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:ONFIDENTgliklitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP7c9441(144A00020001 A gErEeltET ASSISTANT Dilik-C9OR SECURITY INFORMATION FOR RESEARCH AND REPORT Clk Peck mee'.? ti0T(4 MAP INTELLIGENCE REVIEW CIA/RR MR-33S January 1953 DOCUMENT NO. NO CHANGE IN CLAS 1!3 DECLASSIFIED CLASS. CHANGED TO: TA NEXT REVIEW DATE: AUTIj? HR 70-21 DAT ?REVIEWER. 006514 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS REIMIusem CENTER MilEDOWY?itraFTSE JOPEE--- B CONFIDENTIAL .kketer Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 PECOM Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 WARNING This material *contains information affecting th,! National Defense of the United States wh;hin the meaning of the espionage laws, TiLle 18, USC, Secs. 793 and 794, the trans- mission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved FcC(1 MAII3P79-01005A000200010008-5 MAP INTELLIGENCE REVIEW CIA/RR MR-33S CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports CONFIDENTIAL Sanitized - Approved For....:50eame . CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Reims-en CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 SECURITY INFORMATION CONTENTS Page I. The Tsimlyansk Reservoir 1 II. New Cities and Urban-Type Settlements Established in the USSR During the Period 15 May 1949 - 1 January 1951 27 III. Construction of the Main Turkmen Canal Accelerated by New Railroad Line to Takhia Tash 37 IV. USSR Internal Administrative Boundary Changes 43 V. Soviet Area Figures for the USSR 47 VI. New Population Density Map of the USSR 49 VII. English Language Map of the Geology of the USSR 53 VIII. Political-Administrative Map of the Ukrainian SSR and the Moldavian SSR 55 IX. Soils Maps of the Ukraine 57 X. Railroad Information From Soviet Newspapers 61 XI. Russian Transliteration 63 ILLUSTRATIONS Photographs Page Figure 1. Panoramic view of the TsiMlyansk Dam under construction. 1951 17 Figure 2. The opening of the waste weir on the Tsimlyansk Dam 19 Figure 3. A view of the spillway and hydroelectric station... 21 Figure 4. Mud and silt, loosened by suction, is piped from barges to provide the fill for the dam site. April 1951 23 Sanitized - Approved For Regragr: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rstiniase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 SECURITY INFORMATION Photographs (contid) Page Figure 5. Lock 15 of the southern navigational exit from the reservoir 25 Maps Following page The Tsimlyansk Reservoir (CIA 12478) 25 USSR: New Cities and New Urban-Tyre Settlements (CIA 12493) 36 USSR: The Main Turkmen Canal (CIA 12470) 41 Map of Soils of Ukraine 59 Sanitized - Approved For nitatite : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Relsaser. CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 SECURITY INFORMATION I. TtLL TSIMLYANSK RESERVOIR The Tsimlyansk Reservoir is the largest feature of the newly opened Volga-Don waterway system. The reservoir is significant not only because of the large area it covers but also for its economic and strategic value as a part of the 'V.I. Lenin Volga-Don Navigation Canal." Although authoritative maps are not available and there is little documentary data to establish its precise location and areal extent, the reservoir is sufficiently important to merit an analysis at this time to determine its influence upon the local and regional cultural and physical situation and the changes that might result on future maps (see map CIA 12478). Attempts to create a waterway system such as the Volga-Don date back to the second half of the sixteenth century. In the spring of 1568 a large Turkish force under Sultan Selim II landed In the Crimea and, reinforced by several thousand Crimean Tatars, set out to dig a waterway to the Volga. The Sultan enVisioned Astrakhan transformed into a major military base from which he could threaten Russia, Iran, and Afghanistan. Physical adversity and the armies of Ivan the Terrible doomed this scheme. At the close of the seventeenth century the Volga-Don waterway again loomed as an important national issue. Peter I, seeking to expand trade with the Mediterranean countries, decided to build a shipping canal that would serve as another 'window into Europe." Sanitized - Approved For RekW. CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 1 Sanitized - Approved Foragglse : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 This scheme also failed. Between Peter's time and 1911, many projects for linking the Volga and the Don were planned and in- vestigated. More recent investigations and surveys of the area between the Don and the Volga resulted in the compilation, between 1925 and 1929, of many detailed plans for a future canal. None of these plans, however, included a dam at Tsimlyansk that would retain sufficient water for so large a reservoir. The Soviets first showed serious interest in developing the waterway in 1934, and some preliminary preparations were made before World War II. Actual digging did not begin until about 1948, and little information was released until 1950, when the system in its present form began to take shape. The new reservoir was formed by damming the waters of the Don River at a point near the settlement of Kumahatskaya (47?38'N-42?07'E). (See Figure 1.) Its western end, which abuts against the steep, rocky banks of the Don, can be located within a few hundred meters (about 650 feet) on the Soviet 1:100,000 series (L-38-13). From this point the dam extends in a southeasterly direction for about 13.5 kilometers (8.4 miles) to its eastern terminus. Because of the complexity of the dam structure and the surface configuration, the exact location of the eastern end is difficult to determine. The prominent concrete overflow dam near the western terminus, adjacent to Kumshatskaya Hill, is about 500 meters (1,640 feet) long - 2 - Sanitized - Approved Forsnillinse : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rektaser CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 and contains 10 spillway openings (see Figure 2). A hydroelectric power plant is located at the eastern edge of the spillway (see Figure 3). The 12,800 meters (42,000 feet or nearly 8 miles) of the dam that extend beyond the power plant are earth-filled (see Figure 4). At the extreme eastern end is the head installation of the "Main Don Irrigation Canal" (Don Trunk Canal). This installation, the hydroelectric power plant, and the fish ladders that permit movement of fish between the reservoir and the lower Don, cover 200 meters (66o feet). The top of the dam is constructed to accommodate a railroad and highway. Soviet descriptions of the dam give several more dimensions. The width of the foundation is reported to exceed 300 meters (1,000 feet) in some places. Although figures conflict, it is believed that the dam is 41 meters (135 feet) high. According to other sources, the sides of the dam at the water level are reinforced with concrete 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) thick. At the dam site the sandy bottom was covered with a substantial base of stone into which metal tenons were driven to a depth of 16 to 19 meters (52 to 62 feet) to serve as anchors. The reservoir extends northeastward from the dam site for appkoximately 250 kilometers (155 miles). The maximum width is about 30 kilometers (19 miles). The total inundated area is reported by the Soviets to be 2,600 square kilometers (1,000 square miles). The critical factor affecting the present shoreline is the - 3 - Sanitized - Approved For ReININT. CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved Forsftfriase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 depth of the water at the dam. Although data on the depth are both meager and conflicting, the shoreline apparently corresponds roughly to the 38-meter (125-foot) contour or, at a maximum, possibly the 40-meter (131-foot) contour. Accurate establishment of the shoreline is further complicated by the fact that the largest-scale maps available are those of the Soviet 1:100,000 series, which have the broad contour interval of 20 meters (65.6 feet). As of last August, the planned water level and the capacity (12,600,000,000 cubic meters or 3,330,000,000,000 gallons) had not been attained. Figures on the depth of water at the dam range from 17 to 26 meters (56 to 85 feet). The minimum depth necessary for operation of the hydroelectric power station is reported to be 9 meters (30 feet) below the maximum water level at the dam. The Soviets anticipate that the presence of so large a body of water will have an ameliorative effect on the temperature and will increase the humidity enough to produce some changes in the local vegetation. Because of rough water in the reservoir during one- fifth of the navigation season, special craft have been designed, protected ports have been constructed, and over 1,500 special navi- gation aids are reportedly strung along the length of the reservoir. To the northeast of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and separated from it by a small dam is the Karpovka Reservoir, which forme the western extremity of the Volga-Don Canal. This very small reservoir receives water from the Don, the Karpovka River, and some small - 4 - Sanitized - Approved Foglia:el:ease : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Reittiggt : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 tributary streams. The southern navigational exit from the Tsimlyansk Reservoir is a short canal located approximately 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) east of the former bed of the Don River. The canal is reported to be 5.4 kilometers (3.4 miles) long and contains two locks (locks 14 and 15 of the Voiga-Don inland waterways system), which permit passage into the lower Don system. (See Figure 5.) In the northwestern part, the Chir Canal (see inset map) with its water intake from the Tsimlyansk Reservoir extends from the village of Nizhne-Chirskaya to the village of Krasno Bogdanov. Aside from its prominent role as a part of the Volga-Don water- way and its appearance as a new physical feature of significant areal extent, the Tsimlyansk Reservoir has affected the location of a large number of settlements and several important arteries of transportation. One Soviet source reports that 127 settlements boated in Rostov and Stalingrad oblasts had been resettled by March of 1952. Since the precise shoreline of the reservoir is not yet know., the exact number of settlements formerly within its area cannot be determined. By using the 40-meter contour as the maximum limit of the reservoir, however, the Soviet 1:100,000 map series indicates that about 165 settlements lay within the area. If this figure is accurate, approximately 17,000 households or a total of 73,000 inhabitants have been affected.