated by extremely- low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic propagation. In general, the entire field of paranormal research in the USSR is part of a larger one concerned with the interaction between electromagnetic fields and living organisms. 54,55 Approved For Relea e' c/0 ll1 LPOO999AOOO4OOO3OOO1 -7 Approved For Releasp~,2 @ 1f1, JIt1 P i E-D999A000400030001-7 At the first lnternat:ional Congress on Parapsychology and Psychotronics in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1973, for example, Kholodov spoke at length about the susceptibility of living systems to extremely low-level ac and do fields. He described conditioning effects on the behavior of fish from the application of 1.0 to 100 }iW of RF to their tank.'h The USSR take these data seriously in that the Soviet safety requirements for steady- microwave exposure set limits at 10 uW/cm whereas the United States has set a steady-state limit of 10 mW/cm`."' Kholodov spoke also about the nonthermal effects of microwaves on animals' central nervous systems. His experiments were very carefully carried out and are char- ucteristic of a new dimension in paranormal. research both in the USSR ~~nd elsewhere. the increasing importance of this area in Soviet research was indicated recently when the Soviet Psychological Association issued an unprecedented position paper calling on the Soviet Academy of Sciences to step up efforts in this area. 'S The Association recommended that the cew.y formed Psychological Institute within the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Psychological Institute of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences review the area and consider the creation of a new laboratory within one of the institutes to study persons with unusual abilities. They also recommended a comprehensive evaluation of experiments and theory by the Academy of Sciences' Institute of Biophysics and Institute for the 'rnblems of Information Transmission. Cone los ions "It is the province of natural science to investigate nature, impartially and without prejudice." 59 Nowhere in scientific inquiry has this dictum met as great a challenge as in the area of so-called para- oorma perception, the detection of remote stimuli not mediated by the usual sensory processes. Such phenomena, although under scientific con- sideration for over a century, have historically been fraught with unre- liability and controversy, and validation of the phenomena by accepted scientific methodology has been slow in coming. Even so, a recent survey conducted by the British oublication New Scientist revealed that 67 percent of nearly 1500 responding readers (the majority of whom are working Approved For Release 1 S If ~UP99A000400030001-7 Approved For ReleaU UCLA WFHD0999AO00400030001-7 scientists and technologists) considered paranormal perception to be an established fact or a likely possibility, and 88 percent held the investi- gation of paranormal perception to be a legitimate scientific under- taking- 60 A review of the literature reveals that although well-conducted experiments by reputable researchers yielding reproducible results were begun over a century ago (e.g., Sir William Crookes' study of D.D. Home, 1860s),61,62 many consider the study of these phenomena as only recently emerging from the realm of quasi-science. One reason for this is that, despite experimental results, no satisfactory theoretical construct had been advanced to correlate data or to predict new experimental outcomes. Consequently, the area in question remained for a long time in the recipe state reminiscent of electrodynamics before the unification brought about by the work of Ampere, Faraday, and Maxwell. Since the early work, however, we have seen the development of quantum theory, information theory, and neurophysiological research, and these disciplines provide powerful conceptual tools that appear to bear directly on the issue. In fact, several leading physicists are now of the opinion that, contrary to "common sense" notions, these phenomena are not at all inconsistent with the framework of modern physics: the often-held view that observa- tions of this type are a priori incompatible with known laws is erroneous, such a concept being based on the naive realism prevalent before the development of quantum theory. In the emerging view it is accepted that research in this area can be conducted so as to uncover not just a catalog of interesting events, but rather patterns of cause-effect relationships of the type that lend themselves to analysis and hypothesis in the forms with which we are familiar in the physical sciences. Accordingly, we consider it important to continue data collection and to encourage others to do likewise; investigations such as those reported here need replication and extension under as wide a variety of rigorously controlled conditions as possible. Approved For ReleaU NQLAS. FRU 9d0999A000400030001-7 Approved For Release RW-MTl&. I 999A000400030001-7 As a result of exploratory research on human perception carried out hi SRI's Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory, we initiated an inves- ?. gati_on of a perceptua channel whereby individuals can access by means ti mental imagery and describe randomly-chosen remote sites located :e.veral ;piles or more awav. In this final report, we document the t:t=udv at SRI or this human information-accessing capability that we call "cernot.e viewing," the characteristics of which appear to fall outside the range or well-understood perceptual or information-processing abilities. t3his phenomenon is one of a, broad class of abilities of certain individuals to access by means of menra1 nrocesses and describe information sources 'docked from ordinary perception and generally accepted as secure against :_;uch access. tndividuais exhibiting this faculty include not only SRI subjects, but visiting staff members of the sponsoring organization who :iarciciuated as subiects so as to critique the protocol. the program was divided into two categories of approximately equal ;iori..--app1ied researr?ht and basic research. The applied research effort explored the otierationai utility of the above perceptual abilities. The zisi.c rP.