NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS

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CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4
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RIPPUB
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C
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401
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November 11, 2016
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July 22, 1998
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1
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July 1, 1959
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REGULATION
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NATIONAL ao% 11. Tr" r.try 14. lr Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of Title 18, Sections 793 and 794, of the U. S. Code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS NATURE, PURPOSE, AND SCOPE OF THE NIS PROGRAM CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence DOCUMENT NO. NO CHANGE IN CLASS to. Washington, D. C. LI DECLASSNIIED CLASS. C1-1A1.1:::: TS S C NEXT REVIEW JOB NO, BOX MO. FOLDE% ItiOf Approved For lee -0) Li4 AUTH: ffl 7c . DATE: It 00_ REV1EWER: 4.ay RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 .L1 1 .1-0 .11-1 A. CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 2430 E Street, N. W. Washington 25, D. C. July 1959 MEMORANDUM FOR: All Holders of NIS Standard Instructions SUBJECT: NIS Standard Instructions The July 1959 revisions of the NIS Standard Instructions, approved by the NIS Committee, are attached. The items listed below are to be inserted in the Standard Instructions, replacing corresponding material which should be destroyed. STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS COMPONENT Introduction (Nature, Purpose and Scope) Allocations NIS Areas Correlation Guide Editorial Instructions Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VII Chapter VIII Ocean Areas This material contains information affect- ing the national defense of the United States within the meaning of the espionage laws, Title 18, USC, Secs. 793 and 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is pro- hibited by law. PAGES AND/OR MAPS Pages 1 through 3. Pages 1 through 10. Pages 1 through 4 and NIS Areas Index map. Pages 1, 2, and 7 through 10. Pages 3, 4, 7 and 8. Cover, pages 1 through 6. Pages 1 through 4 and 7 through 10. Pages 1, 2, and 11 through 16. Pages 3, 4, 19 and 20. Cover, pages 1 through 12. Cover, pages 1 through 11. Pages 5 and 6. Cover, pages 1 through 9, and Ocean Areas Index map. 25X1A9a Chairman, NIS Committee Regraded UNCLASSIFIED when separated from classified enclosures. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/210:Al-RD..179,-91055A000300030001-4 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 2430 E Street, N. W. Washington 25, D. C. JANUARY 1962 MEMORANDUM FOR: All Holders of NIS Standard Instructions SUBJECT: NIS Standard Instructions The January 1962 revisions of the NIS Standard Instructions, ap- proved by the NIS Committee, are attached. The items listed below are to be inserted in the Standard Instructions, replacing corresponding material which should be destroyed. STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS COMPONENT Allocations NIS Areas and Index Map Editorial Instructions Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter VIII Chapter IX Supplement I Key personalities Ocean Areas NIS Memos (Appendix A to NIS Memo No. 4) This material contains information affect- ing the national defense of the United States within the meaning of the espionage laws, Title 18, USC, Secs. 793 and 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is pro- hibited by law. PAGES Pages 1 through 10. Pages 1 through 5. Pages 1 through 4, and sample pages 1 and 2. Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Cover, Pages Pages Pages 1 through 12. 1 through 4. 1 through 15. 1, 2, 21, and 22. 1, 2, 5, and 6. Pages 1 through 5. 1 through 8. 1 through 3. 1 through 9. Pages 1 and 2. 25X1A9a Chairman, NIS Committee Regraded UNCLASSIFIED when separated from classified enclosures. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 Nature, Purpose, and Scope of the NIS Program Authority for the NIS Program The National Intelligence Survey (NIS) Program was established pursuant to National Security Council Intelligence Directive No. 3. This directive provides that: An outline of all basic intelligence required by the Government shall be maintained by the Central Intelli- gence Agency (CIA) in collaboration with the appro- priate agencies. This outline shall be broken down into chapters, sections, and subsections which shall be allocated as production and maintenance responsibilities to CIA and those agencies of the Government which are best qualified by reason of mission, production capability, and primary interest to assume the production and maintenance responsibility. This basic intelligence shall be compiled and con- tinuously maintained in the National Intelligence Survey to cover foreign countries, areas, or broad special subjects as required in the interest of national security. The NIS shall be disseminated in such form as may be determined by the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) and the agencies concerned. The DCI shall be responsible for coordinating pro- duction and maintenance and for accomplishing the review, publication, and dissemination of the NIS and shall make such requests of the agencies as are neces- sary for proper development and maintenance of the NIS. Departments or agencies to be called on for con- tributions to this undertaking may include agencies other than those represented permanently on the U.S. Intelligence Board (USIB). Basic Concepts of the NIS Program The NIS is a comprehensive digest of the basic intelligence required for the U.S. Government. The NIS is designed to servo fully the basic intelligence requirements of the Department of Defense in strategic and high level operational planning, and the Depart- ment of State in formulating and executing U.S. foreign policy. The NIS also serves lower planning and opera- tional levels in the Armed Forces and the Department of State, and in addition all other Government agencies which require basic intelligence in the accomplishment of their missions. In general, the intelligence contained in the NIS is concerned with the relatively permanent features and fundamental characteristics of a country, area, ocean basin, or broad special subject, and covers such fields as the geographical, transportation, sociological, polit- ical, economic, scientific, and military aspects of the country or area or the fundamental aspects of the broad special subject. The NIS Program has developed in two phases: first, the initial production of NIS on countries or areas in accordance with Joint Chiefs of Staff priorities and Intelligence Agency capabilities; and second, the con- tinuous maintenance of published NIS. The two phases proceed concurrently. The objective of the first phase has been to produce integrated basic intelligence on all countries and areas within the limits of available information. The objective of the second phase is to maintain the continuing validity of the basic intelligence in pub- lished NIS. Worldwide collection of information for the NIS is a continuing process. Sections are revised and issued under the NIS maintenance program when sufficient information is available to improve their adequacy as follows: I) presenting fundamentally changed situations in an area; 2) filling gaps in intelli- gence sufficient to require new evaluations; or 3) incor- porating new intelligence requirements which reflect policy, planning, or high level operational needs. It is the responsibility of agencies having primary interest to place each NIS unit actively on a maintenance basis as soon as the unit has been initially produced and to revise the unit for publication as required by these NIS maintenance criteria. Production for the NIS Program requires an over-all collection effort covering all foreign countries and 'areas of the world simultaneously. The intelligence data resulting from this collection and continuous processing necessarily are more comprehensive and detailed than those appearing in the printed NIS and constitute a reservoir of available basic intelligence to serve the interest of national security. Each published NIS unit is an integral component in the National Intelligence Survey of comprehen- sive basic intelligence on the relevant area, but may be published and disseminated separately for flexibility in production, use, and maintenance. NIS Standard Instructions The NIS Standard Instructions are issued in imple- mentation of National Security Council Intelligence Directive No. 3. They contain a listing of NIS Areas, outlines of basic intelligence requirements, allocations of responsibility for production, and instructions for the preparation of this intelligence. The Standard Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 Instructions were prepared by a joint committee of representatives of the Director of Central Intelligence and the Chiefs of Intelligence Agencies of the Depart- ments of State, the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force; were concurred in by the Intelligence Advisory Committee; and were approved by the National Se- curity Council. Changes in outline requirements and other modifications are made when authorized and approved by the permanent NIS Committee. The outlines and outline guides are so drafted as to cover all the basic intelligence aspects of the most com- plex foreign country or area. However, the appropriate treatment of any topic included in the outlines and outline guides is determined by the sense in which and the extent to which that topic applies to the particular country or area under consideration. The outlines and outline guides are thus flexibly adaptable to the country or area or topic concerned. The Standard Instructions prescribe the basic pro- cedures to be followed in producing and maintaining all NIS. However, when cogent reasons exist, the instructions may be modified or supplemented to permit appropriate treatment of any topic. Content of the NIS A standard NIS is divided into chapters, each of which treats a major functional aspect of the country or area under consideration. These chapters are divided into sections, each of which treats a major sub-- division of the field covered by the chapter. The standard NIS chapters are as follows: Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter VIII Chapter IX Brief Military Geography Transportation and Telecommunications Sociological Political Economic Scientific Armed Forces Map and Chart Appraisal The section is the NIS basic unit of production and subsequent maintenance. Each section is individually classified, indicates the Intelligence Agency primarily responsible for the preparation of the section, and carries the date on which the responsible agency approved the material for NIS publication. When appropriate, chapter discussion is amplified by more detailed treatment in supplements. There are six supplements: Supplement I Supplement II Supplement III Supplement IV Supplement V Supplement VI PAGE 2 Ports and Naval Facilities Coasts and Landing Beaches Telecommunications Urban Areas Petroleum Communism The NIS on Ocean Areas, entitled Marine Climate and Oceanography, divides the world's four ocean basins into Parts, which arc units of production and maintenance. Ocean basins are designated as follows: NIS 104 ...... Atlantic Basin 11 Parts NIS 105 Pacific Basin 12 Parts NIS 106 Indian Basin 4 Parts NIS 107 &retie Basin 1 Part Basic intelligence on International Communism is covered in the NIS in two units. One unit, SUPPLE- MENT VI (Communism), provides intelligence on the Communist apparatus and activities in individual countries. The second unit appears as NIS 108 (Inter- national Communism) and gives integrated coverage on world-wide Communist front organizations. The standard NIS includes a gazetteer of geographic names approved by the United States Board on Geo- graphic Names. NIS Gazetteers are issued as sepa- rate volumes. A consolidated biographical reference work, Key Personalities, is prepared for each standard NIS. An NIS Annual is prepared to provide limited maintenance of CHAPTER I between formal revisions of that Chapter. The scope of each NIS unit is set forth in detail under the outline guides in this volume. The following descriptions apply to CHAPTERS II?IX (specifications for CHAPTER I and the NIS Annual are given in the Standard Instructions for that chapter): a) The first section of most chapters is entitled Introduction. This section is an integrated over-view of the subject treated in the chapter. It also presents general aspects which can be more appropriately so treated than elsewhere in the chapter. b) The first subsection of most sections is entitled General. This subsection provides a proper approach to the treatment of material contained in the remainder of the section. c) The last subsection of most sections is uni- formly entitled Comments on Principal Sources. This subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about winch infor- mation is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Separate entities within a larger NIS area, such as the Vatican within NIS 17 (Italy), may be separately produced as annexes to the Introduction Section of the pertinent chapters on the larger area. Scheduling and production of such -annexes require the prior review and approval of the NIS Committee. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 NATURE, PURPOSE, AND SCOPE mIliataimamown Summary of agency functions 1. GENERAL Where one agency is responsible for a section of a chapter or a subsection of a section which is being co- ordinated by another agency, working level liaison is maintained. All communications of a policy or require- ments nature to the agency preparing the section or subsection are passed through intelligence command channels. In all instances working level coordination among agencies concerned includes the following: Exchange, where applicable, of drafts of completed draft sections in order to resolve inconsistencies among sec- tions and detect gaps in over-all coverage. Informal coordination in compiling specific, subsections which are assigned as the responsibility of one agency but impinge upon the field of interest of another. 2. NIS COMMITTEE The NIS Committee consists of representatives of the Director of Central Intelligence and the Chiefs of the Intelligence Agencies of the Departments of State, the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. The repre- sentative of the Director of Central Intelligence is the chairman of the Committee. It may include an advi- sory member from the Joint Staff who is familiar with the basic intelligence requirements of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), and who shall keep the JCS informed of the progress of the NIS Program, and advise the NIS Committee of changes in JCS requirements. The NIS Committee performs the following func- tions: Considers and approves policies and plans for the NIS Program. Determines the scope and treatment of each NIS to be produced. Allocates responsibility for production and main- tenance of NIS in accordance with the mission, pro- duction capability, and primary interest of the agencies concerned. Establishes NIS production and maintenance sched- ules based upon JCS priorities and agency capabilities. Promulgates procedures and instructions for the preparation, review, editing, and submission of NIS contributions. Recommends to CIA measures necessary for the coordination of the NIS Program. 3. CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY The Central Intelligence Agency performs the follow- ing functions: Furnishes the chairman, vice chairman, and secre- tariat of the NIS Committee. Provides over-all coordination of the NIS Program. Produces and maintains the NIS units which have been allocated by the NIS Committee as production responsibilities. Furnishes certain common services which can best be done centrally. Provides advisory substantive review and over-all editorial guidance; processes and publishes the NIS.. Disseminates NIS in accordance with Intellig3nce Agency agreements. 4. OTHER USIB AGENCIES Other USIB Agencies (State, Army, Navy, and Air Force) perform the following functions: Provide members and alternate members of the NIS Committee. Each member represents, and speaks for, the Chief of the Intelligence Agency of the department from which he is accredited. Produce and maintain the NIS units which have been allocated by the NIS Committee as production responsibilities. Implement collection efforts required for NIS pro- duction and maintenance. 5. NON-USIB AGENCIES Contributing non-USIB Agencies perform the follow- ing functions: Produce and maintain portions of NIS when ex- plicitly assigned that responsibility by the NIS Com- mittee or by an Intelligence Agency with the approval of that committee. Furnish Intelligence Agencies with material for inte- gration into NIS by those agencies. PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS ALLOCATIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR PRODUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE NIS CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. OrITTT7TI-Vr,wiTit.1) Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 miileumemmum Allocations of Responsibility for Production and Maintenance of the NIS Neither the following allocations nor any interpretation thereof shall negate the basic principle that each department is respon- sible for the production of that intelligence which is responsive to its departmental mission. CHAPTER it-BRIEF Section 10 Chronology 11?Significance of the Area 12?Military Geography 13?Transportation and Telecommunications 14?Sociological 15?Political 16?Economic 17?Scientific 18?Armed Forces 19?Map and Chart Appraisal Leading Personalities CHAPTER II-MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Section 20?Introduction 21?Military Geographic Regions 22?Coasts and Landing Beaches 23?Weather and Climate 24?Topography 25?Urban Areas CHAPTER III-TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Section 30?Introduction 31?Railway 32?Highway 33?Inland Waterway 35?Ports and Naval Facilities 36?Merchant Marine 37?Civil Air 38?Telecommunications CHAPTER IV-SOCIOLOGICAL Section 40?Introduction 41?Population 42?Characteristics of the People 43?Religion, Education, and Public Information 44?Manpower CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA CIA (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) - Army (with joint assistance) CIA CIA CIA (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) ARMY-CHAPTER COORDINATOR Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Navy (with Army assistance) Air Force (with joint assistance) Army Army (with joint assistance) ARMY-CHAPTER COORDINATOR Army (with joint assistance) Army Army Army Joint Army-Navy Navy Air Force (with Navy participation) Army CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA (with joint assistance) CIA (with the assistance of the Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce) CIA CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Labor for areas outside the Sino-Soviet Bloc) PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 SFIWWWWWWRIPIP NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER IV?SOCIOLOGICAL (Continued) 45?Health and Sanitation 46?Welfare CHAPTER V?POLITICAL Section 50?Introduction 51?The Constitutional System 52?Structure of the Government 53?Political Dynamics 54?Public Order and Safety 55?National Policies 56?Intelligence and Security 57?Subversion 58--Propaganda 59?Biographies of Key Personalities (production continued, see also KP) CHAPTER VI?ECONOMIC Section 60--Introduction 61?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry PAGE 2 62?Fuels and Power D. Electric Power 63?Minerals and Metals F. Construction materials 64--Manufacturing and Construction A. General B. Industrial machinery and equipment C. Vehicles D. Aircraft production E. Shipbuilding F. Explosives (industrial and military) G. Arms and ammunition H. Other military equipment and supplies Telecommunications equipment J. Chemical industries K. Agricultural processing industries L. Fibers, fabrics, and rubber dis- CIA (with the assistance of the Public Health Service, Department of Agriculture, and Army) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for areas outside the Sino-Soviet Bloc) CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA C TA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA--CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior for areas outside the Sino-Sovict Bloc) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of the Interior for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) Army CIA (with the assistance of the Department of the Interior for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) Army CIA (with joint assistance) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) Army Air Force (with Navy participation Navy Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 ALLOCATIONS CHAPTER VI?Ecot\romic (Continued.) M. Construction industries N. Other industries 0. Comments on principal sources 65?Trade and Finance CHAPTER VII?SCIENTIFIC Section 70?Introduction 71?Electronics 72?Air, Ground, and Naval Weapons 73?Atomic Energy 74?Biological Warfare 75?Chemical Warfare 76?Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Medicine CHAPTER VIII?ARMED FORCES Section 80?Introduction 81?Ground Forces 82?Naval Forces 83?Air Forces CHAPTER IX?MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL Section 90 Topographic maps and terrain models Specialized physical maps Terrain-evaluation maps Section 91 Aeronautical and air-information charts Air-target charts Air-transport maps Climatic maps Section 92 Nautical charts Port maps and plans Oceanographic charts Section 93 Railroad maps Road maps Inland-waterway maps and charts Telecommunication maps Urban-area maps and plans Section 94 Sociological maps Political maps Economic maps Postal maps General reference maps and atlases CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) CIA (with joint assistance) CIA (with the assistance of the Department of Commerce for areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc) CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA (with joint assistance). Coordinated by the SIC. Navy (with joint assistance). Coordinated by the SIC. Air Force (with joint assistance). Coordi- nated by the SIC. CIA (with joint assistance). Coordinated by the JAEIC. Army (with joint assistance). Coordinated by the SIC. Army (with joint assistance). Coordinated by the SIC. CIA (with joint assistance). Coordinated by the SIC. ARMY?CHAPTER COORDINATOR Army (with joint assistance) Army Navy Air Force (with Navy participation) CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR Army Air Force Navy Army CIA PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 SUPPLEMENT I--PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES JOINT ARMY-NAVY SUPPLEMENT II-COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES NAVY (WITH ARMY ASSISTANCE) SUPPLEMENT II [?TELECOMMUNICATIONS (production discontinued, see also Section 38) SUPPLEMENT IV-URBAN AREAS ARMY SUPPLEMENT V--PETROLEUM (production discontinued, see also Section 620) SUPPLEMENT VI-COMMUNISM (production discontinued, see also Section 57 and NIS 108) KEY PERSONALITIES CIA (with joint assistance for selected major countries) MARINE CLIMATE AND OCEANOGRAPHY NAVY INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM PAGE 4 Formerly State; new allocation under con- sideration. sor.1611"11.11,1"1". Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 ALLOCATIONS Contributor Statements?NIS Program Each published N IS contains a contributor statement, approved by the N IS Committee, showing the principal agency or agencies contributing to and responsible for the preparation of that NIS. The approved contributor statements are listed below. CHAPTER I?BRIEF This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general direction of the NIS Committee in accordance with allocations of responsibility in the NIS Standard Instructions. Section co- ordinators are noted at the top of each page. CHAPTER II?MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Section 20?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with contributions on sea approaches from the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, and on weather, climate, and air approaches from the Air Weather Service, USAF. Section 21?Military Geographic Regions This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with contributions on coasts and landing beaches from the Office of Naval Intelligence, and on weather and climate from the Air Weather Service, USAF. Section 22?Coasts and Landing Beaches This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence, with contributions on coastal oceanography from the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, and on routes of trans- portation from the Office of the Chief of Trans- portation, Department of the Army. The ma- terial on landing beaches was prepared under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 23?Weather and Climate This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, by the Air Weather Service, with contributions on clothing and temporary shelter from the Office of the Quar- termaster General, Department of the Army, and on naval and amphibious operations from the Naval Weather Service Division. Section 24?Topography This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 25?Urban Areas This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with the assistance of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, the Offices of the Chief of Ordnance, Quarter- master General, Chief Signal Officer, and Sur- geon General, Department of the Army, and the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. CHAPTER III?TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNI- CATIONS Section 30?