* (See Appendix I, List of Settlements * Approximate data as of 1942. 5 Sanitized - Approved For Rglow : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved ForsWeiase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Affected by the Tsimlyansk and Karpovka Reservoirs.) A number of individual structures were moved in toto. A Soviet source reports that over 9,000 detached houses, over 2,000 public collective farm buildings, and 1,200 state buildings had been transferred to new locations by January 1952. Positive intelligence is available on the location of some of the displaced towns and villages. Verkhne-Kurmoyarskaya (47?52'N-43?00'E) was moved approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) eastward with the village of Kruglyakov (47?58'N-43037'E), the center of Voroshilov Rayon in Stalingrad Oblast. The Nizhne-Chirskaya (48?22'N-43007'E) was relocated at a the same general area but beyond the new water line. Il'yevka (48?39'N-43?37'E) was moved to a new site on and merged new rayon village of new site in The village of the banks of the Karpovka Reservoir and renamed Novaya Il'yevka. The former village of Kumshatskaya, located at the dam site, is now occupied by the new Tsimlyansk Rayon center. Although Kalach (48?42'N-43?30'E) is situated near the critical water mark, it was not moved. Instead, a dike was built to protect it from the waters of the reservoir. The towns of Kalach, Tsimlyansk, and Nizhne-Chirskaya are being developed as main povts on the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. A number of smaller ports are also scheduled for development. Railroads are the most significant feature in the transportation pattern of the area. To a greater degree than is true of roads, dis- ruption or alteration of the railroads exerts an influence far beyond the Immediate area or even the immediate region. -6 Sanitized - Approved For atiNse : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Relvaser: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The Sovetskiy (48?39'N-43?45'E)-Surovikino (48?36'N-42?51'E) section of the Stalingrad-Rostov trunk line and its branch line to Kalach, both of which are administered by the Stalingrad Rail- road System (system No. 22), passed through now-submerged parts of the Tsimlyansk and Karpovka reservoir areas. These lines ran from Krivomuzginskaya station (near Sovetskiy) to Kalach, and from Sovetskiy to Surovikino via Gorin, Rychkovskiy, Novo-Maksimovskiy, and Bolt shayaOsinovka. No information on the relocation of these lines is available, but sources indicate that the Krivomuzginskaya station, formerly located east of the junction of the Kalach branch line and the trunk line to Rostov, has been moved northward to Marinovka (48041IN-43?48'E). The new Marinovka station, located between locks 11 and 12 of the Volga-Don Canal has become an important freight station in the Stalingrad Railroad System. The Kalach branch line has also been moved. From its present junction with the Rostov trunk line south of the Karpovka Reservoir, it crosses the reservoir northward to Marinovka and then extends along the northern perimeter of the Karpovka Reservoir to Kalach. A rail line of unknown status is reported to run northward from the Kalach-Marinovka sector. The Rostov trunk line crosses the Volga-Don Canal and extends southwestward along the southern shore of the Karpovka Reservoir. The line then proceeds to Gorin (48?31'N-43?31,1E) on the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. At this point the railroad crosses an inlet of the - 7 - Sanitized - Approved For RsEfigqgg : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved ForMigigase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 reservoir by either a bridge or a causeway. Farther to the southwest, in the vicinity of Krasnoarmeyskiy, the line crosses the main body of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. No information is available as to the type of crossing, but it is believed that the former bridge across the Don River has been sufficiently extended and perhaps elevated to meet the new conditions created by the construction of the reservoir. The remaining section of the railroad to Surovikino lies within the bounds of the new Tsimlyansk Reservoir and will undoubtedly be affected, particularly in the vicinity of the Liska River, when the reservoir is eventually filled to capacity. No intelligence is available to indicate that the railroad has been moved. Since during spring thaws the original railroad bed was often flooded and sections of the track were washed out owing to insufficient ditching and draining, it is assumed that this section of the line will have to be elevated or relocated. A narrow-gauge branch extends northward for about 68 miles to Novaya Grigor'yevskaya (49?23'N-43?26'E) from the main line leading to Surovikino. Short spurs from this line extend eastward to Rodionov (49?081N-43?431E), westward to Vralev (49012'N-43?05'E) and northwestward to Ventsy (49?10'N-43?20'E). These spurs were built by the German military forces in September 1942, during the siege of Stalingrad. Although there is evidence that the Russians worked on this line in 1946, its present status is unknown. - 8 - Sanitized - Approved FoisR-Wase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Re$801W: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Since the Tsimlyansk Reservoir was developed, at least one new branch railroad (also a part of System 22) is known to have been built. The branch extends from Morozovsk (48022'N-41?50'E) on the Stalingrad-Rostov line to aiberle (47?00'N-42?121E) on the Stalingrad-Salsk line, crossing the Don via the Tsimlyansk Dam. Near the eastern terminus of the dam, the Novo-Solenovskaya rail- road station of the Morozovsk-Kaerle line has developed into a significant supply depot for the area. Two new paved roads have been built in proximity to the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and the Volga-Don Canal. One of these crosses the Tsimlyansk Dam, connects with the network of dirt roads east of the reservoir, and extends to the town of Tsimlyansk on the western side of the reservoir; the other, roughly paralleling the Volga-Don Canal, extends from Stalingrad to Kalach. An extensive irrigation scheme- is being planned in conjunction with the development of the waterway system. According to Russian sources, 750,000 hectares (1,843,520 acres) will be irrigated by the Tsimlyansk Reservoir, and an additional 2,000,000 hectares (4,942,000 acres) will receive some water. In Rostov Oblast alone, 600,000 hectares (1,482,600 acres) are scheduled for irrigation, and water will be supplied to an additional 1,000,000 hectares (2,471,000 acres) in the 13 southeastern and eastern rayons, including Semikarakorskiy, Romanovskiy, and Martynovskiy rayons. Prior to irrigation these 13 rayons had only 400,000 hectares (988,400 acres) - 9 - Sanitized - Approved For RegaiT: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Blame : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 of arable land. According to the new scheme, 30,0007hectares (74,130 acres) of kolkhoz land in Romanovskiy Rayon alone will be irrigated. In Stalingrad Oblast, plans have been made for supplying water to 1,000,000 hectares (2,471,000 acres) of land.subject to drought in the southern part of the Oblast where wheat and cotton could be grown. The pian further provides for the utilization of several dried-up river beds to supply water, by. reversed flow from the Tsimlyansk Reservoir, to smaller reservoirs built at their sources. The Aksay, Myshkova, and other left-bank tributaries of the Don will be similarly used. The water will be pumped by power supplied by the Tsimlyansk Hydroelectric Plant, which will also be used for industrial purposes. In addition to the irrigation schemes, attempts have been made to increase the number of fish in the rivers and reservoirs. In April 1952, a fish spawning and breeding center was reportedly under construction in Kotelinikovskiy Rayon of Stalingrad Oblast. The fish hatchery is to include 140 fishponds occupying about 2,000 hectares (4,942 acres). Its primary function will be to stock the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. The Volga-Don system is strategically significant primarily because it provides through waterway connection from the Baltic and White seas in the north to the Black and