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November 2, 1955
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CON F KM( Approved For Release 20;1r/1w! CIA-RDP79-01009A001e0oCorp g. o 922z GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT SOVIET EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH IN THE ANTARCTIC A Preliminary Appraisal CIA/RR-GR-84 2 November 1955 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS Approved,Fo ,Releas DOCUMENT NO. 9 NO CHANGE IN CLASS. 0 El DECLASS'FIED CLASS CHANGED TO: IS S NEXT REVIEW DATE: AUTH: HR 70-2 ENTlikile79-01-QM4,0440049.00,091-2360 ? Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-.2 WARNING This material contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the meaning of the espionage laws, Title 18, USC, Secs. 793 and 794, the trans- mission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. -4 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 COPY NOG 110 XRLEtC 10.,711ELLCOLIICE RWORT SOVIffr EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH IN THE ANTARCTIC A ?reliminary Appraisal CIA/AR-GE-84 2 ilovuaber 1955 CEL 122ELLIGUlat AGM/ Office of Research 'end Evart& S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 11, Approved For Release 2000105111.: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 , ZDYOSE in th An CLOR-Grt-ek, 2 }relies ar ?t1- ilddendu m to SoviemI cln 1,12- !Ir Tha entize aS.r o.?eration for Antarctica is to be ttc:t c7.1.-:L'action cx LT. Spirins searior Soviet ia t-4,71.1y and research on polar ne.vigatZoa 6e.;s12 back. to .)c,:etic:Ypation with Papanin thil ArcItic eNpediticii% e 1937 and who!, odaitiontoctiler CuUeo, iz Y'rctessor of Polar NallEstion at t'Ae OvNit Atv Vorwhilovw, 1:Sce Section .,..11:-!!? 32-35*) ROAM: Artproved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A0011000900 Approved For Release 2000/05/1.'1 ;,CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 COITEMS g-.4,04... saae-a Forevord ,0 0 4., a 0 30 0 CO 0 CC C 0 0 0 0 0 0 I. Bac147'ound 0 a V C C C. 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 a..o ci r 0 0 r J A. Soviet ?re-IGY :ft:be-vest, fin Ple.alrctioa. . 0 0 D. 4 0 l) , 0 The International Geopbysical Y 0 0 - U6 C. Develagment of Soviet Participztion in the IG,f , , . . 10 II. Current Political Overtones an Scientific Plans 4 0 . . . 15 A, Possible Political Overtones in ZioiLtatific Planning, . 15 B. IGY Station Site 3electon . 0 0 0 A C 0 0 0 C A A 0 C 17 C. Soviet Scientific ?z Theix ftycdvatioa , . 4 o a 18 III. Operational Plans, , , . . . , . 0 ,0, . o 0 26 26 A. Organization ani, natheivasay . . 0 0 CC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 B, Personnel. , ?J,000000U010030?000 32 C, Logistics, . CC . C -.000.....0.4.0 *00 35 D, Operational Eqp:op.4t, . . Q A0 0 q ) I. t, a 41 0 a ' 3 37 E, Radio Ccumnnioa,0,)nr., .IC o .Coo,epo4 4C0(WO 40 _,'1,27C1111,7n It S : A. The orgonizat:%cuse. tLe Selrfat Watioal CovrrLttee and Working 0.7,7c1spo fcT the Internatiorsal Geo- physical Year, ? C,CC CC ci 0 CC , 00 0 C 0 a 0 0 B. Scientific Estab3111.tuans and Ilerortnents ce the USSR Eboan Enoaciad ia the Preoaration and Coadunt olr neosarch ov. the MY ?rogrnlz . CC CC CC vik ^ List of Antarct:lo Racli6 Stationk, ,tallerating During the IGY and Ther Clmractsristics. 4 0 . 4 0 . 0 D. Provisional LI? of Va,I.:;,o Staticaz ixithe Antarctic ,?G OGOQCS,C0 &V CG 000 0 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/1.1 :cATRDP79-01009A001100090009-2 SOVIET fivT. T137 AWRARCTIC :Tore:110rd. The Soviet partif.ion t7e:e carl. of .the intvemetioncP. pical repreel.;a L::'Et.55k4X46; .faVOZV-; SeViiet seentific-iaternativsn Ir;eriel &wain ka 33 participated in the 'Yirst attr:tionv,1 Polar Year and the Soviet Unton 1I thk!. Second ia 1:11-3D, i ne fizat; tire that the Soviet Union bas extmnded its p7...ticiprtinv Itest into areas beyond tne Soviet frontiers. Moreover,p flr the fixst timei. the USSR has decided to ;ofv.0 the Tuternatioionl Unica of Veodeay syd Geophymics,, The flail invliations of these abcit-falm chumgee n Wviet policy have both political and scientifiu ns.Dets ttat reqpire the most careful pral$sis particularly if Unitea Sttes1i.j im istLve mdewate consideration to the degree of Soviet E...;.aculty thfv1ill of fres-wor1A. obligstions that such intarnatcmal p tIcipation fAinlieso Thia report presents. a pa'aligiaary 6!:.:sorpton and ana4sis of Soviet pa7cticipation I e mUer., program of the IOY. In '?axt I, 1.nsief bact;gonall .:Taati'o, ID 1.?:A:ovtamd on the overall 117: 71rogram, Soviet pre-WE Lfiff,e21:.:113t:;i .?!, and the developriant of' SOriet latereSt in thl 1.1ez.ar4t:;;Z tr r.zwt us a descr:Lption emd analysis of the '3r5.ailntoxc?;11Lt ff.siLiy orientea touard a consideration of the 1:1;7123:Meal f4:ene:f;a3. scientific it1,11- cations of that. preffrem, Pert ainavs.s taa, probable Sovtiet spemtio7lal organibation, rieteeip amd loist.f,.cs and describes sere Approved For Release 2000/05/4'Yta-ER679-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 of the operational eqpirolant t;lat may be employed,. No attempt is made to ymovide a full aralysls of the Soviet scientilic program or mentation owing to (1) the brief period of time that has elapsed since the closing of the 15Y arumseiz meeting on 14 September 1955; at .1bich Soviet plans were first presened in detail; (2) the incompleteness of the information received cn the Aost recent 1GY program; .and k3) the lac% of time for a Imre detailed analysi because of the urgent need for some evaluated information by the meMbers of US Navy Task Force 43 before its departure ow 0-psr.21:lon Dogp Fveeze I in hoveMber 1955o In viev of the shortage of tiAle hao sot b?an. oossible to coordinate this report fully with other ecTpcnento r.lf CIL -or .thor departments of the Govermen t3tc i the 'DA 7,11'eara1, it :)'_o hoped thmt thly; rapL7.rt will stave ae a basis or a starin, pot!lt for sn'asequent mafsiivapliraisalE of Soviet political intativil as i1ie byt7! sciew0.7.1c participation in a vorl&-Ade collectica of 1:.i!azie. rbyvical onvircarests1 data. To this end, cements ratei criticinms oZleaders Ere solicited. &Le; Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11 ": CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-3-e-a-Ear 4 11, Soviet " T Interest in Antarctica . eMuneny Soviet political iu ,Rrotarztica Is prelicated an the polleym first eismcistea is an cA'Isel a(.73o of 27 Jenuary 1939 protesting vs Horvagias slain to Votor EF,r.:-.1k1?, '7,:hat no settlatent or resolstion Gf ;7,overeirptl elsdrn in th%., i7un be naf!Sa without Soviet 7.A,ArtiC1- 1*?.ot'Let. aisse the 3SS1 17:iv-Ana t,711-7.,t Vac comineht south of tbe Giele o dAssafars.S. ty riell:!nashalleen-Lemoavev Expedisn la aa&il.ten, r!%sis.d that.thie. expedition was th. i'imt to ciriatztavigats tho An4.4.2.s k.,,ontent: and that it dieeevere, ielanda and ourve,ysd t;To ?revicrlely discovered by Cool,,, This l'ioy position vas L'esTf71=4e, in a note delivered 7 Jima 1950 to the unitt2 Stites: Uhitel Vcap A..alloo, Zvi-my; 4vi3trallel Argentina: cad Litv Zealand, The rate tea. klolgizanoz of the intention of the 1jA1.%e0 Ststas, exprev.m6d f322. of n43,,,tidisesze tLe sattlement of sovereignty a Azact;7.1 Y.An roaTee,sest:41vas of thee countries 7rit%eut Soviet perticiyatian,, slat: raferonse to (i,-1) the tL io;,,Grl.itatoo it 2 cet trcd,tere ict Orily to 1.1_ countr. O'ta01: '2-472337.7.TY. 5 Of 142E. WOL'iat cxit f1.1tt rir4tecr4logicAl observations -t; Yrivt=lav;s7/3, q't view in a sedhlance of b.(,: ulifin etjoctivo :7zoaiv22;;121.tty 8nd to give tham the weight of 72oblic opinion, taNs notu zTAJe reference to a 1910 resolution of GsoirmzA%itifi. SnteLetn, in 'Aildh the great significance of Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved ForRelease2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 the Russian discoveries 13w3 unfferscorede As far back as 1931 the Society had shown occasional interact lii rergcoting on the various Antarctic activities of ot1rs,7 ,:r.ou-itries., but post's!' articles oa ..4.:11;arctice, first hesan t 194,5 wLt.L the rublicatina or-:' V-rtiC111,3rr olt:Ict vlelas reluted the current ttniC4A: : f..M.1100Viia.371.416143 zhc:-.1 Bellixtgehauseu :C . iS the ti.:ZAGIlAtrates wrioeilitft ancfe 19L743,, Soviei itLi&20.32s7',;.6.,:m:;171:17,r concern about (i.) FJ.17.13, '47 ,:f.:1:zwa:eve,1:e (2) the meagarnes of thzir activityg P ? vol.:am eXIIt gaint.t.t.Zi_ly of ;USzr.pcditf'.1,ons; the eanaleue unde im US source:5 ocnanTluF.; stratege imporencec Antarct!Lca. Me Society's propaantic1R e;r1 p,,,[2>:1:,!,tuctiata nctivities :t..cheti ?ea's in 1949 .1(.1.-d-: a omesaoratioaA:r2,013. ai:11?4/We'ESEArY Iiell-Ingehaueien,?,!;% expedition and the faopt1ct7.1ry the Geovewhical Siety of a resolution ctrt1tnzt? the Izasis cd! t?1,e; Savlz,L;,,; ea:LeifivS claim to a voice ;ir, settlement of tattest:..enes 1,?ks,?',:.,e:,;;:tz sovoxv,i,91tycs The USSR 3:1C^4,S desl:atchaa a J.6 -v'eszeI tatemti vhalirg elysth.tAen -- the Slava -- each cztaratincs OCV:aCilA since 1911t? foIlouing thm SOVie; ralf:,ZSti4rtei tO the Ihte=3SZWaal Cionventlat, Whether ce-ixaostic,, or tt2i vtCI ti3is %alaratell vote:wit:de. atLvity itits ea7, selas alzinetl by the Soviet*: to be achsteutiel,? m1,3, st.zr, ,-T.,yoli'zice:22,, use elreutkv- beez. uatio thst irvortkoz.2 '"AE: rer;ulewly oemZucted whal:Ing expeditier.s Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05ma SIURDP79-01009A001100090009-2 through reference to it in the Soviet note of 1950. The Soviets also claim that the scientific benefits from the work of the expeditions are substantial in view of the general paucity of meteorological, geographic, geological, biological, oceanographic, ionospheric, and other geophysical data on the Antarctic area* The collection of some scientific data was begun with the first whaling expedition of 1946-47. Beglenirg with the second expedition of 1947-48, the whaling expeditions .have included the Ship .S.I.maz12. in each flotilla as a special scientific- research vessel. A. hydr wohic-oceanographic report of the second expedition was presented at a 2-dey scientific meeting of the State Oceanographic