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, and from the Offices of the Chief of Transportation and the Chief Signal Officer, Department of the Army. Section 31?Railway This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation, with contributions on construc- tion, maintenance, engineering structures, and loading and clearance diagrams from the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/2 "MiNve NIS STANDARD Section 32?Highway This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation, with contributions on construc- tion, maintenance, and engineering structures from the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 33?Inland Waterway This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Offiee of the Chief of Transportation, with contributions on construc- tion and maintenance from the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 35?Ports and Naval Facilities As appropriate: a) This Section was prepared for the NTS by the Office of Naval Intelligence. b) This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Material on naval facilities and shipyards was prepared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 36?Merchant Marine This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 37?Civil Air This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with Navy participation. Section 38?Telecommunications This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. CHAPTER IV--SOCIOLOGICAL Section 40?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central :Intelligence Agency. Section 41?Population This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency by the Bureau of Census, Depart- ment of Commerce. PAGE 6 1: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Section 42 Characteristics of the People This Section was prepared for the NTS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 43?Religion, Education, and Public Informa- tion This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Section 44?Manpower (outside Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gency Agency by the Department of Labor. Section 44?Manpower (Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 45?Health and Sanitation This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency with the assistance of the Public Health Service, the Department of Agriculture, and the Medical Information and Intelligence Agency, Department of the Army. Section 46?Welfare (outside Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Section 46?Welfare (Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. CHAPTER V?POLITICAL Section 50?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 51?The Constitutional System This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 52?Structure of the Government This Section was prepared for Central Intelligence Agency. Section 53?Political Dynamics This Section was prepared for Central Intelligence Agency. Section 54?Public Order and Safety This Section was prepared for Central Intelligence Agency. the NIS by the the NIS by the the NIS by the Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 ALLOCATIONS 01.1.111.B.11111M Section 55?National Policies This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 56?Intelligence and Security This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 57?Subversion This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 58?Propaganda This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. CHAPTER VI-ECONOMIC (outside Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) For Consolidated Chapter: This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Material on agriculture and forestry was contributed by the Department of Agriculture; material on fisheries, fuels, min- erals, and metals by the Department of the Interior; material on electric power and con- struction materials by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army; material on aircraft by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, with Navy partici- pation; material on shipbuilding by the Office of Naval Intelligence; material on other military end items, telecommunications equipment, and motor vehicles by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; and the balance by the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Section 60?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section el?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency by the Department of Agriculture and the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. Section 62?Fuels and Power This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 62A, 62B, 62C, 62E, Department of the Interior; 62D, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 63?Minerals and Metals This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 63A, 63B, 63C, 63D, 63E, 63G, Depart- ment of the Interior; 63F, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 64?Manufacturing and Construction This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 64A, 64B, 64J, 64K, 64L, 64M, 64N, 640, Department of Commerce; 64C, 64F, 64G, 64H, 641, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army; 64D, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, with Navy participation; 64E, Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 65?Trade and Finance This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelligence Agency by the Department of Commerce. CHAPTER VI-ECONOMIC (Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) For Consolidated Chapter: This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Material on electric power and construction materials was contributed by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army; material on aircraft by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, with Navy participation; material on shipbuild- PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JAN UARY 1962 ing by the Office of Naval Intelligence; material on other military end items, telecommunications equipment, and motor vehicles, by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army; and the balance by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 60?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 61?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 62?Fuels and Power This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 62A, 62B, 62C, 62E, Central Intelligence Agency; 62D, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 63?Minerals and Metals This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 63A, 63B, 63C, 63D, 63E, 63G, Central Intelligence Agency; 63F, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 64?Manufacturing and Construction This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 64A, 64B, 64J, 64K, 64L, 64M, 64N, 640, Central Intelligence Agency; 64C, 64F, 64G, 64H, 641, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; 64D, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with Navy participation; 64E, Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 65?Trade and Finance This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. PAGE 8 CHAPTER VII?SCIENTIFIC Section 70?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance or contributions from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; the Office of Naval Intelligence; and the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Com- mittee. Section 71?Electronics This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence, with contributions from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, and with assistance from the Central Intelligence Agency. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Com- mittee. Section 72?Air, Ground, and Naval Weapons This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with contributions from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the Office of Naval Intelligence, and with assistance from the Central Intelligence Agency. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Section 73?Atomic Energy This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance or contributions from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; the Office of Naval Intelligence; the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF; and the Atomic Energy Commission. It was coordinated by the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Com- mittee. Section 74?Biological Warfare This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief Chemical Officer, with assistance from [other agencies to be indicated in each instance]. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 ALLOCATIONS Section 75?Chemical Warfare This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief Chemical Officer, with assistance from [other agencies to be indicated in each instance]. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Section 76?Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Medicine This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance or contributions from ? . . . (assisting or contrib- uting agencies to be indicated in each instance). It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. CHAPTER VIII?ARMED FORCES For Consolidated Chapter: This Chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, and the Army Tech- nical Services. Section 80?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF. Section 81?Ground Forces This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Army Technical Services. Section 82?Naval Forces This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 83?Air Forces This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with Navy participation. CHAPTER IX-MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL Section 90?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. It was coordinated with other sections of Chapter IX by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 91?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, by the Aero- nautical Chart and Information Center and the Air Weather Service. It was coordinated with other sections of Chapter IX by the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency. Section 92?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Naval Intelligence by the U.S. Navy Hydro- graphic Office. It was coordinated with other sections of Chapter IX by the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Section 93?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, by the Offices of the Chief of Engineers and the Chief Signal Officer. It was coordinated with other sections of Chapter IX by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 94?This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. SUPPLEMENT I?PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES As appropriate: a) For Sections 1 through 6?This Section was pre- pared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelli- gence. b) Section 1?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assist- ant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Material on naval facilities was prepared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 2?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the (Ace of the Chief of Transportation. Section 3?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Section 4?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Section 5?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of Naval Intelligence. It was coordinated by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Section 6?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of Naval Intelligence. It was coordinated by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. SUPPLEMENT II--COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES For each Section: This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Naval Intelligence. The material on landing beaches was prepared for the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with contributions on routes of transportation from the Office of the Chief of Transportation, and on surf and tidal data from the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. Maps and material on coastal description were prepared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. PAGE 10 KEY PERSONALITIES Selected major countries: This publication was prepared for the NTS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Political, sociological, economic, and scientific biographies, as well as the preface and institutional directory, were contributed by the Central Intelligence Agency; army biog- raphies by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army; naval biographies by the Office of Naval Intelligence; and air force biog- raphies by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF. Other: This publication was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Political, sociological, economic, and scientific biographies, as well as the preface and the institutional directory, were contributed by the Central Intelligence Agency. (And as appropriate): Biographies of military leaders were prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency in coordination with the military serv- ices. MARINE CLIMATE AND OCEANOGRAPHY For each part (or Section) of NIS on Ocean Areas: This Part [or Section] was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Naval Intelligence and (for Section 1) the Director of the Naval Weather Service Divi- sion by the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 Allocations of Responsibility for Production and Maintenance of the NIS Neither the following allocations nor any interpretation thereof shall negate the basic principle that each department is respon- sible for the production of that intelligence which is responsive to its departmental mission. CHAPTER I?BRIEF Section 10?Chronology 11?Significance of the Area 12?Military Geography 13?Transportation and Telecommunications 14?Sociological 15-1Political 16?Economic (Outside Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) 16?Economic (Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) 17?Scientific 18?Armed Forces 19?Map and Chart Appraisal Leading Personalities CHAPTER II?MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Section 20?Introduction 21?Military Geographic Regions 22?Coasts and Landing Beaches 23?Weather and Climate 24?Topography 25?Urban Areas CHAPTER III?TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Section 30?Introduction 31?Railway 32?Highway 33?Inland Waterway 34?Petroleum Pipeline (treated in Subsection 62, C and Supplement V) 35?Ports and Naval Facilities 36?Merchant Marine 37?Civil Air 38?Telecommunications CHAPTER IV?SOCIOLOGICAL Section 40?Introduction 41?Population 42?Characteristics of the People 43?Religion, Education, and Public Information 44?Manpower 45?Health and Sanitation 46?Welfare CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR State (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) State (with CIA assistance) State (with CIA assistance) State (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) CIA (with joint assistance) State (with joint assistance) ARMY?CHAPTER COORDINATOR Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Navy (with Army assistance) Air Force (with joint assistance) Army Army (with joint assistance) ARMY?CHAPTER COORDINATOR Army (with joint assistance) Army Army Army Joint Army-Navy Navy Air Force (with Navy participation) Army STATE?CHAPTER COORDINATOR State State (with Army assistance) State State State CIA (with Army assistance) State PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 CHAPTER V-POLITICAL Section 50?Introduction 51?The Constitutional System 52?Structure of the Government 53?Political Dynamics 54?Public Order and Safety 55?National Policies 56?Intelligence and Security 57?Subversion 58?Propaganda 59?Biographies of Key Personalities CHAPTER VI-ECONOMIC (OUTSIDE SINO-SOVIET BLOC AREAS) Section 60?Introduction 61?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry 62?Fuels and Power I). Electric Power 63?Minerals and Metals F. Construction materials 64?Manufacturing and Construction A. General B. Industrial machinery and equipment C. Vehicles I). Aircraft production E. Shipbuilding F. Explosives (industrial and military) G. Arms and ammunition (including explosive de- vices), fire-control equipment, and bomb sights H. Other military equipment and supplies 1. Telecommunications equipment J. Chemical industries K. Agricultural processing industries L. Fibers, fabrics, and rubber M. Construction industries N. Other industries 0. Comments on principal sources 65?Trade and Finance CHAPTER VI?EcoNomic (SINO-SOVIET BLOC AREAS) Section 60?Introduction 61?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry 62?Fuels and Power 1). Electric Power 63?Minerals and Metals F. Construction materials PAGE 2 STATE-CHAPTER COORDINATOR State State State State State State CIA State State State STATE--CHAPTER COORDINATOR State (with joint assistance) State (with the assistance of the Department of Agriculture and the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior) State (with assistance of the Department of the Interior) Army State (with the assistance of the Department of the Interior) Army State (with joint assistance) State State (primary responsibility) Army Air Force (with Navy participation) Navy Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) State State State State State State (with joint assistance) State CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA CIA CIA Army CIA Army Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 ALLOCATIONS eliglimummo CHAPTER VI?ECONOMIC (SINO-SOVIET BLOC AREAS) (Continued) 64?Manufacturing and Construction A. General B. Industrial machinery and equipment C. Vehicles D. Aircraft production E. Shipbuilding F. Explosives (industrial and military) G. Arms and ammunition (including explosive de- vices), fire-control equipment, and bomb sights H. Other military equipment and supplies I. Telecommunications equipment J. Chemical industries K. Agricultural processing industries L. Fibers, fabrics, and rubber M. Construction industries N. Other industries 0. Comments on principal sources 65?Trade and Finance CHAPTER VII SCIENTIFIC Section 70?Introduction 71?Electronics 72?Air, Ground, and Naval Weapons 73?Atomic Energy 74?Biological Warfare 75?Chemical Warfare 76?Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Medicine CIIAPTER VIII?ARMED FORCES Section 80?Introduction 81?Ground Forces 82?Naval Forces 83?Air Forces CIA (with joint assistance) CIA CIA Army Air Force (with Navy participation) Navy Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) Army (with joint assistance) CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA?CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA (with contributions or assistance of State, Army, Navy, and Air Force). Coor- dinated by the SIC. Navy (with contributions from Army and Air Force, and CIA assistance). Coordi- nated by the SIC. Air Force (with contributions from Army and Navy, and CIA assistance). Coordinated by the SIC. CIA (with contributions or assistance of State, Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Atomic Energy Commission). Coordinated by the JAEIC. Army (with joint assistance). by the SIC. Army (with joint assistance). by the SIC. CIA (with joint assistance). by the SIC. ARMY?CHAPTER COORDINATOR Coordinated Coordinated Coordinated Army (with joint assistance) Army Navy Air Force (with Navy participation) Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 mempunominam NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 CHAPTER IX-MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL Section 90?General 91?Selected Maps, Charts, and Plans A. General B. Physical maps, navigation charts, and maps and plans of urban areas C. Transportation and communications maps and charts D. Sociological, political, and economic maps E. Special armed forces maps and charts F. Terrain models 92?Indexes of mapping data and coverage SUPPLEMENT I---PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES SUPPLEMENT TI-COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES SUPPLEMENT III-TELECOMMUNICATIONS SUPPLEMENT IV-URBAN AREAS SUPPLEMENT V-PETROLEUM SUPPLEMENT V.I?Commumsm KEY PERSONALITIES MARINE CLIMATE AND OCEANOGRAPHY INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM PAGE 4 CIA-CHAPTER COORDINATOR CIA, Army, Navy, Air Force CIA (with joint assistance) CIA Army, Navy, Air Force CIA, Army, Navy, Air Force CIA Army, Navy, Air Force Army, Navy CIA (as coordinating staff for material re- ceived from Army, Navy, and Air Force) JOINT ARMY-NAVY NAVY (WITH ARMY ASSISTANCE) ARMY ARMY SINO-SOVIET BLOC AREAS: CIA OUTSIDE SINO-SOVIET BLOC AREAS: STATE (WITH ASSISTANCE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR) STATE JOINT CIA-STATE-ARMY-NAVY-AIR FORCE NAVY STATE Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 ALLOCATIONS miiilmemimmor Contributor Statements?NIS Program Each published NIS contains a contributor statement, approved by the NIS Committee, showing the principal agency or agencies contributing to and responsible for the preparation of that NIS. The approved contributor statements are listed below. CHAPTER I?BRIEF This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general direction of the NIS Committee in accordance with allocations of responsibility in the NIS Standard Instructions. Section co- ordinators are noted at the top of each page. CHAPTER II?MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Section 20?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with contributions on sea approaches from the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, and on weather, climate, and air approaches from the Air Weather Service, USAF. Section 21?Military Geographic Regions This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with contributions on coasts and landing beaches from the Office of Naval Intelligence, and on weather and climate from the Air Weather Service, USAF. Section 22?Coasts and Landing Beaches This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence, with contributions on coastal oceanography from the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, and on routes of trans- portation from the Office of the Chief of Trans- portation, Department of the Army. The ma- terial on landing beaches was prepared under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 23?Weather and Climate This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, by the Air Weather Service, with contributions on clothing and temporary shelter from the Office of the Quar- termaster General, Department of the Army, and on naval and amphibious operations from the Naval Weather Service Division. Section 24?Topography This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 25?Urban Areas This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with the assistance of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State, the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, and the Offices of the Chief of Ordnance, Quartermaster General, Chief Signal Officer, and Surgeon General, Department of the Army. CHAPTER III?TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNI- CATIONS Section 30?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, and from the Offices of the Chief of Transportation and the Chief Signal Officer, Department of the Army. Section 31?Railway This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation, with contributions on construc- tion, maintenance, engineering structures, and loading and clearance diagrams from the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 mliMIMPLIRRILk NIS STANDARD Section 32?Highway This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation, with contributions on construc- tion, maintenance, and engineering structures from the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 33?Inland Waterway This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation, with contributions on construc- tion and maintenance from the Office of the Chief of Engineers. Section 35?Ports and Naval Facilities As appropriate: a) This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence. b) This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Material on naval facilities and shipyards was prepared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 36?Merchant Marine This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 37?Civil Air This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with Navy participation. Section 38?Telecommunications This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. CHAPTER IV SOCIOLOGICAL Section 40?