Caspian seas in the south, allowing the interchange of smaller types of naval vessels, - 10 - Sanitized - Approved ForsRSelase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Re'gam: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 particularly samarines, between the Baltic, North, and Black Sea fleets. At present some narrow or shallow parts of the waterway, such as the Mariynsk Canal, limit the size of ships to minesVmepers, patrol craft, and small submarines. There is some speculation to the effect that Soviet interest in building the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and Volga-Don Canal has also taken into account the improvement of land-defense capabilities of the area against any army attempting to repeat the German break- through across the Don in the directions of Stalingrad and the North Caucasus. The presence of reservoirs would make possible the flooding of a large area in case of military necessity. Sanitized - Approved For RelWitT: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rvie : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 APPENDIX I List of Settlements Affected by the Tsimlyansk and Karpovka Reservoirs (Approximate Date of Information, 1942) Number of Number of Name of Settlementl Households Name of Settlement Households Aginov* 60 Buratskiy 56 Alldabul'skiy* 240 Bystryanovskiy 19 Baklanovskaya 171 Chausovskiy* 32 Baklanovskaya* 73 Chelbin* 409 Balabanovskiy* 4-10 Chepurin* 272 Baski* 28 Cherepashiy* 42 Belyayevskiy 33 Cherkasov Berestyanka* 107 Chervlannyy 5 Biryuchiy* 26 Dal'niye-Chigonaki* 8 Blizhne-Mel'nichniy 93 Demkin* 173 Blizhnepodgorskiy 110 Dobrovol'skiy 32 Blizhniye-Chigonaki* 180 Fevralev* 29 Blizhniye Sady* 34 Filippovskaya* 38 Boguchary* 96 Generalovskiy* 48 Bol'shaya Osinovka 78 Generalovskiy 178 Bugatovskiy 16 Golovskiy 44 1. Settlements that have been eliminated are indicated by one asterisk; settlements that reportedly have been moved are indicated by two asterisks. -12 - Sanitized - Approved For Meuse : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rqecigit : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Number of Number of Name of Settlement Households Name of Settlement Households Golubinskiy 357 Kolotovka 196 Gorodskoy* 69 Kolpachki 120 Iltmeni-Chirskiy 94 Komarov* 33 Il'meni-Suvorovskiy 65 Kovalev 25 Il'yevka** 152 Kovylevskiy 160 Kalach1 1,754 Krasnoarmeyskiy 22 Kalachevskiy 55 Krasnoyarskaya* 188 Kalachkin 24 Krasnyy* 28 Kalinin 23 Krasnyy Don 31 Kamyshanovskiy 13 Krasnyy Yar* 287 Kandaurov 62 Krivskoy 110 KarnaUkhovskaya* 211 Krutoy 120 Kashirkin 53 Kuialy* 138 Kharseyev* 67 Kul'pinskiy 35 Khlebinskiy 33 Kumovka 77 Khoroshevskaya 195 Kumshatskaya 195 Kibirevskiy 75 Kustovskiy , Kireyevskiy* 81 Kustovskiy 4o Kirylnov* 17 Kustovskiy 82 Khyazev 19 Lipovskiy 73 Kolodezny* 5 Lisinskiy 27 1. A dike has been constructed around the section of Kalach affected by the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. - 13 - Sanitized - Approved For RgOiksie : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rs*teltvt : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Number of Number of Name of Settlement Households Name of Settlement Households Log* 78 Pchelinskiy 24 Logovskiy 216 Plesovskiy 15 Luchenskiy 15 Podgorenskaya* 120 Lyapichev 149 Podolikhovskiy* 89 Malaya Luchka 29 Podstepnoyy* 68 Malo-Luchnaya* 16 Podtikhov 37 Markinskaya* 254 Popov* Molokanov* 31 Popov 122 Nemkovskiy Potaynovskiy 38 Nizhne-Chirskaya** 2,231 Potemkinskaya* 368 Nizhne Ginlovskiy 43 Pozdnyakov 32 Nizhne-Gnutov Pronin 35 Nizhne-Rubezhnyy* 80 Protopopovskiy 43 Nizhne-lablochnyy* 105 Pyatiizbyanskiy 111 Nizhniy-Kurman* 421 Remizov 124 Novoaksayskiy 131 Romashkinskiy 117 Novo-Maksimovskiy 360 Rube zhnyy 4o Novo -Tsimlyanskaya 209 Ryazankin 011khovskiy* 41 Rychkov 18 Ostrovskiy 58 Rychkovskiy 150 Ostrovskoy* 53 Rynok Solenovskiy 99 Otshibnoy* 30 Sady* 23 Ovchinnikov 32 Safronov* 49 - 14 - Sanitized - Approved For Risgmatit : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For ReltatszT: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Number of Number of Name of Settlement Households Name of Settlement Households Samodurovka 34 Tsimlyanskaya 492 Savinskiy 21 Tsygan 27 Shabalin 238 Vatazhnyy* 38 Smetankin* 7 Verbovskiy 61 Solenovskaya 240 Verkhne-Chirskiy* 147 Sotskov* 10 Verkhne Kurmoyarskaya1 665 Sovetskiy** 308 Verkhne Rubezhnyy 143 Sredne-Sadovskiy 67 Vertyachiy 263 Sredniy* 21 Vesely 44 Stalindorf 75 Vodyanovskiy 19 Staro-Maksimovskiy 70 Yepifanov 94 Staro-Nagavskaya* 126 Yeritskiy Stepano-Razinskiy* 120 Yermokhinskiy 127 Sulatskiy 33 Zapadnovskiy* 66 Suvorovskiy 59 Zatsimlovskiy* 78 Sviridovskiy 75 Zeleny* 34 Tarasinskiy 19 Zhirnyy* 28 Terekhin 7 Zhukovskaya 153 Ternovskaya* 295 Zimovskiy* 27 Timokhin 41 1. Verkhne Kurmoyarskaya has been merged with Kruglyakov (47?58'N- 43?37'E). -15 - Sanitized - Approved For ReietilgiT: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 CPYRGHT Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-010 SECRET Figure 1. Panoramic view of the Tsimlyansk Dam under construction. 1951. -17- SECRET Sanitized - Approved For CPYRGHT Sanitized - Approved ForsRWINise : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 - 19 - The opening of the waste weir on the Tsimlyansk Dam. Sanitized - Approved FoFigefiase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Retease : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 CPYRGHT Figure 3 A view of the spillway and hydroelectric station. - 21 - SECRET Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Refqw : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 CPYRGHT - 23 - SECRET Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Reiease : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 CPYRGHT Figure 5. Lock 15 of the southern navigational exit from the reservoir. - 25 - SECRET Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For ReElikftaf : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 II. NEW CITIES AND URBAN-TYPE SETTLEMENTS ESTABLISHED IN THE USSR DURING THE PERIOD 15 MAY 1949 - 1 JANUARY 1951 A number of new cities and urban-type settlements were created in the USSR during the period 15 May 1949 - 1 January 1951. For practical purposes, these communities may be included under the term "urban settlements" (gorodskiye poselenii) and defined as populated places that are designated by legislative acts of republics as cities (goroda) and urban-type settlements (poselki gorodskogo tipa). The latter are often small in area and popu- lation, but most of the population must be engaged in nonagricultural pursuits. Included in urban-type settlements are workers' settle- ments (rabochiye poselki), factory settlements (zavodskiye poselki), settlements at railroad stations (zhelezno-dorozhniye stantsii), health resorts (kurortniye poselki), and a number of other types of nonagricultural communities. Each of these urban settlements is administered by its own Soviet. A number of urban-type settlements were elevated to city status during the period. This is significant because it reflects a change in the character of the settlements -- not only in their administrative status, but also in the assumption of a wider range of urban functions, services, and responsibilities. Categories of cities are determined on the basis of admini- strative relationship. Cities may be subordinate to ( Rayon Executive Committees, as in the case of gorod rayonnogo podchineniya; - 27 - Sanitized - Approved For ReINSCO : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Inc!bine : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 (b) Oblast Executive Committees, as in the case of gorod dblastnogo podchineniya; or (c) the Council of Ministers of a Republic, as in the case of gorod respublikanskogo podchineniya. Categories (b) and (c) are designated as independent administrative-economic units. The factors determining the category within Which a city belongs are: (a) The number and composition of the population according to occupation or profession, and the percentage of the popula- tion so engaged. (b) The presence of Republic, Regional, and District institutions, organizations, and establishments (industrial, commercial, etc.). (c) The amount of built-up land and the extent of claims to surrounding land. In order to change from one category to another, a city must obtain a resolution from the Supreme Soviet, which will decide the case on the basis of changes in the status of the city according to the factors listed above. Cities classified as gorod respublikanskogo podchineniya and gorod oblastnogo podchineniya have the following rights: (a) To receive a part of the income tax paid to the republic or the oblast (extra local taxes), as well as local taxes and income from loans. (b) To awn local industry not in excess of 25,000 rales for each project. -28 - Sanitized - Approved For Militate : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rejegtsg : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 (c) To assign a definite number of personnel to the City Soviet and its Executive Committee, including public- health doctors, a city engineer, and a city architect. (This also applies to health resorts.) (d) To inspect all building projects, regardless of what agency is building them. (e) To have certain advantages in the distribution of the capital investment in the communal economy. The extent of participation, however, is so restricted as to make this right theoretical only. A gorod rayonnago podchineniya has the rights in (a) and (b) above but to a lesser degree. Cities are administered by city or urban Soviets. The main function of the urban