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August 1, 1955
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Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 277 GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE REVIEW CIA/RR-MR-47 August 1955 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS DOCUMENT IN0 NO CHAN E IN CLASS. i_ DECLASSIFIEf ASS. VpE ,' yT rO: S TS NEX7 Au FH: HR DATE. REVIEV/ER: 372044 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 WARNING This material contains information affecting the National. Defense of the United States within the meaning of the espionage laws, Title 18, USC, Sees. 793 and 794, the trans- mission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E- ERRATA MR-46, June 1955: The text on pages 15 and 16 is reversed. Page 16 should be and vice versa. MR-47, August 1955: Page 21, line 3, read "prepare" for "compare." Page 3, line 6, read "Ufa" for Usa." 15, -R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CI P79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-P T GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE REVIEW CIA/RR MR-47 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports -E-T Approved For Release 1 /26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T Page Changes in the Soviet Railroad Structure . . . . . . . . 1 Present Status of the Border Between East and West Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The 1954 Census of France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Soviet Interest in Oblique Mercator Navigation Charts . . 19 New Provinces in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Thai-Meo Autonomous Zone Created in Vietnam . . . . . . . 25 Spelling Changes in Rumanian Place Names . . . . . . . . 29 Revised Italian Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 New Economic Atlas of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Maps USSR: Railroad Systems, 1954 (13739) ? . following . . . 6 East-West Germany: Boundary Rectifications (13868) . . . following . . . 12 France: Areas of Population Decrease 1946-1954 . . . . . 15 Turkey: New Provinces (13866) . . . . . following . . . 24 Thai-Meo Autonomous Zone (13874) . . . . following . . . 28 *The individual classification of each article in this Review is given at the end of the article. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T CHANGES IN THE SOVIET RAILROAD STRUCTURE* The rapid development of the Soviet economy in postwar years has included changes in both the railroad administration and network. Although the network is still inadequate, increased activity and the addition of rail-line mileage had resulted in a straggling, cumber- some railroad organization that required drastic overhauling to pro- mote better administration and greater efficiency. Minor changes in the administrative systems have occurred periodically, but the number and rate of changes was greatly increased by the May 1953 edict of the Council of Ministers, which authorized the consolidation of the existing 56 systems into 1l.** In the consolidation, the smaller, less efficiently operated systems were divided among the larger adjacent systems, and the regional systems were redefined so that none overextended into the administrative area of another. Five key trunklines of considerable importance are known either to be under construction or possibly to have been completed. Information is lacking concerning the assign- ment of these new lines to railroad systems. The revised railroad *Research for this study was done in collaboration with the Serv- ices Section, USSR Branch, Foreign Documents Division, 00, CIA. **The existence of 56 systems was first confirmed by the Soviets in Gudok, 15 February 1952. The edict reducing the number was men- tioned in Zara Vostoka, 22 May 1953? In most cases, inefficiency is cited as the justification for consolidations. The Soviet justifi- cation for the creation of the Baltic System appearing in Gudok, 24 June 1953, is typical. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T network, including the reorganized railroad systems and additional mileage, is shown on the accompanying map (13739). The system names are those used by the Soviet Ministry of Transportation, and various colors are used to differentiate the individual systems. The major changes in the structure of the systems that have occurred since 19+8 are summarized as follows: 1. The Leningrad System was created between 19+8 and 1952 from a part of the October System. After the May 1953 edict, it was reincorporated into the October System. 2. The Kalinin System absorbed part of the Western System, which is now abolished. 3. The Belorussian System absorbed the Belostok and Brest- Litovsk Systems in 19+8 and after the May 1953 edict absorbed the Minsk and part of the Western System. I. The Vinnitsa System was created between 19+8 and 1952 from a part of the Southwestern System. After the May 1953 edict, it was incorporated into the October System. 5. The Odessa-Kishinev System was formed by a merger of the former Odessa and Kishinev Systems. 6. The Donets System was established by merging the former North Donets and South Donets Systems. 7. The Moscow-Kursk-Donbas System was created by a merger of the former Moscow-Kursk and Moscow-Donbas Systems. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T 8. The Southeastern System absorbed the Penza System before 1952. 9. The Volga System was formed by merging the Stalingrad and Ryazan'-Ural Systems. 10. The Transcaucasus System absorbed the Azerbaydzhan System. 11. The Usa System was created between 191+8 and 1952 from a part of the Kuybyshev System. 12. The Sverdlovsk System absorbed the Perm System. 13. The Far Eastern System absorbed the Maritime System. 14. The Baltic System was created by consolidating the former Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian Systems. 15. The Lvov System absorbed the Kovel' System between 1948 and 1952. 16. The Pechora System was formed from parts of the Gor'kiy and Northern Systems. 17. The Karaganda System was created between 1948 and 1952 from part of the Omsk System. The five new trunklines under construction include the following: 1. The BAM (Baykal-Amur' Magistral). Not until recently have the Soviets admitted any construction on this important alternate route to the Trans-Siberian Railroad. On 4 November 1954, however, Pravda (No. 308) reported the completion of a section of the RAM about 700 kilometers long, extending from Tayshet to Ust-Kut via S-E-C -R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T Bratsk. The Urga1-Komsomol'sk-Sovetskaya Gavan' section of the RAM is described in detail in Map Intelligence Review No. 37S-7, September 1953. 