Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 9, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 6, 1999
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
November 2, 1955
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP79-01009A001500120001-2.pdf2.1 MB
- ---- - - - ----- --- ?~ Copy No. GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT CIA/RR GR-131 2 November 1955 DOCUMENT NO. ~'risYVE ; 372044 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY cJo OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS C,OS ze 25X1 C I' Cs 25X1 C Approved For Release 1999/09/265apA- -01009 25X1 C Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 WARNING This material contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the meaning of the espionage laws, Title 18, USC, Secs. 793 and 794, the trans- mission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/IA-RDP79-01009A001500120001-2 eONF1pENt1A p7S PAY?CH BY ri.,, x.741 IE nCvi C . . llc.vemk CO FIDE!mAE Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 S?aE . C-R-E-T F!,rword o...... .... o a n o o u o 0 0 ? o o a I. Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Soviet Pre-IGY Interest in Antarctica . . . . . . . . 2 B. The International Geophysical. Year . 'C. Development of Soviet Participation in the IGY . . . 8 IZ. Possible Current Political Overtones in Scientific Aco i"i- ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11I. Operational Plans . ? . . . . o . . . . o o . o o . 15 A. Organizati,,n and ?iethodology . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 C. Logistics D. Operations' Er uip:r:ent 17 F. Radio Commainicatic,ns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A. The Organs-.ation of the Soviet National Committee and Grot'ps for the International Geo- physical Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 B~ List of An';arctic Radio Stations Operating During the IGY fsnd Their Characteristics . . o . . . . . 33 C. Provision:. List of Radio Stations in the Antarctic Daring tt,e IGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 S-E-C A-E-T the Russian discoveries was underscored. As fax' back as 1931 the, Society had shown occasional interest in reporting on the various Antarctic activities of other countries, but postwar articles on Antarctica first began to appear in 1946 with the publication of articles on Soviet whaling activities. These articles inevitably related, the current successes to the earlier accomplishments of the Bellingshausen Expedition. Following the United States expedition of 1947>1;8, Soviet writings increased considerably in volume and generally expressed concern about (1) the military character of US expeditions, (2) the meagerness of their scientific activity, and (3) the comments r to in US sources concerning the strategic importance of Antarctica. The Society's propaganda and publication activities reached a peak. in 1919 with a coae-~aoration of the 130th anniversary of Belli.ngshausen's expedition and th=t adoption by the Geographical Society of a resolution outlining the basis of the Soviet Union's claim to a voice in the settlement of querstions of Antarctic sovereignty. The USSR has despatched a 16-vessel Antarctic whaling expedition -- the Siva -- each operating season since 1916, following the Soviet adherence to the :nternational Whaling Convention. Economic gains are claimed by the Soviets to be substantial., and some political use hers already been made of the importance of the regularly conducted whaling expeditions throe?,h reference to it in the Soviet note of 1950. The Soviets also claim that the scientific benefits from the work of the expeditions are st?batantial in vier of the general paucity of meteorological, geographic, geological, biological, oceanographic, -3- Approved For Release I 999 >t 6'' 'C &A-RDP79-01009A001500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/0M%: CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 -R-E-T ionospaeri.c; and other geophysical data on the Antarctic area, The collection of scarce scientific data was begun with the first whaling e ;cedAtion of 1946-47. Re inning with the second expedition of 1947-4$, the whaling expeditions have included the ship Slava-15 in each flotilla as a special scientific-research vessel. A hydrographic-, oceanographic report of the second expedition was presented at a 2-day scientific meeting of the State Oceanographic Institute (Gosudarstvennyy Okeano raficheekt,y Institut -- GOl) in November 1948. The third, or "Stalin Expedition," is described as having "enriched Soviet science with new data on weather, the ice regime, and about the biology of the marine life." The fourth expedition of 1949-50, with oceanographers and hydreobiologists aboard, continued adding new information to the Soviet fund of Antarctic data. The ninth expedition of 1954-55 still bad the Slava-15 attached to it as a special scientific-research vessel, its