Soviet is the administration and exploitation of (1) all municipally-owned buildings and to a certain extent, private residential buildings; (2) all the communally-owned services and installations (including waterworks, canals, electricity, industry, city property, parks, kindergartens, schools, and hospi- tals), provided they are not under the Regional or Republic jurisdiction. All cities have their own budgets, based on the income from the communal enterprises, land rent, city collections, and finally allotments from income taxes. The incomes of the cities, however, are under rigid control. A city cannot raise the electrical rate -29- Sanitized - Approved For ReTC4WW: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For klmise : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 or the price of bus tickets without approval from the Republic administration. For building or expanding communal enterprises, the cities may receive long-term credits through the Central Communal Bank, provided the projects are included in an approved plan. Such credits are covered by the incomes of the cities. Settlements having an adult population of 1,000 or more may be designated as cities by a legislative act of the Soviet Government, provided no more than 25 percent of the adult population is engaged in agriculture. In other words, the most characteristic indicator of of a Soviet city is the concentration in the settlement off-a sub- stantial number of persons engaged predominantly in nonagricultural pursuits. A table listing the new cities that are known to have been created during the period from 15 May 1949 to 1 January 1951, along with their locations and administrative categories, is appended to this report, and the distribution of the cities is shown on the accompanying map (CIA 12493). A total of 39 new cities was established in the USSR during the period, of which 16 are in Lithuania alone. The increase in the number of new cities in Lithuania, however, may be attributed to a change in the administrative designation of some of the larger settlements and does not necessarily represent an increase in the number of cities per se. -30- Sanitized - Approved Forneisese : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rehimpi: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The Lithuanian and other new cities in the USSR are set apart by territory and designated as cities by a legislative act of the government, while boundaries of cities are determined by the Republic and Regional administrations. Workers' settlements show a surprising increase during the period 15 May 1949 - 1 January 1951. When the increase (absolute) in urban-type settlements is plotted on bar graphs for each economic region (see map CIA 12493), it becomes apparent that the increase is not uniform for all regions. In Economic Regions I, II, VI, VII, XI, and XII, workers' settlements represent practically all of the increase in urban-type settlement. A workers' settlement (rabochiye poselki) may be defined as a populated place with an adult population of no less than 400, of which 65 percent derive their income from wages. The administration and financing of workers' settlements follow the same general pattern as in cities, but on a smaller scale. The settlement Soviets are "elected," as in cities, but it is customary to elect to the Soviet the chief officers of the settle- ment or, in some cases, even workers and employees that live in the settlement. The conversion of a village into workers' settle- ment is approved by a decree of the Presidium of Supreme Soviets of Union Republics. In most instances, workers' settlements are subordinate to Rayon Soviets, but some are directly subordinate to Oblast' Soviets. -31- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Weilti4e : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The conversion of a workers' settlement into a city is based on the extent of the increase in industrialization, the development of commercial services, and the nature of urban improvement. Statis- tically, the populations of workers' settlements are considered as urban. Other categories of urban-type growth -- factory settlements, settlements at railroad stations, and resorts -- have occurred in some regions. In Economic Region V the total increase in new urban- type settlement is in the form of factory settlements, settlements at railroad stations, and resorts; in other regions the increase in these categories is smaller or even nonexistent. - 32 - Sanitized - Approved For R4Abtme : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Relea 9-80001.000Z000V9001.0-6/dCIN- NEW CITIES ESTABLISHED IN THE USSR DURING THE PERIOD 15 MAY 1949 - 1 JANUARY 1951* New Cities in the RSFSR 1. Khadyzhensk 2. Nakhodka 3. Shimanoysk 4. Komsomoltsk 5. Syirsk 6. Bogsitogorsk 7. Borovsk 8. Gremyachinsk 9. Kospash 10. Ocher 11. Severno-Zadonsk 12. Khotikovo 13. Shchekino Republic, Kray. Okrug Krasnodar Kray Primorskiy Kray Oblast Amurskaya Ivanovskaya Irkutskaya Leningradskaya Molotovskaya Molotovskaya Molotovskaya Molotovskaya Moskoyskaya Moskovskaya Tul'skaya Neftegorskiy Shimanovskiy Komsomol'skiy Cheremkhovskiy Tikhvinskiy Ocherskiy Donskoy Zagorskiy Shchekinskiy Sabordi- Economic nation Region Rayon 4 Kray 12 Rayon 12 Rayon 7 Rayon 11 Rayon 7 Oblast' 8 Oblast' 8 Oblast' 8 Rayon 8 Rayon 7 Rayon 7 Oblast' 7 * Source: 1951 Administrative-Territorial Handbook (SSSR Administrativno-Territoriallnoye Deleniye Soyuznykh Respublik 1951). 9-20001.000Z000V9001.0-6/dCIN-VIVII4cteeieN JoA panoiddv - pezmues IPI -10d PGAOJCIdV PezillueS 9-8000 l.000Z000V900 l.0-6/dCIN-V10 (Contt) New Cities in the RSFSR 14. Khanty-Mansiysk 15. Borzya 16. Mogocha Republic. Kray. Okrug Khanty Mansi National Okrug Oblast (Tyumenskaya) Chitinskaya Chitinskaya Alma Samaroyskiy Borzinskiy Subordi- Economic nation Region Okrug 9 Rayon 11 Rayon 11 New Cities in Autonomous Republics 1. Izberbash 2. Beslan Republic Dagestan Seyero-Osetin Oblast Ram Prayoberezhnyy Subordi- Economic nation Region Republic 4 (ASSR) Rayon 4 New Cities in Republics 1. Gayvoron 2. Swmgait 3. Mir-Bashir 4. Khudat Republic Ukrainskaya Azerbaydzhan Azerbaydzhan Azerbaydzhan Oblast Odesdkaya Rayon Gayvoronskiy Mir -Bashirskiy Khudatskiy Subordi- Economic nation Region Rayon 3 Republic 5 Rayon 5 Rayon 5 Sanitized - Approved For Relearn: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Releai6cA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 (Con' t) New Cities in Republics 11.22121.11 Oblast Rayon Subordi- nation Ebonomic Region, 5. Vevis Lithuanian Viltnyusskaya Vevisskiy Rayon 2 6. Vilikiya Lithuanian Kaunasskaya Vil'kiyskiy Rayon 2 7. Vabalininkas Lithuanian Shyaulyayskaya Yaballninskiy Rayon 2 8. Ionishkelis Lithuanian Shyaulyayskaya Ionishkeltskiy Rayon 2 9. Dusetos Lithuanian Vil'nyusskaya Dusetskiy Rayon 2 10. Varnayay Lithuanian Klaypedskaya Varnyayskiy Rayon 2 U. Retavas Lithuanian Klaypedskaya Retavskiy Rayon 2 12. Kazlu-Ruda Lithuanian Kaunas skaya Kazlu-Rudskiy Rayon 2 13. Ignalina Lithuanian Villnyusskaya Ignalinskiy Rayon 2 14. Novo-Villnya Lithuanian Vil,nyusskaya Novo -Villnyaskiy Rayon 2 15. Shirvintos Lithuanian Vil'nyusskaya Shirvintskiy Rayon 2 16. Linkuva Lithuanian Shyaulyayskaya Linkuvskiy Rayon 2 17. Pakruois Lithuanian Shyaulyayskaya Pakruoyskiy Rayon 2 18. Salantay Lithuanian Klaypedskaya Salantayskiy Rayon 2 19. Seda Lithuanian Klaypedskaya Sedaskiy Rayon 2 Sanitized - Approved For ReleastaCIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Releaser. CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 ? Pi '&1 - 36 - Sanitized - Approved For Railia : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200CEMMENTIAL SECURITY INFORMATION U.S.S.R. International Boundary Economic Region Boundary O 250 500 750 Statute Miles I O 250 500 750 Kilometers 120 \ 140 160 ,170 r?N Soda Ci/ ? Linkuva iSalantay Pakruois ?S Varnyay RetavaP ? Skaudvile ? Vil'kiya 1Kaz1u-Ruda Vevis NEW CITIES ? Novo-trny in the LITHUANIAN S.S.R. lonishkelis ? Vabal'ninkas"), Ditetos) Ignalina ? L.) Shirvintos 7". 55 5p 100 Miles 100 Kilometers 24 Gayvoron ? Khot'kovo ? El ? Shchekino?VII Komsomol'sk ? Severozadonrk ? ? ? ? ? ? Borovsk/ Ocher 0 irospash ? .1 ? , t-, iGremyachinsk ? / VIII MI / ? ID Beslan f 0 El Jo 0 O Izberloitsh . ''', 0 DV O.' / :. i.1Chuthit \ Mir'Bashir .,.:77 '----?-?-;;\ -Si Sumgait 0 ? ? X/ i\ i? ? / ? / III I/ MI I ..). ill / ? / / / ? ,/ 1 // ? III /? CONFIDENTIAL/ c'1,._... N. N. 76 Novabad Svirek NEW CITIES AND URBAN-TYPE SETTLEMENTS (Period 15 May 1949 to 1 January 1951) Some boundaries shown on this map are de facto bound- aries (1952), not necessarily recognized as definitive by the United States Government; the United States Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union. 90 100 uS 120 130 ? Settlement raised to city (gorod) status. SOURCE: SSSR?ADMINISTRATIVNO-TERRITORIALWOYE DELENIYE SOYUZNYKH RESPUBLIK, 1951 (USSR?Administrative-territorial Divisions of the Union Republics). Urban-type Settlements ? New worker-settlement o Other new settlement Each square represents one new settlement. 