2. The South Siberian Railroad. This trunkline has been highly publicized by the Soviets and is to connect Magnitogorsk in the Urals with Stalinsk in the Kuzbas. The line will pass through Akmolinsk, Paviodar, Kulunda, and Barnaul. According to reports, it is also to be extended eastward through Abakan to Tayshet, and westward through Kartaly and Ishimbayevo to Abdulino. The Soviet press has reported the completion of several sections of the line, such as those from Akmolinsk to Pavlodar, Stalinsk to Barnaul, and Barnaul to Kulunda. 3. The Salekhard-Iarka Railroad. According to available intelligence sources this strategic railroad is under construction or possibly completed, but it has probably not yet been accepted by the Ministry of Transportation for normal operation. No information is available from open Soviet sources. A detailed study of the line is available in Geographic Intelligence Review No. 42, August 1954. 4. The Okha-7movskoye Pobedino Trunkline of Northern Sakhalin. Recent intelligence reveals that construction has begun on this key railroad line, which will connect with the South Sakhalin System and provide railroad transportation through the entire 600-mile length of the island. A detailed study of the line is presented in Geo- graphic Intelligence Review No. 44, February 1955. Approved For Release 199910%hg:'CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T 5. Komsomol'sk-Nikolayevka Railroad. Construction of this rail- road is believed nearing completion, although official Soviet sources remain silent on the matter. The numerical designations of the systems appearing on Map 13739 were taken from the 1951+ Soviet tariff manual, Tarifnoye Rukoyodstvo, N.1, Volumes I and II, published by the Ministry of Transportation (Ministerstvo Putey Soobshcheniya SSSR).* In this source, each of the 41 railroad systems is designated by a number in parentheses following the system name. These numbers are basically the same as those used in the 1938 edition of Tarifnoye Rukovodstvo, N.1+, Volume I. Some of the numbers in both the 1951 and 1938 editions are iden- tical with system numbers used in the 1925 and 1926 tariff publi- cations of the Peoples Commissariat of Transportation entitled Svod Tarifov na Perevozku Gruzov po Zheleznym Dorogam SSR (Tariff Summary on Freight Transportation over USSR Railroads). The system numbers in the 1938 and 195+ tariff manuals differ only where individual systems have been consolidated into larger units or abolished, or where new systems have been created. In the case of consolidation of two systems, the number retained for the new system in the 195+ edition is the smaller of the two system numbers appearing *Numerical designations for railroad systems. appearing on the Schematic Sketch of the USSR Railroad Network, 1948, were devised arbitrarily by the Foreign Documents Branch of CIA -- purely as an intelligence research aid. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T in the 1938 edition. Where a system has been abolished, the number used in 1938 is not carried in the 1954 edition. The numbers used to identify systems created since 1938 do not follow any definite se- quence and appear to be arbitrarily chosen. The 1954 tariff manual also proved to be an excellent source for confirming the identity of system junction stations shown on Map 13739, which had been obtained originally from Gudok and other Soviet sources. A number of supplementary brochures published in 1954 pro- vided additional data on more recent changes in station names, freight transloading centers, and freight tariffs. The wealth of railroad information obtained from the two volumes of the 1954 tariff manual and their supplements emphasizes the increasing need for similar sources to provide corresponding detailed information on passenger traffic, trains, and stations. (SECRET) S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 01 Donets Donetskays 02 Stalin Stalinskaya 03 Tranabaykal Zabaykal'skaya 04 Transcaucasus Zakavkazskaya 06 Belorussian Belorusskaya 07 Kazan' Kazanskaya 09 Moscow-Kursk-Donbass Moskovsko-Kursko-Donbasskaye 10 Kimv Kirovskaya 11 October Oktyabr'skaya 12 Omsk Omskaya 13 South Ural Yuzhno-Ural'skaya 14 Sverdlovsk Swrdlovskaya 15 Volga Priwlzhskaya 16 Kuybyshev Kuybyshevskaya 17 Northern Severnaya 18 North Caucasus Severo.Kavkazskaya 19 Ordzhonikidze Ordzhonikidzevskaya 20 Ashkhabad Ashkhabadskaya 22 Orenburg Orenburgskaya 23 Tomsk Tomskaya 24 Southeastern Yugo-Vostochnaya 25 Southwestern Yugo.Zapadnaya 26 Southern Yuzhnaya 27 Far Eastern Dal'ne,Vostochnaya 28 Amur Amurskaya 29 East Siberian VostochnoSlbirskaya 30 Turkestan-Siberia Turkestano-Sibirskaya 31 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarskaya 32 Odessa-Kishinen Odessko-Kishinevskeya 33 Moscow-Kiev Moskovsko-Kiyewkaya 34 Kalinin Kelininskaya 36 Ger'kiy Gor'kovskaya 37 Moscow-Ryazan' Moskovsko-Ryazanskoy 39 Tashkent Tashkentskaya 41 Ufa Ufimskeya 44 Loon L'vovskaya 54 Karaganda Karagandinskaya 55 Pechora Pechorskaya :.5T..,r. -=' mttno-Sekhalinskeya -~ 90 Baltic alzys y Sl a 'Th. .-b- .nd sh. e.m., d th..ban.,an.d,yeeM an. Mkm La, TARIFNOY6 RUKOVODSTVO, Na IT.d 14..dbwkL Tnnnh.tdaM.4 M-, 1934. MISCELLANEOUS LINES A Salekhard-lgarkaKresnosel'kup- Yermakow It South Siberian C Be. D KomsomoPSk.Nlkolayevsk E Okha-Pobedino 3.3.,..d (10"9 Bk 25 - c.3nmd (em....a 0.30,1.0 Irma. pup) NDttIL.WNN, nnR.. s.. ..wu xMri4 iM. RnM IAW A.n SOURCES: r w.. T..weeldan~M. ~L.e..19M. 1. Atl..~Ri GIMM, Mawr, HM. 3. AM. Mi,~ 0000. M.~mr,1933. Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T PRESENT STATUS OF THE BORDER BETWEEN EAST AND WEST GERMANY The border between East and West Germany marks the westernmost extension of Soviet-dominated territory in Europe and exemplifies the meaning of the term "Iron Curtain." With the recent attainment of sovereignty by West Germany, the border area takes on added sig- nificance. On 12 September 1944, 8 months before the end of the European phase of World War II, the European Advisory Commission (EAC), meet- ing in London, adopted a protocol between the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics regarding zones of occupation in Germany. This document provided that "Germany, within her [international] frontiers as they were on the 31st December, 1937, will, for the purposes of occupation, be divided into three zones, one of which will be allotted to each of the three powers . . ." The provisions of this protocol were later (26 July 19+5) amended to include France as a participating power. As a consequence of the EAC decision, present-day Germany is divided into two major