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 41?Population This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. PAGE 6 INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 Section 42?Characteristics of the People This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 43?Religion, Education, and Public Infor- mation This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 44?Manpower This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 45?Health and Sanitation This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with contributions from the Medical Information and Intelligence Agency, Department of the Army. Section 46?Welfare This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of. State. CHAPTER V?POLITICAL Section 50?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 51?The Constitutional System This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 52?Structure of the Government This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 53?Political Dynamics This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 54?Public Order and Safety This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. ailmommouroui Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 ALLOCATIONS Section 55?National Policies This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 56?Intelligence and Security This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 57?Subversion This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence etnd Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 58?Propaganda This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 59?Biographies of Key Personalities This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. CHAPTER VI?ECONOMIC (outside Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas For Consolidated Chapter: This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Intel- ligence and Research, Department of State. Material on agriculture and forestry was con- tributed by thh Department of Agriculture; material on fisheries, fuels, minerals, and metals by the Department of the Interior; material on electric power and construction materials by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army; material on aircraft by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, with Navy participation; material on ship- building by the Office of Naval Intelligence; material on other military end items, telecom- munications equipment, and motor vehicles by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; and the balance by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State. Section 60?.1 n troduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. Section 61?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Intelli- gence and Research, Department of State, by the Department of Agriculture and the Depart- ment of the Interior. Section 62?Fuels and Power This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Intel- ligence and Research, Department of State. Contributors of Subsections were: 62A, 62B, 62C, Department of the Interior; 62D, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 63?Minerals and Metals This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Intel- ligence and Research, Department of State. Contributors of Subsections were: 63A, 63B, 630, 63D, 63E, 63G, Department of the Interior; 63F, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Depart- ment of the Army. Section 64?Manufacturing and Construction This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Intel- ligence and Research, Department of State. Contributors of Subsections were: 64A, 64B, 64J, 64K, 64L, 64M, 64N, 640, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State; 64C, 64F, 64G, 64H, 641, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; 64D, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, with Navy participation; 64E, Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 65?Trade and Finance This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. CHAPTER VI?EcoNomic (Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas) For Consolidated Chapter: This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Material on electric power and construction materials was contributed by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army; material on aircraft by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, with Navy participation; material on shipbuild- PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 aliaaffigaiaakik NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 ing by the Office of Naval Intelligence; material on other military end items, telecommunications equipment, and motor vehicles, by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army; and the balance by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 60?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 61?Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Section 62?Fuels and Power This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 62A, 62B, 620, 62E, Central Intelligence Agency; 62D, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 63?Minerals and Metals This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 63A, 63B, 630, 63D, 63E, 63G, Central Intelligence Agency; 63F, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army. Section 64?Manufacturing and Construction This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Contributors of Subsections were: 64A, 64B, 64J, 64K, 64L, 64M, 64N, 640, Central Intelligence Agency; 64C, 64F, 64G, 64H, 641, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, and Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; 64D, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with Navy participation; 64E, Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 65?Trade and Finance This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. PAGE 8 CHAPTER VII?SCIENTIFIC Section 70?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance or contributions from the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State; the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; the Office of Naval Intelligence; and the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Section 71?Electronics This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence, with contributions from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, and with assistance from the Central Intelligence Agency. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Com- mittee. Section 72?Air, Ground, and Naval Weapons This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with contributions from the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the Office of Naval Intelligence, and with assistance from the Central Intelligence Agency. It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Section 73?Atomic Energy This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance or contributions from the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State; the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army; the Office of Naval Intelligence; the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF; and the Atomic Energy Commission. It was coordinated by the Joint Atomic Energy Intelli- gence Committee. Section 74?Biological Warfare This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief Chemical Officer, with assistance from . . . . (assisting agencies to be indicated in each instance). It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 ALLOCATIONS silminnommumi Section 75?Chemical Warfare This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army, by the Office of the Chief Chemical Officer, with assistance from . . . . (assisting agencies to be indicated in each instance). It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. Section 76?Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Medicine This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance or contributions from . . . . (assisting or contrib- uting agencies to be indicated in each instance). It was coordinated by the Scientific Intelligence Committee. CHAPTER VIII?ARMED FORCES For Consolidated Chapter: This Chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF, and the Army Tech- nical Services. Section 80?Introduction This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF. Section 81?Ground Forces This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelli- gence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Nava Intelligence and the Army Technical Services. Section 82?Naval Forces This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 83?Air Forces This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelli- gence, USAF, with Navy participation. V 11J.V.L1N 1 lab CHAPTER IX?MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL This Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency, with contributions from the Office of the Chief of Engineers and the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, Department of the Army, the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, the U.S. Navy Photographic Interpretation Center, the Air Weather Service, USAF; the Aero- nautical Chart and Information Center, USAF; and the Central Intelligence Agency. SUPPLEMENT I?PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES As appropriate: a) For Sections 1 through 6?This Section was pre- pared for the NIS by the Office of Naval Intelli- gence. b) Section 1?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Assist- ant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Material on naval facilities was prepared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Section 2?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Section 3?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Section 4?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Section 5?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of Naval Intelligence. It was coordinated by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. Section 6?This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the As- sistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of Naval Intelligence. It was coordinated by the Office of the Chief of Transportation. SUPPLEMENT II?COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES For each Section: This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Naval Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 elleminnemem NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS Intelligence. The material on landing beaches was prepared for the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army, by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, with contributions on routes of transportation from the Office of the Chief of Transportation, and on surf and tidal data from the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. Maps and material on coastal description, were prepared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. SUPPLEMENT V?PETROLEUM a) For each Section on Areas outside the Sino- Soviet Bloc: This Section was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Intel- ligence and Research, Department of State, by the Department of the Interior. b) For each Section on Sino-Soviet Bloc Areas: This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. SUPPLEMENT VI?COMMUNISM For each Section: This Section was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. PAGE 10 JULY 1959 KEY PERSONALITIES This publication was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelli- gence Agency. Political, cultural, and eco- nomic biographies, as well as the consolidated introduction, the institutional directory, and in- dex, were contributed by the Bureau of Intelli- gence and Research, Department of State; scien- tific biographies by the Central Intelligence Agency; army biographies by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Head- quarters, Department of the Army; naval biographies by the Office of Naval Intelligence; aviation biographies by the Office of the As- sistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, USAF. MARINE CLIMATE AND OCEANOGRAPHY For each part (or Section, as appropriate) of NIS on Ocean Areas: This Part [or Section] was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Director of Naval Intelligence and the Director of the Naval Weather Service Division by the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM For each Part of NIS on International Communism: This Part was prepared for the NIS by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Depart- ment of State. fillommumaiim Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS NIS AREAS CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030ww JANUARY 1962 NIS Areas For purposes of ready identification the entire world, land and sea, except the continental United States, is divided into numbered NIS Areas. The NIS Area numbers and titles are given in the list below. The NIS Area numbers combine with NIS Section, Chapter, or Supplement numbers to identify each printed NIS unit by convenient short title. NIS Areas are numbered consecutively from NIS 1 through NIS 107. Land areas are covered in NIS 1 through 103. Ocean areas are covered in NIS 104 through 107. NIS 108 is titled "International Corn- munism" and provides integrated worldwide coverage on Communist front organizations. Political developments have required from time to time that some of the originally designated NIS Areas be divided into two or more new NIS Areas, which are designated by the addition of capital letters to the original NIS numbers. Complete NIS are being pro- duced on these new Areas. However, in the interven- ing period it may be necessary to refer to the original NIS Area for coverage on certain topics. (Offshore island possessions are normally included in the related NIS Areas; see NIS Base Maps for definitive boundaries.) NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 25X6A Northern Ireland, Isle of Man, Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands, and Channel Islands. 2 Ireland Republic of Ireland. 3 France France and Monaco. 4 Netherlands Netherlands. 5 Belgium Belgium. 6 Luxembourg Luxembourg. 7 Denmark Denmark, including the Faeroe Islands. 8 Portugal Portugal, including the Azores, Madeira, and the Cape Verde Islands. 9 Spain Spain, including the Canary Islands and Andorra. 10 Norway Norway, including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. 11 Sweden Sweden. Finland. ?5X6A 25X6A ?A East Germany ertnan 25X6A 14 Poland Poland, within present de facto boundaries, including the former Free City of Danzig and the portions of Germany under Polish administration. 15 Switzerland Switzerland and Liechtenstein. 16 Austria Austria. 17 Italy Italy, San Marino, and Vatican City. 18 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia. 19 Hungary Hungary. 20 Albania Albania. 21 Yugoslavia Yugoslavia. 22 Rumania Rumania. 23 Bulgaria Bulgaria. 24 Greece Greece. 25 Gibraltar, Malta, and Cyprus Gibraltar, Maltese Islands, and Cyprus. 25A Gibraltar Gibraltar. 25B Malta Maltese Islands. 25C Cyprus Cyprus. 26 U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. within present de facto boundaries, including the Baltic States, northern East Prussia, Tannu Tuva, Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. 4ailimummiffoim Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 ApJ2ved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA For geographic treatment (Chapter II) the U.S.S.R. is divided into 5 parts as follows: Part I European U.S.S.R. and the European U.S.S.R. and the Caucasus. Caucasus Part II Soviet Central Asia Soviet Central Asia. Part III Western Siberia Western Siberia. Part IV Central Siberia Central Siberia. Part V Eastern Siberia Eastern Siberia. 27 Turkey Turkey. 28 Syria and Lebanon Syria and Lebanon. 28A Syria Syria. 28B Lebanon Lebanon. 29 Jordan Jordan. ill ....I1... Iraq. 25X6A Israel. 32 Arabian Peninsula Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Bahrain, Qatar, Trucial States, Muscat and Oman, Yemen, Colony of Aden, and Aden Protectorate (including Socotra). 33 Iran Iran. 34 Afghanistan Afghanistan. 35 India India, including Andaman, Nicobar and Laccadive Islands, Jammu and Kashmir, and Bhutan. 35A Nepal Nepal. 36 Pakistan East and West Pakistan. 37 Ceylon Ceylon. 38 Burma Burma. 30 China China, including Tibet and Taiwan; hong Kong and Macao. 39A Communist China Communist China, including Tibet. For geographic treatment (Chapter II) Communist China is divided into 5 parts as follows: Part I Sinkiang Sinkiang. Part II Northeast China Northeast China. Part III North China North China. Part IV South China South China, including all Communist-held islands. Part V Tibetan Highlands Tibetan Highlands. 39B Nationalist China Nationalist China, including all Nationalist-held islands. 39C Hong Kong and Macao Hong Kong and Macao. 40 Mongolia "Mongolian Peoples Republic." 41 Korea Korea. 41A North Korea North Korea. 41B South Korea Republic of Korea. 42 Thailand Thailand. 43 Indochina Former Indochina. 43A Cambodia Cambodia. 43B Laos Laos. 43C North Vietnam North Vietnam. 43D South Vietnam South Vietnam, the Paracel Islands, Spratly Island, and other islands and reefs to the eastward. 44 British Indonesia Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei, and North Borneo. 44A Malaya and Singapore Federation of Malaya and Singapore. 44B Bri 47 Algeria 48 Morocco 49 Libya 50 West Africa 50A Ghana 50B Nigeria PAGE 2 25X6A mum. Algeria. Morocco and Ifni. Libya. Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Niger, Dahomey, Togo, and Spanish Sahara. Ghana. Nigeria. 001.1Bionnommiiim, Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 25X6A 25X6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 NIS AREAS mmiimmisimemmi NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 50C French West Africa, Togo, and Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, *Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Niger, Dahomey, Togo, Spanish Sahara. and Spanish Sahara. 50D Sierra Leone Sierra Leone, Gambia, and Portuguese Guinea. 50E Guinea Guinea. 5OF Mauritania Mauritania. 50G Senegal Senegal. 50H Mali Mali. 50J Upper Volta Upper Volta. 5OIC Ivory Coast Ivory Coast. 50L Niger Niger. 50M Dahomey Dahomey. 50N Togo Togo. 5013 Spanish Sahara Spanish Sahara. 51 Liberia Liberia. 52 Equatorial Africa Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, and Spanish Guinea. 52A Chad Chad. 52B Central African Republic Central African Republic, 52C Cameroon Federal Republic of Cameroon. 52D Gabon Gabon. 52E Congo Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). 52F Spanish Guinea Rio Muni, Annoben, Fernando Po, Corisco, Islas Elobey, and STio Tome e Principe. 53 Egypt Egypt, including the "Gaza Strip." 54 Sudan Sudan. 55 Ethiopia and the Somalilands Ethiopia (including Eritrea), Somali Republic and French Somaliland. 55A Ethiopia Ethiopia, including Eritrea. 55B Somali Republic Somali Republic, including French Somaliland. 56 British East Africa Kenya, Zanzibar Protectorate, Uganda, and Tanganyika. 56A Kenya and Zanzibar Kenya and Zanzibar Protectorate, Protectorate. 56B Uganda Uganda. 56C Tanganyika Tanganyika. 57 Rhodesia and Nyasaland Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland. 58 Mozambique Mozambique. 59 Angola Angola, including Cabinda. 60 Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo and Ruanda-Urundi. 61 South Africa 62 Malagasy Republic 63 Indian Ocean Islands 64 South Atlantic Islands 65 Alaska 67 Greenland 68 Iceland 69 Antarctica 71 Guatemala 72 British Honduras 73 Honduras 74 El Salvador 75 Nicaragua 76 Costa Rica 4millummos Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Bechuanaland, Swaziland, and Basutoland. Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Comoro Islands, and Reunion. Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Seychelles, Prince Edward Islands, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, Heard Island, McDonald Islands, Amsterdam Island, and St. Paul Island. Colony of Saint Helena (includes Ascension Island, Saint Helena Island, and the Tristan da Cunha Group), Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, and Bouvet Island, limited by 60?S. Former Territory of Alaska. reen an*. Iceland. Antarctica (including South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands), ua ema a. British Honduras. Honduras, including territory north of the Rio Coco. El Salvador, including small areas claimed by Honduras. Nicaragua. Costa Rica, including Cocos Island. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 25X6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 77 Panama Panama, including the Canal Zone. 78 Cuba Cuba. 79 Haiti Haiti. 80 Dominican Republic Dominican Republic. 8! British Western Atlantic Possessions Colonies of the Bahamas, Jamaica (including dependencies of Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Morant Cays, and Pedro Cays), Leeward Islands, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and Bermuda. 81A The West Indies Jamaica (including dependencies of Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Morant Cays and Pedro Cays), Leeward Islands, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, and Trinidad and Tobago. 81B Bermuda, Bahama Islands, and Colonies of Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the British Virgin Islands. British Virgin Islands 82 Netherlands Antilles Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Dutch part of Saint Martin. 83 French West Indies Martinique, Guadeloupe and Dependencies (Marie Galante, Iles des Salutes, Desirade, Saint Barthelemy), and French part of Saint Martin. 84 U.S. Possessions in the Caribbean Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Swan Islands, Corn Islands, Navassa Island, Serrano. Bank, Serranilla Bank, Roncador Bank, and Quito. Sueno Bank. 85 Colombia Colombia, including Isla de Malpelo, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia. 86 Venezuela Venezuela. 87 Ecuador Ecuador, including the Galapagos Islands. 88 Peru Peru. 89 Chile Chile, including Easter Island, Isla Sala y Gomez, Islas Fernandez, Isla San Felix, Isla San Ambrosio, and islands south of Tierra del Fuego disputed with Argentina. 90 Argentina Argentina, including Isla Martin Garcia. 91 Uruguay Uruguay. 92 Paraguay Paraguay. 93 Bolivia Bolivia. 94 Brazil Brazil, including Ilha de Trindade, Fernando de Noronha, Rochedos Sao Pedro e Siio Paulo. For geographic treatment (Chapter 1/) Brazil Part I Part II 95 95A 95B 95C Southeast Brazil Northwest Brazil The Guianas British Guiana Surinam French Guiana ? awan 99 Philippines 100 Indonesia 100A Republic of Indonesia 100B Netherlands New Guinea 101 West Pacific Islands 102 Southwest Pacific Islands 103 South Pacific Islands PAGE 4 s divided into 2 parts as follows: Southeast Brazil. Northwest Brazil. British Guiana, Surinam, and French Guiana. British Guiana. Surinam. Fre Former territory of Hawaii. Republic of the Philippines and Pulau Miangas. Republic of Indonesia, Netherlands New Guinea, and Portuguese Tinior. Republic of Indonesia and Portuguese Timor. Netherlands New Guinea. All islands in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Atoll, Guam, Johnston Island, Sand Island, and the Midway Islands. Territory of Papua, Territory of New Guinea, British Solomon Islands Pro- tectorate, New Hebrides Condoininium, New Caledonia and Dependencies, Colony of Fiji, Kingdom of Tonga, Gilbert Islands, Ellice Islands, Ocean Island, and Nauru. Palmyra Island, Kingman Reef, Phoenix Islands, Tokelau Islands, Samoa Islands, Cook Islands, Line Islands, French Polynesia, Pitcairn Island, and adjacent British islands. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 NIS AREAS MARINE CLIMATE AND OCEANOGRAPHY (NIS Areas 104 through 107 cover the world's ocean areas; see Index Map at end of the Ocean Areas Outline and Outline Guide) NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 104 Atlantic Basin Part I Western Sector of North Atlantic Part II Northern Sector of North Atlantic Part III East-Central Sector of North Atlantic Part IV Equatorial Atlantic Part V Central Sector of South Atlantic Part VI Southwestern Sector of South Atlantic and Southeastern Sector of South Pacific Part VII Southeastern Sector of South Atlantic Part VIII Eastern Sector of South Atlantic Part IX Mediterranean and Black Seas Part X Northeastern Sector of North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea Part XI Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas 105 Pacific Basin Part I Northeastern Sector of North Pacific Part II Southeastern Sector of North Pacific Part III Northeastern Sector of South Pacific Part IV South-Central Sector of South Pacific Part V North-Central Sector of South Pacific Part VI South-Central Sector of North Pacific Part VII North-Central Sector of North Pacific Part VIII Bering Sea Part IX Northwestern Sector of North Pacific, the Sea of Okhotsk, arid the Sea of Japan Part X Southwestern Sector of North Pacific Part XI South China Sea and Seas of the Malay Archipelago Part XII Western Sector of South Pacific 106 Indian Basin Part I Northeastern Sector of Indian Ocean Part II Southeastern Sector of Indian Ocean Part III Southwestern Sector of Indian Ocean Part IV Northwestern Sector of Indian Ocean 107 Arctic Basin INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM (NIS 108 is a topical survey of worldwide Communist front organi- zations. Each Part listed below is published as a separate unit) Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Indian Ocean. Arctic Ocean. I'ART TITLE Part I Introduction Part II The World Federation of Democratic Youth Part III The World Federation of Teachers Unions Part IV The International Union of Students and International Students Relief Part V Women's International Democratic Federation Part VI International Organization of Journalists Part VII International Association of Democratic Lawyers Part VIII World Federation of Scientific Workers Part IX Trade Union International of Transport, Port and Fishery Workers Part X International Federation of Resistance Fighters Part XI The World Peace Council Part XII The World Federation of Trade Unions Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 25X6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 Editorial Instructions A. Transmittal of material 1. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL NIS material delivered to the Office of Basic Intelli- gence (OBI/CIA) requires a letter of transmittal (original and 2 copies). The following are itemized in the letter: number of pages of typed manuscript, in- cluding title page, Table of Contents, List of Figures, text, tables, caption list, number of graphic items submitted, and apron material. The letter contains specifications regarding control aspects of material involved. It also specifies security classification and control for photographs and those insert maps of which extra copies are to be printed without the NIS ref- erences, and the number of copies of such maps desired by the contributor. 2. MANUSCRIPT NIS manuscript is submitted in 3 complete assembled copies. Each of the 3 assembled sets of manuscript includes in sequence 1) title page, 2) Table of Contents, 3) List of Figures, 4) text, 5) tables, 6) caption list, and 7) apron material. Pagination begins with the first page of text of each section and is consecutive throughout the manuscript (including each page of the tables, which follow the text in sequence of figure numbers). Pagination is by other means than a numbering machine, which is re- served for use in OBI processing. Manuscript with more than nominal alterations is not acceptable. Text or tabular material photostated or similarly reproduced from printed or other material is submitted in positive print form and legible in ap- proximately typewriter elite size. The supporting items, typed double space, are as follows: Title page, containing chapter or supplement num- ber and title, section number and title, and the state- ment: 'Phis is a preliminary draft of Section --, NIS . It has not been finally edited or reconciled with other NIS sections and should not be reproduced, This section has been approved for use in the NIS by (agency), (month, year). This is the uniform date for the entire section and will appear on each page of the published section." Table of Contents for each section, including the headings appearing in the text. Modified tables of contents are submitted to meet the requirerr ants for supplements, NIS on Ocean Areas, and consolidated chapters. Each Table of Contents is followed by a List of Figures which lists in sequence all figures with the following details for each: Figure number as de- termined by sequence in tentative placement, category identification (Table, Photo, Map, etc.), and the cap- tion as it appears with the figure or in abbreviated form. This List of Figures is immediately followed by a Contributor Statement, as approved by the NIS Committee, showing the principal agency or agencies contributing to and responsible for preparation of each NIS unit. Caption list (used for typesetting the captions of all graphic items). Figure numbers for all tables and graphics are listed in sequence. The exact wording of the captions for all graphics is included. The titles of tables are not included in the caption list since this information is included separately with each table. 3. GRAPHIC MATERIAL Graphic material, including photographs, is assem- bled separately from manuscript, in 3 complete sets with each item in numerical sequence according to fig- ure number. The 3 sets of each item consist of an original and 2 copies of all black and white material, and 3 color proofs for multicolor graphic material. The original and copies of all graphic items are plainly marked with the NIS area number and section and fig- ure number. The original plates of multicolor maps are retained by contributor until receipt of memoran- dum from OBI. These originals are then forwarded as directed by OBI for final reproduction. B. Text specifications 1. TYPING OF TEXT Text is submitted in 3 copies, typed on one side only, with the original on substantial 8 x 12 bond paper. Duplicating process may be used if submitted copies are thoroughly legible. Text is typed triple space. All paragraphs without headings begin with 5-space indent. Normal capitalization is used throughout (in- cluding headings), without use of continuous capitali- zation or of underlining except for foreign or other terms to be italicized. The last word of a typed line is always a complete word, avoiding ending any line with a hyphen. Manuscript conforms to the sample pages, with margins as shown. Each manuscript page, as shown, includes in top margin the name of the agency of primary responsibility, date (manuscript completion date, for processing control purposes only), classification, and any applicable security control state- PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS ment, NIS number and section number. The first page of text includes the section number and title. Text pages are numbered consecutively within each sec- tion (not using a numbering machine, which is reserved for OBI processing). 2. TEXT HEADINGS Headings used in NIS text material are as follows: (Grade of head, not typed in ms.) II. Military Geography (Chapter title) 22. Coasts and Landing Beaches (Section title) A. General (No. 1) 1. Coasts (No. 2) a. Northern peninsula? text follows (No. 3) (1) Williams Bay ? text follows (No. 4) (a) Vicinity of Port Smith?text (No. 5) 1) Seaward approaches?text (No. 6) a) Anchorage areas? text ? (No. 7) Chapter and section titles are centered. No. 1 heads are typed flush with left margin of text; inferior heads are successively indented 5 typewriter spaces. No. 1 and No. 2 heads stand alone; text begins on next line with indentation of 5 spaces and thereafter flush left. Remaining heads each end with space, two hyphens, space; text follows immediately on same line, with suc- ceeding lines beginning flush with left text margin. Each standard heading includes a title in addition to letter or number. Titles are as brief as feasible. Capitalization of chapter and section titles follows the NIS outline. In all other headings (except ?for proper names), only the initial letter of each title is capitalized. Headings may stand alone when immediately fol- lowed by the next grade of head. For certain ma- terial (as in Coasts and Landing Beaches), a heading may be followed on the next line or lines by coordinates, hydrographic chart references, etc. Numbers used to itemize a series of items within text carry a single parenthesis, e.g., 1). 3. REFERENCES TO FIGURES AND TEXT Figures (including both tables and graphic material) are cited in the text by using figure numbers assigned by the contributor. Reference may be integral in a sentence, ". ? . as shown in FIGURE 32-16 . . ." or parenthetical, ". . (FIGURES 42-3 through 42-6). . ." It is often desirable to use the reference flexibly to dif- ferentiate typos of figures, e.g., ". . . tabulated in FIG- URE 42-7 . . ." or ". . . shown on the map, FIGURE 42-8 . . ." Statements such as ". . . in the follow- ing table . ." or ". . . in the table above . ." are undesirable because the relationship may not be re- tained in printing. When related text is not to be adjacent to reference table details, the text is appro- priately amplified to incorporate significant details. Because figure numbering is subject to change in pub- lication or maintenance, reference to tables or graphic PAGE 2 JANUARY 1962 material in other sections or chapters is by abbreviated caption, type of material, and section number in which it appears, e.g., (see population density map, SEC- TION 41). Tentative placement within text of tables and appro- priate graphic items is indicated by large carets with figure numbers on the right margin of text pages (see sample pages). Only one caret is used for each figure. Figures expected to follow printed text, such as fold-in maps, are itemized after the last line of manuscript text. Within sections cross references are made to the highest order of text topic which will adequately indi- cate where the referenced material will be found. Another section of the same or other chapter is referred to by "... (this Chapter, SECTION 81) .. or "... (see Section on Ground Forces) ..." Reference to a section of another chapter is as follows: "... (CHAP- TER IV, SECTION 41) ... or "... (see Population)... " 4. QUOTATIONS AND EXTRACT MATTER Quotations not exceeding 3 typewritten lines are included in text within quotation marks. Longer quotations, and subordinate material likewise to be printed as "extract" in smaller type, are without quota- tion marks, indented 5 spaces for all lines and typed double space. 5. SAMPLE PAGES The accompanying two pages are sample pages of text manuscript for the guidance of typists. 6. FOOTNOTES When footnotes are considered necessary, up to 3 asterisks per page may be used. Footnote material of general significance for a segment of text may be printed as a brief NOTE. In manuscript the footnote is in- serted on the line following the reference, separated from the text by solid lines above and below; the foot- note begins indented 1 space from left margin, and is typed double space (see sample pages). 7. REFERENCES TO SOURCES References to sources are confined as much as possible to the topic Comments on Principal Sources, where the evaluative discussion may be followed by an alpha- betical listing of principal sources to which consecutive numbers are assigned. If sources are grouped by subject categories, they are numbered consecutively rather than by successive groups; details of a source are given only once and thereafter only the identifying number is listed. In text, and in both text and figure footnotes, this facilitates brief reference, e. g., ". . . , based on Source 1 estimates, . ." or ". . . (Source 1) ..." When only a few principal sources are identified and are not assigned source numbers in the Comments sub- section, text or footnote reference thereto is as brief Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 appeimimmoim JULY 1959 NIS Areas For purposes of ready identification the entire world, land and sea, except the continental United States, is divided into numbered NIS Areas. The NIS Area numbers and titles are given in the list below. The NIS Area numbers combine with NIS Section, Chapter, or Supplement numbers to identify each printed NIS unit by convenient short title. NIS Areas are numbered consecutively from NIS 1 through NIS 107. Land areas are covered in NIS 1 through 103. Ocean areas are covered in NIS 104 through 107. NIS 108 is titled "International Corn- munism" and gives integrated worldwide coverage on Communist front organizations. Political developments have required from time to time that some of the originally designated NIS Areas be divided into two or more new NIS Areas, which are designated by the addition of capital letters to the original NIS numbers. Complete NIS are being pro- duced on these new Areas. However, in the interven- ing period it may be necessary to refer to the original NIS Area for coverage on certain topics. 25X6A (Offshore island possessions are normally included in the related NIS Areas; see NIS Base Maps for definitive boundaries.) NIB TITLE GENERAL AREA Northern Ireland, Channel Islands, Isle of Man, Shetland Islands, and Orkney Islands. 2 Ireland Republic of Ireland. 3 France France and Monaco. 4 Netherlands Netherlands. 5 Belgium Belgium. 6 Luxembourg Luxembourg. 7 Denmark Denmark, including the Faeroe Islands. 8 Portugal Portugal, including the Azores, Madeira, and the Cape Verde Islands. 9 Spain Spain, including the Canary Islands and Andorra. 10 Norway Norway, including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. 11 Sweden Sweden. 12 Finland Finland. 25X6A East German "German Democratic Republic" and Soviet sector 01 liertin. 14 Poland Poland, within present de facto boundaries, including the former Free City of Danzig and the portions of Germany under Polish administration. 15 Switzerland Switzerland and Liechtenstein. 16 Austria Austria. 17 Italy Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, and the part of the Free Territory of Trieste admtnistered by Italy. 18 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia. 19 Hungary Hungary. 20 Albania Albania. 21 Yugoslavia Yugoslavia, and the part of the Free Territory of Trieste administered by Yugo- slavia. 22 Rumania Rumania. 23 Bulgaria Bulgaria. 24 Greece Greece. 25 Gibraltar, Malta, and Cyprus Gibraltar, Maltese Islands, and Cyprus. 25A Gibraltar Gibraltar. 25B Malta Maltese Islands. 25C Cyprus Cyprus. 26 U.S. S. R. U.S.S.R. within present de facto boundaries, including the Baltic States, northern East Prussia, Tannu Tuva, Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. wiigiatimtwisia? Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA For geographic treatment (Chapter II) the U.S.S.I?. is divided into 5 parts as follows: Part I Part II Part III Part IV Part V 27 28 28A 28B 29 European U.S.S.R. Soviet Central Asia Urals and West Siberian Plain Central and Eastern Siberia The Caucasus Turkey Syria and Lebanon Syria Lebanon Jordan 30 Ira 25X6A Arabian Peninsula 33 Iran 34 Afghanistan 35 India 36 37 38 39 39A Pakistan Ceylon Burma China Communist China European U.S.S.R. within present de facto boundaries, including the Baltic States and northern East Prussia. Soviet Central Asia. Urals and West Siberian Plain, including Tannu Tuva. Central and Eastern Siberia, including the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. The Caucasus, including Soviet Transcaucasia. Turkey. Syria and Lebanon. Syria. Lebanon. Jordan. Iraq. Israel. Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Bahrein, Qatar, Trucial Coast, Muscat and Oman, Yemen, Colony of Aden, and Aden Protectorate (including Socotra). Iran. Afghanistan. India, including Andaman, Nicobar and Laccadive Islands, Jammu and Kashmrr, Nepal, Bhutan, and Portuguese India. East and West Pakistan and the Oman settlement of Gwalar. Ceylon. Burma. China, including Tibet and Taiwan; Hong Kong and Macao. Communist China, including Tibet. For geographic treatment (Chapter II) Communist China is divided into 4 parts as follows: Part I Part II Part III Part IV 39B 40 41 41A 41B 42 43 43A 43B 43C 43D Western China Manchuria North China South China Nationalist China Mongolia Korea North Korea South Korea Thailand Indochina Cambodia Laos North Vietnam South Vietnam 44 British Indonesia 44A Malaya and Singapore 44B British Borneo Western China, including Tibet. Manchuria. North China. South China, including all Communist-held islands. Nationalist China, including all Nationalist-held islands; Hong Kong and Macao. "Mongolian Peoples Republic." Korea. North Korea. Republic of Korea. Thailand. Former Indochina, Cambodia. Laos. North Vietnam. South Vietnam, the Paracel Islands, Spratly Island, and other islands and reefs to the eastward. Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei, and North Borneo. Federation of Malaya and Singapore. 25X6A 47 Algeria Algeria. 48 Morocco Morocco and Ifni. 49 Libya Libya. 50 West Africa Ghana, Nigeria, British Cameroons, Western African Member States of the French Community, Guinea, Togo, Spanish Sahara, Sierra Leone, Gambia, and Portuguese Guinea. 50A Ghana Ghana. 50B Nigeria and British Cameroons Nigeria and British Cameroons. PAGE 2 mlismou Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 25X6A 25X6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 NIS AREAS NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 50C French West Africa, Guinea, Togo, and Spanish Sahara. 50D Sierra Leone, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea. 51 Liberia 52 Equatorial Africa 53 Egypt 53A United Arab Republic 54 Sudan 55 Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Somalilands. 56 British East Africa 56A Kenya and Zanzibar Protectorate. 56B Uganda 56C Tanganyika 57 Rhodesia and Nyasaland 58 Mozambique 59 Angola 60 Belgian Congo 61 South Africa 62 63 and Malgache Republic and Reunion Indian Ocean Islands 64 South Atlantic Islands Western African Member States of the French Community (includes Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Soudan, and Volta), Guinea, Togo, and Spanish Sahara. Sierra Leone, Gambia, and Portuguese Guinea. Liberia. Equatorial African Member States of the French Community (Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, and Gabon), Cameroun, Spanish Guinea (includes Rio Muni, Annobon, Fernando Po, Corisco, and Islas Elobey) and Sao Tome e Principe. Egypt, including the "Gaza Strip." Egypt and Syria. Sudan. Ethiopia, Eritrea, British Somaliland, French Somaliland, and Somalia. Kenya, Zanzibar Protectorate, Uganda, and Tanganyika. Kenya and Zanzibar l'rotectorate. Uganda. Tanganyika. Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Mozambique. Angola, including Cabinda. Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi. Union of South Africa, South-West Africa, Bechuanaland, Swaziland, and Ba sutoland. Madagascar, Comoro Islands, and Reunion. Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Seychelles, Prince Edward Islands, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, Heard Island, McDonald Islands, Amsterdam Island, and St. Paul Island. Colony of Saint Helena (includes Ascension Island, Saint Helena Island, and the Tristan da Cunha Group), Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Sandwich th Shetland Islands, and Bouvet Island, 68 Iceland Iceland. 69 Antarctica Antarctica. 71 ua ema a Guatemala. 72 British Honduras British Honduras. 73 Honduras Honduras, including territory north of the Rio Coco. 74 El Salvador El Salvador, including small areas claimed by Honduras. 75 Nicaragua Nicaragua. 76 Costa Rica Costa Rica, including Cocos Island. 77 Panama Panama, including the Canal Zone. 78 Cuba Cuba. 79 Haiti Haiti. 80 Dominican Republic Dominican Republic. 81 British Western Atlantic Possessions Colonies of the Bahamas, Jamaica (including dependencies of Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Morant Cays, and Pedro Cays), Leeward Islands, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and Bermuda. 81A The West Indies Jamaica (including dependencies of Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Morant Cays and Pedro Cays), Leeward Islands, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago. 81B Bermuda, Bahama Islands, and Colonies of Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the British Virgin Islands. British Virgin Islands. 82 Netherlands Antilles Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Dutch part of Saint Martin. 83 French West Indies Martinique, Guadeloupe and Dependencies (Marie Galante, Iles des Saintes, Desirade, Saint Barthelemy), and French part of Saint Martin. alogimp Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 NIS -7-TITLE GENERAL AREA 84 U.S. Possessions in the Caribbean. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Swan Islands, Corn Islands, Navasso Island, Serrana Bank, Serranilla Bank, Roncador Bank, and Quita Sueno Bank. 85 Colombia Colombia, including Isla de Malpelo, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia. 86 Venezuela Venezuela. 87 Ecuador Ecuador, including the Galapagos Islands. 88 Peru Peru. 89 Chile Chile, including Easter Island, Isla Sala y Gomez, Islas Fernandez, Isla San Felix, Isla San Ambrosio, and islands south of Tierra del Fuego disputed with Argentina. 90 Argentina Argentina, including Isla Martin Garcia. 91 Uruguay Uruguay. 92 Paraguay Paraguay. 93 Bolivia Bolivia. 94 Brazil Brazil, including Ilha de Trindade, Fernando de Noronha, Rochedos SAO Pedro e Sao Paulo. For geographic treatment (Chapter II) Brazil is divided into 2 parts as follows: Part I Part II 95 95A 95B 95C Southeast Brazil Northwest Brazil The Guianas British Guiana Surinam French Guiana Southeast Brazil. Northwest Brazil. British Guiana, Surinam, and French Guiana. British Guiana. Surinam. French Guiana. 25X6A ? ,?." ? ? ? a ? ? ? ? ? ? 98 99 100 100A 100B 101 102 103 Hawaii Philippines Indonesia Republic of Indonesia Netherlands New Guinea West Pacific Islands Southwest Pacific Islands South Pacific Islands Hawaiian Islands. Republic of the Philippines and Pulau Miangas. Republic of Indonesia, Netherlands New Guinea, and Portuguese Timor. Republic of Indonesia and Portuguese Timor. Netherlands New Guinea. All islands in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Atoll, Guam, Johnston Island, Sand Island, and the Midway Islands. Territory of Papua, Territory of New Guinea, British Solomon Islands Pro- tectorate, New Hebrides Condominium, New Caledonia and Dependencies, Colony of Fiji, Kingdom of Tonga, Gilbert Islands, Ellice Islands, Ocean Island, and Nauru. Palmyra Island, Kingman Reef, Phoenix Islands, Tokelau Islands, Samoa Islands, Cook Islands, Line Islands, the French establishments in Oceania, Pitcairn Island, and adjacent British islands. MARINE CLIMATE AND OCEANOGRAPHY (NIS Areas 104 through 107 cover the world's ocean areas; see Index Map at end of the Ocean Areas Outline and Outline Guide) NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 104 Part I Part II Part III Part IV l'art V Part VI Part VII Part VIII Part IX Part X Part XI PAGE 4 Atlantic Basin Western Sector of North Atlantic Northern Sector of North Atlantic East-Central Sector of North Atlantic Equatorial Atlantic Central Sector of South Atlantic Southwestern Sector of South Atlantic and Southeastern Sector of South Pacific Southeastern Sector of South Atlantic Eastern Sector of South Atlantic Mediterranean and Black Seas Northeastern Sector of North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas Atlantic Ocean. '"Lonrignimmi Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 NIS AREAS 4Winunswouni NIS TITLE GENERAL AREA 105 Pacific Basin Part I Northeastern Sector of North Pacific Part IT Southeastern Sector of North Pacific Part III Northeastern Sector of South Pacific Part IV South-Central Sector of South Pacific Part V North-Central Sector of South Pacific Part VI South-Central Sector of North Pacific Part VII North-Central Sector of North Pacific Part VIII Bering Sea Part IX Northwestern Sector of North Pacific, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan Part X Southwestern Sector of North Pacific Part XI South China Sea and Seas of the Malay Archipelago Part XII Western Sector of South Pacific 106 Indian Basin Part I Northeastern Sector of Indian Ocean Part II Southeastern Sector of ?Indian Ocean Part III Southwestern Sector of Indian Ocean Part IV Northwestern Sector of Indian Ocean 107 Arctic Basin INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM (NIS 108 is a topical survey of worldwide Communist front organi- zations. Each Part listed below is published as a separate unit) Pacific Ocean. Indian Ocean. Arctic Ocean. PART TITLE Part I Introduction Part II The World Federation of Democratic Youth Part III The World Federation of Teachers Unions Part IV The international Union of Students and International Students Relief Part V Women's International Democratic Federation Part VI International Organization of Journalists Part VII International Association of Democratic Lawyers Part VIII World Federation of Scientific Workers Part IX Trade Union International of Transport, Port and Fishery Workers Part X International Federation of Resistance Fighters Part XI The World Peace Council Part XII The World Federation of Trade Unions PA GE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 120 E A 2 2 70 65 60 UNITED STATES NIS o um INSET A, 78 THROUGH NIS 84 200 300 400 500 BERMUDA MILES' 81 B 0 100 200 300 400 500 KILOMETERS v* -- ..4." Great Grand Abaco Bahama - ATLANTIC OCEAN HONDU NICARAGU COSTA o tol'"g' Swan Islands 3 5.0 RICA CAYMAN .' ISLANDS 81 B o .? BAHAMAS ta Ca CUBA 78 ISLANDS 01 e .4, w..281A Turks Iolanda wo - 80 HAITI 79 ':::? DOMINICAN REPUBLI? ' 81A 4111;k1 GREATER 4' PUERTO RICO 81B os ?Is1.-0GS nimilla LEEW '1 ISLANDS ? o Antigua torrid() ,i/l. Guadeloupe 0 j Dornink 1 3 inique % Barbaric,. :???? 0 ANTILLES Rona r Bank 4A 82 Acuba 60 , LESSER ANTILLES 86 Grena Mar 81A0 0 o S WINDWARD ei ISLANDS Tobas,5 _ ) T inIdad 76 CANAL ZON P N 771 . COLOMBIA 85 VENEZUELA 8 6 BRITIS GUIANA I 95A,',. 85 80 75 70 65 60 25 2C to INSET B, NIS 69 SCALE TRUE ALONG THE MERIDIANS 4,0 130 1200 1600 MILES 400 1100 12'00 1600 KILOMETERS 90 WEST SOUTH ,? AMERICA ANTARCTICA AFRICA AUSTRALI GREAT AUSTRALIAN BIGHT MADAGASCA Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A00030003uuu1-4 25X6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 BAR 12 FINLAND 26, PART I I /MANIA 22 BLACK SEA 26, PART II 4 ? 