12493 CIA, 12-52 Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For !Ws: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 ? III. CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAIN TURKMEN CANAL ACCELERATED BY NEW RAILROAD LINE TO TAKHIA TASH On 11 September 1950 a decree was published by the Council of Ministers of the USSR initiating the construction of the Main Turkmen Canal. The project calls for_the completion by 1957 of a navigable canal 1,100 kilometers (700 miles) long and 100 meters (300 feet) wide, which will connect the Amu-Dar'ya River with the Caspian Sea at Krasnovodsk (see map CIA 12470). The exploration of the proposed canal site was launched in 1951 and began simultaneously from the northeastern and southwestern ends of the route -- Cape Takhia Tash (approximately 42?17'N-59?45'E) and the vicinity of Yashkan Lake (39?42'N-55?35'E), north of Kazandzhik. Construction work on the canal has been most intensive in the vicinity of Takhia Tash, the main installation on the future canal. From the initiation of the project until 1952, progress of construction was relatively slow, owing to problems of supply and shipping, which taxed to the limit the available river and air transport routes. A possible solution was the construction of some supplementary means of transport. Attention was brought to focus on the railroad line already under construction between Chardzhou (36?06'N-63?34'E), the trans- shipping center for freight to the Main Turkmen Canal, and Kungrad (43?05'N-58?55'E), the northern terminal in the Amu-Dar'ya Delta. Prior to 1952 this line had been completed to Urgench (41?33'N- 60?38'E), some 120 kilometers (75 miles) southwest to Takhia Tash. -37- Sanitized - Approved For Regalia': CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For IRliappe : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The additional incentive for building the railroad speeded up construction, and the railroad line was extended to Takhia Tash by 27 February 1952. According to Soviet sources, the first freight train arrived at Takhia Tash on February 29. This achievement assured an uninterrupted flow of supplies and material to the main construction site of the Turkmen Canal. Since that date, equipment required for the construction project has been shipped on a 24-hour basis. The shipments consist largely of dump trucks, concrete mixers, mechanical loading machines, gasoline engines, and precision instruments of various types. The railroad, whose construction apparently was stimulated by the construction of the canal, has itself become a significant artery of transport for the economic development of the area. Takhia Tash is located 7 kilometers (4 miles) southwest from Nukus, the capital of the Kara-KalpakASSR, Uzbek SSR, and is situated at title outlet of the Main Turkmen Canal to the Amu-Dal-13ra. Although a rocky promontory unknown until recently, Takhia Tash is being developed into the most important power and hydrotechnical installa- tion along the course of the canal. The installations will consist of an earthen dam across the channel and flood basin of the Amu-Dariya, a concrete spillway, a power house, concrete structures for the entrances to the two existing irrigation canals (Lenin and Kyz-Ketken) opposite Cape Takhia Tash, embankments, aqueducts, a navigation lock, settling reservoirs, and the first section of the Main Turkmen Canal. - 38 - Sanitized - Approved FoisRAftese : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rfghttiks@ : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The dam across the Amu-Dar'ya will raise the water level by 6 meters (20 feet), thus ensuring water for the canal and for the whole system of irrigation canals on both sides of the river. The settling reservoirs will prevent silt from the Amu-Dar,ya from entering the canal. The reservoir, in addition to providing a constant and even inflow of water into the canal, will also provide water to irrigate the entire area of the Khorezm Oasis, located nearby. The dam and dikes of the reservoir will also prevent floods of the Amu-Dartya, which have often caused serious damage to the settlements, fields, and gardens of the Khorezm population of the area. An aerial tramway is being built across the Amu-Dar'ya to carry workers and supplies to the construction site at the other end of the dam:. Its 800-meter (2,600-foot) cables will be anchored to ferroconcrete towers and will serve as a temporary river crossing until the dam has been completed. From Takhia Tash, the Main Turkmen Canal will flow in a west- southwestward direction, passing to the south of the Sarakamysh Depression, and will proceed across the Kara-Kum Desert along the ancient bed of the Amu-Dartya (the ljzboy) to the arid regions of the Caspian Plain. In the vicinity of Kazandzhik, two parallel trunk canals will branch off southward toward the Atrek River. The method of constructing the canal is of a pioneer type in which a narrow channel is cut for several kilometers, filled -39- Sanitized - Approved For ReqVIIIM : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved ForAgistine : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 with water, and then widened and deepened to the required dimensions by suction dredges. The volume of water pumped from the Amu-Dartya is initially fixed at 350-400 cubic meters (12,360-14,125 cubic feet) per second. It is planned to increase the volume to 600 cubic meters (21,000 cubic feet) per second in an effort to maintain a navigable water level to the Caspian Sea. In addition to the main dam and electric power plant at Takhia Tash, two other dams along the canal, both with impounding reservoirs, and electric power plants have been planned. One installation, the Burgun Dam and Reservoir, will be built in the region of the Igdy Wells at approximately 40?N. The second will be located at Yashkan Lake. The combined rated capacity of the three hydroelectric plants is estimated at 100,000 kilowatts. The Main Turkmen Canal project will be of great significance to the economic development of vast areas of Soviet Central Asia. It is claimed that irrigation will be extended to 1,300,000 hectares (3,000,000 acres) of new farm land located in the southern Caspian Plains of western Turkmenia, on the delta of the Amu-Darya in the Kara-Kalpak ASSR, and in the northern part of Turkmenia. In addition, the project is to supply water to 71000,000 hectares (17,290,000 acres) of pasture land in the Kara-Kum Desert, to 500,000 hectares (1,235,000 acres) of productive forest plantings along the canal, and to areas surrounding industrial centers and populated places. The size of the areas to be irrigated by the Turkmen Canal is based solely on published Sanitized - Approved FonEtoinase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For ReItem : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Soviet figures, which have been quoted without verification in various publications both in Great Britain and the United States. Finally, the Main Turkmen Canal will be an important transporta- tion artery, carrying cotton, grain mineral fertilizers, and farm machinery, as well as passengers, from the Caspian Sea to.the lower reaches of the Amu-Dar'ya and the Aral Sea. - 141 - Sanitized - Approved For Reg6?40: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 9-80001.000Z000V9001.0-6/dCIN-V10 Sanitized - Approved For Release: RESTRICTED SECURITY INFORMATION U.S.S.R.: THE MAIN TURKMEN CANAL 52 56 60 ARAL . SEA KAZAKH KAZAKH S. S. R. KATA1(ALPA A.S.S.R. Kungrad Lenin Canal 'c. KYZ Y L. Li ? Sarykamyshskay,a_ ?Z.1.1--\- \ \ Khodzheyli. Depression/ ...= 1 _ \ . U Kunya-0,... % NTucikkuhict\-Tuosh Urgench -- 1 yz-Ketkeit, Canal z\\ 13 E K S.\S. R. Urgenc-- \ \ Kolodets Ch(waryells)hly Krasnovocisk TUR KM ;1. \ Yaskha s e57 Bur. un Bukha a ??????? ? SAri Bandar Shah (-1) 36 TEETRA Shdhrad - E, R A N _ 'S` ? Sabzawar \ft. Meshedl 12470 CIA, 12-52 Daslali-Kavir 56 60 ?72> Route of the Main Turkmen Canal Dam & hydroelectric installation and reservoir (exact limits unknown) ?+? Railroad Railroad under construction Motorable road (selected) Salt marsh Sand Note: The Main Turkmen Canal is currently in the early stages of construction. 0 50 190 150 MILES 50 100 150 KILOMETERS RESTRICTED Sanitized - Approved For Re: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 IV. USSR INTERNAL ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARY CHANGES Economic and political planning in the Soviet State has always involved, as an integral part of the process, the changing of administrative boundaries. The dearth of other reliable, current data on the Soviet Union has led geographers, economists, and political scientists in the intelligence field to use boundary changes as the basis for estimating economic trends and developments in the USSR. After a series of basic administrative boundary changes early in the history of the Soviet regime, there were few additional changes until 1930. Because of economic developments that took placeafter1934,alargenmberoftheoblastsand krays and their rayon subdivisions, both old or newly created, were found to be too large either for integration into functional economic regiont or for effective administration (the two being theoretically indivisible in Soviet planning). Apparently this situation was the reason for a series of changes that followed and the shifting of the economic emphasis to the rayon level. The size of rayons was reduced and their number increased, and this in turn necessitated a corresponding reduction in the size of dblasts and an increase in their number. Since the optimum rayon size was theoretically construed as the area served by a single machine tractor station, the keduction -43- Sanitized - Approved For Milian : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rektglise : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 in size of rayons and the increase in their number reflected progress in collectivizing agriculture, with a corresponding tightening of controls at lower levels. The trend in administrative-boundary changes continued from 1930 until it was interrupted by World War II. It was not revived in the immediate