political_spheres, the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) and the so-called German Demo- cratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik). Until 5 May 1955 the former (the West Zone) consisted of the American, British, and French Zones of Occupation; the latter (the East Zone) is occupied S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T by the Soviet Union. Apparently by coincidence, the demarcation line separating East and West Germany follows almost exactly the German- Slavic frontier of the early Middle Ages. Although several major rectifications and numerous minor changes have occurred along the original zonal boundary, the present line remains basically the same as that agreed upon by the Allied Powers in 1944. Presumably, that line was never intended to be more than a temporary, stopgap line of delineation, but differences in the interpretation of the course of the zonal boundaries have created many problems and led to numerous border incidents. (See Map Intelli- gence Review No. 36-s-6, June 1953, P? 12?) The legal line of demarcation originally agreed upon by the EAC established the frontier along the boundaries of the old German Lander (states) as they existed in 1941. The right of modification was given to the field commanders, and various boundary rectifications took place in both the British and American Zones. Several important alterations in the British Zone, made in 19+5 with the approval of the Allied Control Council, were in the Elbe River and Blankenburg areas (see the locational map, No. 13868, Insets A and B). The most important rectification in the American Zone was the Witzen- hausen exchange (shown on map 13868). This deviation in the boundary line in Landkreis (rural county) Witzenhausen, Hesse (Hessen), was established by written agreement between the U.S. commanding officer, S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Brigadier General Sexton, and the Soviet commanding officer, Major General Askalepov, on 17 September l945.* In some instances, adjust- ments along the border have been made by local verbal agreements between the military authorities of opposite zones. As a result, a "common usage" boundary, tacitly recognized by both East and West German authorities, has been established in many areas along the border. Other alterations in the legal boundary were made as a direct outcome of the activities of a surveying team of the British Army of the Rhine (Survey Department) and its Soviet counterpart. An effort was made to straighten out the boundary and to make minor adjustments where it would be of tactical use to either side. These were accom- plished mostly by following property fence lines or by moving the boundary from the middle of a road to the eastern or western edge so that the road would be entirely within the jurisdiction of one of the occupation powers.** Although the legality of a boundary line thus determined is doubtful because of the lack of written approval, this official type of border rectification furnishes a point of departure for future negotiations. The combined British-Soviet *Atlas of Manuscript Maps Showin Boundary Rectifications Since 1945 Between the East and West Zones of Germ$ ; 1:25,000 (with 5 detailed maps at various scales ; 1953; CIA Call No. aF304.6 - 23 A8 1953; Secret. **Ma of the British-Soviet Zonal Boun 1:25,000; Survey Branch, BAOR (59 sheets), 1945 (7); CIA Call No. 855+0; Confidential -9- Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S -E-C -R-E-T survey has left certain areas in dispute, however, and the problem still remains unresolved. In many instances, the Volkspolizei (East German Border Police) in fixing their frontier positions (digging plowed strips and erect- ing barbed-wire fences) have established border areas that are virtu- ally a "no man's land." This has been done both for convenience and to help prevent defection to the West by persons living in close proxim- ity to the border. Agriculturally productive parts of such areas are being used by farmers of the German, Federal Republic -- chiefly for growing hay, since they feel that their hold on the land is too uncertain to justify more intensive cultivation. In the brown-coal areas, the pits and work-heads were left in the same zone wherever possible. In one area, the boundary line was drawn to allow quarries that were actually in the West Zone to be included in the East Zone, where the crusher and processor were located. In several instances where city forests were in one zone and the city in another, the forests were reallocated for the con- venience of the local residents. The modifications cited point up one of the principal diffi- culties in discussing the border between East and West Germany -- the fact that the legal or official boundaries are not always the "status quo" or actual boundaries. The frontier as it exists on the ground -- the usage boundary -- is shown on maps of the - 10 - S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Bundesgrenzschutz (Federal Border Police),* which reflect the informal exchanges accomplished by American, British, and Soviet withdrawals from the agreed-upon boundary. In general, exact delineation of the British-Soviet Zone boundary becomes more difficult as the American Zone boundary is approached. In the American Zone, however, the boundary problem is much less acute than in the British Zone. The major border problem was in the Witzenhausen area previously mentioned. In several sections of the American-Soviet border the Volkspolizei have not always seen fit to establish their boundary coincidental with the legal boundary, and, as in the British Zone, have left a rather extensive area in a no-man's land status. Consequently, the Bundesgrenzschutz have moved up to the Soviet boundary, annexing a large area to the east of the legal boundary and producing another usage line. For the remainder of the American Zone, the legal and usage boundaries are almost identical, except for several small areas such as Theobaldshof, *Ma of the Boundary Between East and West Zones of Germany as of February 15, 1955; 1:25,000; Bundesgrenzschutz (Federal Border Police), Ministry of Interior (107 sheets), 1955; CIA Call No. 93137; For Official Use Only. This series of maps was surveyed and field checked as of 15 February 1955 by the various field commands of the border police, but it cannot under any circumstances be considered a legal or official series. The frontier is shown by a rather thick black line. The boundary itself is drawn in the East German Zone, with the side toward the British and American Zones representing the actual frontier. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Schauberg, Kleintettau, Falkenstein, and Zweiwassermihle (see map 13868).* Recent information indicates that local West German Kreis (county) officers have been given permission to exchange lots immediately adjacent to the frontier with East German zonal authorities. It is entirely possible, therefore, that the usage line will again be changed in the immediate future. While the changes will not, in all probability, be extensive, they may conceivably be large enough to be represented on a 1:25,000 map. Much of the difficulty in determining the exact delineation of the frontier can be attributed to the Soviet attitude that the present boundary is not an international frontier between two sovereign na- tions but merely an internal administrative boundary for the use of the occupation powers. In recent years, the USSR has remained unco- operative and unwilling to put on paper anything concerning the delimitation of the border. (SECRET) *Ma of the Boundary Between the US and the USSR Occ ation Zones of Germany, 1952; 1:25,000; Public Safety Division, HICOG sheets T, 1952; CIA Call No. 79825; Unclassified; and Map of Problem Areas on the US-Soviet Zonal Border of Germany, 1252; 5 tracings at various scales; CIA Call No. 79826; Confidential. The problem areas depicted on the map tracings are the result of ground surveys made by the U.S. Army and the Office of Political Affairs, HICOG. CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 ` O ~'~ a O~ a N r/ q I ~._. x ~.. OSo _? ~[ 01 7 H W a Z I M W 0 P r!' z Go N ?' W N ? q W ] q 3 W E ?~ r a e w 1 w N o W s N N o o Q to W W 0 U) w Z o a LO-) N N O r T 2 Z Z W ?o O O m (~ c? w w o LO LL N dIn E f 2 W Q F m v coo o O m A O /, W W ? ~ o ~+ Pi C~ m o co 0 a W ~ ~ N W "'Fq T E y 3 k o 0 Z ~T o J r o p V N d W N O Z ~ ~ ~ a) E Y L 2~ N W J .~V cx ~iC7 W -0 Mo. W x LL_ a~ o p N c 0 is o y U C 0- :3 0 .0 0 m o W, ~~ 0 0 .~J wo c ~ 1 m a w CIO o , U E O CD 0 W ry P4 o w ~C IJJ, E N c 0 0 m w W Q _ v o J W A a A W~ w z w` xo ux o 0 0 0 (33 0 10 z Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T THE 1954 CENSUS OF FRANCE The 1954 census of the population of France is the twenty- seventh systematic count of its inhabitants since the first census in 1801. It is particularly significant because it is the only cen- sus taken since 1936 that accurately reflects the normal economic, social, and political life of the country since World War II. Nor- mally, the French census has been taken every 5 years. However, no count could be made in 191+1; although a census was taken in 1946, it reflected the abnormally unsettled conditions following World War II. At that time the social and economic life of the French people had been completely disrupted by military occupation and extensive destruction of homes, industrial plants, and transportation facili- ties. A census was scheduled for 1951, a year when many countries of Western Europe counted their populations, but it was postponed for financial reasons. After experiencing a declining birthrate for many years, France has now reached a turning point. Since 1946, there has been a popu- lation increase of more than 2,270,000, an average annual rate of 300,000. To the census total of 42,771,500 must be added 187,000 French citizens temporarily residing outside the country and an estimated 38,000 other persons not officially counted. This brings the total population of France today to approximately 43,000,000, or roughly 10 percent of the total for Europe excluding the European S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T USSR. Although the 195+ figures are affected to some extent by a decrease in the general death rate and the infant-mortality rate, the population increase results primarily from a rise in the birthrate. According to the 195+ census, two traditional French characteris- tics remain constant: (1) the dominance of one metropolitan center, Paris, over all other cities; and (2) the wide distribution of com- munes (administrative divisions roughly comparable to American town- ships) with very small populations. The six and a half million in- habitants of "Greater Paris" comprise about 15 percent of the total population of France. Actually, the population in the city itself is increasing very slowly, having gained only 0.7 percent between 1936 and 1954. During the same period the suburbs, which are largely industrial, have been gaining on an increasing ratio from the city outward. Those in the immediate environs of Paris have increased 8 percent, whereas the more remote suburbs have gained more than 20 percent.* The increase in rural population is spread fairly evenly throughout the 69 departments that have gained in population since 1946. In the remaining 21 of the 90 French departments comprising Metropolitan France, the population has declined since that date. About half of the French population is divided among more than 37,000 communes with less than 5,000 inhabitants, of which some *Population: Paris et sa Banlieue -- Evolution 19+6-1954; no scale; Ministere du Logement et de la Reconstruction; January 1955; CIA Map Library Call No. F251.9-4 93964. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T 10,000 have less than 200 inhabitants each. The other half lives in the slightly less than 1,000 larger com- munes with at least 5,000 inhabitants. Aside from the marked increase in the Paris area, the general movement of population has been toward smaller industrial areas an.. ports. This shift from farms to widely separated cities and towns is not so much postwar resettlement as a reflection of an economic trend toward concentration of wealth in urban areas. Although France is still primarily agricul- tural, the largest population increase between 1936 and 1954, two "nor- mal" years, is in prosperous areas -- Paris, the industrial North, the Rhone Valley, and a number of scattered cities including Bordeaux and Toulouse. The greatest decline has been in central, western, and south- western France and in Corsica -- all areas that are becoming poorer.* *The shifting of population toward industrial urban areas is indicated on a recent map: Population: Repartition Territoriale par Canton, 1954; 1:1,000,000; MinistcIre du Logement et de la Re- construction; December 1954; CIA Map Library Call No. F251-21 95968. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T Urban statistics show that France now has 24 cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants in comparison with 19 in 1936, and 63 cities of more than 50,000 in comparison with 53 in 1936. Of the 10 largest urban centers (cities and their suburbs) listed below, only Marseille and Lyon have declined in population since 1936. Urban Centers 1936 1954 1. Paris 5,905,000 6,436,000 2. Marseille 914,000 661,500 3. Lyon 733,500 649,500 4. Bordeaux 392,000 4i6,000 5. Lille 352,000 359,500 6. Toulouse 213,000 269,000 7. Roubaix 259,000 26700O 8. Rouen 236,000 246,500 9. Nice 242,000 244,500 10. Nantes 208,500 242,000 The report of the census..