Institute (Gosudarstvennyy Okeanograficheskiy Institut -- Oa) in November 1948. The third, or "Stalin pedition", is described as having "enriched Soviet science with new data on weather, the ice realm, and about the biolo of the iarine life." The fourth expedition of 1949-50, with oceanographers and hydrobiologists aboard, continued adding new information. to the Soviet fund of Antarctic data. Nothing significant concerning the nature and value of later expeditions has appeared in the Soviet pree and publications to date a The ninth expedition of 1954-55 still had the Etl..va12 attached to it as a opecial scientific-research vessel, its first officer being the 'Young Communist 'League member Vladimir T.Imelleeto0 radio contact vas established between the Soviet Arctic drift station NP-3 and the Slava fleet during this season, and .Soviet propagan4a publicized the fact "that the Slava fleet - 5 - C4 1"1T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/aicp, P79-01009A001100090009-2 visits places where explorations were carried out 135 years ago by the Russian expedition...." According to recent Soviet announcements, a wpecial chart of the Antarctic region has been compiled, utilizing data "of all expeditions up to 1954.0" It is believed that much of the data vas Obtained from Soviet whaling expeditions? The explicit plans made for utilizing future Observations of the whaling expeditions during the MI leave no doubt of the value of the data-collection activities in Antarctic waters during the past 9 seances. The Antarctic data, combined with the vast Arctic experience, have been of inestimable value in improving Soviet capabilities for undertaking their Iar and exploration programs in Antarctica. B. The International Geophysical Year The International Geophysical Year is a worldwide program of special Observations of various earth-science phenomena to be undertaken in 957-58. It is a successor to two earlier and far less extensive international geophysical observation programs, the First International Polar Year conducted in 1882-830 and the Second International Polar Year in /932-33. In concept the mr differs from the previous two programs primarily in its plan for worldwide wynaptic Observation and analyais. The Mr program was first recommended in 1950 by the Nixed Commission on Ionowphere to its sponsoring unions' who in turn made the recommendation to the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). - 6 - -R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05h1,49A4DP79-01009A001100090009-2 The period 1957-58 was selected to coincide approximately with a spot martini= of the solar cycle and the 25th anniversary of the Second International. Polar Year. The ICSU appointed a Special Committee for the International Geophysical Tear (Comite Special de rAnnee Geophysique Internationale -- CSAGI) with responsibility for planning and coordinating the programs ? of the international unions and of the national committees of participating countries. At a provisional organizational meeting in Brussels in October 1952, the CSAGI recommended the formation of national committees by the interested nations of the world and requested the formulation of plans and proposals by the national committees, the sponsoring unions, and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The first formal plenary session of CSAGI was held in Brussels, 30 June-3 &lay 1953; the second ens held in Rene, 30 September October 1954; and the third in Brussels, 8-14 SepteMber 1955. The purpose of these meetings was essentially to coordinate programs, note deficiencies and defects, urge their correction, and organize the necessary working groups for detailed coordination of plans and operational control of field activities. To date, some forty-odd countries have joined in sponsoring various activities of the IGf. Soviet Blau participating countries, in addition to the USSR: include Best Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and possibly Hungary and Communist China c he. than listing the stations to be set - 7 - Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/0504.trA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 up within the country, none of these satellites submitted any national program of participation. Czechoslovakia, with a single delegate, vas the only one represented at the Rome and Brussels (1955) meetings. Of the antire Soviet Bloc, only the USSR is known to have established a national committee and associated vorking groups (see Attachment A). In the USSR, 14 working groups are responsible for the conduct of scientific research and for the coordination of the activities of Soviet establishments engaged in raw:Irk. Of the 16-man Soviet delegation present at the 1955 Brussels CSAGI conference, 11 are members of the 24-man USSR National Committee. Of the 11, 6 are members of a vorking group, and 5 are members of neither the National Committee nor one of the working groups. The program of work propo d by CSAG/ for the IGT vas initially organized into nine genwal scientific areas: meteorology, latitude and longitude determination, secsagnetism, ionosphere, aurora and airglow, solar activity: comic rays, glacio1og7? and oceanograPhy. Although not scientific areas, rockets eud World Bays were adopted as topics of activity -- the former as en irgortant researdh tool and the latter for special intervals of simultaneous concentratei Observations. Later the list vas increased to include gravity measuremente and seismology. The rockets activity vas expanded into cckt an8.satellites with the US announcement of the launching of an earth satellite for the ror program. 8 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-R-O-R-R-T The grouping of observation stations was generally arranged by CSAGI into geographic regions defined as follows: the Arctic Region, the Antarctic Region, the Equatorial Belt, the 10?R Meridian Line* the 140?Z Meridian Line* and the 80?-70?W Meridian Line. At Brussels, 3955, the 110?E Meridian Line vas added. In addition, other groupings of stations have been developed to accommodate the special interests of scme of the individual disciplines. It is important to note that the = prom= evolved. primarily as a voluntary international cooperative effort of scientists. Nevertheless it is dependent, in the final analysis* on the will* interests, and financial means of the individual participating countries that assume the financial responsibility far the program. Some countries are not joining the program at all, while others are joining on a limited basis. On the other hand, some countries are concurrently undertaking additional earth-science studies that are not apart of the =program. The CSAGI operates in a coordinating and advisory capacity capable only of recommending those measures that will insure the most productive program of data collection throughout as much. of the world as possible. Thus* the MAGI has no veto or policing payers for any enforcement of its recommendations. The voluntary cooperative basis of the IGY will merit particular attention in the future in connection vith the exchange of data among participating nations. The unsatisfactory Soviet past record of - 9 - S-E-C-R-E0T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11 ? CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 unwillingness to make most of its geophysical data on the USSR available to the West raises reasonable doubt of its willingness to share all of its Ia data with the non-Communist world. The doubt is even greater with respect to the exchange of the other physical-environmental data and studies to be made by the Soviets over and above the um program. It has been learned that a split developed within the Soviet delegation as to whether the exchange of data would be free and total or on a quid pro quo basis. It has been promised that the former view will ultimately prevail. For the exchange of data, the CSAGI establithed Working Group 21r, Publications and Publicity, Whose duty at the last Brussels Conference was to seek agreement on (1) that data are to be interchanged, (2) how and when the interchange will occur Curing the IT!, and (3) the farm of data publication to be made after the my. To date, no information has been obtained on the results of this group's deliberations at Brussels. C. y_e._...v_DentatmSovietParticitiaaintheIGr The declaration of Soviet intentions to Join the IGY did net follow a clear-cut pattern. First Indications were made to the World Nateora. logical Organization in connection with its IGY program Formal announcement of partioivation in the IGT as a whole was not nade until 4 October 1954, several months agter the Academy of Sciences, USSR, had formed vhat appears to have been a national crganiziwg comaittee. Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/051iLtzCIAADP79-01009A001100090009-2 The circumstances of the formal anneuncement were rather unusual. A 7-man delegation pppeared, for the first time, at the Xth General Assembly of the International Unica of Geodesy and Geophysics held at Rome, 14E2, September 19,4. Although it soon became apparent that the USSR would participate in the IGY, the announcement vas delayed by Moscow until the last day of the CSAGI plenary session, 4 October 1955. Even then, no national program was presented. The only expression of interest concerning programs as a briefly worded request for an expansion of the grerbestry and seismology programs. The disconcerting failure of the Soviets to give the CSAGI advance notice of the composition of their tar delegations has been a serious deterrent to a closer exchange of ideas and examination of plans. Although the formal organization of a USSR national committee vas accomplished by the decrees of the Praesidium of the Academy of Sciences, Immo of 21 January and 8 April 1955, little international publicity was given to this significant step. No other significant indications of Soviet intentions and plans vera disclosed until the Antarctic Conference in Paris, 6-10 Juky 1955. The lack of adequate prior communication concerning Soviet Intentions vas again evident. In a letter dated 29 Awe 1955, the President of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, announced Soviet intentions of occupying one or two stations on a list of "op stations" compiled some time earlier by the CSAGI. Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/051t1atgDP79-01009A001100090009-2 The 24-man Soviet National Committee for the IGY was established under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences, USSR0 Since the Acadegy is the highest scientific organization in the USSR, is under the direct control of the Council of Ministers, and is wholly supported by the Government, the Soviet 'GT program is assured the highest prestige and support Moreover, the nature and extent of direct governmental participation -- through the institutes of at least three All-Union Ministries and two Chief Administrations attached to the Council of Ministers, USSR -- indicate that the Soviet Government attaches unusual importance and weight to the program. A recent Soviet source reports "that Many ministries and departments and over 100 enterprises of the country are taking part in equipping and organizing the expedition." The committee includes top-level Soviet geophysicists and astronomers from the leading scientific research institutes, the foremost explorers, and outstanding applied scientists from a number of governmental organizations (see Attachment B for some of the organizations). Together, they are authorized to develop and conduct a comprehensive worldwide program that 11113, be supported with, as one Soviet rar delegate stated, "practically unlimited funds." In this connection, individual Soviet delegates were repeatedly dismayed by the modesty and limitation of funds available for the United States program, particularly since this restricted desirable expansion of parts of the Icy program. - 12 - S-E-C-R-Ear Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11 ci,C,I3ATDP79-01009A001100090009-2 The Chairman of the Soeiet Committee is the Vice ?resident oZ the Atademy of Sciences, a metallurgiet Who is believed to be merely a nondeelheadL The working leadership is divided =egg 5 vice chairmen, a whom 2 Oree 0, Bulanthe and M. A. Cbtkhov) are researeh scientiete emaciated primerely with the Academy of Sciences,. USSR., and the other 3 (F. F. Deeitaue, I. D. Papanin, and Iro V. Puthkov) are eeployees of the Chief Adminietration of the Rydrometeoroloeleel rvi and the Chief Administration of the Northern Sea Router, both of whieh are attached directly to the Council of Miniatera, USSR. A preliminary analysie of the 24-man committee reveale that at least 9 have direct governmental affiliations, including a Vice Minieter of the Nidnistry of Communications and the Vice Chief of its ResearCh Institute. leen interest in the Arctic and Antarctic is further revealed by the inclusioa in the committee of such leading polar explerers an I. D. Pepanin, Ie. X. Fedorov, and M. Ie, Ostrekin. Among the 18 participating organizations mentioned to date, over one-half are governmental. Three are All-Union Ministries e- (1) Maritime Fleet, (2) Geolo and Conservatioa of Natural Resources, and (3) Commuelcations. The Council of Ministers, USSRo is represented by two ChictAftinistrations tet are directly attached to it. To amnbasize the importance of adhieving the fullest possible success, the Soviet If research program hes been included among the most data ee complete analysis of the IGf personae/ win follow at a later -13- s-n-c-R-E.T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-E-C-R-E40 important of problems of the Acalomy or Sciences, thvaaasuring it first-priority consideration and the videst possible research supomr.t. To effect this, a Council for Aabaretic Research hes been organized at attached to the Praesidium itself,, The Chairman is Academician X. D. Shcherbakov, a specialist in minerals exploration. in approving the topical se,:ile of Soviet part ipation, the Academy of Scienceo &;,:e3EV. ftz wcri7161n, "for the analysio and study of actual rc,1i r.meA (oL t fields," Ths as formalized in tb, zalnd. almx:Intnnto to the 14 groups, includes most of the ear.clirres and -ifogio&11.progfems cr the IGY.? Tbree exceptions are rocLets and setellitess end the 140PE MCridAan Line ipogpt6c. ;L:,.hoLeY:'.:,kov in o. bzzatT.lust of 13 1955, however, specifically mentions "high-el itude rockets" no the meaU3 to be used for estecrologles1 research in Antarctica. One additional field representoa moons the Scmiat ucrking groups-- might to some extent be complementary to rot an satellite activity. Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 r. Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-E-C-R-E-T II. Current Political Overtones and Scientific Plans A. Possible Political Overtones in Scientific Plaaninz Up to the present, no citi2ee. of the Soviet Union hae set foot on continental Antareticee. Tkeroue pertieipation in the ICY prognmul the UZSR vill gain fizet entey In connectien with a ecieutifie program. -Whether tha Soviete eil attempt to develep thie entry ieto a Soviet territorial c:',..e:Lm is eot tnomn. The onl known fact is that the Soviets have reeeeveil ths right to participate in the eettlenent cf Antarctic sovereigaty protlame. It therefore?becomes neceseary to examine the Soviet attitude on ne 'heels of the statement of intentions concerning the Antarctie pregeale, the ealection of IGY eites? and its scientific plane in order to dieeover any potleible clues to Soelet political intentione. The Soviet statemeet of Antarctic intentions at the Paris Antarctic Conference of 6-/0 July 1955 ineluded au unusual attemnt to link Soviet political intereste with their scientific activities in the region. ' The letter of intention etateth' Soviet ecienee !Jae lesen linked to the Antarctic fer more than 103 yeare, beg:kzara:b33 eeth the fist Ruesian scientific expedition in the Aetaretio by eellfeelahnuten and Lazaryev (1819-1a21), weo diveoteel the cont-Leent and a series of Antarctic inlande .? In a USSR radio broeaceat of U. January 1955 entitled 'Soviet Scieetiste Materials on the Stedy of the Antarctic,i' the felloving etatement vas S-B-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 a Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 During the course of many recent years, Soviet scien- tists and sailors paid annual visits to the higher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere and carried out there large-scale observations in the field of meteorology, hydrology, and biology. They have thus raised the question of the enormous services and primacy of Russian sailor-explorers in the dis- covery of the Antarctic and the scientific study of the seas and lands or the South Pole. Whether the choice of Soviet station sites bears any relation to political intentions is difficult to say at this time. It is signif- icant, however, that thought has been expressed among the Soviets that the IGY activities of the different countries in Antarctica have been allocated by "sectors." V. Akkuratov, Chief Navigator of the Polar Aviation Administration, writing in Izvestiya of 11 September 1955, makes a categorical statement that a..., The Antarctic has been divided among the countries into sectors for studies during the International Geophysical Year.* A very interesting sector has been assigned to the Soviet Union whose northern boundary is the Knox Coast, and whose apex lies at the South Pole. This is a large territory in which man has not yet set foot -- where no one has yet flown. Since the "sector concept" for staking out Antarctic claims has been adopted by some of the claimant countries, it is not inconceivable that the notion of sector claims may become a part of Soviet political planning on the sovereignty problem, even though at least one non- governmental Soviet source has recorded a disavowal of the principle. *This is a manifest distortion of fact. Site selection was initiated by individual countries. The CSAGI review of these sites was limited to their adequacy for the scientific objectives of the IGY (see p. 9). S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-E-C-B-E-T B. IGY Station Site Selection The selection of Soviet station sites for the IGY was male in a somewhat unusual manner. The original Soviet statement to the Paris Conference indicated the desire for establishing a site either on tLe Knox Coast at 67?S-1050E or on Princess Astrid Land at 70?S-10?E, the former in Australian-claimed territory and the latter in an area of Nerwegiaa claits. Also incl&e.. uao a proviso for locating a atation at a point along the ccast where fewarable Iandinga could be adhieved. SUbaequently, during the Paris Conferenee, the Soviets expressed their additional intentions of estebliahiag an intermediate station between the Knox Coast and the South PoleT and a third at or in the vicinitY of the Pole. The Conference: iiYi3i het the United States planned to establish a station the Pole, recommended that the third Soviet station be located someahere vithin the interior in the African quad- rant. The most recent Soviet plane: disseminated at the latest Brusaels meeting, indicate that a wide choice of area rather than a- specific site has been suggested. The Knox Coast station, for example, may be located at 67?S anywhere betveen et and 105%. With respect to the polar station the Soviets vill conform to the Paris recommendation by locating a base at 82?S selewhere between 50? and 60?E; but, at the same tine, they will establish a-teuporary study site for glaciological observations at or near the Pole. The one station that is definitely located in the latest Soviet. plan iS at the genmagnetic pole, 67?30S- 107?E. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11-ECJAAEIP79-01009A001100090009-2 The vide choice of sites, coupled with Akhuratov'a remarks, :strongly suggests that the Soviets developed their lOY and supplementary geological- geographical program in terms of a "sector concept." The emphasis on the fact that the area had not been explored previously in combination with plans that iaclude surveying end mapping, suggests that the UBSR may be attempting to develop a record of prior exploration and mapping in this sector for use L. the eventual establishment of a claim to sovereignty. No attempt is made here to discuss the merits of ouch a claim. C. Soviet Scientific Plans and Their Motivation The Soviet scientific plan for Antarctica includes not only the very detailed and coaprehensive program outlined for the IG Y but also a wide range of non-IG7 activities in the fields of exploration, survey- ing and mapping, physical geograahy, geology, and biogeography. These supplementary activities are particularly significant to the problem of claims and near-term military capabilities. Since most of Antarctica is unmapped and since mappiag plays an important role in the support aM definition of national clales, Soviet mapping plans require surveil- lance in order to evaluate the possibility of their use in support of territorial claims? Although no specific mention has recently been made of undertaking topographic mapping) there in ample evidence that the Soviets are plan- ning such activity. At both the Paris and the last Brussels meetings, the Soviets raised the question of the =eat:knee of maps and mapping data. S-B-C-11-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05PM4IA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 The datailod program xeleasnd at Bruzzele eeplicitly liste pirate to prepare general and speaiel maps -- eeeleeical, glaciological) ana geomeephoioelcal for ehleh data are te be Obtained by "routine (aerial and ground) geographical explorations and aero surveys." Such activi- ties require ground-controlled base maps. No specific mention is made of plane for astronomic position determinations, but they are essential, Lor exaeele, for the glaciological investigations to be undertakea *by' means of aerial and ground routine eepeditione falso aerial surveyel, seetematically describing end charting the investigated ice forme...." Of pexticular significance may be the Soviet plan for undertaking eacologioal studies at and near the South Pole. This suggests thet mapping of one type ox encther will cover the extremities of the ao-called "Soviet sectox from lt6 .101ar apex to the coastal periphery. Final confirmation seems th be peaviaed by Aeademician D. I. Shcherbakov, Chairman of a newly ZaKtea Council fo.7 Antarctic Research under the Peeeuidium of the Acaecey of Sciencao, USSR. 18 October the follow- lee remarke were included in a Win Zome Service broadcast: "Much work eill be done by geograehees. They tell have to map the mountain ranges of the Antarctic in order to achieve more precision in the mapping of the mother activity thret uNT usva for Soviet mapping is the gravi- metric program of. the IGY? which to specifically mentioned in the Soviet plans. The Soviete are taolia to havo developed and applied widely an astro-gravimetrie method of converUng astronomic ground 6-13-C-H-13-7! Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/1614QWW79-01009A001100090009-2 control into geodetic control by correcting astronomic position values for deflection of the vertical.* The Soviets have also developed a gravimeter-altimeter that makes possible rapid, simultaneous deter- mination of gravity values along with barometric elevations. The scientific interests of the Soviets, thus, give every indication that they can and will undertake all of the activities that are essential for eventual compilation of topographic and basic physical maps. An assessment of the extent of the Soviet areal coverage is not possible at this time. The geological terrain studies, which are not a part of the ITY program, will provide the Soviets with the basic information that is essential to possible future economic and military developments, such as the exploitation of mineral resources and the construction of airfields. The implications of the information to be obtained by the Soviets from the geophysical program of the IGY can be appreciated only in terms of the overall importance attadhea to geophysics by the Soviet Union. The roots of this interest reach deeply into basic Communist philosophy, which maintains that Communist man is the sole master of his physical environment. This concept underlies the favored position accorded to scientists in Soviet society, as well as the heavy emphasis on *In terms of worldwide considerations, the Soviets stand to gain additional relative advantages from the grate/metric survey not only of Antarctica but of other areae. In addition to the nearly completed gravimetric survey of their own country, which has not been released to Western scientists, the Soviets maybe Able to make significant advancement toward the achievewent of a world geodetic system based on a world gravity survey. - 20 - s-E-c-R-RA, Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/jtiRipt.13pP79-01009A001100090009-2 scientific training in the Soviet eduentional sestem. Further evidences of this attitude are (1) the unieue kliehelevel role assigned to the Academy of Sciences, USSR, for the pleetses and coordination of all theoretical and applied research and development; and (2) the flumc-. tug of Academy activities by the naticeal budget. Practical application of the concept is evident in the early recogaition by Soviet planners that the success in the development of Soviet heavy industry could be proportional only to the success of geelogical and geophysical prole. pecting for mineral resources.. Similsrly? the precariousness of Soviet agriculture, associated 'with the moisture-deficiency over most of the country, early provided a stieules :Or geophysical exploration and research one stn the =nee range of geophesical studies from ground eater to upper air. .A few examples vill etovide an indication of the depth and magpitude of Soviet progreosti tha field of geophysics. A general magnetic survey of the USSR maa 'begun in 1930. By 1947 the first installment of a mailtivoluee catalog that included data for about 22,000 points had been coepleted, A general gravimetric surveye initiated in 1932 to provide a miseksum coveraee of one gravimetric position for each 1,000 square 7ei,lonstereie reported to be nearing ompletion. A widespread seizeolegfeal suzvey has been underway for many years, and Imes Me 'begun au el* compilatIon of an atlaa ef OFA3Mie regions?. in the USSR. Tele Oeophree7.en1 inetitute of the Acadmev of Sciences, USSR, is said to have a staff of over 1,000 scientists and Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11:, CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 scientific workers. The related growth in vsrsennel? the n1or. of research institutions, and the advancement of geophysical studies over the vast area of the USSR mould inevitably lead Soviet geophysi- cists to broaden the "frontiers" of their activity into a program of worldwide studies. The 10 provides aa opportunity for Soviet participation in an organised, coordinatea? and systematic morldmide program that mill bring in a vast fund et data that otherwise could not have been obtained. The appreciation of t1:41s sain is evidenced by (1) the asslgnment of top Governmental and academie sciettizts to the Soviet National Committee: (2) practically unlimita =mart, (3) the repeated offer made by soviet IGY dalezs;tec. to undel:yrite and staff (with Soviet scientists) the IGY activity of aay observatory or station in oily country in the morla it that caintry amid not effort to participate, (4) the 'willingness of tbe Soviet Academy's institute of Scientific Information to under?tothacamuIctiou and periodical pal/cation of the bibliography aLd indals of ell the materials of the IGY on sQndltion thst each cu4uti serC in all of Its materials, end C5) the Ire to orzanize a ftzlzcw for Lhe pdblication and dissemination of all types of infiLirv!:4;3:747,.. It is difficul vz,y vhoter 3euotivation for Soviet expansion Into e, world-studies 1117ar4:7 or diiiy The nowt is thet the unw rci f 4-Le =1 tojoin. o International Union of Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11;:,,Clik-RDR79-01009A001100090009-2 Geodesy and. Geophysics (IUGG) prior to the :1,954 Rome meeting is svibolic of a general Soviet unwillingness to share any of its significant and voluminous data (other than in meteorology) with the rest of the world. The abrupt about-face represented by the participation in the IGY and the joining of the xtraG could mean any of several. things: (1) another phase of the Soviet "new look," with Soviet scientists plowing their role in an overall attemat to reduce anti-Soviet anxiety abroad; (2) a manifestation of confidence that Soviet science is capable of achieving ?. position of preeminence, thus contributing to the overall Soviet effort to demonstrate the enTeriority of the Soviet way of life; (3) realization that geop4aical ta, in the final analysis, must be worldvide in areal magnitude, uhother they be used for peaceful or etilitary purposes; CO a reconnition of the worMvide scale of values in military strategy, slece tee.'ldwide operations require corresponding basic environmental data for colitinued progress in air-weapon, ubmarine, BW? CW, end radiological-mre development; or (5) simply a scien- tifically motivated search for data needed for work on domestic physical- environmental problemw. Whatever the motive:tient hereever, the fact remains that equal benefit will not accrue ti the tresteen World unless the Soviet Union demonstrates its peaceful soientific intentions by an =Limited sharing of its basic compendle. obaervatiortra data in geodesy, gravimetry? magnetium, seiamology, eencephy arid oceanology? meteorology, -- 23 - Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 SeE-C-R-NeT ionosphere studies, solar radiation, and eoumie rays -- which cover one-sixth of the world's area, plus the Soviet Arctic. Current evi- dence indicates that the Soviets may adhere to only a quid pro quo exchange of 1= data. The overall Soviet Antarctic program is noteworthy not only for its comprehensive topical scope but also for its areal extent and con- centration of effort. The oceanographic, oecanaogical? and meteorolo- gical programs will begin in earnest with the first sailing of the Expedition in November 195,, during which observations will be made "from the USSR ports to the Antarctic." Sueplementary observations will also be made by the Soviet yhalSeg flotilla. These observations will provide data additional to those of the expeditionary ships along special routes "that are elanned according to the mr scheme." The plan for linking observetions made along the entire route from the USSR to Antarctica vas effirmed in the course of informal conversations of same Soviet ICY delegates, who repeatedly nentioned the importance of studying the "appreache to the Antarctic." This appears to be reflected further in the overall Soviet oceanographic plans, described by Dr. George Deacon, Bmiti occe?ogrepher and Secretary of the Working Group for Omanoeea "ververceitious" and "greater then thoee of any other nation," and etnino ehat the plane include intensive surveys of the Bareets? Noeueeiee and Greenlend Seas, the North Atlantic, the Bering and .1haotok Seem, and several mei= of tho West - 0-Yie4'-11-a-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/1494-.