first officer being the Young Communist League member Vladimir Timchenko. Radio contact was established between the Soviet Arctic drift station NP-3 and the Slava fleet during this seas.:, and Soviet propaganda publictzed the fact "that the Slava fleet visits places where ex.pioratione were carried out 135 years ago by the Russian expedition ...?" According to receat Soviet announcements, a special chart of the Antarctic region gas been compiled., utilizing data "of all expeditions up to 1954-:* It Le believed that much of the data was obtained from soviet whaling expeditions. The explicit plans made for utilizing future observations of the wha? i.ngr expeditions during the IGY leave no doubt of the vaiue of the data-collection activities in Antarctic waters during the past 9 seasons. The Antarctic data, combined with the vast Arctic experience Approved For Release 1999/09/26 4CJA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001500120001-2 S-E-C-R-E-T have been of-inestImable value in improving Soviet capabilities for undertaking their IGY and exploration programs in Antarctica. B. The International Geophysical Year The International Geophysical Year is a worldwide program of special observations of various earth-science phenomena to be undertaken in 1957-58. It is a successor to two earlier and far legs extensive international geophysical observation programs, the First International Polar Year conducted in 1882-83, and the Second International Polaar Year in 1932-33. In concept the IGY differs from the previous two programs primarily in its plan for worldwide synoptic observation and analysis. The IGY program was first recommended in 1954 by the Mixed Commission on Ionosphere to its sponsoring unions, who in turn made the recommendation to the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The period 1957-58 was selected to coincide approximately with a sun- spot maximum of the solar cycle and the 25th anniversary of the Second International Polar Year. The ICSU appointed a Special Committee for the International Geophysical Year (Comite Special de l'Anne Geopbysique :Internationale -- CSAGI) with responsibility for planning and coordinating the programs of the international unions and of the national committees of participating countries. At a provisional organizational meeting in Brussels in, October 19520 the CSAGI recommended the formation of national committees by the Interested nations of the world and requested the formulation of plans and proposels by the national committees, the sponsoring unions, bnd the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). - 5 - Approved For Release 1999/Cff */If'r 1ATRDP79-01009A001500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/2;6;: CIa~-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 0-2d the third in B,. a:3sele, 8-14 September 195. The purpose of The first f orta_ts` -nar, v "088,10M of CSAGI was held in Prussels, t ur?e.-3 July 15153; the second F .s held In Rome . 30 September-4 Oe Loher these meetings WEB essentially to coordinate pregrms, note deficiencies and defects, urg? their correction, and organize the necessary working groups for detailed coordination of plans and operational control of field activities To dates soxre forty-exid countries have joined in sponsoring vr&rious activities of the TGY. Soviet Bloc participating countries, in addition to the USSR, include East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and possibly Hungary and Communist China. Other than listing the stations to be set up within the country, none of these satellites subuittei any national program of participation. Czechoslovakia, with s single delegate, was the only one represented at the Rome and. Brussels (1955) meetings.. Of the entire Soviet Bloc, only the USMI is kna waa to have established a. national committee and associated working groups (see Attachment: A). In the USSR, 14 working groups are responsible for the conduct of scientific research and or the coordination of the activities of Soviet establishments engaged in IGY work. Of the 16-man Sovi a p: delegation present at the i955 Brussels C.St GI conference, 11 are members of the ?t.-ymar, U31,15;1 National Committee. Of the il, 6 are mexaber;3 of a working axui 5 are nemhers of neither the National Committee nor one of the working groux sa . prcgr of work proposed by CSAGI for the IGY was initially organized into nine general scientific areas: meteorolo,3Y, latitude and -6- S-E-CR- -T Approved For Release 1999/09/26: CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 S-E-C-R-E-T I ongitude determi aatjors., geor a; etism, . ionosphere, aurora .and airglow, sole activity, e:)smic glaciology, and oceanograp127. Although not scientific areas, rockets and World Days were adopted as topics of activity -- the f'anner a:: an iiwc ortsnt research tool and the latter for special in.ervals of sic nltaneous concentrated observations. Later the list was incr':ssed to include gravity measurements and seismology. Vie rocketo activity vao extended into rockets and sate7_ .ites with the US announcement o.' the launching of an earth satellite for the IGY program. The grouping of observation stations was generally # rranged by C' GI. into geogra)hic reF;ions defined as follows: the Arctic Region, the Antarc =.ic Reg on, the Equatorial Belt, the 100E Meridian Line, the 1400H Meridian Li-,ie, and the 80?