* consisting of over 900 pages, follows the standard pattern of enumeration. Added to this is a 65-page interpretive report in which the enumerations are analyzed from various viewpoints selected on the basis of usefulness to French administrative officials and planners. This supplement will be equally useful to American analysts of French population problems. In the supplement the methods used in counting the population are explained in detail, as well as the breakdown followed in compiling different categories of population groups. The 1954 statistics for *Recensement de 1954 -- o ulation de la France, De rtements Arrondissements Cantons, Communes Metr ole ; Republique Fran9aise, Ministere de 1`Interieur, Ministere des Finances des Affaires t9onom- iques et du Plan, and the Institut National de la Statistique et des 19tudes tconomiques; Imprimerie Nationale, Paris, 1954. - 16 - S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R E-T the communes are compared with those of 1936 and 1946, and the totals are broken down by nationality (French and foreign) and by density (village and countryside). A separate category includes the number of people who live in groups unrelated to the ordinary life of the community, such as inmates of prisons and health institutions, and residents of certain educational institutions and military barracks. Annexed to the supplement are nine tables concerning: (1) Changes in cantonal and communal boundaries (2) Comparison of total population by department as of 1936, 1946, and 1954, and percentage variations in population between 1946 and 1951. (3) Number of natives and foreigners in each department of France for all census years between 1896 and 1954 (4) Percentage of foreigners to total population by department as of 1954 (5) Population of all towns and cities with populations of more than 10,000 (6) Number of communes with more than 100,000 inhabitants and those with less than 50, together with 20 intermediate population categories (7) Number of communes and total population in. each- department, using the same population categories as Table 6 and the additional summary category of "less than 2,000" S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T (8 and 9) Lists of conmlunes having important urban concentra- tions (agglomerations) other than their administra- tive centers. French social and industrial planners, as well as Government administrators, have long looked forward to currently accurate figures on which to base their studies. Since the publication of the 195+ Census, a Joint Colmnittee, with members from the Ministries of Labor, Industry, and Housing and Reconstruction, has been set up to study the problem of proposed decentralization of industry. Several other long-range projects are in progress in the Institute of Statis- tics and Economic Studies (Institut National de la Statistigue et des Ptudes ~conomiques; INSEE), an official organization that conducts various occupational and regional studies and maintains a file of unusually detailed statistics on the communes. During the past 10 years the Institute has borne the burden of trying to analyze and evaluate social and economic situations from the only available official population figures, which confused rather than clarified the problems. The 1954 census, in spite of minor inaccuracies, is a sound first step toward better studies. (UNCLASSIFIED) S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T SOVIET INTEREST IN OBLIQUE MERCATOR NAVIGATION CHARTS 25X1 Xerved Because of the paucity of current intelligence on Soviet aerial- navigation charts and devices, any evidence that indicates possible developmental trends becomes of considerable interest. Recently it was learned that the Soviets had acquired information concerning the construction and operation of a German wartime plotting board for use aboard the aircraft to indicate its position on a specially prepared 25X1X By the end of World War II the Germans had developed an automatic plotting board that indicated continuously the position of an aircraft in flight. The plotting board was used in conjunction with separate radar equipment, matching features at the indicated flight position on the chart with the view presented on the radarscope. Such correlation opened the way to further study of radar images and effects and pro- vided a means of checking and correcting the position of the aircraft on the chart. With the plotting device, geographic position is indicated by the intersection of two wires at right angles to each other, which move laterally across the underside of a translucent Mercator chart. A speed-integrating mechanism continuously adds the changes in position due to aircraft speed and wind velocity, thereby controlling the move- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T ment of the wires. As the intersection point moves across the edge of the chart a new intersection point appears at the corresponding point of entry on the adjoining chart. The shift is accomplished by means of two endless-belt systems at right angles to each other, each of which carries three parallel wires, one of which is always in view on the chart. The charts in the plotting device are evidently changed manually. The source passed on to the Soviets the information needed for computing the charts essential to the automatic plotting device. The mathematical formulas giving grid intersections in terms of new rec- tangular grid coordinates were thus made available to the Soviets, and several charts were actually computed and compiled for them. Since the speed-integration mechanism does not compensate for scale variation over the chart area, the scale on each chart has to be nearly constant throughout. The Mercator projection, besides being conformal, has very small scale variation near the axis of strength. The German charts were compiled as a continuous series of Mercator maps with a common "equator" coincident with the meridian of longitude. Adjoining sheets matched at the edges. Depending upon the scale, the meridians of coincidence were spaced at 3- or 6-degree intervals to complete the coverage of an area embracing considerable range of longitude. The scale preferred by the Germans for the automatic plotting device seems to have been 1:1,000,000, but other scales can be used by resetting the. integrating mechanism. By restricting the -C-R-E-T Approved For Release I 99 / 9/26: CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T 25X1X 25X1X area of a given chart to a narrow band on either side of the "equator," the scale variation on any chart becomes negligible. A straight line approximates a great circle very closely. It is possible to compare oblique Mercator charts with any orientation of the projection "equator" and still retain the desirable navigational properties of conformality and almost uniform scale. Although he did not reveal to them the correlated use of the plotting device and radar, this,possi- bility could hardly have escaped notice, since the instrument for aerial navigation alone has obvious limitations. Without the use of radar, the cumulative growth of positional error would become intol- erable on long flights. The Soviets never intimated to the source that they were undertaking programs along such lines and any conclu- sions drawn are entirely speculative. Nevertheless, it may be assumed that the German devices have been thoroughly weighed to determine what advantages would accrue to the Soviets through their use. (SECRET) S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T NEW PROVINCES IN TURKEY The pattern of Turkish provinces remained remarkably stable during the early postwar years despite some changes in their constit- uent districts.* The creation of new provinces in 1953 and 1954, therefore, occasioned more than routine interest, as to both the rea- son for the changes and the method of carrying them out. From 1946 until 1953, Turkey had 63 provinces. The 64th province, called Uqak, was formed in 1953; after the 1954 elections, two more -- Adiyaman and Sakarya -- were created, and another new province -- Nev9ehir -- was formed largely from Kirsehir Province, which was disbanded. The creation of the new units is closely connected with the Turkish political scene. Adiyaman was formerly the largest district in Malatya, the home province of Ismet Inonu, titular head of the Republican People's Party (RPP) and President of Turkey from 1936 to 1950. For that reason the designation of Adiyaman as a separate province has been called a vindictive act of the rival and now ruling Democrat Party (DP). On the other hand, the creation of Sakarya has been explained as merely the fulfillment of a campaign promise of Prime Minister Menderes of the Democrat Party. Another reason advanced for the creation of Adiyaman and Sakaraya was the desire to improve *The Turkish term for province is vilayet or il; for district, kaza or ilce. Approved For Release I 99J 99'2 lA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T local economic conditions and provide more local representation and a greater degree of self-government. Economic and political improve- ment was also given as a reason for the creation of U9ak in 1953? Unfortunately, the absence of exact details makes it difficult to determine how much truth there is in such high-sounding explanations. In any event, the political reasons have substance, and nowhere more so than in the case of?the creation of Nevsehir. Nevsehir was created primarily out of the dissolved Kir9ehir Province, plus two districts from Nigde and one from Kayseri. Of the two remaining districts of Kirgehir, one each was attached to the provinces of Ankara and Yozgat. Behind the creation of Nevsehir is the effort of the Democrat Party to gerrymander out of existence its principal rival in the area, the Republican National Party (RNP). In the 2 May 1954 deputorial elections the RNP swept all five of the available seats allotted to the now defunct Kirgehir Province. Prime Minister Menderes, though maintaining that the move had economic justification, left little doubt as to his real motive by accusing the RNP of political corruption. The accompanying map, No. 13866, shows the new provinces and their districts. In addition, the districts comprising the new prov- inces, as well as those newly attached to old provinces, are listed in the following table. - 23 - S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T CHANGES IN TURKISH PROVINCES, 1953-54 New Provinces and Their Capitals Usak - Usak Y .1 Adiyaman - Adiyaman Sakarya - Adapazari (Sakarya) Nevsehir - Nevsehir Districts in New Provinces Banaz Sivasli Karahalli Ulubey U9ak Esme Adiyaman Besni Gerger Kahta celikhan Adapazari Akyazi Geyve Hendek Karasu Nevsehir GUl9ehir Kirsehir Avanos Kozakli Mucur Hacibektas UrgUp Provinces Gaining a District from Kirsehir Yozgat Provinces From Which Districts Were Detached ( ( (Kutahya ( Kayseri Districts Kaman ci9ekdagi (FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY) -21+- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 U$AK Territory detached from Kutahya Territory detached from Manisa 0 100 200 Miles 0 100 200 Kilometers NEV$EHIR Territory detached from Kir$ehir (now defunct) A District formerly in Kir$ehir Territory detached from Nigde Territory detached from Kayseri NEW PROVINCES Boundary of new province - -?- Other province boundary District boundary O New province capital 0 20 40 60 Miles 0 20 40 60 Kilometers A 5`-Mi'ved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T THAI-MEO AUTONOMOUS ZONE CREATED IN VIETNAM On 29 April 1955, Ho Chi Minh, as President of the Communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), issued Decree No. 230 SL, Hanoi, for the formation of a Thai-Meo Autonomous Zone (see map No. 13874). The formal creation of the "autonomous" area was announced at a congress of various tribal peoples of northwest Vietnam that convened in Son to Province on 7 May 1955, the anniversary of the fall of Dien Bien Phu. Thus, an old Communist political-administrative device is being used in Vietnam, the newest of the "People's Democra- cies." Mao Tse-Tung in 1938 adopted for China the standard Communist line on the minority question -- "equal rights for minority peoples, and respect for and development of minority cultures and religions." Communist China has assiduously followed this line in dealing with its 35 millions of minority peoples, creating 24 autonomous areas between mid-1953 and early 1955. The "autonomous zone" concept, with its emphasis on the rights of minorities, is, of course, actually a sop thrown to a minority people to help obtain its support for the Communist administration. When successful, this administrative device also eliminates potential bases for dissident groups. The new Thai-Meo Autonomous Zone is similar in extent to the former autonomous Thai state (Federation of the Land of Thai) created by the French in March 1948. it includes an area of 19,300 square - 25 - Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R E-T