postwar period, but the numerous changes in admin- istrative boundaries that have taken place in various parts of the Soviet Union since 1950 indicates that the trend has been reactivated. The reduction in the size of administrative units and administrative transfers, which correspond to a redefinition of economic-unit boundaries at levels from the dblasts down to the smallest admin- istrative units, has been resumed. The areal distribution of these changes is widespread, affecting not only the European USSR and Central Asia, but even the less densely populated Soviet Far East. Together, the changes reflect a noticeable concentration on economic regional development, as well as a tightening of political controls. A few changes have been selected to illustrate the scope of the current trend. Within the RSFSR, the chief Soviet Socialist Republic, two new oblasts each were created in the Bashkir ASSR and the Tatar ASSR. The Bashkir ASSR now includes the new dblasts of Ufa and Sterlitamak and the Tatar ASSR, the dblasts of Kazan' and Chistopoll. In the Moldavian SSR, four new okrugs were created, and other changes at lower levels were effected. In the Ukrainian SSR, numerous -44- Sanitized - Approved For FM : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For IR(g,g : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 changes were made at the rayon level, and a number of settlements were shifted from one rayon to another in accord with boundary changes. The administrative structure of the Caucasus region also underwent many changes. The two new dblasts of Tbilisi and Kutaisi were created in a part of the Georgian SSR that formerly had contained rayons only. In the Azerbaydzhan SSR, also, two new dblasts were created. Three new okrugs of the administrative type (as opposed to national okrugs) were set up in the Armenian SSR. Many changes at lower levels have also been taking place within the Caucasus republics. In .the Baltic area, three new dblasts each were created in Latvia and Estonia, and changes are also being made at lower levels. The series of changes taking place at the rayon level include the transfer of some rayons from one oblast to another, the abolishment of others; and the creation of new ones through sub- division correlated with boundary changes. Populated places such as workers' settlements and towns have been transferred to adjacent rayons or other administrative units, and in some cases their administrative designations have been altered; for example, settle- ments have been raised to town level and workers' settlements to the rank of towns of oblast subordination. The number and frequency of changes occurring throughout the Soviet Union since 1950 appears to represent a trend that probably will continue for some time. 45 - Sanitized - Approved For Relearn: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For RejsIggsli : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 V. SOVIET AREA FIGURES FOR THE USSR Repeated inquiries about the current areal extent of the USSR and the areas of the territories acquired since the beginning of the Soviet territorial expansion in 1939 prompt the publication of some area figures computed by the Russians by cartometric means. Both de facto and de jure annexations are included. According to Soviet figures, the total area under the immediate jurisdiction of the USSR as of 1 January 1947 was 22,363,250 square kilometers (8,632,210 square miles). Of this total, islands comprise 309,131 square kilometbrs (119,325 square miles) and areas of bounding seas 227,141 square kilometers (87,676 square miles), leaving 21,826,978 square kilometers (8,425,214 square miles) within the continental limits. These figures can'still be con- sidered valid. The few territorial changes that have taken place since 1947 involved areas of such small magnitude that they alter the above proportions only slightly. Soviet cartometric calculations for the major territories acquired since 1939 are as follows: Areas of Territories Added to the Soviet Union Since 1939 Annexed Territory Area Sq. Km. sq. Mi. Bessarabia 45,100 17,400 Estonia 46,56o 18,000 Kaliningrad Oblast (northern East Prussia) 15,070 6,000 - 147 - Sanitized - Approved For Mat% : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For ReteasD : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Annexed Area Territory SQ. Kin. Sq. Mi. Karelia-Kola Front (Viipuri-Lake Ladoga- Sala Regions) Klaipeda Region (Memellarid) Kuril Islands 43,690 2,280 10,010 17,000 900 4,000 Latvia 65,690 25,000 Lithuania 59,570 23,000 Northern Bukovina 5,810 2,000 Pechenga Region lo,600 4,000 (Petsamo) Southern Sakhalin 33,380 13,000 (Karafuto) Tannu Tuva 168,940 65,000 Western Ukraine ' 93,040a 36,000 (Eastern Poland) Western White Russia 101,070a 39,000 (Eastern Poland, including Vilna Region) Zakarpatskaya Ukraina 12,780 5,000 (Ruthenia) a. Figures apply to the territory taken from Poland by the Soviet decree of 2 November 1939,. which incorporated former eastern Poland into the USSR. The Polish-Soviet treaty of 16 August 1945, which formally defined the Poland-USSR boundary, returned to Poland 21,240 square kilometers (7,268 square miles) of territory originally taken away by the 1939 decree. -48- Sanitized - Approved For Rtiletift : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Relemur: CIA-ROP79-01005A000200010008-5 VI. NEW POPULATION DENSITY MAP OF THE USSR The recently published Soviet map showing the population density of the USSR has, on the whole, proved disappointing. Although it is dated 1951, a comparison with plates 11 and 12 in Volume II of the Bol'shoy Sovetskiy Atlas Mira (Great Soviet Atlas of the World), which gives the distribution of population according to the 1939 census, indicates that the new map also is based on the prewar census. The new map, which is at the scale of 1:5,000,000, was produced by the Glavnoye Upravleniye Geodezii i Kartografii (Chief Administra- tion for Geodesy and Cartography -- GUGK) as a wall map for high school use. Rural population densities are shown by color tints, t. ? ranging from "almost or completely uninhabited areas" to "more than 100 persons per square kilometer." The size of cities is indicated separately by circles of proportionate diameters. While the pattern of rural population density almost identical to that on the atlas maps, it is apparent that the compilers of the new map took greater liberties in their representa- tion of Soviet cities. Although the population categories of the urban centers generally remain unchanged, numerous settlements with populations of less than 10,000 have been deleted from the 1951 map. In Asiatic Russia, many cities with populations as large as 10,000 to 50,000 have also been removed. Furthermore, in the European part of the Soviet Union, a majority of such cities have been omitted. ? -149- Sanitized - Approved For Raftit* : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For liggwe : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 In oontrast to the dominant trend for deleting cities, 13 urban centers with populations of between 10,000 and 50,000 have been added. Two are in the European North -- Segezha, a paper-milling center in the Karelo-Finnish SSR, and Molotovsk, the shipbuilding and sawmilling center west of Arkhangel'sk, which was developed after 1938. Two other new cities in this population category appear in the Urals, in the Bashkir ASSR near Ufa. One of these, Chernikovsk, was organized in 1944 from the eastern industrial rayon of the city of Ufa. The other is Krasnousol'skiy (northeast of Sterlitamak), whose growth also was accelerated by World War II. Two of the new cities are in the Caucasus -- Chiatura, the large manganese miiiing center in Georgia, and Alagir, the resort and metallurgical town at the northern end of the Osetian Military Road. Fort Shevchenko, the fishing center on the eastern shore of 'the Caspian has also been elevated to the 10,000-to-50,000 popula- tion category. In Soviet Central Asia there are four newly elevated cities. Taldy-Kurgan is the administrative center of an oblast that was created in southeastern Kazakhstan in 1944, The increasing im- portance of another Kazakh city, Chu, has a twofold basis; (1) it lies at the junction of the Turk-Sib Railroad and the new railroad from Mointy around the western end of Lake Balkhash, and (2) it is located in the Chu irrigation-canal project area. The new city of Kant is an eastern suburb of Frunze and a major beet-sugar refining -50- Sanitized - Approved FoislkiiNase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For REpjfitcvel : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 center in the Chu Valley of the Kirgiz SSR. The fourth new city in Central Asia is Nukus, an industrial city and the administrative center of the Kara-Kalpak ASSR. The two remaining new cities are in the Far East. Tetyukhe in Primorskiy Kray, is known to be a non-ferrous mining center. Little is known about Nel'kan except that it is a river landing at the head of navigation on the Maya River (in Nizhne-Amurskaya Oblast) and is linked by a trail to the city of Ayan on the coast. In only one instance was a city down-graded. Shimanovsk, on the Trans-Siberian Railroad in Amurskaya Oblast, appeared on the 1939 map as a settlement with a population between 10,000 and 50,000. On the new map it is classed as having less than 10,000. This change may reflect a movement of population from the relatively highly developed agricultural areas near Shimanovsk to the coal- mining areas near Raychikhinsk to the southeast and to the gold- mining and lumbering regions farther