-70?W Meridian Line. At Brussels, 1955, the 1100E Heridia 3 Line was added. In addition, other groupings of xb a'O.ons have bee.i developed to accommodate the special interests of some of the individual diecipi1nes. It is importr;.ut to note that the IGY program evolved primarily as a voluntary international cooperative effort of scientists. fievertheless it is dependent, :.n the f inc.i analysis, on the will, interests, and financial means o4' the individual participating countries that assim-e the fi bncia1 reps ponsibiiity for the program. Some countries are not oaniAg, the progr?z at all, while others are joining on ? limited hasis. On the other hand.. some countries are concurrently undertaking additional earth-,science studies that are not a part of the IGY program. The CSAGI operatefs in a coordinating and advisory capacity capable only of recommending those measures that will insure the most productive R-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 S-B-C-R-E-T program of data collection throughout as much of the world as possible. Thus, the CSAGI has no veto or policing powers for any enforcement of its recommendations. The voluntary cooperative basis of the IGY will merit particular attention in the future in connection with the exchange of data among participating nations. The unsatisfactory Soviet past record of unm.=illingness to make most of its geophysical data on the USSR available to the West raises reasonable doubt of its willingness to share all of its IGY data with the non-Communist world. The doubt is even greater with respect to the exchange of the other physical-environmental data and studies to be made by the Soviets over and above the IGY program. For the exchange of data, the CSAGI established Working Group XV, Publications and Publicity, whose duty at the last Brussels conference was to seek agreement on (1) what data are to be interchanged, (2) how and when the interchange will occur during the IGY, and (3) the form of data publication to be made after the IGY. To date, no information has been obtained on the results of this group's deliberations at Brussels. C. Development of Soviet Participation in the IGY The declaration of Soviet intentions to join the IGY did not follow a clear-cut pattern. First indications were made to the World Meteoro- logical. Organization in connection with its IGY program. Formal announcement of psrtieipstion in the IG'i as a whole was not made until 4 October 1954, several months after the Academy of Sciences, USSR, had formed what appears to have been a national organizing committee. - 8 - S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009A001500120001-2 ".i:J'..ld'S!-1: x3e s.. i. z. P Aga'1B ti,z ';if the. :: iaC:a1'r#r.`- ) -i,.. j 4E1C C?'-:#? "p .'i;..#:sia~ ;'i.a:Ce ~r X 'k~ .i:k't 1 t3 + t.ea *xtr 4. 9', j ! . : cr, ran gy )jrsmt ?,-0.b,`t t f3.'LI " ,?s u.Ld r t :e Lp t. 11 -iA'.:e tF s, ur a i?i : str , '40 ed by mo~cuw nti:L t last ? of t;h r Win, rzca z `M as s ;, V&D kA..,: cf : zh.e (.4 f ..''mx a t wka . i:;3 iii'".,' >,t,+? h:Ct..s.~T Ac)' LF>k :kvXT~. .3E.'RS# Slli`d ?'C'r ~'` ^'Y~Y; ?1...s_,.: ... 4 aw aw ._ .., R _ viet.#2 ,o ga.;; (js..*ti?" 3 of tN`heir x1:t1 t J,e tP. t* s be > a V a all ,:".L:l ne?cyrzto t A, . c.~ + ?.et xa t of t : ax a s irs&wioaz ~'e the Phil xt AtAorz c." a USSR s:. t-io l cc szf tt, Was ace i eacraet of the dF. :+ of the Aes ewy of .i races y Apr .L L955, 6:t x a' it . x t i publiCity s it rn to ti ~;tS0 Almix .rite :iron (Argentina) 7. D.S. Deception (Argentina) 6 D0S.. Tte Camara (Argentina) 9, D.S. Ssperans. (Argentina) 10. D.S. Oreadas (A gentina) 11. D.S. General BeLgrano (Argentina) I. D.8. Peter I Island (Japan) 2. D. S ~ 0. San Karin (Argentina) 3- D.S s M ?gueerita Bay (United Kingd Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001- AQ Approved For Release 1999/09 , W- -T P79-01009 Pte Qonsnle4 Vid*ls (Chile) Deception (Chile) o?Kiggins (Chile) Admiralty My (United Kingdcaa) Hope Bay (United Kingdom) USSR Station at Knox Coast (UM) USSR In iate Station (USSR) t8 . Polar Station (UM) Intermediate Station (Australia) mo ri egian Station (Norway) Japanese Suaoer station (Japan) Stand by Re1a Stations 1. T Blew Punts Are.uas (jLrgwatida and. CtuJ e ) 2. Capetovn (South .frica) 3- Melbourne (Australia) Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 SECSI lease 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-01009AO01500120001-2 Approved For Release 1999/09/26 : CIA-RDP79-0100 ;EWJJP401~