#9,P79-01009A001100090009-2 ? Pacific, as well as the Antarctic Pater* around the South Pole between latitude Wa?8 and the edge of the lie. - 25 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-E-C-R-E-T III. .gperational Plans A. Organization and Methadon The Soviet Expedition plans five voyages to Antarctica to be carried out as follows: November 1955 to June 1956, September 1956 to May 1957, September 1957 to February 1958, May 1958 to October 1958$ and January 1959 to April 1959. Somay in a recent statement (16 October 1955) describes the program as follows: The immediate task of our expedition (presumably the first] is to set up a scientific research station on the Antarctic coast and to begin meteorological, aerological, geomagnetic, seismic: ionospheric, and other reaearch. At the same time it is necessary to carry out, in good ? time and on a large scale: careful preparations for devel- oping in 1957 of a complex of scientific research as envisaged by the International Geophysical plan. The next immediate goal of our expedition is to carry out oceano- graphic research in the Antarctic eaters. In accord with the plans, the first voyage will set up the main base in the Xnox Coast area and undertake preliminary surveys for the establishment of the two continental stations. Airlift activities to set pp the latter teo staticas presumably viii not begin until the following spring, that is, about October 1956. An abbreviated observation urogram riU be undertaken during this first season -- by a staff of seientists at the Knox Coast base and by another staff on bcerd the Ob' while it is operating in the Antarctic waters. Additional Cbservations S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-EeC are expected to begin at the two continental stations by November 19,6, and by January 1957 the full observation program win get underway. Compared to the 7-vessel voyage of US Wavy Operation Deep Freeze I, it obviously would be ippossible to achieve a program and schedule of ouch nagnitude using only the 12,600-ton icebreaker Ob' and one other ship, the Lena. Other details concerning overall operational plans on the continent, hewever, have not been provided. It is necessary, therefore, to examine Soviet Arctic activities and experience in order to obtain scele idea of the basic methodology that might be adopted in Antarctica. The Soviet idoa in 1932 to develop an Arctic shipping route laundhed a series of activitieo to Obtain detailed information on the ice, weather, and hydroeephy, az well as other getchysical data for not only the coastal zone but also the entire central Arctic basin. In 1937 the first expedition vus launched into the cex2tral basin in the form of a conbined airlift to the Earth Pole end a drift station* under I. D. Papanin, which was to secure oceanos'aphic, meteorological, and other geophysical data. Four 1ng q45plenza leaded nearly 12 tons of aeparatus: equipment, and provisions. The drift station covered 12,00 miles during aeoeriod of 274 deys. Iu 1941, I. I. Cherevichnyy, who *later this ens 6?'.1() 27 '- e'.'4792f.C..R.71T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/050.1 P 7 9 -01 0 0 9 AO 01 1 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 9 -2 will be in charge of the Antarctic air detaChment, took a "filing dbservatory" on 3 trips into an area called the "Pole of Relative Ienceessibility," where it landed a nnaber of times to make meteorological, hydrological, oceanographic, sober, and magnetic observations. AfterlWorldVar 11, the flying-laboratory technique vas expanded, and observational flights were made in 1945, 1948, 1949, 1950, and 1951. The 1948 expedition included a 3-week drift on ice, with additional hops from the drifting base to areae up to 25-30 miles distant for 3-da1y dbservationperiods. On a hop to the Earth Pole, 213 in participated in the observational work. 1n 1950-51 another coMbined expedition, was launched under Dr. M. Nt. Scum. Flying-labcratmy haps were combined with the eration of adrift station, which was ultimately named the SP-2. The drift station, vas maned for a year, during which time it covered a linear distance of 360 miles over a drift route of 1,500 milee. The development of the airlift and drift-station technique reached its highest point in the lameal g of the 1954 Nigh Latitude Air Expedition, which included the drift stations SP-3 and SP-4. So successful was the 1934 expedition that its methods are now being incorporated into a standard reseamhipmgramthat will include continuous drift-station dbeervationz combined with radiating alrhops and scientific air detachments. SP-5, launched in late April 1955, is . earmarked for the IG! program. - 28 - S Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 The objective of the coMbined air/ift--dri 6-station research rethod is to secure in otherwise inaccessible areas (1) the widest possible areal coverage, ad (A) simultaneous Observations over as wide an area as possible for a brief period, using the flaring laboratories to appro.:sir:eta simultaneous conditions. Since the Arctic and Aaturetle ;N:oblems of inaccessibility, the research on.lcwvationul teehlziv= ere aeneri1Iy esan.rable for the two It io t%D117:464,!, ther. ore, that the methods ud in tba Arctic will ,j_11.vt to esermatiorlal revirements 14 the Autaretic. The pedition ships and the Ithalir:v7. ship a.a....7.12va will probabay supplant the drift station in function: but they will be able to secure a much larger nugaer of Observations over many more routes and over much longer distances4 7.Lie continental operations will be modeled after the 1954 Arctic air operations. The Antarctic air detachment will be engaged in lozistic missions to move personnel, equipment, and supplies. It will alsc be used for scientific research with "flying laboratories" ridi.gxsooTs over the research arm and "szecial scientific detachmente 'calling hops to as many points as possible to set up dbeer=tion stations of several days to several veeks duration. Prom the stand,pc -11; cV distance, the program presents no speetol problems since the distances involved in the Antarctic are 17en 'within the range oZ tlIsse flows iu tbe Arctic. The major differene - 20 - Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 _ ?? ? ? ????? Approved For Release 2000/05/11:CiArRpP79-01009A001100090009-2 between the two regions is the higher elevation within Antarctica, which will make operating conditions more difficult because of tha attendant lover air pressure amd teaveratures and higher wind speeds., Not enough is known of tb:: oparatioml recordu of the Soviet Arctic expeclitions to permit any estiLlato of the amber of Observations that might be made or the number of point* the; bight be established in Antarctica. SOM6 ladicatiaz: Nwuvc,x, may be gleaned from the following brief summary of the observations obtained by the SP-3 and SP-4 drift stations over a 7-month period (1) 3,000 radio sondes andballoon launchings (2) 20 deep-water hvdrological stations established ? (3) 1,000 ocean semdings (4) 18,000 ciboerVatiess of ocean currents (5) 700 determination, of inagustic declinations (6) lapo ma,metic observations (7) 500 solar radiation (actinometric) observations (8) 113oo acranetric observations (9) 10,000 meteorological ebswvations (10) 700 astronomical ages The probabality of adTyting this general scheme of operation vas increased when it vas learned -- thmtgh not .es yet pUblicized -- that the Soviets are planning to e$tablich two 91000-nautical-mile routes to expedite the movement of psrwarni?, equtxmat, and non-bulk supplies. - 30 - 0-E-C41-1.41-T roved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/01/11 ,,14;;RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 rurther testimony of the'ilTortee attached to the Antarctic prox.eum and. to the desire to secure tl ,la:doss of effort is provided 4 by a grandiose scheme to estoblidh ragalarIy operating air routes between Nbscow ind Antaratten Liformaly, in the course of discussions in the /GT WorhinG Group ea Logiatios, the Soviets showed maps of two planned routes, each about 9A00 mutical rilPs in length -- one through Africa, and the other tbuouga SlAgepore, Amstralia. Informal approntheavere also rade by Soviet MY delegates to the Australian en!!1 gm Zealand IGY delegates. 