north along the Nyukzha, Zeya, and Selemdzha rivers. Possibly the greatest advantage of the new map is the inclusion of the recent Soviet territorial accessions along the western border, in Tannu Tuva, and in the Far East. The compilers have also attempted to bring the base up to date by showing new railroads and canals, and the changes in the Caspian shoreline. Where place names have been changed, the new names are given. The locations of the cities of Nebit Dag and Nordvik, which were incorrectly plotted on the 1939 map, have been corrected. - 51 - Sanitized - Approved For Release CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For lietease : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The value of these minor refinements and additions is far more than outweighed by the policy of wholesale deletions of urban settle- ments. The new map is not considered a satisfactory representation of either the prewar or postwar population distribution of the Soviet Union. A more accurate representation of the 1939 census data will be found in the Bol'shoy Sovetskiy Atlas Mira an English version of which is available in the League of Nations study on The Population of the Soviet Union by Frank Lorimer. The CIA map prepared for Chapter IV, Section 41, NIS 26, also provides information for the recently annexed areas, and, with the exception of data on the Tannu Tuva area, it is far more reliable than the GUGK revision. -52- Sanitized - Approved For REMne : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Re:1mm : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 VII. ENGLISH LANGUAGE MAP OF THE GEOLOGY OF THE USSR A color separation copy of a 1951 Soviet map, with translated title and legend, is now being prepared by CIA ana will provide a long-needed, current, single-sheet, geologic map of the USSR in English (map CIA 9243). The map also gives transliterations for numerous place names for purposes of orientation, but Russian forms are used for hydrographic features. Retention copies will be available. At present comprehensive maps showing the general geology of the Soviet Union can be obtained only on loan. The new map is a reproduction at 1:10,000,000 of a two-sheet Russian original at 1:7,500,000, which was published first in 1950 and reissued in 1951. In Soviet reviews the original map has received wide acclaim for the excellency of its geologic coverage. Areal geology is differentiated on the basis of geologic age and lithologic types. Sedimentary rocks are differentiated almost exclusively by geologic age and igneous rocks by both age and lithology. Data collected for the Russian 32-sheet geologic series at 1:2,500,000, published in 1940, served as the basis for the compila- tion of the 1:7,500,000 map. These data were supplemented by information gathered since 1939 by various geological organizations throughout the USSR. Significant additional geologic information is presented for the extreme northeastern part of .Siberia, east of 1350E longitude, where broad expanses were indicated as geologically -53- Sanitized - Approved For ReIRRISE : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved ForsRiSiglise : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 unmapped on previous maps of the entire nation. Despite the additional coverage, a considerable area in northeastern Siberia is still shown as geologically uninvestigated. The 1:7,500,000 Russian map that is being reproduced was prepared under the editorship of D.V. Nalivkin, who has also served as editor of other good geologic maps of the USSR. Among these are the 1:5,000,000 map published in 1937 and the excellent 1:2,500,000 series previously, mentioned. Sanitized - Approved ForikRase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Reiggwat : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 VIII. POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE MAP OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR AND THE MOLDAVIAN SSR One of the most serious deficiencies plaguing regional analysts working on the USSR is the lack of current political-administrative maps. An occasional fortunate acquisition, such as the receipt during 1952 of Politiko-Administrativnaya Karta Ukrainskoy SSR i Moldavskoy SSR, helps to alleviate this situation. Maps of this type not only show boundary changes but are the only accurate means by which the areal location and extent of administrative divisions can be determined. The new map of the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSR's (CIA Call No. 75972) was compiled in 1949 and was issued in 1950 by the Soviet Chief Administration of Geodesy and Cartography (Glavnoye Upravleniye Geodezii i Kartografii GUGK). It is at the scale of 1:750,000, which is large enough for locating and plotting general data. The map is in color and consists of four sheets (totaling approximately 4 feet by 6 feet in size). It delineates the boundaries of the complete hierarchy of political-administrative units within the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSR's down to the level of the rayon, which Is the basic mappable administrative unit in the Soviet system. The legend includes a list of the cities in the two SSR's that are directly subordinate to the oblast and a list of rayon centers and of rayons whose names differ from those of their centers. -55- Sanitized - Approved For Re WEN : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rim: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The map shows four categories of populated places, with distinguishing symbols for capitals and for okrug and rayon centers. Being the most recent map available, it shows the new settlement of Severodonetsk on the left bank of the Donets River about 5 kilometers east of the coal-mining town of Lisichansk. The existence of this settlement may be attributed-to the erection of a large chemical plant, which has recently begun operations. Prior to early 1950 the site was identified merely as "Lisskhimstroi" (Lisichansk Chemical Plant). Since then the name Severodonetsk has been attached to the town. The map also shows routes of communication, hydrography, And other selected physical features. Sanitized - Approved For Wattle : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Reteasee: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 IX. SOILS MAPS OF THE UKRAINE The most recent soil map of the Ukraine appeared in the Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the United States, Vol. I, No. 1, 1951. The map was produced by the reputable Ukrainian soil scientist, Gregory Makhov, who has been associated with soil science in the Ukraine since 1922. He has worked with materials and maps of earlier soil scientists dating back to 1888, including those of Prof. V. Dokuchayev, the founder of Russian soil science. ?The map (a copy of which follows p. 59) is necessarily generalized, since it is at the scale of 1:5,000,000. Although it contains only about half the soils categories shown on the largest-scale available soils map of the Ukraine, the new map has the advantages of including postwar area acquisitions in the west, of being in English, and of being easy to reproduce in quantity. Accompanying the new map is an article that gives an account of the main soil types of the Ukraine according to their scientific classi- fications. The new map, which is in color, was compiled from the largest- scale soils map available for the Ukraine (mentioned above), a four-sheet map 5 feet by 8 feet in size that includes 60 categories of soils. The source map is exceptionally accurate and precise for the scale because it is based on sketch maps at 1:126,000 that were later reduced to 1:420,000, and finally to 1:750,000. This map was produced during the period 1940-49, but the exact date of -57- Sanitized - Approved For ReIraS6 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rehm? : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 publication is not known. Although it is the best soils map of the Ukraine available, it has several disadvantages. Among these are: (1) the legend is in Ukrainian and German only; (2) newly acquired land in the west is not covered; and (3) at present the only copy available is a black-and-white photocopy (CIA Call No. 76581R), which is more difficult to work with than the original. Makhov stated that the earliest soils map of the Ukraine, of which he was editor, was initially prepared in 1922-23 and presented to the First Congress of Ukrainian Soil Scientists, held at Kiev in May 1923. The map itself was not published until 1926, when 5,000 copies were printed. For various reasons, circulation was extremely limited. The map was in color, with the legend in Ukrainian, Russian, and English. Although Makhov did not mention the scale, evidence indicates that his soils map is the same as one held in the Heringen Collection, Military Geology Branch, U.S. Geologibal Survey, and in the Department of Agriculture Library (Call No. 56.26 UK7). A colored photocopy is on file in the CIA Map Library (Call No. 792)1-8). The scale, 1:1,050,000, is con- siderably smaller than that of the 1:750,000 map and there are fewer soils categories in the legend. Nevertheless, the colored photo- copy is easy to read, and the inclusion of an English legend is a definite advantage. The Department of Agriculture describes it as the best soils map of the Ukraine available in this country. -58- Sanitized - Approved For Riclelate : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Releaser: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 The history of the 1:1,050,000 soils map of the Ukraine and its source materials lead to the belief that this map is undoubtedly the forerunner of the 1:750,000 Soil Map of the Ukraine, from which the most recent Soil Map of the Ukraine at 1:5,000,000 was derived. -59- Sanitized - Approved For Reitain : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 If Cn CD 0- 7:3 7:3 CD 0- -11 0 CD CD 13.) CD . . /' %/:;;;- e I. dzolic. SCIONiLly Jodi Pocizo/ic. sandy loam sods Poclzo/ic soils and re/to/zinc:es uncligirentated Mountain podzohc sods Meadow,lest soils Renolzin. a-ae chalk soils Dayracled chernozenis =-- + I * It tt Deep /oessia/ chernozerns mLeczn (eroded) chernoz ern,' ' 9251 Deep ----- chernozerns? rich in humus Peep leached chernozeins Chernozems OI /oes.s romorm???0 ??? .1401.0?01 ??