miles, bounded on the north by China, on the west and south by Laos, and on the east by the Fan Si Pan Mountains of Vietnam. The Zone has three administrative levels: khu, zone; chau, division (equivalent to a district in the provinces); and xa, village. The provincial level has been eliminated. The 16 chau of the Zone include all the districts of the former provinces of Son La and Lai Chau, plus Phong Tho district from Lao Kay Province and Than Uyen and Van Chan districts from Yen Bai Province. The total population of the Thai-Meo Zone is estimated at 330,000. The two largest racial groups are the Thai and the Meo, numbering 190,000 and 60,000, respectively. Other minority groups are the Man, Muong, Puoc, Xa, and U Ni tribal peoples. According to the Decree of 29 April, if a smaller minority group lives within an area occupied by a larger group, a separate autonomous area will be formed for the smaller group. Such a small autonomous area will be administered directly and will have the rating of a khu or chau, depending on its size. Areas within the Zone that are inhabited predominantly by Vietnamese will not be made autonomous areas but will have the same administrative pattern as the rest of the country. The Thai-Meo Zone is largely an undeveloped mountainous area. Except for a paved road connecting the towns of Lai Chau and Son La with the Hanoi area and a link from this road to Dien Bien Phu, transportation is generally over jungle trails or by river. The economy is primitive, consisting chiefly of shifting agriculture, S-E-C-R E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T fishing, and hunting. The opium poppy, generally the cash crop of the Meo tribes, is of some economic importance. During the recent fighting in Indochina the Viet Minh used opium from this area and adjoining areas of Laos as a medium of exchange in the Hong Kong market to obtain items that the Chinese Communists were unable to furnish, such as medicine. Traditionally, settlement has been altitudinally stratified, with the Vietnamese living at the lowest elevations and the Thai and other tribes at much higher elevations. The tribes have long had a mountaineer's aversion for the lowland Vietnamese -- a dislike that has been strengthened by unprofitable trade dealings with the more sophisticated Vietnamese. Undoubtedly the Viet Minh hope that the Decree, with its guarantees in respect to local mores and languages, will mollify this aversion, which borders on hatred. Equally important is the relationship of the Autonomous Zone to Laos. At present the Laotian provinces of Phong Saly and Houa Phan (Sam Neua) are occupied by members of the Communist Pathet Lao Party. These two isolated provinces, which adjoin the new Autonomous Zone, were designated at the Geneva Conference as a strictly temporary grouping location for the Pathet Lao Party, but in typical Communist fashion the Party has been consolidating its strength in the area. However, the Laotian people, like the Thai, to whom they are ethni- cally related, have a strong dislike for the Vietnamese, a feeling that has been strengthened by the Viet Minh Army incursions. 27 -E -C -R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T Communist propaganda broadcasts beamed at Laos will probably continue to dwell on the "cultural and economic benefits being enjoyed" by the minorities in the Thai-Meo Autonomous Zone. In this way the Communists hope to soften the Laotians, as well as Meo and other minorities living within Laos, and thus pave the way for future political or military action in that country. (CONFIDENTIAL) r-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 0Phong Sally PHONG SALY VIETNAM THAI-MEO AUTONOMOUS ZONE International boundary Province boundary Division boundary Selected road 0 25 0 25 50 100 Kilometers 100 Miles J A151ir6ed For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T SPELLING CHANGES IN RUMANIAN PLACE NAMES The application of the new Rumanian orthographic rules to geo- graphic names is apparently as confusing to Editura de Stat pentru Literatur'd Ptiinjifickf (the Rumanian State Publishing House for Scientific Literature) as to the Western nations. Which of the 16 spelling rules enumerated in the Council of Ministers Decree No. 3135, 5 October 1953, are applicable to geographic names is still not clear. The general confusion resulting is reflected by official maps and directories published in 1954 by Editura de Stat. Indicator Alfabetic al Localittilor din Republica Popular' Rom2n' (Alphabetic Index to Rumanian Localities), Editura de Stat, Bucuresti, 1954, is assumed to be the authoritative directory for official Rumanian use. This directory contains a complete alphabet- ical listing of settlements and of first-, second-, and third-order administrative divisions, supplemented by a map showing first- and second-order administrative division boundaries. The geographic names are purportedly spelled according to the new orthographic rules. A comparison of these names with those spelled according to the old orthography in Imp'rtirea Administrativ-EconomiceL a Repu- blicii Populare Rommne (Administrative Economic Divisions of Rumania), Bucuresti, 1952, reveals only one significant spelling change that has been made consistently -- the replacement of the abolished letter - 29 - SE-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T "A" by the letter "i." Barlad becomes B^irlad, for example, and C~tmpulung becomes C'impulung. Therefore, a revision of geographic- name spellings on existing maps and gazetteers to make them agree with the directory should in most cases involve merely the substi- tution of the letter "'i" for "a." The Rumanians, however, do not consistently abide by the new spellings. An additional spelling change is reflected on the most recent official Rumanian map accessioned by the CIA Map Library, Republica Popular' Romina Harta Politico-Economics (Political-Economic Map of the Rumanian People's Republic) published by Editura de Stat in 1954.