25C 28 28A SYRIA 53A PART I C H / 39A I N Ide JORDAN 5 EG PT LI.A.R. 53A) AHREIN fl TAR %.0/ 39A, MUSCAT AN 43C Lacc Iola ETHIO5P5IA IAN GO Maldive Island. !NADA ASCAR tritius .ANALAND [ON BASUTO. F AFR1C Reunion oundaries r cognized ET B 59 30 45 60 r e ease 999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 25X6A Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 rIrt'kTrTTUTT'TT A NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS NIS CORRELATION GUIDE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP70-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 NIS Correlation Guide The NIS Correlation Guide indicates major inter- relationships of NIS subject matter. The Guide is designed primarily for use by the NIS analysts but it should also prove useful in the review, editing, and coordination of the NIS material as well as in the re- vision of the NIS under the Maintenance Program. The Guide lists under each NIS section heading the principal topics in other sections that contain related subject matter. The topics listed are not all exact titles; some are titles of subsections, others merely descriptive. Because of the complexity of the subject matter involved, only the principal interrelationships are listed. Additional relationships can be determined by reference to the detailed outline of other pertinent sections. For the Analyst?the Guide is a means for obtaining more consistency in subject matter and a better bal- ance of treatment. It is also an aid in cross-referencing. For the User?the Guide supplements the topical outline and facilitates reference to other sections con- taining related subject matter. For Maintenance the Guide is an aid in determining gaps in information and in obtaining consistency and continuity in subject matter throughout the NTS. Consistent use of the Correlation Guide in all phases of the NIS Program is designed to result in the produc- tion of better integrated basic intelligence. Chapter I-Brief Since Chapter I is an overview of the whole N IS area and the text is brief, some topics covering detailed aspects are eliminated and many of the normal relation- ships between Chapters H through IX are not evident. Sections of Chapter I, in contrast with those of other NIS chapters, are not designed to be issued separately but are published in a single, integrated volume. The sections depend upon Chapters II through IX for back- ground material. The Master Index for an NIS, pub- lished as frontis material in each Chapter I, indicates the appropriate 'NIS section where the more detailed information may be found. Chapter II-Military Geography SECTION 20 INTRODUCTION In addition to other Chapter II sections and Supple- ments II and IV: Sec. 31 Rail facilities Sec. 32 Road facilities Sec. 33 Waterway characteristics Sec. 35 Port and naval facilities Sec. 37 Air facilities 'Sec. 38 Communication centers Sec. 41 Population concentrations Sec. 42 Ethnic concentrations Sec. 43 Cultural concentrations Sec. 45 Topographic and climatic environmental factors affecting health Sec. 52 Boundaries elpinummirabh6 Sec. 55 Sec. 63 Sec. 64 Sec. 81 Sec. 82 Sec. 83 Ch. IX SECTION 21 Sec. 22 Sec. 23 Boundary rectification problems Mining development and mineral re- sources Key industries Strategic problems and special operations Naval facilities Air facilities Physical maps, navigation charts, plans of urban areas, transportation and eco- nomic maps MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS Coastal zones and landing beaches Weather conditions affecting military operations PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ailmwediamils NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 SECTION 21 MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS (Con.) Sec. 24 Topographic factors affecting military operations Sec. 25 Urban areas Sec. 31 Rai] facilities Sec. 32 Road facilities Sec. 33 Waterway characteristics Sec. 35 Ports and naval facilities Sec. 37 Air facilities Sec. 62 Oil fields, refineries, and pipelines; under- ground installations Sec. 81 Strategy and defenses; underground in- stallations Sec. 82 Naval facilities Sec. 83 Air facilities Ch. IX Physical maps, charts, plans of urban areas, transportation and economic maps; aerial photography SECTION 22 COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES Sec. 23 Effects of coastal weather on amphibious operations Sec. 24 Coastal and inland terrain, vegetation, and cross-country movement Sec. 25 Coastal towns Sec. 31 Rail, exits inland and major routes near coasts Sec. 32 Road, exits inland and major routes near coasts Sec. 33 Waterways, exits inland Sec. 35 Ports and naval facilities Sec. 37 Air facilities Sec. 45 Poisonous plants and animals Sec. 81 Strategic problems, special operations, and defenses Sec. 82 Naval facilities Sec. 83 Air facilities Ch. IX Approach and landing charts, coastal oceanographic charts and maps; aerial photography Sup. II Coasts and landing beaches (For related offshore oceanography and marine climate refer to the appropriate Part of NIS 104 through 107.) SECTION 23 Sec. 22 Sec. 24 Sec. 37 Sec. 45 Sec. 61 Sec. 76 Sec. 83 PAGE 2 WEATHER AND CLIMATE Amphibious operations Effect of climate on state of ground and cross-country movement Air operations Topographic and climatic factors affect- ing health Climatic factors affecting agriculture, fisheries, and forestry Meteorology Air operations Ch. IX Climatic maps (For related offshore oceanography and marine climate refer to the appropriate Part of NIS 104 through 107.) SECTION 24 Sec. 23 Sec. 31 Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 37 Sec. 61 Sec. 62 Sec. 63 Sec. 83 Ch. IX TOPOGRAPHY State of ground; special phenomena, e.g., permafrost Rail facilities Road facilities Rivers, canals, and lakes; dams Air facilities Forests and vegetation Geology of fuels; dams Minerals and metals; mines and quarries Air facilities Physical maps, transportation maps, and economic maps; aerial photography SECTION 25 URBAN AREAS Sec. 23 Effect of climate on urbanization; type of construction; communications; storage Sec. 24 Geographical characteristics affecting ur- banization, and man-made landmarks; water resources Sec. 31 Intertown rail communications and ade- quacy; repair and service facilities Sec. 32 Intertown highway communications and adequacy; repair and service facilities Sec. 33 Intertown waterway communications and adequacy Sec. 35 Ports Sec. 37 Air facilities Sec. 38 Extent and adequacy of telecommunica- tions Sec. 41 Size and trends of population Sec. 42 Ethnic characteristics Sec. 43 Educational institutions Sec. 44 Firefighting manpower Sec. 45 Sanitation and medical facilities Sec. 46 Housing Sec. 54 Civil defense shelters; police force Sec. 61 Storage facilities Sec. 62 Petroleum storage; electric generating capacities; natural gas availability Sec. 63 Availability of construction materials Sec. 64 Industrial installations Sec. 81 Land fortifications; billeting; military storage facilities Sec. 83 Air facilities; storage facilities Ch. IX Maps on urban areas, climate, popula- tion, transportation, and telecommuni- cations; aerial photography Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 NIS CORRELATION GUIDE ?11.11Niimmirm Chapter III-Transportation and Telecommunications SECTION 30 INTRODUCTION In addition to other Chapter III sections and Supple- ments I and III, all Chapter VI sections for economi- cally significant aspects relating to transportation: Sec. 20 Strategic routes, approaches and internal routes Sec. 25 Urban area concentrations SECTION 31 RAILWAY Sec. 20 Strategic routes Sec. 21 Regional aspects of terrain and climate Sec. 23 Deterrent and destructive weather and climate effects on equipment and opera- tions Sec. 24 Significant terrain characteristics; con- struction and maintenance problems re- lated to topography; strategic routes; water supply Sec. 25 Important rail junctions; water supply; electric power Sec. 32 Interrelation of rail and highway opera- tions and structures Sec. 33 Interrelation of rail and inland water- way operations; bridges and ferries Sec. 35 Rail and port connections Sec. 38 Interrelation of rail and telecommunica- tions operations Sec. 44 Manpower analysis; standards and prac- tices of employment; labor relations and organization Sec. 46 Health and retirement provisions Sec. 52 Government control or supervision Sec. 61 Timber for construction; traffic Sec. 62 Fuel resources and traffic; developments in electrification Sec. 63 Construction materials; ballast; traffic Sec. 64 Rolling stock production; motive power; repair facilities; construction materials and related industry; traffic Sec. 65 Budget allocations; importation of rail- road equipment Sec. 81 Logistics Ch. IX Railroad maps SECTION 32 HiGnwAy Sec. 20 Strategic routes Sec. 21 Regional aspects of terrain and climate Sec 23 Deterrent and destructive weather and climate effects on roads and traffic TIONFITYWNITT A T, Sec. 24 Significant terrain characteristics; con- struction and maintenance problems re- lated to topography; strategic routes Sec. 25 Important highway junctions Sec. 31 Interrelation of highway and rail opera- tions; bridges and ferries Sec. 33 Interrelation of highway and inland waterway operations; bridges and ferries Sec. 35 Port-highway connections Sec. 52 Governmental control or supervision Sec. 61 Agricultural traffic Sec. 62 Availability and types of fuel; traffic Sec. 63 Construction materials; traffic Sec. 64 Production of motor vehicles; construc- tion materials and related industry; traffic Sec. 65 Budget allocations; importation of high- way equipment Ch. IX Highway maps SECTION 33 INLAND WATERWAY Sec. 20 Strategic routes Sec. 21 Regional aspects of terrain and climate Sec. 22 Nearshore oceanography Sec. 23 Deterrent weather and climate factors Sec. 24 Significant terrain characteristics; drain- age pattern; dams, terrain, etc. Sec. 31 Interrelation of inland waterway and rail operations; bridges and ferries Sec. 32 Interrelation of inland waterway and highway operations; bridges and ferries Sec. 35 Interrelation of inland waterways and ports; traffic; clearance Sec. 36 Shipping routes and ports of call; traffic; trade Sec. 52 Governmental control or supervision Sec. 61 Agricultural traffic Sec. 62 Dams (hydroelectric) etc.; traffic Sec. 64 Production of river craft, tugs, etc.; traffic Sec. 65 Budget allocations; trade of ports and economic significance Ch. IX Inland waterway maps and maps and charts of ports and harbors (For related offshore oceanography and marine climate refer to the appropriate Part of NIS 104 through 107.) Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 011immummom NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 SECTION 35 Pons AND NAVAL FACILITIES Sec. 20 Approaches and internal routes; geog- raphy of area Sec. 22 Coasts and landing beaches Sec. 23 Effects of weather and climate on opera- tions Sec. 25 Coastal cities Sec. 31 Rail facilities and clearance Sec. 32 Highway facilities and clearance Sec. 33 Interrelation of ports and inland water- ways Sec. 36 Shipyards and ports of call Sec. 52 Governmental control or supervision Sec. 61 Agricultural traffic Sec. 62 Storage facilities, electricity, and traffic Sec. 63 Traffic Sec. 64 Shipbuilding and ship repair yards; traffic Sec. 65 Trade of ports and economic significance Sec. 82 Naval facilities Ch. IX Maps and charts of ports and harbors Sup. I Ports and naval facilities SECTION 36 MERCHANT MARINE Sec. 33 Sec. 35 Sec. 44 Sec. 52 Sec. 55 Sec. 62 Sec. 64 Inland ports, traffic, and equipment Shipyards and personnel Manpower analysis, standards and prac- tices of employment, labor relations and organization Governmental control or supervision Place of merchant marine in national policy; foreign interests Transportation and availability of fuels Shipbuilding and repair SECTION 40 INTRODUCTION Sm. 65 Shipping and economic relations; ship- ping subsidies Sec. 82 Merchant marine and other auxiliary forces SECTION 37 CIVIL AIR Sec. 23 See. 24 Sec. 52 Sec. 55 Sec. 57 Sec. 62 Sec. 64 Sec. 65 Sec. 83 Ch. IX Air operations Constructional aspects of airfields Governmental control or supervision; legislation National policies; international aspects Communist influences Availability of fuels Aircraft production Foreign aid Air facilities Civil air maps SECTION 38 TELECOMMUNICATIONS Sec. 23 Effects of weather and climate on opera- tions, construction, and maintenance Sec. 24 Construction problems related to topog- raphy Sec. 43 Radio and television Sec. 52 Governmental control or supervision Sec. 55 National policies relating to telecommu- nications Sec. 58 Propaganda dissemination and jamming of incoming propaganda Sec. 62 Power sources Sec. 64 Telecommunications signal and lighting equipment Sec. 71 Communications equipment Ch. VIII Military communications Ch. IX Telecommunications maps Chapter IV- Sociological In addition to other Chapter IV sections: Sec. 21 Environmental factors Sec. 50 Main political factors affecting social structure, institutions, and attitudes Sec. 55 National policies toward social problems Sec. 60 Main economic factors affecting social structure, institutions, and attitudes Ch. IX Sociological maps PAGE 4 SECTION 41 Sec. 21 Sec. 25 Sec. 42 Sec. 44 POPULATION Climatic and topographic environment Urbanization awl patterns of settlement Population traits affecting density and general movement; distribution of ethnic groups, minorities, etc. Relation of age-sex distribution to labor force and working-age segment of popula- tion Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 NIS CORRELATION GUIDE SECTION 41 POPULATION (Continued) Sec. 45 Health factors in relation to vital rates Sec. 46 Welfare practices affecting population growth and distribution Sec. 52 Administrative divisions as they affect population distributions Sec. 55 Population problems and policies Sec. 60 Main economic factors affecting popula- tion growth and distribution Sec. 80 Military manpower Ch. IX Sociological maps SECTION 42 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE Sec. 21 Climatic and topographic environment Sec. 25 Urban areas Sec. 41 Population patterns Sec. 43 Effects of religious, educational, and in- formational institutions in shaping life and outlook of the people. Sec. 44 Manpower utilization and its relation to the social structure Sec. 45 Health and vigor of the people Sec. 46 Attitudes of the society toward the wel- fare of its members Sec. 50 Main political-historical factors affecting social attitudes Sec. 52 Operation and organization of the gov- ernment Sec. 53 National control exercised by political groups Sec. 54 Legal controls Sec. 55 National policies Sec. 58 Themes of propaganda that mold or modify popular attitudes Sec. 60 Economic structure and dynamics Ch. IX Linguistic, ethnological or cultural maps SECTION 43 RELIGION, EDUCATION, AND PUBLIC IN- FORMATION Sec. 38 Radio and television equipment Sec. 42 Education in social mobility and attitude formation; religion as a factor in family and community practices Sec. 44 Technical education in relation to levels of skill in professions; adaptability Sec. 46 Role of religious organizations in social welfare; influence of educational and in- formational institutions on maintenance of public welfare programs Sec. 51 Constitutional factors relating to free- dom of press, religion, and education Sec. 52 Sec. 53 Sec. 55 Sec. 56 Sec. 57 Sec. 58 Sec. 59 or KP Ch. VII SECTION 44 Sec. 41 Sec. 42 Sec. 43 Sec. 45 Sec. 46 Sec. 52 Sec. 53 Sec. 54 Sec. 55 Sec. 57 Sec. 58 Sec. 59 or KP Ch. VI Sec. 80 Administrative structure, e.g., depart- ments of education, communications, and public information or propaganda Pressure groups and political parties as they bear on religious conformance, edu- cation, and particularly on public infor- mation Relation of educational, religious, and in- formational factors to national policies Censorship as it relates to subversive propaganda Subversive activities in educational, re- ligious, and informational services Availability of informational media and degree of contact Key personalities Scientific institutions and research MANPOWER Statistics on manpower grouping and regional distribution Class lines, social organization and social values; physical qualifications Educational level, vocational education and research Medical facilities and provision for emer- gencies; industrial hygiene and the gen- eral level of health Relation of levels of living, social secu- rity, and remedial measures for social problems, including rehabilitation of the handicapped, to general effectiveness of manpower Organization and operation of ministry of labor; mediation machinery Political parties and pressure groups rep- resenting labor Police force and attitudes of organized labor toward law observance Policies relating to labor force and organi- zation Exposure of labor to subversive activity Exposure of labor to domestic and foreign propaganda Key personalities Economic, stability and productivity as a reflection of the character of the labor force; relocation of land; manpower; skills; growth and development of indus- trial centers Military manpower Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS SECTION 45 HEALTH AND SANITATION Sec. 23 Sec. 24 Sec. 25 Sec. 41 Sec. 42 Sec. 43 Sec. 44 Sec. 46 Sec. 52 Sec. 55 Sec. 61 Sec.. 64 Sec. 76 Ch. VIII Ch. IX Relation of climate to incidence of dis- ease and to general health Effect of topography on distribution of disease, on limitation of vectors, and on water supply Urban area utilities and services affect- ing public health and sanitation Vital statistics Attitude toward hygiene, toward coop- erative effort on behalf of community health Relation of religious, educational, and informational institutions to public health and sanitation Manpower capabilities in the medical field; manpower effectiveness as a re- flection of medical care Effect of health insurance and health legislation on general level of public health Organization and administration of pub- lic health; controls Policies toward health and sanitation problems Availability and kinds of food Industrial hygiene Medical research Military medical services Sociological maps SECTION 46 WELFARE JULY 1957 Sec. 25 City districts; welfare aspects Sec. 41 Effects of living levels on population growth; vital statistics Sec. 42 Attitudes toward welfare problems and programs; welfare problems and social attitudes Sec. 43 Religious agencies and educational pro- grams related to public welfare Sec. 44 Dependent and unemployed segments of population; labor legislation and rehabili- tation of handicapped Sec. 45 Medical care facilities and general health conditions as a factor in the standard of living; nutrition standards Sec. 52 Social security administration Sec. 53 Stand of political parties and pressure groups on public welfare issues Sec. 54 Types and incidence of crime relating to social problems; controls Sec. 55 National policies with respect to social welfare Sec. 57 Vulnerabilities to subversion stemming from depressed socio-economic conditions Sec. 61 Food balance sheet; rural living condi- tions; agricultural welfare programs Sec. 64 Industrial welfare programs Sec. 65 Budgetary factors relating to social wel- fare programs Chapter V-Political SECTION 50 INTRODUCTION In addition to other Chapter V sections, Supplement VI, and NIS 108: Sec. 20 Strategic significance of the area Sec. 40 Sociological factors affecting major politi- cal institutions, policies, and stability Sec. 60 Major economic factors affecting political strength and stability Sec. 61 Effects of land ownership and land use systems and of level of food production on political strength and stability Sec. 65 Effects on political strength and stability of domestic and foreign trade and finance policies of the country (e.g., tariffs, sub- sidies, and incentives) PAGE 6 Sec. 80 Effects on political strength and stabil- ity of position of armed forces in the country, including their political influ- ence. Ch. IX Political maps SECTION 51 THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM Sec. 40 Major sociological factors affecting the constitution and its application Sec. 42 Social structure, values, and attitudes affecting constitutional provisions; posi- tion of minorities in the society Sec. 43 Role of religious, educational, and infor- mational institutions in shaping consti- tutional provisions Sec. 80 Legal basis for existence, control and overall structure of the armed forces Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 NIS CORRELATION GUIDE SECTION 52 STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT Sec. 25 Administrative significance of principal cities Sec. 31 Government control of railroads Sec. 54 Civil defense and penal procedures; civil police Sec. 55 Policy-making components Sec. 56 Intelligence and security agencies Sec. 57 Subversive affiliations of key personalities Sec. 58 Propaganda agencies Sec. 59 Key personalities or KP Ch. TX Political maps?administrative subdivi- sions SECTION 53 POLITICAL DYNAMICS Sec. 40 Major sociological factors affecting politi- cal dynamics Sec. 42 Minorities, attitudes of the people Sec. 43 Effect of religious beliefs on political dynamics Sec. 44 Labor-management tensions Sec. 46 Effects of living levels, major social prob- lems, and social security systems on political dynamics Sec. 51 Constitutional aspects; civil rights Sec. 52 Legal aspects Sec. 55 Effects of policies of political parties on national policies Sec. 57 Subversive elements affecting political dynamics Sec. 58 Propaganda agencies and themes Sec. 59 Key personalities or KP Sup. VI Communist role in politics SECTION 54 PUBLIC ORDER AND SAFETY Sec. 41 Size of alien, immigrant and other seg- ments of population which may present special police problems Sec. 42 Attitude of the people toward law ob- servance Sec. 44 Police manpower; forced labor Sec. 45 Emergency relief measures Sec. 46 Delinquency Sec. 51 Constitutional aspects Sec. 52 Legal aspects Sec. 55 Civil defense policies Sec. 56 Security agencies Ch. VIII National Guard; paramilitary services; civil defense aspects Sup. VI Communist infiltration of police services SECTION 55 NATIONAL POLICIES Sec. 36 Sec. 42 Sec. 43 Sec. 44 Sec. 46 Sec. 53 Sec. 60 Sec. 65 Sec. 80 SECTION 56 Sec. 43 Sec. 51 Sec. 52 Sec. 54 Sec. 55 Sec. 57 Sec. 58 Sec. 59 or KP Sec. 65 Ch. VIII Sup. VI SECTION 57 Ch. III Sec. 40 Sec. 42 Sec. 44 Sec. 46 Sec. 51 Sec. 52 Sec. 53 Merchant marine?subsidies, regulation, and international relations Characteristics of the people affecting content and execution of national policies Effects of religious, edncational, and in- formational institutions upon formulation and execution of national policies Relationship of working conditions, labor relations and organizations to national policies Welfare policies, including social security; effects of living levels and major social problems on other national policies Effects of political parties and pressure groups on formation of policies Role of the state in controlling economic activity Foreign investments and foreign aid Role of the armed forces, in implementa- tion of national defense policies INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY Censorship Civil rights Legal aspects Civil police forces International relations Effects of security operations upon sub- versive activities Censorship Key personalities Budgetary aspects Intelligence and security components of armed forces Communist activities SUBVERSION Subversive influences in transportation and communications Major sociological factors influencing sub- versive activities Susceptibility of the people to subversive influence, infiltration in cultural organi- zations Identification of subversive activities with labor organizations Effects of living levels and major social problems upon subversive activities Legislation and governmental practices pertaining to subversive activities Identification of subversive activities in government agencies Identification of subversive activities with political parties PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ?gascwwwwww/m. NIS STANDARD INSTRUCT IONS JULY 1959 SECTION 57 SUBVERSION (Continued) Sec. 54 Subversive influences in police organiza- tion Sec. 55 Subversive influences in national policies Sec. 56 Subversive influences in intelligence and security organization Sec. 58 Subversive aspects Sec. 59 Key personalities or KP Ch. VI Subversive influences in commerce and industry Ch. VIII Subversive influences in armed forces Sup. VI Communism NIS 108 International Communism SECTION 58 PROPAGANDA Sec. 38 Telecommunication facilities for dissemi- nation Sec. 42 Attitudes of the people and receptivity Sec. 43 Information media and methods used by pressure groups SECTION 60 INTRODUCTION In addition ment V: Sec. 20 Sec. 30 Sec. 44 Sec. 55 SECTION 61 Sec. 23 Sec. 24 Sec. 31 Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 35 Sec. 36 Sec. 41 Sec. 42 Sec. 43 Sec. 44 Sec. 45 Sec. 64 Sec. 65 Ch. IX PAGE 8 Sec. 53 Propaganda by political parties and pres- sure groups Sec. 55 Basic national policies Sec. 57 Role of propaganda in subversive activi- ties Sup. VI Communist propaganda SECTION 59 BIOGRAPHIES OF KEY PERSONALITIES Sec. 42 Social structure, values, and attitudes affecting character of leadership groups Sec. 43 Background of key personalities in re- ligion, education, and public information Sec. 44 Key personalities in labor organizations Sec. 52 Political affiliations Sec. 53 Political affiliations Sec. 56 Personalities in the intelligence and se- curity services Sec. 57 Subversive affiliations of key personali- ties Ch. VIII Personalities in the armed forces Chapter V1-Economic to other Chapter VI sections and Supple- Strategic areas Aspects of transportation Labor force State control of economic activity AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, AND FORESTRY Weather and climatic conditions Descriptive analysis of area and topog- raphy Rail transport facilities Road transport facilities Waterway transport facilities Port transport facilities Fishing fleets Geographical distribution of population; growth Characteristics and attitudes of agricul- tural population Level of literacy and education Labor force; labor organizations Environmental factors; plant and animal diseases Farm machinery; commercial processing; chemical fertilizers Foreign trade in monetary units; budget- ary aspects; farm credit Terrain-classification maps and economic maps SECTION 62 Sec. 25 Sec. 31 Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 35 Sec. 36 Sec. 44 Sec. 63 Sec. 64 Sec. 65 Ch. IX Sup. V SECTION 63 Sec. 31 Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 35 Sec. 36 Sec.