71134; latter mas asked-whether Weir ZealmadA ia =motion vith rafterAt5. An!f;sactic1:15 could accommodate Soviet jot aircraft requiring 9s000-fvt4 rzlYera, Tile Soviets farther indicated that diplomatic negotiattena unaerwayo The motivation for such an exvevalcile$ ambitious effort ia urielmAltedly related to the Soviet operational methodo1oa7* for Antarctica, based aa =per/este derived fig= their Asetie research expeditions? It would seem hardly luntifiable, hovever to conclude that this vas the sole con- oiderstion. This air planrill !wive the Soviet Union its first opportunity for lons-range latercontL-acutra truElsoccaatc air exercises without imlIncinLi the melnrecni v&17,1: ftwaiGn aircraft to fly long al5tRy.Fslin erer the Soviet gy3I,cnr, th3 Soviets can hardly be expected. to neglect the r:Q(;jzcil,..n, ezwir,d..t4r litusa morldwide of Soviet air cape.4,1 tvazziala wIth apeaceful international on ITT tOLZ:66,57, aatzllo an thT, 12jr of Soviet ArcUe wpleration,, -31- Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 ecientific progeam for tb heit of ikind," and of pointing a narked contrast to the intercontinentel exercises of the U3! ' Strategic Air B. Personnel The execution of so con-lace.' and cencentrated a program would not be possible 'without an .adequate umber of trained personnel. The long history of intensive Arctic air operations loud the growth of an elaborate structure of Arctic research institutcep polar stations, and Observatories of the Chief Administration of t Verthern Sea Route, the Chief Administration of the Bydemeteor aical Service, and the Academy of Sciences, USSR, have provided the Soviets with a highly experienced corps of Arctic research speciallefs =A service pereonnel. Operational gleaning, administration, and direction viii be in the hands of scientist-explorers who conbine edvanced scientific training with specialized Arctic field experience. Dr L N0 Somov, chief of the Soviet expedition, is a umte hydrologist who has devoted all of his professional career to Arctic exploration and reeeareh. One of the five Vice Chairman of the So-Act National 'a Committee is Dr. I. D9 Papanin, vho in 1937 lea tha firef long-tare Soviet ice-drift station, SP-1, toward the North Pole. The gational Committee includes le. K. Pedorov, vbo accoreanied Papeete, and NI. Ye. Ostrekin, vho headed the group of scientists in 1941 ea the first "flying observatory" into the Arctic "Pole of inaccessibility." - 32 SeE-04eBeT Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/14 WP79-01009A001100090009-2 The number of participating personnel has not been revealed? early report indicated that "about 200 scientists" will participate in work on the continent, but the more recent broadcast of 17.0ctOber 195, states that, "apart fraa the crew, about 4000 scientific workers will participate in the mazer as members of the Expedition" and that "more than 70 scientific workers from various research institutes of tte country viii take part in the empedition on. board the icebreaker al." In addition to a constructioa crew, there 'will be two staffs of scientists -- one on the C6' making observations in Antarctic waters and the other at the main base engaged tn continental Observations atd studies. The only top-level aseignmmts named thus far are: (1) the director, Dr. M. X. &maw, Deputy Director of the Arctic Research Institute, Chief Administration of the Northern Sea Route; (2) the director of oceano- graphic research in Antarctic eaters, Dr, V. G. Kort, Direetor of the Oceanological Institute, Academy of Sciences, USSR; and (3) the director of air operations On the Antarctic Contluent, /van Ivanovich Cherevichwy, an. Arctic veteran with 20 years and 3,000,000 kilometers of Arctic flying experience -- as pilot supAying drift stations and as chief of the scientific research detachments (air) during the 1954 expedition. It is likely, however, that most of the members of the Soviet In delegation will participate at one time or another. These include: Tu D. Bulanzhe, F P. Devitaya,A. NA Obukhov, N. Z. Pious, Yu. D. Bb1in4e4 V. I. Irasovskiy, MI. V. Puebkov, S. Vorobeyev? G. A. Avsyuk, L G. Kart, Te P. Savarenskiy, E. R. Muster', I. T. Spirin, and V. V. Belousov. - 33 - S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 According to a Soviet hroadcast on 19 October 1955, Somov rep .41 that the following personnel or earlier Arctic drift-station service will participate: Poreyev: Shehokin (probably Shchelkin hydrologist on SP-4), Deborykin, MS .t] Ihmarov, and L0 F. Ovehinaikov (Chief of the Meteorological and Hydrological Croup, SP-4). Other specialists of SP4 and SP-5 are also scheduled to visit the South Pole "since it will afford them an opportunity to see better the peculiarities of processes in the areas of the two opposite poles" In the same broadcast, Somov reiterated his expectation of seeing some of the present staffs of SP-4 and SP-5 in Antarctica in the spring of 1957. The use of experienced. Arctic personnel to ensure successful operations will be further supplemented on the substantive level by flying in various research and technical specialists according to a set program. This procedure may explain, Impart, how the "1,000 scientific workers will participate in the voyage, as, menbers of the Expedition" Msror of these men presumably would be flown in and then transshipped to the vessels as needed* The 1954 Arctic expedition developed this system of rotating scientific personnel, principally from the Academy of Sciences, ES&R* In July 195k, for example, Dr* V0 Ci* Hort reported that a 'brigade" of scientists from the Academy had spent two weeks at the Arctic stations* These Included oceanologists, micro- biologists, and senior medical authorities* With the system of rotation, avid? range of experience can be exchanged between field and laboratory research, to the benefit of both* Furthermore, technicians can be Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 bmlught in as needed to meet qperatiomal emergencies. Air novemeee essential in order to obtain a sizable rotation, without the vast of researdh time that surface travel would regaire. Another method of securtag the largest nude' of observations from a given expedition roster has also been observed in Soviet Arctic research activities. Wherevarpossible, scientiots are used also for general aervice?duties? and nervice personnel are trainei to double in observational capacities. As an example, Sc, a graduate hydrologist and Deputy rdreetor of the Arctic Scientific Research institute, functioned as oceanographer on a 3-veek drift in 1948 and in. 1950-51 carved agnexpedition director of the SP-2,, Hie duel role is reflected in his collaborative studies vithIg. Zubov on ice drift ena the variations of barometric averases? In another instance, a doctor of medicine vaz used in a parachute team dropped over the Serth Pole to reconnoiter and mmek out a landing area 2or a plane load ofscientista %The, were to set up a temporary observation stution. COIstles The most spectacular 7 rt of th tit rogrem is the plan to establish two 94,CO3-nautr%u: IT. tor route. from Mosom to the Antarctic -- one via Africa riala the other rim India, Singapore, and Australia. This servtce willyroWbly provide the principal transport of personnel and actlaz aa wallas uost of the non.;buIk supplies. On the continent, the air detadiement will pxovide the lens-distance 35 - t7e,11-41,.."4.-.2eF41 Toy 2000105/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A0011000 0 09-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11,: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S--0-h-E-T transportation. Tractors, cars (probably OAZ..69), and dog sleds 14.11 be used for local haulage. Heavy equipment, shelter, and some of the food will be moved by the two expeditionary ships -- the Lena, supplemented by the Obl. The LAM, a refrigerator ship, will carry canned goods, dried. sour milk, dried sour cream, and over 300 tans of other food products, together with a construction crew to asseMble and build a "scientific teen." Whale meat and liver, as supplementary food, will be provided by the 15-veasel Soviet ebaling flotilla, which will continue to operate during the 101. On the first vOyeete of the OW end the kna, it is reported that 6,500 tons of cargo will be delivered. Although no information is available on bulk shipments of fuel, it will emdoubtedly be provided through the refueling service developed for the Whaling flotilla -- by increasing either the number of tankers or the nuMber of runs. The Soviet tanker %lapse ccmpleted two trips in one season in 1953-54 in addition to the run by the Other tankers that have serviced the ehaling flotilla are the Pamir and the &ea* (7,661 (RT), which serviced the 1946-47 trip. The latter also provided service during the 1948-49, 1950-51, and 1951-52 seasons. The (7,596 GET) was used In the 1948-49 season, and the Polish tanker gsrpatr (6,478 GRT) in 1951-52.? In the 1952-53 season a new large tanker, the Apsheron (8,839 0%T), performed the service. Air freight capabilities cannot be estimated because no information is available on the specific intercontinental routes, on the location of S-E-C-R-E4 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11CrAiRDP79-01009A001100090009-2 transshipment points? or on the name and types or planes to be ueed. Four planes and two helicopters eill neke up the unit for the Antarctic area proper. It is necessary, therefore, to evaeine again available information on the Soviet Aretic airlift operations in order to obtain sone idea of their logistic capabilities for scientific purposes. When SP-leas set up in 19371 nearly 12 teas were flnwa in. in 1950, the aircraft for SID-2 included 4-engine planes with 5-ton freight capacities, and 2-engine planes with 1-ton capacities. At the time the station was set up, 50 tons were flown in, and 20 more 6 meths later, Includet in the 70-ton haul was a "OAZ-67' tractor for use at the station. In the 1954 expedition, eepplies and equipeent were flown in on a continuing basis, In slightly lees than a. year, 200 tons or freight were lifted to each of the two stations. The planes used included the LI-2, ILe12, the A11-2 biplane, the Pe-8 feareenelne bother converted into a transport) and the NI-4 helicopter. D.1tiona1 Emapment Only a limited amount of information concerning the Soviet operational equipment has been announeW' to date. The Oh', a diesel- electric icebreaker, has bean =dined for the Expeditioa by the assenbly of 6 laboratories (including netecrologieela hydrebielegical, micro- biological, and chemical) wed ley the addition or a deep-water trawl, 5 deep-mater winches, special deck faellitien for belicopt6= and p1nea, the newest navigational inotv"Irsattia,, and a ceeplete radio Anstallatione Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S or Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 The ship has been described as resembling a house. It has 5 decks, 61,-11 its height fron keel to the upper