* On this map the letter "e" following vowels is consistently replaced by the dipthong "ie." Consequently Ploe9ti becomes Ploie9ti, Sncueni becomes $ cuieni, and ''argu-Sacuesc becomes 'I rgu-Sb cuiesc . Still other rules enumerated in Decree No. 3135 have not yet been applied to geographic names, among them the rule abolishing the final "u," which had already disappeared from the spoken language. Whether or not future maps will introduce additional spelling changes remains to be seen. Until a larger number of representative maps becomes available from which some general pattern of spelling can be discerned, no reliable standards for the treatment of Rumanian geographic names can be established. (UNCLASSIFIED) *CIA Map Library Call No. 93061. Approved For Release 1?i% J'2 -TCIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/092 ; qi~-VP79-01005A000300010002-0 REVISED ITALIAN ATLAS Noteworthy among the European atlases that have recently become available is a new edition of the Atlante Internazionale* published by the Touring Club Italiano (TCI). The volume, dated 1955-56, incorporates features not found in the last previous edition (1951) while maintaining the high cartographic and typographic standards that have for many years made TCI publications outstanding. The main innovation of the new edition is a looseleaf format that permits the insertion of new and revised maps as they become available. Maps will be issued in groups of 12, of which two groups, comprising about one-fourth the total number of projected maps, are now available. The maps issued to date cover the United States at scales ranging from 1:1,500,000 to 1:3,000,000 and various countries of western Europe at 1:750,000 to 1:3,000,000. Also included are maps of north- western South America (1:10,000,000), Israel and Lebanon (1:1,500,000), various Far Eastern countries (1:3,000,000 to 1:5,000,000), and Central Asia and southern Siberia (1:7,500,000). The Benelux map at 1:750,000, the map of Israel and Lebanon, and the map of Central Asia are completely new; the others are revisions of old maps. *CIA Map Library Call No. aA000.T62 1955-56. - 31 - S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T Announced plans indicate that new maps covering Central America and the West Indies, various islands of the southwest Pacific, the Middle East, and European Russia are in preparation. The other maps planned require revision only. The place-name index, a prominent feature of past editions, will probably be the last part of the atlas to be completed. In its format and style, the new edition, like its predecessors, reflects the emphasis on tradition, precision, and artistic finesse that has long been characteristic of Italian cartography. For example, all names on the maps are hand lettered, hachuring is used extensively, and some of the maps required as many as 14 color plates. Maps of comparable quality can be produced in the United States, but will not appear in quantity unless several million Americans get around to appreciating and paying for the difference between artistically per- fect maps and less elaborate ones that are equally useful. (UNCLASSIFIED) S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T NEW ECONOMIC ATLAS OF THE WORLD An exceptionally well-organized and up-to-date economic atlas of the world was published in 1954 by the Oxford University Press.* The relatively small volume (7-3/411 x 10-1/2"; 157 pages) presents an impressive array of data on the production of specific commodities while also portraying such background factors as climate, relief, soils, and communications. The atlas is in two main parts: (1) a section consisting of background maps and production maps covering 150 commodities; and (2) a textual-statistical section in which countries are listed alpha- betically and data on area, land use, population, communications, currency, exchange rates, production, employment, and trade are given for each. The production maps are generally based on three or more representative years during the period between 1948 and 1952. In the statistical section, figures are often given for several prewar years as well as for postwar years. The recency of the data is outstanding for a work of world cov- erage and extensive subject scope. For example, the iron-ore map reflects the exploitation of Canadian, Venezuelan, and Liberian deposits; and the map of uranium-producing areas includes a textual summary on nuclear fuels. *Oxford Economic Atlas of the World, prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit and the Cartographic Department of the Clarendon Press. CIA Map Library Call No. aA000-27.08 1954. -33- S E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T To save space, all but a few of the world maps are prepared on the Oxford projection, an equal-area projection on which most of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean areas have been omitted. The general and background maps range in scale from 1:6,000,000 to 1:150,000,000 and the production maps from 1:100,000,000 to 1:200,000,000. Although some of the maps are crowded, nearly all are legible and reasonably easy to interpret. Among the few unsuccessful maps is one that attempts to give the names of the important rayon-producing centers of the world at the scale of 1:100,000,000. Aware of the limitations of small-scale maps, the compilers intend to follow up the world atlas with regional atlases in much greater detail. Volumes on the USSR and Eastern Europe and on the United States and Canada are specifically mentioned as being planned. A rich assortment of interpretive textual data, tables, and graphs appears on the maps and on adjoining pages. This information aids the user in interpreting the maps and also covers some subjects that cannot be treated with equal clarity in map form, such as long- range production trends, various trade patterns, and developments for which available data are incomplete. Among the background maps is one on international blocs that gives a breakdown of the British Commonwealth and an interesting, as- seen-from-Britain view of the progress of dependent territories toward self-government. In the first classification, independent member countries -- Australia, Canada, India, etc. -- are listed along with - 34 - S E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 S-E-C-R-E-T the United Kingdom as entities of equal rank. In the next four cate- gories, dependent territories are listed, beginning with those that are partly self-governing and ending with those that have little or no autonomy. In a note of monumental tact, it is explained that dependent Commonwealth countries ". . . are, as it were, in a 'pro- cession' towards independence and self-government: the order of the procession varies and cannot always be precisely stated." On the whole, the atlas is a remarkably compact, complete, and up-to-date work. Some of the maps have cartographic shortcomings, but these are not serious and seem to be more than outweighed by the recency of the data. The volume should be a highly useful addition to the reference tools of economic-geographic intelligence. (UNCLASSIFIED) C- - -T Approved For Release 1999/0/ I -RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0 ffi II / S R Approved For Release 1999/026 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000300010002-0