- 44 Sec. 62 Sec. 64 Sec. 65 Ch. IX FUELS AND POWER Urban areas Rail transport facilities Road transport facilities Waterway transport facilities Fuel and power installations; trans-load- ing facilities; port storage Colliers and tankers Labor force Consumption of coke and pig iron plants Manufacture of equipment Foreign trade in monetary units; budget- ary aspects Economic maps Petroleum MINERALS AND METALS Rail transport facilities Road transport facilities Waterway transport facilities Port facilities Cargo ships Labor force Solid fuels Manufacture of equipment; further proc- essing Foreign trade in monetary units; budget- ary aspects Economic maps Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 NIS CORRELATION GUIDE SECTION 64 Sec. 25 Sec. 31 Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 35 Sec. 36 Sec. 37 Sec. 38 Sec. 44 Sec. 61 Sec. 62 Sec. 63 Sec. 65 MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION Urban construction and programs Rolling stock inventory and locomotive park; transport facilities Road transport facilities; vehicles Waterway transport; river craft, tugs, etc. Repair facilities; equipment; transport facilities; shipyards Merchant ship construction Civil aircraft inventory Telecommunications and signal lighting equipment Labor force Raw material production Type and availability of fuels and power Type and availability of minerals and metals for manufacturing and construc- tion Foreign trade in monetary units Sec. 71 Sec. 72 Sec. 75 Sec. 76 Sec. 81 Sec. 82 Sec. 83 Ch. IX SECTION 65 Sec. 61 Sec. 62 Sec. 63 Sec. 64 Ch. VII Sec. 80 Chapter VII? Scientific Electronics Air, ground and naval weapons Chemicals Optical and photographic equipment and precision instruments Stocks of military vehicles; explosives and ammunition Naval construction Military aircraft inventory Economic maps?industrial installations TRADE AND FINANCE Trade statistics on agriculture and food Trade statistics on fuels and power Trade statistics on minerals and metals Trade statistics on manufacturing and construction Budgetary aspects relating to scientific development Budgetary aspects relating to national defense SECTION 70 INTRODUCTION In addition to other Chapter VII sections: Sec. 43 Scientific educational facilities Sec. 52 Governmental administration Sec. 55 National policies Sec. 64 Existing and potential industrial support Sec. 65 Budgetary appropriations SECTION 71 ELECTRONICS Sec. 38 Electronics Sec. 64 Radar, radio receivers, and transmitters Ch. VIII Electronic materiel KP Key personalities SECTION 72 AIR, GROUND, AND NAVAL WEAPONS Sec. 64 Guns, explosive devices, and ammunition Ch. VIII Armed forces materiel developments KP Key personalities SECTION 73 ATOMIC ENERGY Sec. 52 Governmental administration Sec. 55 National policies Sec. 62 Nuclear power Sec. 63 Uranium mines and potential sources Sec. 64 Existing and potential industrial support Sec. 65 Governmental appropriations Ch. VIII KP SECTION. 74 Sec. 23 Sec. 24 Sec. 25 Sec. 41 Sec. 45 Sec. 55 Sec. 61 Sec. 64 Sec. 65 Ch. VIII KP SECTION 75 Sec. 23 Sec. 24 Sec. 25 Sec. 41 Sec. 45 Sec. 55 Sec. 61 Sec. 64 Atomic warfare developments Key personalities BIOLOGICAL WARFARE Climatic factors Vegetation and terrain factors Urban area characteristics Population distribution Health and sanitation National policies Food supply Existing and potential industrial support Governmental appropriations Biological warfare equipment and de- velopments Key personalities CHEMICAL WARFARE Climatic factors Vegetation and terrain factors Urban area characteristics Population distribution Health and sanitation National policies Food supply Explosives, flame-throwers, incendiaries; war gases and smoke preparations; chem- ical industries Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 9 SECTION 75 Sec. 65 Ch. VIII KP SECTION 76 Sec. 22 Sec. 23 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 CHEMICAL WARFARE (Continued) Sec. 45 Organizations, installations, personnel rel- ative to military medicine Governmental appropriations Sec. 62 Fuel technology Chemical warfare equipment and devel- Sec. 63 Metals, alloys opments Sec. 64 Optical and photographic equipment, pre- Key personalities cision instruments, chemicals, and critical PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND and substitute materials MEDICINE Ch. VIII Armed forces materiel Oceanography, capabilities, research ac-NIS 104? Marine climate and oceanography tivities 107 Meteorological services KP Key personalities SECTION 80 In addition Sec. 41 Sec. 42 Sec. 44 Sec. M Sec. 55 Sec. 65 SECTION 81 Sec. 20 Sec. 21 Sec. 22 Sec. 31 Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 43 Sec. 44 Sec. 45 Sec. 52 Sec. 53 Sec. 54 Sec. 55 Sec. 56 Sec. 57 Sec. 58 Sec. 64 Sec. 71 Sec. 72 PAGE 10 Chapter virit- Armed Forces INTRODUCTION to other Chapter VIII sections: Age-sex distribution of population, etc. Attitudes toward armed forces; wartime morale Quality of manpower Constitutional provision for armed forces Position of armed forces in the nation; traditions Military budget; fiscal control GROUND FORCES Strategic areas Special operational aspects Amphibious operational aspects Railroads?lines of communications Highways?lines of communications Inland waterways?lines of communica- tions Premilitary training Available manpower; war casualties Environmental factors affecting quality of manpower; disease incidence of mili- tary importance Position in governmental structure and government supply and procurement agencies Pressure groups Police forces Defense policies Participation of military in intelligence ac tivi ties Inffltration of subversive elements Utilization of propaganda Supply potentialities in motor vehicles, including tanks, self-propelled guns, etc.; explosives, missiles, telecommunications equipment, chemicals, etc. Experimental materiel and weapons Experimental materiel, weapons and equipment Sec. 75 Sec. 82 Ch. IX KP SECTION 82 Sec. 22 Sec. 23 Sec. 35 Sec. 36 Sec. 38 Sec. 44 Sec. 52 Sec. 55 Sec. 57 Sec. 64 Sec. 65 Sec. 71 Sec. 72 Sec. 80 Sec. 81 Sec. 83 Ch. IX KP SECTION 83 Sec. 20 Sec. 23 Sec. 24 Sec. 31 Chemical warfare equipment Marine corps Physical maps, transportation, communi- cations and special armed forces maps Key personalities NAVAL FORCES Amphibious operations Effects of weather on amphibious opera- tions Ports and naval facilities; bases Merchant marine and other auxiliary forces Naval communications network Manpower factor in general Position in governmental structure Defense policies Infiltration of subversive elements Vessel construction and repair Naval budget Radio and other communications equip- ment Experimental materiel; weapons and equipment Structure of armed forces; personnel and ship strength; budget Coastal defenses Naval air arm Maps and charts of ports and harbors and telecommunications maps; special armed forces maps Key personalities AIR FORCES Strategic location Weather and climate Suitability for airfield construction Significance of railroads in organization for supply 4m61110611111111111 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 NIS CORRELATION GUIDE alliumnmmr SECTION 83 AIR FORCES (Continued) Sec. 32 Sec. 33 Sec. 35 Sec. 37 Sec. 44 Sec. 52 Sec. 53 Significance of highways in organization for supply Significance of inland waterways in or- ganization for supply Significance of ports in organization for supply Civil air facilities and available aircraft and international agreement Manpower availability Position in governmental structure Political stability Sec. 55 Sec. 57 Sec. 62 Sec. 63 Sec. 64 Sec. 71 Sec. 72 Sec. 81 Sec. 82 Ch. IX KP Defense policies Infiltration of subversive elements Petroleum availability Air facilities construction materials Aircraft manufacture Electronic equipment Aircraft weapons; experimental materiel Antiaircraft weapons, organization, and strength Naval air organization Air and air-facility maps and charts; special armed forces maps Key personalities Chapter IX-Map and Chart Appraisal SECTION 90 GENERAL SECTION 92 INDEXES OF MAPPING DATA AND COVER- Sec. 91 Mapping deficiencies AGE SECTION 91 SELECTED MAPS, CHARTS, AND PLANS See. 55 Rectification of borders Sec. 90 Map coverage and programs Sec. 91 Recommended maps and charts Supplement I-Ports and Naval Facilities Produced in conjunction with SECTION 35. See sections listed under SECTION 35 in Correlation Guide. Supplement II-Coasts and Landing Beaches Produced in conjunction with SECTION 22. See sections listed under SECTION 22 in Correlation Guide. Supplement III-Telecommunications Produced in conjunction with SECTION 38. See sections listed under SECTION 38 in Correlation Guide. Supplement IV-Urban Areas Produced in conjunction with SECTION 25. See sections listed under SECTION 25 in Correlation Guide. PAGE 11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Supplement V- Petroleum Produced in conjunction with SECTION 62. See .sections listed under SECTION 62 in Correlation Guide. Supplement VI-Communism Ch. III Penetration of telecommunication and Sec. 55 Effects on national policies transportation networks Sec. 56 Infiltration in intelligence and security Sec. 43 Infiltration of religious, educational, and organizations information organizations Sec. 57 Subversive activities Sec. 44 Penetration of labor organizations Sec. 58 Propaganda aspects Sec. 50 Historical setting Sec. 59 Subversive affiliations of key personalities Sec. 52 Parliamentary role and infiltration in or KP government Sec. 64 Penetration of industry Sec. 53 Party structure and role in elections Ch. VIII Infiltration of armed forces Sec. 54 Infiltration in police organization NIS 108 International Communism Marine Climate and Oceanography SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION See Sections 2 and 3 below , SECTION 2 MARINE CLIMATE Sec. 23 Weather and climatic factors Sec. 53 Sec. 55 Sec. 57 Sec. 58 PAGE 12 SECTION 3 OCEANOGRAPHY Sec. 22 Oceanography relating to coasts and landing beaches International Communism Legalized and front organizations International relationships Subversive organizations Propaganda agencies Sec. 59 Key personalities or KP Sup. VI Communism Key Personalities This Publication covers key personalities of all NIS Chapters from II through VIII. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 allimmmodowd, EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS CONTENTS Page A. Transmittal of material 1 1. Letter of transmittal 1 2. Manuscript 1 3. Graphic material 1 B. Text specifications 1 1. Typing of text 1 2. Text headings 2 3. References to figures and text 2 4. Quotations and extract matter 2 5. Sample pages 2 6. Footnotes 2 7. References to sources 2 C. Tabular specifications 3 1. Tabulations 3 2. Tables 3 3. Typing of tables 3 4. Table titles and figure numbers 3 5. Table stubs and column headings 3 6. Table footnotes and source references 3 7. Conventional entries 4 8. Statistical totals 4 9. Table construction 4 D. Graphic specifications 5 1. General 5 2. Photographs 5 3. Maps 5 E. General 6 1. Chapter I and NIS Supplement specifications 6 2. Consolidated chapters 6 3. Classification and control 6 4. Treatment of names 7 5. Technical terminology 7 6. Statistical data 7 7. Editorial style 7 PAGE i Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1958 4=iilmommotwt, Editorial Instructions A. Transmittal of material 1. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL NIS material delivered to the Office of Basic Intelli- gence (OBI/CIA) requires a letter of transmittal (original and 2 copies). The following are itemized in the letter: number of pages of typed manuscript, in- cluding Table of Contents, List of Figures, text, tables, caption list, list of insert graphics, number of graphic items submitted, and apron material. The letter con- tains specifications regarding control aspects of material involved. It also specifies security classification and control for those insert maps of which extra copies are to be printed without the NIS references, and the num- ber of copies of such maps desired by the contributor. 2. MANUSCRIPT NIS manuscript is submitted in 3 complete assembled copies. Each of the 3 assembled sets of manuscript includes in sequence 1) title page, 2) Table of Contents, 3) text, 4) tables, 5) caption list), 6) list of insert graph- ics, and 7) apron material. Pagination begins with the first page of text of each section and is consecutive throughout the manuscript (including each page of the tables, which follow the text in sequence of figure numbers). Pagination is by other means than a numbering machine, which is re- served for use in OBI processing. Manuscript with more than nominal alterations is not acceptable. Text or tabular material photostated or similarly reproduced from printed or other material is submitted in positive print form and legible in ap- proximately typewriter elite size. The supporting items, typed triple space, are as follows: Title page, containing chapter or supplement num- ber and title, section number and title, and the state- ment "This is a preliminary draft of Section NIS . It has not been finally edited or reconciled with other NIS sections and should not be reproduced. This section has been approved for use in the NIS by (agency), (month, year). This is the uniform date for the entire section and will appear on each page of the published section." Table of Contents for each section, including to an appropriate depth the headings appearing in the text. Modified tables of contents are submitted to meet the requirements for supplements, NIS on Ocean Areas, and consolidated chapters. Each Table of Contents is immediately followed by a List of Figures which lists in sequence all figures with the following details for each: Figure number as determined by sequence in tentative placement, category identification (Table, Photo, Map, etc.), and the caption as it appears with the figure or in appropriate short-title form. This List of Figures is immediately followed by a Contributor Statement, as approved by the NIS Committee, show- ing the principal agency or agencies contributing to and responsible for preparation of each NIS unit. Caption list (used for typesetting the captions of all graphic items). Figure numbers for all tables and graphics are listed in sequence. The exact wording of the captions for all graphics is included. When appli- cable, the caption list is followed by a list of insert graphics. The titles of tables are not included in the caption list since this information is included sepa- rately with each table. 3. GRAPHIC MATERIAL Graphic material, including photographs, is assem- bled separately from manuscript, in 8 complete sets with each item in numerical sequence according to fig- ure number. The 3 sets of each item consist of an original and 2 copies of all black and white material, and 3 color proofs for multicolor graphic material. The original and copies of all graphic items are plainly marked with the NIS area number and section and fig- ure number. The original plates of multicolor maps are retained by contributor until receipt of memoran- dum from OBI. These originals are then forwarded as directed by OBI for final reproduction. B. Text specifications 1. TYPING OF TEXT Text is submitted in 3 copies, typed on one side only, with the original on substantial 8 x 121/2" bond paper. Duplicating process may be used if submitted copies are thoroughly legible. Text is typed triple space. All paragraphs without headings begin with 5-space indent. Normal capitalization is used throughout (in- cluding headings), without use of continuous capitali- zation or of underlining except for foreign or other terms to be italicized. The last word of a typed line is always a complete word, avoiding ending any line with a hyphen. Manuscript conforms to the sample pages, with margins as shown. Each manuscript page, as shown, includes in top margin the name of the agency of primary responsibility, date (manuscript completion date, for processing control purposes only), classification, and any applicable security control state- PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 ment, NIS number and section number. The first page of text includes the section number and title. Text pages are numbered consecutively within each sec- tion (not using a numbering machine, which is reserved for OBI processing). 2. TEXT HEADINGS Headings used in NIS text material are as follows: (Grade of head, not typed in ms.) II. Military Geography (Chapter title) 22. Coasts and Landing Beaches (Section title) A. General (No. l) 1. Coasts (No. 2) a. Northern peninsula ? text follows (No. 3) (1) Williams Bay ? text follows (No. 4) (a) Vicinity of Port Smith?text (No. 5) 1) Seaward Approaches ? text (No. 6) a) Anchorage areas?text (No. 7) Chapter and section titles are centered. No. 1 heads are typed flush with left margin of text; inferior heads are successively indented 5 typewriter spaces. No. 1 and No. 2 heads stand alone; text begins on next line with indentation of 5 spaces and thereafter flush left. Remaining heads each end with space, two hyphens, space; text follows immediately on same line, with suc- ceeding lines beginning flush with left text margin. Each standard heading includes a title in addition to letter or number. Titles are as brief as feasible. Except for proper names, only the initial letter of each title is capitalized. Headings may stand alone when immediately fol- lowed by the next grade of head. For certain ma- terial (as in Coasts and Landing Beaches), a heading may be followed on the next line or lines by coordinates, hydrographic chart references, etc. Numbers used to itemize a series of items within text carry a single parenthesis, e.g., 1). 3. REFERENCES TO FIGURES AND TEXT Figures (including both tables and graphic material) are cited in the text by using figure numbers assigned by the contributor. Reference may be integral in a sentence, ". . . as shown in FIGURE 32-16 . . ." or parenthetical, ". . (FiGuREs 42-3 through 42-6). . ." It is often desirable to use the reference flexibly to dif- ferentiate types of figures, e.g., ". . . tabulated in FIG- URE 42-7 . . .or ". . . shown on the map, FIGURE 42-8 . . ." Statements such as ". . . in the follow- ing table . . .or ". . . in the table above . . ." are undesirable because the relationship may not be re- tained in printing. When related text is not to be adjacent to reference table details, the text is appro- priately amplified to incorporate significant details. Because figure numbering is subject to change in pub- lication or maintenance, reference to tables or graphic material in other sections or chapters is by abbreviated caption, type of material, and section number in which PAGE 2 it appears, e.g., (see population density map, SEC- TION 41). Tentative placement within text of tables and appro- priate graphic items is indicated by large carets with figure numbers on the right margin of text pages (see sample pages). Only one caret is used for each figure. Figures expected to follow printed text, such as fold-in maps, are itemized after the last line of manuscript text. Because subsection numbering and titles are subject to change in publication or maintenance, cross references are made to the highest order of text topic which will adequately indicate where the referenced material will be found. Within sections and especially within lengthy sections, however, references to subsec- tions may be quite detailed if desirable. Another sec- tion of the same chapter is referred to by ". . . (SEC- TION 81, this Chapter) . . .or ". . . (see Section on Ground Forces) . . ." Reference to a section of another chapter is as follows: ". . . (CHAPTER IV, SECTION 41) . . ." or ". . . (see Population) . . ." 4. QUOTATIONS AND EXTRACT MATTER Quotations up to approximately 3 typewritten lines are included in text within quotation marks. Longer quotations, and subordinate material likewise to be printed as "extract" in smaller type, are without quota- tion marks, indented 5 spaces for all lines and typed double space. 5. SAMPLE PAGES The accompanying two pages are sample pages of text manuscript for the guidance of typists. 6. FOOTNOTES When footnotes are considered necessary, up to 3 asterisks per page may be used. Footnote material of general significance for a segment of text may be printed as a NOTE. In manuscript the footnote is inserted on the line following the reference, separated from the text by solid lines above and below; the footnote begins indented 1 space from left margin, and is typed double space (see sample pages). 7. REFERENCES TO SOURCES References to sources are confined as much as possible to the topic Comments on Principal Sources, where the evaluative discussion may be followed by an alpha- betical listing of principal sources to which consecutive numbers are assigned. If sources are grouped by subject categories, they are numbered consecutively rather than by successive groups; details of a source are given only once and thereafter only the identifying number is listed. In text, and in both text and figure footnotes, this facilitates brief reference, e. g., ". . . , based on Source 1 estimates, . . ." or ". . . (Source 1) . . ." When only a few principal sources are identified and are not assigned source numbers in the Comments sub- section, text or footnote reference thereto is as brief Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS am610111111im as feasible. A source cited in text but not included in Comments on Principal Sources may be described in necessary detail but as briefly as possible. Author, title of source, and date normally are sufficient, typed in capitals and lowercase set off from text by paren- theses. In the numbered listing of principal sources, each item is typed double space and is continuous in the following order and typewriter style: Author, authors, editor or agency; last name first, capital and lowercase, period. Title of book or other separate publication; capitals and lowercase, under- lined, followed within parentheses by capitals and lowercase translation if required, period. Title of article from periodical in quotes, capitals and lower- case, comma; followed by name of periodical, under- lined, comma; edition, series, part, volume, number, selected pages, year of periodical as necessary, separated by commas in that order, with capital only at beginning of series of items, abbreviated as ed., ser., pt., vol., no., p., period. Arabic numerals used throughout except Roman after pt. Place of publication in capitals and lowercase, followed by colon and publishing agency if given, otherwise period. Date, period; n. d. if not dated, period. Total pages if desired. When several works by the same author or agency are listed, the name is not repeated but is replaced by dashes in subsequent listings. C. Tabular specifications 1. TABULATIONS Relatively simple tabular presentations, generally with three vertical columns of data or less and a limited number of entries, are treated as tabulations. Tabula- tions are incorporated in text manuscript without figure number or title (see sample pages). They are typed double space, with no continuous capitalization or underlining. 2. TABLES More complex tabular presentations, generally with stubs and three or more vertical columns of data, are treated as tables. Each table has a descriptive title preceded by a figure number. Each table is constructed to stand as an entity, because of possible separation from text in publication or use. 3. TYPING OF TABLES Each table is typed in three copies, on one side only, original on substantial bond paper. Duplicating proc- ess may be used if, submitted copies are thoroughly checked for legibility. Tables are typed double space, with no continuous capitals or underlining in caption, stubs, column headings, or data entries. Tables are typed on 8 x 123 bond paper whenever practicable. For more extensive presentations, larger paper may be used, if possible retaining the 12% inch vertical dimen- sion. Several separate 8 x 123/i pages may be used to continue a table. When more than one page is used to present a table or when there is significant relationship between columns in separate tables, in typing it is im- portant to maintain alinement and space relationship of columns on all pages. Each page includes in the margin, as in text pages, the name of the agency of primary responsibility, date, classification, any security control, NIS number, and section number. 4. TABLE TITLES AND FIGURE NUMBERS Table titles are as brief as possible consistent with adequate indication of table content. Date or dates are included in the title unless table content is general- ized or in itself provides adequate date information. The area or political name is incorporated when feasi- ble, in adjective form ("Value of French Imports, 1950- 1956") or in noun form after substance of caption ("Land Use, France, 1956"). The figure number which precedes each table title is composed of the section number followed by a hyphen and the serial number of the table in the sequence of all figures (including all tables and graphic items) within a section, according to caretted location in the submitted manuscript. 