--.??? ^ .???????1 UM MN =LIM= 1.1611?6monm. Mountain meadow ,soiXs and mountain mosspectt soils Meadow soil and meadow alkali soils of flood plains peat soils Secese peat and ?green moss peat -hmoors? orhite moss peat COrnozems of river terraces Lean chernozems --1111-111111 IN Milli MI MB 1?????=11?11MMI I MINIM ??? =MU .1=M VIM IV M11?11.111?111.1M ? 11111M 11?11. 0.31.01,7?.72.1 S117211.17.111j.....Cla .Deep calcareous chernossim, .sodAern Chel?MOZ86,16, on kie.S.S Lean soaern chernozeins Chernozems 017 C0411?1724,424-Llee4' Chernoiem4 on chalk Soloniz. ect chernozerns of Pryer terraces Mountain chernozerns Mountain hrown earth, and podzohz' &al brown earth Podzo4z% ect brown earth, and mountain podzohe undprentiatect Base saturatea brown soils and red soils o/rnoist su60-opics i4t,grey ioessia/ prairie.-forest sods Scxncy chernozems Dcriv4 ci4estnutf soi/s,s/....oht,/31 so/oniZed Chestnut sods., strcry& so/o- -nizect cAestnut soils and ./ solonetz soiis So(oaliZea/...91sy soils cif prairie depressions Solonchca soits andso/onetz soils undifferentiated 30 20 22 26 28 12 36 38 0 42 V MOM WILVIMO .4011.\ COVONIWI KVINV.VLV VIRM.V.VJELMM V k. VLIKIMMILV.W11. 10111.V.V.V.N.t. .Z.V0111WILWW. \ NI SIIMMIL1300 AV 1 L. L' alb3 IN II Z.\ OV V .0 4.M.M3 NM OK} OW .1 NM VCOMMCM,VOMOVVINKINOLNIVILV.V6VV.Vk ILVLV Vfle -..? srIlk IMMO. ' , KV M VV . r;oe .......... 1/OlV. ? 5111.VIMMV, IMAM, .,k 7.1; ? 00* .Z. ..;IL ir WI 7.. LI I IA 1 \VON.V.,:a 1 its, etatr .. . . sa.v.mon,? goor .... 1%. ? omm...........t.- 7.-zmveMfmemmuw.m. 6.mmmmmm .......m..... iji IKIMMINAMMIZALV.V.V. WV. BIEN15,14132?4i4 11111111111111M011711111M1116 1111?1111111MMINICIIIIIIIMMIM IliIMINEN11111111111111?11111 .- i' :6-61:6?61, -1=0?6..:t....MP 0 XSIXL ''Wie, N'SNMA.M:ggiNbmii=2.111-KAMM -*NI ,,,_ Ilittliell winimdarcEsql6.....iiimasinimb ... diSMI151111111111MII IMEMIIMIltaisiiRZ IMMEMINIO MEt diEMBEMIll IIIIMMIIIII Min M IN MMEN III MEIN= mmmmmmm NIIIIMMIP"TE111111?11116i M 9111PC.1111111104TATA 1 5$ NMINIZ, M=M -.mem 4..0.16 ` "'MIR '4111" V Ei ?- \ win= 116..,N. At4s. mum nt...". . . ...... / 4$ MAP OF SOILS OF UKRAINE composed by Dr. G. Makhov scale 0 so *00 IS 0 a...A &marl_ ir 1 0 1118-0407fitti airs al.,- , 6 00 420,. ? 4- 016111111041 ? -11W" ? 47-4. 4,54:10. ? ? ,M11././ wr_Agtowa ma OS 621 611.1%. '14'2 1112.41V1gar, StV 0-tt. 28 30 32 4 36 40 42 46 44 Sanitized - Approved For Releasto: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 X. RAILROAD INFORMATION FROM SOVIET NEWSPAPERS Soviet newspapers have on several occasions published detailed accounts of the completion of significant railroad lines in the USSR. The first official reference, for example, to the fact that the Chardzhou-Takhia Tash sector of the Turkmen railroad along the Amu-Dar'ya River is now in operation and serving as a supply route for the Main Turkmen Canal appeared recently in the Moscow news- paper Trud. Other newspapers such as Pravda and Izvestiya have repeatedly published articles referring to the opening of new lines to through traffic. In the past two or three years, several newspapers have adopted the practice of including with the text, fairly detailed sketch maps of newly completed lines, on which they show alignment, trackage, stations, and stops along the route. Kazakhstanskaya Prayda, printed in Alma-Ata, has been outstanding in the publication of railroad information of this type. Articles and sketch maps published in this newspaper concerning the recent completion of the Mointy-Chu and Akmolinsk-Pavlodar lines aided materially in resolving the differences between the railroad alignments shown on the postwar Soviet political-administrative maps at 1:4,000,000 (19)-i-7) and 1:8,000,000 (1951). The recent contributions of Soviet newspapers to current information on railroads, have already been of considerable intelli- gence value. It is hoped that forthcoming articles and sketch maps Sanitized - Approved For Ree: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 may soon provide much-needed information concerning other new rail- road lines, such as the Kulunda-Barnaul-Artyshta sector of the South Siberian Railroad and the Baikal-Amur-Magistral line. -62 - Sanitized - Approved For gekiNse : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Reim& : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 XI. RUSSIAN TRANSLITERATION The increasing use of Russian language materials and maps in current research has given rise to a number of problems inherent in the differences between the English and Russian alphabets. To insure accuracy in research, it is important to retain the original spellings of sources quoted, bibliographies, words that have been incorporated into English, place names, and institutions and organizations. Since the Cyrillic characters of the Russian* alphabet in general differ in physical form and phonetics from the Latin characters used in English, it is necessary to select characters or combinations of characters from the latter to approximate the Russian either phonetically or orthographically. Transliteration has proved extremely useful to both researchers familiar and unfamiliar with the Russian language. The large number of transliteration (transcription) systems in existence, however, has often led to confusion. As a result of different objectives, three important transliteration systems have been produced in the United States. These, together with two additional systems used in British and German source materials, are the systems most likely to be encountered in research (see accompanying table). The American systems -- produced by the United States Board on Geographic Names, the American Council of Learned Societies, * Russian, i.e., Great Russian, the language of Muscovy, the official language of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is one of 11 living, literary languages which stem from Old Slavonic. - 63 - Sanitized - Approved For Ramie : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Rgape : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 and the Library of Congress -- resemble each other. The first two, however, are based more closely on phonetic transcription and are more difficult to reconvert into Russian than the third. The use of diacritical marks, hcwever, makes the third cumbersome to use. The official guide for United States Government agencies fs the "transliteration" system produced by the United States Board on Geographic Names. The Board has also attempted to standardize the spelling of geographical names throlgh the publication of gaztteers and supplementary lists and by rendering decisions on controversial issues, such as the spelling to be accepted for places with several Russian spellings. It is advisable that analysts and cartographers who utilize transliterations familiarize themselves with the Russian alphabet to avoid unnecessary errors: The characters A, B, E, K, M, H, 0, C, T, y, and X are forms that appear in both the Russian and English alphabets, but only A, K, M, 0, and T are similar phonetically in the two languages. Complications may also arise when ornamental forms, lower case, or script are used in the Russian since here, also, forms used are similar to the English (e.g., a,a, 0, B,y, e,3 ,LL, H,41E, H, 0,71, p, c,rt, b), of which only a few phonetically approximate their English counterparts. Similarity between some characters within the Russian alphabet itself may also confuse the novice (3, a, A, J,y,u, T, T), and poor printing, such as appears on a large number of maps, may cestroy - Sanitized - Approved For Rekase : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Relame : CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 the distinction between ornamental forms, lower case, and script. Of the several styles of letter used on Russian maps, only the cursive, which is used mainly for hydrographic features, is more difficult to read than common print. The following table gives the several transliteration systems and a number of styles and varieties of Russian lettering that are most often encountered in geographical and map research. -65- Sanitized - Approved For ReWagiT: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 Sanitized - Approved For Release: CIA-RDP79-01005A000200010008-5 RUSSIAN ALPHABET VARIETIES OF LE B.G.N. TRANSLITERATION SYSTEMSTTERING L.C. A.C.L.S. P.C.G.N. German EXPLANATORY NOTES A a A a 6 6 B 6 B e B 8e f r r e AA A. IL ag . E e E e _ E e E e .1ff w Dr ate 14.11 w II PI u I 1 1 1 i? 0 Fi 1:, 'aft aa K K k u IC It M m ..M Mi H H H x 0 o 0 o n n 17 11 n P p Pp C c C c T T TM. rrt T7 Y y Y y X X X x 11 u 1L14 4 4 4 11 1 W IV 111111 zu 111, W. 1/114 /14 b b 7:. a bl u b b b b b nat. t t; rb 3 3 .9 .9 FO 10 10 io A cf il A 8 ea e (a V v r v UNCLASSIFIED A, a. 'SS" e2 73 T 2 2)y) E t Die alige ? X AIL X e 7.1 (9 VC-11 '-P- e 371. X V X 94 % el, 211. 94 ? ? yb t 0 'V A e r a cis- Be 2 a g e e