bridge is 24 meters (79 feet). Metal frames have been built on deck to hold two LI-2 planes. The riz.2 be taken on pontoons with the help of tugs either onto the ice or to the share." There is also an area for a helicopter. It may be assumed that the Lena will be similarly equipped for carrying planes. Tractors, cars, amphibious craft (tugs?), and dogs will also be provided, but no information en type oz. number is as yet available. Eighteen to twenty collapsible houses or light insulated material and designed to shelter from to 6 men will be brought to the Antarctic the first season. These are probably the type of tents developed for the 1991 Arctic expedition. The tents have been modeled after the Chukchee muss and are made of 113.3261211101 tubes covered with two layers of canvas separated by an air space, the outer layer dark in color and. the inner one white. The basic vomit appears to be a divided hemisphere, which can be elongated by inserting a semicylizetrical section between the two parts of the hemisphere. The floor consists of a layer of waterproof fabric that is covered with reindeer hides, over which plywood sheets are laid dawn. These tents are believed to be used primarily for working purposes. A prefabricated hut hes been developed for living quarters. Walls consist of panels made of a wallboard called "penoplast" end wood PU.109 which are said to be one-sixth the weight of wood and have three times -38- 13-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-0100 its sulating quality. With cutide temperatures of -76% indoor ?tepperatures can be maintaired at 60?-709F. As a result, sleeping bags can be replaced by cote for greater comfort. Windows are of plemiglass. The huts, delivered in 17 sections, are 15 feet long, 8-1/4 feet wide, and 11?.X/ feet high, and consist of a living room, a kitchea, and a hall large erlee for 4 nen. The huts are mounted on runners that do not freeze to the enw and can be moved by manpower, eveal2msege they weigh about three-fourths ton. A recent Soviet aces release eppears to centime the report that both types of buildings 7111 be ueed It also adds that the houses will be provided with steel founds:tic= ie they mast be: built an ice. Coal stoves ave used for heating puremes ead liquid-gas ranges for codking. Convenieices are provided in the Thema electric lights, motion pictures, and libraries, Recent Soviet news broadcasts state that a "scientific town" will be built in Antarctica, and will include varm dwelliego, laboratories, a garage, and a power station. Each station of the 1934 Arctic expedition was equipped with a az-69, a Soviet modification. oZ the American jeep, and a 0-35 dies6.1 tractor eguippedwith a blefle end weighing 11- tons. In order to cope with the ravigation problems that are unique to the South Polar region,the map and upecial magretic au "powerful radio direction f oviets balm prepared a special celestial o compasses. Mention is also made of end sensitive radio compasses Ethat] -39- Approved For Release 2000/0541?47,11DP79-01009A001100090009-2 'yin. facilitate navigators' tasks." /be grid developed for Antarctica mmy be a "grid of false meridians" developed by the Soviets in 1937, vhich overccaes the disadvantages of the convargence of meridians found on common prvjections. Mention has previously been made of the use of aircraft as "flying ldboratories" and of the logistical use of aircraft. Special mention, however, should be made of the une of MI-4 helicopters and. their value for research purposes, pre6ticulari,y geological surveying. E. Badio Communications An elaborate coordinated radio-communicationa program for Antarctica was proposed at the Paris Conference in July 1955. A Working Group on Radio Broadcasts, with representation for each participating country, was organized to undertake the preparation of plans and the coordination of facilities and services. Participants 'were requested to submit information on stations, frequency ranges, power, transmission, type of service, and orientation of antennas, as well as other technical details and the techniques used in establishing the polar stations. Four types of traffic are envimsged: (1) general information on the coordination of work: (2) exchange of operational scientific information, (3) expedition liaison, and (4) emergency calls. Three categories of stations are planned: (1) mother stations, (2) daughter stations, and (3) auxiliary relay stations. Call signs for a regional wr service are to be assigned by the International S-EFACA-E-ff Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-B-C-R-E-T Telecommunications Union. Frequencies needed for the radio liaison net- work, which will operate for only brief periods of time, may be provided either by the participating countries out of their own international locations, or by the assignment of special international frequencies by the International Telecommunications Union0 in order to reduce interference, the Conference recommended a continuing exchange of information among stations and expeditions on radio frequencies employed and the quality of reception. The United States offered to compile, publish, and dissendnate periodically revised lists and other details. Special arrangements are planned for emergency calls. Mother stations and ships at sea are to listen in on frequencies during hours prescribed by international cceventiono Land and air activities, including departure and arrival, will be followed continuously by the daughter stations. Attachment C provides a preliminary list of information on Soviet radio communications submitted at Brussels to the Working Group on Communications. The attachment also gives information assembled on other countries for the Paris Antarctic Conference, July 1955. Attachment D is a provisional list of stations being planned for the Antarctic ICY network. It 14 expected that pUblle radio corm.mnicatios for vorale and propaganda purposes will be established between Moscow and Antarctica, S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-E-C-R.E-T ? as well as between the Soviet Arctic and Antarctic expeditions. Precedence has been establidhed for such a link, since radio communiT cation was established as eri.y as 1930 between a station. on Frani Joseph Tand and. an rc ?ton near the Ross Barrier., More recently the UPOL-3, the zdioatztion on SP-3, established c tact with the Soviet 'whaling ep.E.Ailtioll of 1954. Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/1j3Q144pf79-01009A001100090009-2 ATTACHMENT A The Organization of the Soviet National qt1andWorkiu !ros for the international Tear The Praesidium of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, by decrees of 21 January and 8 April 1955 established an Inter-Departmental Committee for preparations for andcond.uct of the IGY. The organization of this Committee is as follows: Chairman: BARDIN, I P., Vice President of the Academy of Sciences, USSR Vice Chairmen: BULANZHEI, Yu. D., Doctor of Physico4lathe1uatical Sciences DAVITAYA, F. F., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Vice Director of the Chief Administration of the Rydrometeorological Service OBUKHOV, A, Mop Correnponding Member of the Academy of Sciences MARIN, I D., Doctor of Geographical Sciences PUSHKOV, V., Candidate, Physico-Mathematical Sciences, Director of the Scientific Research Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism Scientific Secretary: TROITSKAYA, V. A., Candidate, PhYsico- Mathematical Sciences Committee members: AVSYUK3 G. A,0 Doctor of Geographical Sciences ALU PERT, Ya. L., Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Sciences LOUSOV0 V. V., Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences VVEDENSKIY, B. V., Academician VERNOV0 S. N., Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences GAMBURTSEV, G. A., Academician (recessed 28 June 19527 GOMM, G. I., Candidate, Physico-Mathematical Sciences, Director, Central Aerological Observatory, GUGMS -E -C -R -E -T Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Workiag Groups: S -C -R -E -T GORDIYUKO, P. A., Candidate, Geographical Sciences, Vice Chief of the Polar Stations Section, Wthistry of the Maritime Fleet GDSEV, A. M., Doctor of Physico-Nathematical Sciences DMRDEEYEVSKIY, B. L., Doctor of Geographictal Sciences YEVSEYEV, P. K., Director, Central Scientific-riesearch Rydrolmteorological Archives KALASUYIMV, A, G,, Doctor of Physico-Mathematical KALTNrS, Se'ierc KOPYTTN, InsOtute of Mar, KRASOVSKIt, V, Sciences LEBEDINSKU Sciences MIKHAVLOVy A' of Sciences MUSTEL', N, R,, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences , OSTREKIN, M, Yeoi Candidate, Geographical Sciences, ChiO, Arctic Scientific Research Institute SAVAREWSKIY? Te. F., Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Sciences TOPURIYA,/Z,; V, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Communications FENROV, Ye.' K., Corresponding MeMber of the Academy of6Sciences FEDYNSKIY, V. V., Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Sciences , Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Vice Chief, Scientific-Research the Ministry of Communications -ctor of Geographical Sciences I., Doctor of Physico-Mathematicsi J?., -,Doctor of Physico-Mathematical ., Corresponding Member of the Aqademy Meteorology 7tairman: YEVS'YEV, P, K. /ice Chairman: KITATTOV, A. I. rlembers SCDOLLV, L. G. kINDS, N. KASTROV, V. G, CCERDWYEVSKilr, B, L, SUBENTSOV, V. P. A1EKSANDROV, L A. MAGIAN, A. Kh. BUDYKO, M. 1. 104. S-E-C-R-E-T A rpved For elea 000105/11.: Cl A -RDP79- Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Terrestrialetisna and Earth Currents Chairman: KALININ, Yu. D. Vice Chairman: KALASBNIKOV, A. G. Members: MANSUROV, S. M. NIKOWSKIY, A. P. NOVYSH? V. V. ORIOV, V. P. OSTREKIN, H. Ye. PKTROVA, G. N. TRIO/MAYA, V. A. Aurora and Airem Chairman: LEBEDINSKIY, A. I. Vice Chairman: BAGARYAISKIY, B. A. Members: FLIGEL?0 D. S. ISAYEV, B. I. KRASOVSKIY? V. I. KNIZRNIKOV? B. K. /WHIN, L. A. NIKOWSKIY, A. P. PARIYSKIY, N. No FEBENKOV, V. G. REXIOVSKIY, I. S. IETMOIME Chairman: AL?PERT0 Ye. L. Vice Chairman: BEN?KOVA, N. P. Members: MEDNIKOVA? N. V. BULATOV, N. D. GUSEV, V. D. DRIATSKIY, V. M. VSKLEZOV? F. F. ZABORSIRMUODV, F. Ye. KAZANTSEV, A. N. Ya. I. SNUMBKIY, N. N. Solar Aclivi_a a Chairman: NUBTEL10 E. R. Vice Chairman: ROLOSKOV, S. M. Members: REVERNYY, A. B. KRAT, V. A. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 GNEVYSHEV? M. N. SHUOVSKIY, I. S. VITKEVICH, V. V. RUBASHEV, B. M. MOGILEVSKIY, E. I. Cosmic liaxt Chairman: VERBOV, S. N. Vice Chairman: KOPYLOV, Yu. M. Members: FEINBERG? Y. L. GRIGOROV, N. L. ZHDANOV, G. B. CHUDAKOV, A. Ye, DORMAN, L. I. SHAFER, Yu. G Glaciology sv4 Geocrioloa Chairman: AVSYUK0 Go A. Vice Chairman: YUSHCHAK, A. A. Members: IZHEVSK17, G. K. MOYSEYEV? P. A BATALIN, A. M. SRRG/YENKO, G. N. BELI KIY, N. A. GORDIYENKO, P. A. Chairman: MUMMER Yu, D. Vice Chairman: FEDYNSKIY, V. V. Members: MAGNITSKIY, V. A. ZHONGOLOVICH, I. D. MOLODENSKIY, M. S. AIEKSARTIROV, 8. Ye, DOBROKHOTOV? Yu, S. VESO1OV9 K. Ye. Chairman: 8AVARENSKIY, Ye. F. Vice Chairman: KIRNOS, D. P. Members: GAMBURTSEVI G. A. geceaseg SHER/411N, N. V. - 46 S -EC -R -E -T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/1 tir9iAiRTDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Meteors* Chairman: FEDYBSKIY? V. V. Vice Chairman: LEVIN, B. Yu. Members: KATASEV? L. I. ASTAPOVICR, I. S. FIALKO? Ye. KRAMER, Ye. N. GRISRIN, N. I. Chairman: KDRT, V. G Vice Chairman: YUSRCRAK, A, IL Members: =mar, G. K. MOISEYEV, P. A. BATALIN, A. M. smorymos N. A. BELINSKIY, N. A. GORDIYENNO, P. A. Chairman: OSTREKIN, M. Y. Vice Chairman: GORDIYEAKO, P. A. Members: KNIZRUKOV? R. K. KREMER, B. A. BASKAKDV, G. A. DOLGIN, I. M. NIKOWSKIY, A. P. MEMOS, D. P. Chairman: GUSEVI A. M. Vice Chairman: TUBER, G, M. Members: USRAKOV, S. I. GRIGOR"INV, V. V. KREMER, B. A. EtROWEVICR0 Ye. S. BUYNITSKIY, V. Kh. topic is not an explicit part of the IGY program as outlined under the CSAGI. - 47 - S-ECR-ET Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 LatitudtLISSIIMOILIAt Merman: MIKHAYLOV, A A. Vice Chairman ZVEREV, Membem PAVLOV, F. N. SAMAROV,V. .r, BELORETeKOWKIT, 6, Y OJUKOV K. A BAKULM P KUZN6TE;41W, A 5. WAD, V_ FEDGROw. Ye_ r. slamoto - -E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: 5:lil-1f79-01009A001100090009-2 ATTACHMENT B Scientific Dex'tnts of to bengaged Conduct of Research on th_t.IGT_P_gzer moms= INSTITUTE OF IRE ACADEXY MP SCIENCES, USSR (Geofisicheskiy Institut AN SSSR) CENTRAL FORECASTING INSTITUTE (Tsentral.nyy Institut Progmozov) 'CHIEF GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY (Glavneya Geofizicheskeya Observatoriya) ARCTIC scregrnat-nasaRcs 11/3TITUME (Arkticheskiy Nauchno-issledovatel*skiy Institut) INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY, Academy of Sciences, USSR (Institut Geografii AN SSSR) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM (Nauchno-issledovateluskty Institut Zemnogo Magnetizma) INSTUUTE OF RADIOTECHNOIOGY ARDEIRCISONICS, Academy of Sciences, USSR (Institut Radiotekhniki I Blektroniki AM SSSR) INSTITUOS at FUTS/CS, Academy of Sciences, USSR (Fizicheskiy Institut AN ssaR) UNIVERSITIES, including those at ikt)SCOW IENINGRAD law TOMSK CHIEF ADMINISTRATION OF THE HYDROMETSOROLOGICAL SERVICE attached to the Council of Ministers, USSR (Glavnoye Upravleniye Gidrometeorologicheskoy Sluthby -- abbreviated as GU(N) . 49 . S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 MAP AEMINISTRATION OF THE NORTHERN SEA ROUTS attached to the Council of Ministers, USSR (Glavnoye Upravleniye Severnogo Morskogo Puti ...- abbreviated as GUMP) Establishments of the MINISTRY OF MARITIME FLEET (Ministerstvo Morskogo Flota) MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS (Ministerstvo Svyazi) MINISTRY OF GEOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES, USSR (Ministerstvo Geologii I Okhrona Nedr SSSR) PERMAFROST INSTITUTE, Academy of Sciences, USSR (Institut Merzlotovedeniya AN SSSR) INSTITUUE OF OCEANOLOGY, Academy of SCIVICeS USSR (Institut Okeanologii AV SSSR) MARITIME RYDROPHYSICAL INSTITUTE, Academy of Sciences, USSR (Morskop)r GidrofizIchtskiy Institut AN SSSR) AIL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF FISHING AND OCEANOGRAPHY (Vaesoyyznyy Institut Rybnogo Khozysystva i Okeanografii) POLAR AND PACIFIC OCEAN scrunric RESEARCH INSTITUTES OF FISHING AND OCEANOGRAPHY (Polyarnyy I Tikhookeanskiy Nauchno-issledovatel'skiye Instituty ? Rybnogo Khozyaystva I Okeanografii) MAIN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, Pulkovo (Glavnaya Astronamichesksya Observatorlya? Pulkovo) KIYEV ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY (Kiyevskaya Astronomicheskaya Observatoriya) ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Uzbek SSR INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS (Institut Matematiki i Mt:khan/kJ) PHYSICS AND TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (Fiziko-tekhnicheskiy Institut) -50- S -C -R -E -T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 ' -C t44' TASSFENT ASMIONAICAL ORWIRVATORY (Tashkentskaya Astratolaielleckwa Observatoriya) KITAB IATITITLE Samon (KItsbeltaga Shirotuaya Stentstya) - 51 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 S-E-C-R-E-T ATTACHMENT C List of Antarctic Radio Stations Operating During the International GeoEML.31.E_al. Year and Their Characteristics Country USSR* Station Main base Field party 111 Field party N2 Frequency ranal_____ (a) 2.25 mc (b) 2-25 mc (c) 150-1000 kc @) 100-150 mc (e) 2.5-12 mc 250-600 kc 2.5-12 mc 250-600 kc 2.5-12 me 250-600 kc Emission Power voice (CW) 1 kw both 1 kw both 1 kw both 300 w voice 80 w both 80 v both 80 w both Type of direc- Principal tional antenna terminal Rhombic on Moscow Moscow vertical planes IMPOS vertical vertical vertical planes ttg, Main base Main base *Data on the means of radio transmission of the other two stations-satellites to be supplied later. Data for USSR stations were presented at the Brussels meeting in September 1955; all other data were sa- mitted at the Paris meeting of 'lune 1955. A ? .) -52- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 C?u9..SL- Station Frequency .01.1???????IVINOWINIMI Power Emission Islatliti Type of direc- tional antenna Principal terminal Argentina I. Decepcion ?273-550 kc 100 w Rhombic point. (radio beacon) 1.6-24 mc 100 le hntb Fortb Melchior A. Brown 275.550 kc 100 v nr type 1.6-16 mc 150 w both point. North Melchior Tte Camera 275-550 kc 100 w RhoMbic point. 1.6.24 mc 100 v both North Melchior Oveadas 275.550 kc 1 kw RhoMbic point. Melchior 1.6-24 mc 1 kw both North B. Aires Esperanza 275.550 kc 100 v Rhombic point. 1.6,24 mc 100 v both Worth Melchior Melchior 275.550 ice 1 kw Rhoodbic point. (weather central) 1.6-24 mc 1 kw both North B. Aires General San Martin B. Aires (radio beacon) Melchior General Yalchior Belgrano Esperanza USA Little (a) 1/ 2.30 me 1 kw both Rhombic on America Washington Washington (b) 2.18 mc 500 w both vertical d) 2.30 mc 100-555 300 v 2 kw both CW vertical vertical -53- S.E.O.R.ET 0 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 0 USA ? Otatios Little Cc) A vierica t") Ig-Diir CE) VEF-D/F :(,b) Portables (1) A:MCQTA0 01) S-E-C-R-E-T Frequency rangl____ Power Emission volc1.1? Type of direc- t1 115-156 mc 35 v voice cal EF 1.5-22 me 300 w both vercal loop 100-156 me 2-12 me 15w both various 4-26 me 1 kw both RhaMbic 'Syr7T, Base 9/ PertabI 12/ Semix/rtable (a) (b) fl South Pole Base Ground Parties same as at Little America same same SaMe same same same as as as as as RS at Little America at Little America at Little America at Little America at Little America at Little America 2-30 me 2-12 me 0.3-1 me 3-181 me ur 300 w both 15 w both 100w CW 300 w both same as Byrd Land base Portable (5) hle/EF Dip 350-905o kc 125 le both one of portables listed above Xlmgbic various vertical various Prlacipal 0) 0) Ct 0) Washingtw. Little Aur4rice 01 01 01 9 sci . . Cs! ?TD re 8 U- 73 2 0. 0. 5 , Country Station USA Planes France P. Ocology (FGBZ) rietdz, Adce 12/ Pit Frequency 2-12 mo 100-156 mc LF/DF 8-18 no 2.5-20 mc S-2444 -T NAlesion Power .121221.2i1 150 w both 10 w voice 2 kw 400 w 7.5 ir 15.20 w Type of direc- Principal ti ]. antenna terminal Mai*. .1?15M.B.OgR,10............ 1. Crystal contro11 8.. Crystal controlled 2. Used for beacon 9. Crystal controlled Air/Uromd 10. Both 4. ;mute= 11. Amateur 5. 12. Es C R 191 C. taavigtRal kiJ 13. A V G. R C 7. Trait(7) -55- S.B-C-R4S4 various various 35E ? Nowa& Noumea Pte 04ologie Pte Geologic 4,4 CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/114,,CIArROP79-01009A001100090009-2 ha" C T Provisional List of Radio Stations in the Antarctic During the International GeoaltIFILyear The following stations are classified as: M.S. M.S. Mother Stations (is.) Daughter Stations (DS.) Stand-by Relay Stations McMurdo Sound 1. D.S. South Pole (United States) 2, D.S. New Zeeland Base (New Zealand) 3. P.S. Intermediate Station (United Kingdom) 4. D.S. P. Geology (France) 5. D.S. Intermediate Station (France) 6. DcS. US Station Longitude 1100E (United States) Little America 1. D.S. Marie Byrd Land Station (United States) M.S Melchior 1. D.S. Peter I Island (Japan) 2. P.S G. San Martin (Argentina) 3. D.S. Marguerite Bay (United Kingdom) 4. D.S. Argentine Is. (United Kingdom) 5. D.S, Port Lockroy (United Kingdom) 6. D.S. Almirante Brawl (Argentina) 7. D.S. Decepcion (Argentina) 8. 1. s. Tte Camara (Argentina) 9. D.S. Esperanza (Argentina) 10. D.S. Oreadas (Argentina) 11. D.S. General Delgreno (Argentina) 12. D.S. As may be estoOlished in the SG the Weddell Sen. hero and West Coaat of Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11i4.46,419P79-01009A001100090009-2 M.S. Prat 1. D.S. Pte Gonzalez Videla (Chile) 2. D.S. Deception (Chile) 3. D.S. WHiggins (Chile) 4. D.S. Admiralty Bay (United Kingdom) 5. D.S. Hope Bay (United Kingdom) M.S. Masson 1. D.S. USSR Station at Knox Coast (USSR) 2. D.S. USSR Intermediate Station (USSR) 3. D.S. USSR Polar Station (USSR) * D.S. Intermediate Station (Australia) 5. D.S. Norwegian Station (Norway) 6. D.S. Japanese Summer Station (Japan) Stand-by Relay Stations 1. %telex Punta Arenas (Argentina and Chile) 2. Capetown (South Africa) 3. Melbourne (Australia) - 57 - S-E-C-R-K-T Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/11: CIA-RDP79-01009A001100090009-2