5. TABLE STUBS AND COLUMN HEADINGS Stubs (horizontal descriptive entries normally to the left of vertical columns of data) and column headings are carefully worded and coordinated. Proper selec- tion and description of categories minimizes footnotes and exceptions which require explanation. In general, the heading at the top of a column covers all material presented in the column without insertion of additional headings farther down the column. The same applies to side heads and lines of data. Where intermediate headings seem necessary, the material generally is presented as separate tables. However, related categories of items (such as apply to various weapons) may be usefully combined in a single table by making column headings more comprehensive and using subheadings in columns and/or indicating a gen- eral change in category. Preliminary consultation with OBI on such matters is advisable. 6. TABLE FOOTNOTES AND SOURCE REFER- ENCES Footnotes to tables are indicated by up to 3 asterisks and thereafter by up to 3 daggers (the typewriter sym- bol # is used for a, dagger). These symbols are placed at the left of numerical column data, and at the right of headings, stubs, mixed or reading column data. Footnotes are typed double space, under the table, starting indented 5 spaces from left margin of table. The number of footnotes to tables is minimized by incorporation of the material into related text when Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 IL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 feasible, by careful phrasing of stubs and headings, by consolidation in a reduced number of footnotes, or by consolidation in a single NOTE carried as a footnote without symbol. When source reference or references are considered necessary and apply to a table as a whole, they are indicated by "Data from Source 13 . . ." beginning at, the left text margin and typed 2 spaces below a line at the bottom of the table proper. If a NOTE item is used it precedes the conventional abbreviation n a and explanation, if used (see conventional entries below), which in turn precedes any symbol footnotes. An en- tire table taken verbatim from a source (sometimes as the only available data, and not necessarily fully ac- cepted by the contributor) is so indicated in related text, by explanation within the table, or by footnote ; in such cases it is generally desirable, so far as feasible, to follow the detailed format of the original material. 7. CONVENTIONAL ENTRIES To avoid blank spaces in columns of data, the follow- ing conventional entries are made as appropriate in table columns: ENTRY MEANING not applicable; no footnote used n a data not available, inadequate data, etc.; n and a separated and underlined; explained where necessary as "Data not available" in footnote 0 indicates zero quantity or reading in columns of uniform data such as weather statistics; no foot- note used none used instead of 0 when data are not uniform, e.g., to indicate known lack of production of a significant commodity; underline; no footnote used insig quantity too insignificant to record; underline; no footnote used When some items in a column are estimated they are preceded by est in underlined lowercase, unless symbol and footnote are preferable because of an otherwise' appreciably narrower column or estimated items can be feasibly covered in other footnotes. Ditto marks are not used in tables. For this purpose do in underlined lowercase is used. Generally, identical entries in figure columns are repeated. It is likewise desirable to repeat word entries which have significance. 8. STATISTICAL TOTALS When n a or insig are included with vertical or hori- zontal data entries for which a total is given that only moderately exceeds the sum of the specific entries, no footnote explanation may be required. However, when the total is exactly the sum of the specific figures generally it is advisable to indicate that n a or similar items are not reflected in the total, e. g., "Totals are of known data" or "approx." Totals which are not identical with the sum of specific entries, because of rounding or different sources, are indicated by note, e. g., "(Tonnage) figures rounded to nearest (thousand) are not additive." PAGE 4 9. TABLE CONSTRUCTION Optimum clarity and usefulness require the careful construction of all tables in terms of the nature and purpose of the material and the characteristics of the NIS format. Column headings normally are typed and printed horizontally. They may be vertical when heading narrow columns of data or generally to facilitate pub- lishing a table in minimum width. Superior or con- solidating headings are centered over the appropriate individual column headings. To avoid repetition of units of measurement after items of latitude, longitude, time, distance, weight, etc., units of measurement (abbreviated as appropriate) are put at the head of column, or centered over appropriate columns. Units common to an entire table (e.g., thousands of metric tons, or percentage of population) are placed in parentheses beneath the table title. It is desirable, so far as practicable, for a series of tables dealing with common or closely related topics to be expressed in a uniform order of magnitude of units of measurement, e.g., all in thousands of tons or hun- dreds of tons. Entries in all columns aline horizontally with top line of the corresponding stub. Vertical columns of figures are aimed on the decimal point, and zeros precede the decimal in numbers of less than 1. Dissimilar data are centered in the column. Examples of various figure items are: 1,500.0 0.15 24.4 1.04 16.09 4,200 120-130 insig 30 (daily) ri a Generally it is not desirable to carry a column in which there are no entries. Use of a column for iso- lated entries may be avoided by carrying the entries in a "Remarks" column or by consolidation in an ex- planatory note to the table. Tables generally are constructed to avoid use of full- length lines or rules between horizontal entries. Lines or boxes around column headings preferably are omitted by contributors unless format is well established. Although contributors are not required to conform to printing requirements when constructing tables, gen- eral consideration of such requirements facilitates pub- lication of table material. A printed NIS single-column width accommodates approximately 55 characters or spaces. A two-column page width takes approximately 115 characters or spaces. A two-page spread takes approximately 230 characters or spaces. Two-page spreads tend to present page make-up problems in publication, including separation of tables from related text. Tables which must be viewed from the side of the page, and extended tables on fold-in inserts, are not desirable and are used only by arrangement with OBI. In constructing tables for normal column or page-width Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1958 EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS mlimmommmo publication, space allowance is required for column headings which may be wider than figure entries in columns, and for stubs. When it is apparent that the maximum horizontal lines (allowing for column entries, column headings, stubs, footnote symbols, and ade- quate space between columns) will occupy more than the approximate number of spaces available but will not utilize more than a nominal additional width, rearrangement of the table warrants consideration. Vertical printing of heads is one device. When the number of columns exceeds the number of stub entries, the layout often may be reversed to make a longer but narrower table. When tables present problems not previously encountered, contributors are requested to consult OBI before final typing. D. Graphic specifications 1. GENERAL All graphic materials, such as photographs, maps, charts, graphs, and sketches, regardless of size, are (in addition to numbered tables) designated as figures. Each graphic item carries a separate figure number comprising the section number followed by hyphen and serial number of the figure in the sequence of all figures within the section. The originals and copies of all graphic items are clearly marked with the NIS area number, section and figure number. The image size of the NIS printed page is 714" H by 93A" V. The material is printed in two 312" col- umns spacedIA" apart. Column width figures are printed 332" wide, and page width figures are VA" wide. The maximum .height of such figures including space for caption is 9%". All graphic items larger than page size are treated as fold-in inserts. The maximum paper size used for NIS inserts is 23" V x 3934" II. The horizontal dimen- sion normally includes a 914" apron. Figures are prepared to fit NIS indicated dimensions. Care is required in laying out correct proportions and in selecting sizes of symbols, patterns, lines, and letter- ing to allow for reduction commensurate with that per- mitted by other features of the figure. When a specific amount of reduction is desired, it is so marked outside the border. Otherwise, the amount of reduction will be decided by OBI. All figures, except insert maps, are accompanied by captions (in lowercase and normal word capitalization) which are carefully worded to be briefly but adequately descriptive. The first line of the caption carries the figure number followed by identification of the subject or brief descriptive phrase; succeeding lines add appro- priate amplification, including direction of view and indication of the date (where meaningful) of photo- graphs. Charts or graphs do not carry titles or caption ma- terial (as distinct from explanatory legend material) within the figure image. In the case of a specially con- structed chart or graph, source and date of information may be drafted within the figure. All insert maps carry the title, legend, source and date of source, and other essential information drafted within the title box or neatline. It is not necessary that all maps or photographs be oriented with north at the top, but the position of north is clearly indicated by means of a north arrow, coordi- nates, or caption. Names, symbols, and similar details of figures are oriented for reading from the bottom of the page. In exceptions where figures must be viewed from the side of the page, details of the figure are oriented for reading from the right-hand side of the page. Printed stickup is preferred for symbols and letter- ing. However, Leroy lettering is permissible. Free- hand lettering and symbols are avoided except where it is necessary to include an existent printed map or sketch. It is frequently desirable for graphic material, such as large-scale aerials of airfields, to be accompanied by small-scale line-cut orientation or location maps. 2. PHOTOGRAPHS Only clear and distinct photographs are acceptable, and original prints are supplied insofar as possible. Except where the original is unwieldy, prints are sup- plied at the same scale as originals, including suggested cropping to be undertaken in OBI processing. High-altitude aerial photographs carry a north arrow and bar scale drafted on the face of the print. When a photograph originally has foreign annotations on the face of the photograph, the annotations are retained and translated or explained in the caption. Instructions for selection and preparation of photo- graphs are set forth in NIS Memo No. 4. 3. MAPS All NIS maps are carefully selected and constructed in terms of the purpose and subject material of a map or plan, content and positional integration with text, suitability of color or other differentiation, and all feasible uniformity in layout, lettering, and other drafted elements. Appropriate modifications are made for generalized maps designed for one-column width or otherwise less than page size, which are preferable for many NIS purposes because they can be printed in juxtaposition to related text. All maps have a neatline and border, a legend cen- tered under the map title, a bar scale, and the classifica- tion centered beneath the scale. Legends clearly define all symbols not self-explanatory or generally understood from common usage. A direction indication, either coordinates or a north arrow, is included. Maps pre- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 4.1.1.1111 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1958 pared as a series (e.g., port and town plans) have con- sistent treatment throughout in type style, zipatone patterns, title and legend layout. Nonvarying plastic (e.g., dyrite, vinylite) is preferable for the construction of color plates, to facilitate accurate registry in printing. A standard base map for each NIS area is prepared and distributed by Cartography Division (D/GC/RR), CIA, in the following forms: black and white; composite color copies on paper; composite black line and black line copies of each color separation plate on plastic (dyrite). Specific instructions concerning reduction, sizes, etc., are distributed with the base map for each NIS area. Contributors are responsible for drafting their own overlays, which are keyed to the base plates of NIS standard base maps. In addition to the standard base map a small-scale page-size base map is prepared for each NIS area. Specific instructions concerning the use, reduction, sizes, etc., are also distributed with each page-size base map. Where base maps are not applicable (such as port plans), contributors are responsible for compiling and constructing their own maps. Contributors lacking necessary cartographic facilities should consult OBI. Maps to be reproduced as obtained (such as foreign road maps) carry a note within the neatline specifying that they are being so reproduced and without editing for BGN conformity. Where necessary, fold-in maps are printed with a page-size apron, to permit full view of the map as the text is read. This apron can be used for printing in- formation additional to that contained in the legend, such as lists of installations or regions. Such informa- tion is submitted on separate typewritten sheet or sheets for each map, in 3 copies accompanying the 3 sets of manuscript. Printed material is not carried on the back of a map. E. General 1. CHAPTER I AND NIS SUPPLEMENT SPEC- IFICATIONS Preparation of text and graphic material for CHAPTER I and NIS Supplements generally conforms to the indi- cated procedures for other NIS material, with such modifications as are developed to meet the requirements of CHAPTER I and the Supplements. 2. CONSOLIDATED CHAPTERS For certain small NIS areas or those insufficiently developed in some aspects to warrant standard NIS section coverage on all topics, consolidated chapters may be prepared. The chapter, not the section, is the unit of production for these publications. The format is simplified and compressed. Section topics appear as subsections and may be combined into new topics PAGE 6 as appropriate. One Table of Contents and one "Com- ments on Principal Sources" support the whole chapter. The chapter has continuous pagination and figure numbering, using the chapter Roman numeral desig- nator. Using a consolidated CHAPTER V as an example, SECTION 50 becomes Subsection A, General; Subsection B might combine SECTIONS 51 and 52 as The Govern- mental System; Public Order and Security could cover SECTIONS 54, 56, and 57; SECTIONS 53 and 55 could be combined (especially in coverage of dependent areas) into a new subsection topic. The final subsection would be "Comments on Principal Sources." 3. CLASSIFICATION AND CONTROL NIS textual material is classified independently by section. All pages of each section uniformly carry the highest classification of material in the section. All material, however, carries at least a CONFIDEN- TIAL classification. Tables of Contents, caption lists, all tables, and all graphics, except photographs and insert maps, carry the uniform section classifica- tion and are so stamped when submitted. Insert maps and photographs may be of a lower classification than the NIS section of which they are a part. The agency of primary responsibility is required to insure that any control aspects are properly indicated on submitted material. All Comments on Principal Sources for all NIS (except CHAPTERS I) are controlled "Not Releasable to Foreign Nationals." The control for the Comments on Principal Sources as such does not govern for related NIS material and need not be specified in the letter of transmittal. All NIS content is controlled "Not Releasable to Foreign Nationals" for certain NIS areas specified by the NIS Committee. All NIS material relating to such areas, regardless of the content of the material, is correspondingly controlled. The first and last page of text is appropriately stamped, top and bottom. All such material delivered to OBI carries a cover sheet specifying control, and the control requirements are also indicated in the letter of transmittal. When any NIS unit or portions of NIS material (other than Comments on Principal Sources) are con- trolled for reasons other than the approved control character of the area, the entire section involved is controlled. The first and last page of text is appro- priately stamped, top and bottom. All such material delivered to OBI carries a cover sheet specifying con- trol, and the nature and occasion for the control re- quirements are indicated in the letter of transmittal. Variations of the "Not Releasable to Foreign Na- tionals" control which may appear on submitted material to meet departmental or other requirements are not used in the printed NIS. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 Ap ? ? ? EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS ? ? ? Top Margin Left Margin r- IARMY-June 1961 (CLASSIFICATION) NIS 21 Sec-38 ?31 The offices and agencies that provided telegraph service in the Right Margin 1" 12i" China area in 1956 were: Telegraph and telephone service 244 Telephone stations 232 Telegraph agencies 403 Wireless agencies 62 Total 941 b. Type of construction -- In general, construction of... 4. Radio a. Radio communications stations From 1933 to 1945 the major radio communications stations were operated by. Itemized information for the period beginning April 1940 to August 1945 is based on captured Japanese documents, but the significant totals are confirmed by U.S.official reports. b. Broadcasting -- There are several of the more powerful Fig. broadcasting stations listed in Figure 38-3. 33-3 (1) Number of installations -- The number of these linstallations is considerably smaller than the total given by the 11956 telegraph offices and agencies' tabulations. It is now believed Ithat, even with full allowance for the new facilities, only a few have 'shortwave transmitters. There is very little information about... f- (page number) Bottom (CLASSIFICATION) Margin 1*" Approved Plor Release 1999/09/21 : CIA RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 SAMPLE PAGE 1 Left Margin l itte NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JAINT_TJ, 1962 Approved For Release 1999/ . - 7 01055A000300030001 IARMY-Jone 1961 (CLASSIFICATION) 3d. Telecommunications A. General Top Margin 1 in 14 NIS 21 Sec-38 During the Japanese occupation telecommunication facilities in Right 1._Margin it Manchuria were rapidly expanded. New radio stations were rapidly... B. Domestic facilities 1. General Prior to 1953, telecommunication facilities in Manchuria were under the control of several agencies and companies licensed by the Chinese, Japanese, and Soviet governments. 2. Telephone a. Location of routes of lines -- Telephone land lines form a rather close pattern around Mukden, Chang-chtun (Hsinking), and Harbin, and radiate to all parts of the country (Figure 38-1)...1 b. Type of construction Construction was completed for an underground 28-pair nonloaded telephone cable between Mukden and Antung in 1949 (Figure 38-2). In December 1952 completion of 3. Telegraph and cable a. Location of routes of lines -- Most of the routes are parallel to railways and highways; lines are also built along the valleys. Practically all the major circuits and most of the other..4 1- (page number) (CLASSIFICATION) Bottom Margin le SAMPLE PAGE 2 8" Fig. 38-1 Fig. 38-2 pproved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER I BRIEF AND NIS ANNUAL Section 10 Chronology Section 11 Significance of the Area Section 12 Military Geography Section 13 Transportation and Telecommunications Section 14 Sociological Section 15 Political Section 16 Economic Section 17 Scientific Section 18 Armed Forces Section 19 Map and Chart Appraisal Leading Personalities CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence - Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 Chapter I - Brief OUTLINE SECTION 10. CHRONOLOGY D. National policies and international rela- SECTION 11. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE AREA tions SECTION 12. A. MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Geographic character E. F. Public order and security Comments on principal sources B. Military geographic regions SECTION 16. ECONOMIC C. Strategic areas and internal routes A. General D. Comments on principal sources B. Resources and production SECTION 13. TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICA- C. Finance and trade TIONS D. Government economic policies and pro- A. General grams B. Railroads E. Comments on principal sources C. Highways SECTION 17. SCIENTIFIC D. Inland waterways A. General E. Ports, naval facilities, and shipyards B. Major research fields F. Merchant marine C. Organization, planning, and financing of G. Civil air research H. Telecommunications D. Scientific education, manpower, and fa- I. Comments on principal sources cilities SECTION 14. SOCIOLOGICAL E. Comments on principal sources A. General SECTION 18. ARMED FORCES B. Population and manpower A. General C. Welfare B. Ground forces D. Structure and characteristics of the C. Naval forces society D. Naval air arm E. Cultural expression E. Air force(s) F. Comments on principal sources F. Comments on principal sources SECTION 15. POLITICAL SECTION 19. MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL' A. General A. General B. Structure and functioning of govern- B. Maps and charts ment (2. Programs underway C. Political dynamics LEADING PERSONALITIES AREA BRIEF (when required) SECTION 10 CHRONOLOGY SECTION 11 MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS NIS Annual OUTLINE SECTIONS 12-19 (as needed to set forth major changes in the basic intelligence situation depicted in CHAPTER I) LEADING PERSONALITIES (when required) PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Chapter I - Brief OUTLINE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. CHAPTER I is a succinct analytical summary of the salient basic intelligence aspects of the NIS Area as a whole. It presents a clear, concise, over-all view of the principal factors concerning the NIS Area under con- sideration and, while stressing succinctness, contains sufficient detail to render it adequate within itself, and such NIS Annuals as may supplement it, to serve as the basis for initial military and political strategic planning. More specifically, CHAPTER 1 accomplishes the following: Presents a clear view of the NIS Area concerned. Not only presents the salient basic intelligence aspects of the NIS Area concerned but also evaluates the significance of these aspects. Establishes the interrelationship of such salient aspects by integrating in any one section those aspects of other sec- tions which serve to enhance the meaningfulness of the first. SECTIONS 12-19, inclusive, present coocise analytical summaries of salient basic intelligence elements of the area, selected from CHAPTERS respectively. Significant developments since the publication of the respective Chapters are incorporated in SECTIONS 12-19, inclusive. While the discussion in each Sec- tion is extensive enough to insure clear presentation and explanation of significant aspects, care is taken to exclude nonessential details. Each Section includes appropriate evaluative and interpretive conclusions. Succinct textual discussions are supplemented by graphic aids wherever practicable. The text does not repeat intelligence portrayed graphically, but inter- prets and augments it. CHAPTER I is prepared under the general direction of the NIS Committee in accordance with allocations of responsibility in the NIS Standard Instructions. CHAPTER I is published as a complete chapter. CHAPTER I is riot usually produced until after the com- pletion of the basic research on, and development of, CHAPTERS II?IX, inclusive. The approval date for all Sections of CHAPTER 1 coincides with the month in which the Chapter is scheduled for submission to CIA. The following outline guides for individual Sections constitute a check list of essential coverage for the most complex country. Salient basic intelligence elements vary, however, from country to country, even among the most complex. Great latitude, therefore, is exercised in applying the outline guides to individual countries in order to insure a presentation appropriate to each. Master Index CHAPTER I contains a Master Index. This Index lists detailed topics contained in standard NIS Sections and Supplements and serves as a guide for use in depth of all components, other than CHAPTER I, of the NTS PAGE 2 concerned. The Index also indicates any omission or special treatment of intelligence applicable to the NIS under consideration. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER I Summary Map Each CHAPTER I includes a comprehensive map presentation which condenses selected intelligence of the NIS Area. This "Summary Map" normally consists of one fold-in sheet inserted at the end of the Chapter, and normally comprises the following ele- ments: 1. A terrain and transportation map. This map is of suitable scale and shows for the area the terrain features; railroads, roads, inland waterways, and air- fields; ports; amphibious landing areas; cities and towns; and a suitable map legend. 2. Insets showing the following: a. Population density and administrative divi- sions. b. Economic activity. c. Land utilization. d. Strategic areas and approaches. e. Location and comparative areas. f. An area brief which succinctly states selected facts concerning the land, people, govern- ment, economy, communications, and de- fense forces of the area. 3. A "Summary map locator" printed on the apron of the map. This consists of two parts: a) an alpha- betical listing of places and terrain features, together with the map coordinates of each; and b) an alpha- betical listing of airfields, together with the map coordinates of each. Section 10. Chronology This Section consists of a list of dates and events of major significance, usually since World War II. Only highlights are given; events of minor significance are not included merely to provide an entry for each of the years within the period covered. Section 11. Significance of the Area This Section is a synopsis that shows the relative importance of the area in terms of geographic location, natural and human resources, and national force. The importance of the location of the area in relation to shell factors as international traffic. routes, regional political groups, and great power centers is shown. Na- tional force is appraised in-terms of the moral, political, economic, technical, and military influence the country exerts on other countries. These characterizations are in general the content of the first paragraph of SECTION 11. The statements in the opening paragraph are sup- ported by sufficient record of past events, international influence of the nation, and international interest in the area to indicate the vitality and direction of the forces described in these statements. Because the Section synthesizes conclusions selected mostly from other Sections, the presentation is flexible. The Section depends upon the CHAPTER I Summary Map and the global representation on the inside cover for graphic support and draws from Sections of CHAPTER I and other Chapters whatever conclusions are needed to complete the composite statement of national influence and the historical perspective of the area. PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 mmiunimmemir NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS Section 12. Military Geography A. Geographic character 1. LOCATION, SIZE, SHAPE, AND GENERAL GEOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS This Subsection consists of a general discussion of the location, size, shape, and general geographic condi- tions of the NIS Area. The location of the NIS Area is discussed in relation to important areas outside the NIS Area. Specific details are given on size, including both area and population, and a comparison is made with an appropriate part of the United States. A general statement regarding the shape of the NIS Area and military significance is included if important; otherwise this information is covered in the discussion of site. The general geographic conditions are covered by a brief over-all view of terrain and climate, high- lighting those elements that have special military significance. 2. BOUNDARIES Data are presented on the specific lengths of the boundaries and coastline of the NIS Area and the terrain conditions along each are discussed. Details are given on the status of boundaries, fortifications, and movement possibilities across the boundary. Information is also given on offshore territorial limits. 3. APPROACHES a. AIR This Subsection provides a general dis- cussion of the surface configuration and climate within each air approach sector external to the NIS Area. The number of sectors is determined by significant differences in the physical conditions in the zones bounding the NIS Area. The sectors are named by appropriate major directional terms, such as the Northern Sector, the Eastern Sector, or the South- western Sector. The discussion zone seldom exceeds 500 miles beyond the limits of the NIS Area. b. SEA - This consists of a general analysis of the hydrography and climate in approach areas, including offshore and nearshore conditions and stra- tegic amphibious landing areas in the coastal areas. PAGE 4 JANUARY 1962 C. LAND - Land approaches are discussed through a general analysis of avenues of approach, including consideration of transportation facilities and conditions for off-road dispersal and cross-country movement within each approach. B. Military geographic regions This Subsection presents a brief summary of the combined effects environmental factors would have on military operations within relatively homogeneous parts of the NIS Area. In most cases, the Subsection is a precis of the regional presentation in Section 21 but omits mention of subregions. Emphasis is on general military evaluations, with descriptive material and back-up data kept to a minimum. C. Strategic areas and internal routes 1. STRATEGIC AREAS This is a discussion of the significant aspects of strategically important centers or regions within the NIS Area. The selection of strategic areas is based on their importance as military, industrial, governmental, commercial, communication, cultural, or agricultural centers. 2. INTERNAL ROUTES Internal routes selected for discussion in this Sub- section are those which provide the easiest avenues of movement between land approaches and strategic areas, between strategic amphibious landing areas and strategic areas, and between strategic areas. Data are included on transportation facilities and conditions for off-road dispersal and cross-country movement within each internal route. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covered by the Section. The comments cover the following elements: 1) citation of major sources of information by general category only, 2) indication of major gaps in informa- tion, 3) assessment of the general reliability of infor- mation available in the field under consideration, and 4) indication of general trends in the collection effort pertaining to the field under consideration. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER I Section 13. Transportation and Telecommunications A. General Presents an over-all appraisal of the transportation and telecommunication networks. Discussions include statement of economic and military significance, a brief historical sketch, improvements plans, and rela- tionship to any national development scheme. (Sub- section may briefly treat modes of transport of minor national entities or island groups included in the NIS Area but not treated elsewhere in this Section.) The various modes of transport are compared, and the relative importance of each evaluated. Emphasis is on transportation and telecommunication networks as a whole. B. Railroads Analysis of rail transport, its place in the national economy, adequacy to meet normal economic and military requirements, and ability to support military operations. Subsection includes an appraisal of the rail pattern; general railroad characteristics; construc- tion and maintenance problems; development pro- gram(s), if any; traffic volume; administrative organiza- tion; major operating problems; and equipment. C. Highways Analysis of highway transport, its place in the national economy, adequacy to meet normal economic and military requirements, and ability to support military operations. Subsection includes an appraisal of highway pattern; general highway characteristics; construction and maintenance problems; development program, if any; traffic volume; factors which hamper highway movement; and equipment. D. Inland waterways Analysis of inland waterway transport, its place in the national economy and its potential military value. Subsection includes an appraisal of the inland water- way pattern; physical features; navigability limitations by craft size; problems of maintenance; development program, if any; traffic volume; major operating problems; and equipment. There may also be included a brief appraisal of individual systems of outstanding significance to the transport pattern of the country. E. Ports, naval facilities, and shipyards 1. PORTS Analysis of ports, their place in the national econ- omy, adequacy to meet normal economic and mili- taty requirements, and ability to support military operations. Subsection includes pattern; general port characteristics; stage of development; and develop- ment program, if any. Each principal port is. briefly described as to location, significance, berthage and anchorage space in terms of vessel types when prac- ticable, and estimated military unloading capacity. Tabulations may be provided for secondary ports and their capacities. 2. NAVAL FACILITIES Brief description of naval facilities, operating bases, construction and repair facilities, and supply and maintenance support bases?including names, loca- tions, and main purposes of these installations. 3. SHIPYARDS Statement of number and location of shipyards. Characteristics peculiar to NIS Area are discussed briefly. F. Merchant marine Analysis of merchant marine and its importance to the national economy. Discussion includes a state- ment of the number and total tonnage (gross and dead- weight) of merchant ships; composition of merchant fleet; important characteristics such as age, type of propulsion and fuel requirements; and source of ac- quisition. Ships less than 1,000 gross tons and the fishing fleet are mentioned, if significant. Trends in merchant marine composition and merchant marine potential for support of defense requirements are evaluated briefly. G. Civil air General summary of civil aviation activities and their significance in the national transportation pattern. Subsection includes a brief assessment of major sched- uled, nonscheduled, and charter air carriers; administra- tive and operational organization and control; aircraft and personnel inventory; training activities; civil air facilities; and international civil aviation agreements. H. Telecommunications Analysis of the telecommunication system, its value to the economy, adequacy to meet normal economic and defense requirements and to support military operations. Subsection includes an appraisal of the telecommunication pattern, relative importance of each means of communication, volume of traffic carried on system, state of development as compared to other world areas, key centers and routes, vulnerabilities, construction, maintenance, and operations problems, telecom manufacturing capability, sources of equip- ment, plans for development. PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 I. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covered by the Section. The comments cover the following elements: 1) citation of major sources of information by general category A. General only, 2) indication of major gaps in information, 3) assessment of the general reliability of information available in the field under consideration, and 4) indi- cation of general trends in the collection effort pertain- ing to the field under consideration. Section 14. Sociological This Subsection briefly analyzes the distinctive features of the society, including cohesive and divisive social forces, and indicates the degree of social stability. It notes important sociological problems and points out political, economic, geographic, educational, and other factors having a direct impact on the character- istics of the society. B. Population and manpower This Subsection covers the size and density of the population (including a population density table broken down by political subdivisions), its composition in terms of ethnic groups, age groups, and sex, and its growth trends. Outstanding physical characteristics are noted. Marriage and divorce rates and notable population movements and problems are indicated. The labor force is analyzed in terms of composition by age and sex, the role of minority groups, occupational distribution, types and degrees of skills, and extent of employment, unemployment, and underemployment, wage scales and working conditions. The size and sources of the labor reserve are indicated. Significant labor problems are identified. The type and nature of labor and management organizations are described and significant organizations are mentioned. Labor- management relations and the role of government in this field are analyzed. C. Welfare, The material welfare of the rural and urban popula- tion is discussed in terms of real wages, housing, cloth- ing, diet and health. Principal prevalent diseases, quality and adequacy of medical care, and the number of doctors and hospital beds per 10,000 population are indicated. The subsection indicates government and nongovernment attitudes toward public welfare, in- cluding social security programs, and describes the organization and effectiveness of these programs. PAGE 6 D. Structure and characteristics of the so- ciety The social structure is described in terms of its class, ethnic, religious or other base. The discussion covers the composition, characteristics, and roles of the principal classes and social groups and the family, identifies the factors contributing to social status, and indicates the degree of social mobility, stability, adjustability, and cohesiveness. Principal cultural values are defined and the role of tradition and custom and the degree to which the society fosters such charac- teristics as cooperativeness and individualism are as- sessed. Significant popular attitudes including those toward foreign peoples and institutions, particularly the United States and the U.S.S.R., and their principal causes are noted. E. Cultural expression The Subsection notes the principal languages, their distribution, and their important ethnic, religious, and international ties. It indicates the extent to which language serves as a social or communication barrier. The role of religion in the society is discussed; the principal religious groups are described in terms of their importance, organization, and relations with each other and the government. It indicates the educational level and popular atti- tudes toward education; discusses the educational system and its effectiveness; notes educational trends and the fields emphasized in secondary and advanced education; and analyzes the principal educational problems. The basic languages of instruction are noted where pertinent. Principal mediums of public information are de- scribed so as to indicate their general content, relative importance, degree of reliability, and extent of political control. The principal modes of artistic expression and enter- tainment are discussed. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER I JANUARY 1962 F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covere,d by the Section. The comments cover the following elements: 1) citation of major sources of information by general category only, 2) indication of major gaps in informa- tion, 3) assessment of the general reliability of infor- mation available in the field under consideration, and 4) indication of general trends in the collection effort pertaining to the field under consideration. Section 15. Political A. General This Subsection characterizes the type of government and indicates the degree of popular acceptance. It summarizes significant factors that affect the regime's, strength and stability, evaluating the relative im- portance and permanence of the factors considered and indicating their historical, social, or other origins. B. Structure and functioning of the gov- ernment This Subsection describes the central, regional, and local governments. The principal provisions of the constitution and their relation to political practice are indicated. The administrative structure is analyzed in terms of the appropriateness of its organization to its functions, the efficiency of the procedures, and the caliber of its personnel. Dependent or associated areas are identified and their relationship to the metropole is described. C. Political dynamics This Subsection succinctly characterizes the political forces of the area and notes the significant influences that have shaped them. The Subsection then describes the major political groupings; it takes up their organiza- tion, objectives, and methods, mentioning their im- portance in national life, their major policies and achievements and significant historical background. Electoral laws are summarized and actual electoral practices are described. A. General D. National policies and international rela- tions This Subsection summarizes national policies in the domestic, foreign, and defense fields (including the percentage of the national budget and the proportion of national product devoted to defense), and indicates their degree of popular acceptance. The role of propaganda in relation to these policies is noted. E. Public order and security This Subsection describes the role and effectiveness of the police and security systems and indicates popular attitudes toward them. Where there exists a significant actual or potential subversive threat, the group or groups posing this threat are identified and described and their principal sources of strength analyzed. F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covered by the Section. The comments cover the following elements: 1) citation of major sources of information by general category only, 2) indication of major gaps in informa- tion, 3) assessment of the general reliability of infor- mation available in the field under consideration, and 4) indication of general trends in the collection effort pertaining to the field under consideration. Section 16. Economic This Subsection surveys the nature and structure of the economy and the changes occurring within it and analyzes the national income or product by origin and distribution. It analyzes the special problems and strengths and weaknesses of the economy and empha- sizes its regional and international significance. Its strategic supply position is presented in tabular form. es6111111.111111111111110s B. Resources and production This Subsection discusses the availability and utiliza- tion of human and natural resources. It discusses land utilization, other major resources and their utiliza- tion, and the relationship of resource position to eco- nomic development. It summarizes distribution of labor by main economic sectors; also labor productivity, special skills, and adaptability to new methods. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 A proved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Significant aspects of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are discussed, their relationship to the national economy and to each other is shown. The Subsection also assesses the role of the industrial establishment in the national economy, and the relative importance and adequacy of its sectors?fuels and power, minerals and metals, manufacturing, and con- struction. C. Finance and trade This Subsection discusses the nature and pattern of foreign and domestic trade, indicating relative impor- tance to the economy, and appraises the financial establishment, including prices, money, credit, and banking. The national budget is briefly discussed, with particular reference to the impact of significant military or other problems. The Subsection assesses the international importance of finance and trade of the NIS Area and indicates its major trading partners and export and import commodities. It summarizes the international economic relations of the area in- cluding trade agreements, discusses briefly factors entering into the balance of payments, such as services A. General and foreign aid, and outlines the debtor-creditor posi- tion of the economy. D. Government economic policies and pro- grams This Subsection describes the extent and nature of government intervention in the economy and indicates the attitude of the business community toward such intervention. It includes a summary of governmental economic policies and programs and their objectives. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covered by the Section The comments cover the following elements: 1) cita- tion of major sources of information by general cate- gory only, 2) indication of major gaps in information, 3) assessment of the general reliability of information available in the field under consideration, and 4) indi- cation of general trends in the collection effort pertain- ing to the field under consideration. Section 17. Scientific This Subsection sets forth the salient historical facts (e.g., political, economic, cultural) that have signifi- cantly favored or hindered scientific advancement. The Subsection also evaluates the current scientific capabili- ties of the country; compares its level of advancement with the levels attained by similar or neighboring countries; shows the influence of the government, industry, and educational system on scientific progress; and indicates significant trends in research. B. Major research fields These fields usually include the following: air, ground, and naval weapons; biological and chemical warfare; atomic energy; electronics; medical science, including veterinary medicine; and other sciences (chemistry and metallurgy; physical and allied sciences; mathematics, instrumentation, and computers; the earth sciences? geology, geodesy, and terrestrial geophysics; meteor- ology, hydrology, and hydraulic engineering; ocea- nography; and astronomy). For each significant field in the country being surveyed, this Subsection evaluates recent achievements and briefly describes current research projects. PAGE 8 C. Organization, planning, and financing of research This Subsection does the following: 1) briefly de- scribes the over-all organization, planning, and financing of research and indicates the level of control by govern- ment, industry, and private organizations; 2) indicates any trends toward centralized or decentralized control by government and states any pertinent reasons therefore; and 3) succinctly appraises the sources and adequacy of financial support to research. A chart is provided showing the organization for scientific re- search. D. Scientific education, manpower, and fa- cilities This Subsection does the following: 1) briefly dis- cusses, in terms of quantity and quality, scientific manpower and training and briefly appraises major research facilities; 2) briefly describes any significant measures being taken to improve and increase the number of personnel and facilities; 3) indicates the effect of shortages of personnel and facilities on major research programs; and 4) shows the attitude of the public toward scientific learning and the status of scientists in the community. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A00030003 CHAPTER I JANUARY 1962 E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covered by the Section. The comments cover the following elements; 1) citation of major sources of information by general category A. General only, 2) indication of major gaps in information, 3) assessment of the general reliability of information available in the field under consideration, and 4) indi- cation of general trends in the collection effort pertain- ing to the field under consideration. Section 18. Armed Forces A concise appraisal of the capability of the armed forces based upon consideration of such factors as total personnel strength, morale, organization, training, logistics capacity, and materiel. When appropriate for clarity or emphasis, comparison with the armed forces of other countries is furnished. 1. HISTORICAL A brief account of selected military history of the armed forces with emphasis on the recent past. This history provides a very brief record of the services' military performance and tradition to aid in the ap- preciation of current military capability; it also pro- vides, whenever applicable, discussion of foreign control or influence. The desired stress is on .significant field experiences, behavior, and military performance of such recency as to affect personnel of the present military establishment. 2. DEFENSE ORGANIZATION The military establishment which is above the in- dividual services, such as the Department of Defense of the United States, is discussed, .utilizing a simple graphic aid to permit ready comprehension of the relationships between the services and of the organiza- tion which directs them. This Subsection may include, where essential, a brief discussion of the political forces or groups within the country which control the armed forces. (NOTE: Detailed discussion of political influences is in SECTION 15.) 3. MILITARY MANPOWER AND MORALE a. MANPOWER Provides a table of the number of males and fit males by five-year age groups from 15 to 49. If pertinent, there is a brief discussion of depletion of fit manpower. There is also a discussion of the size of the annual class reaching military age, the average number of men inducted annually, and their physi- cal and mental adaptability for service in the armed forces. b. MORALE Appraisal Or morale factors, to in- clude: factionalism, favoritism, political intrigue within the armed forces, and other subversive influences. Loyalty of the armed forces (officer and enlisted per- sonnel) to the regime and any measures taken to insure such loyalty (political commissars, appointment of trusted commanders). 4. STRENGTH TRENDS Provides a table of armed forces strength and a discus- sion of trends in the services during recent years; for instance, since World War II, or, if more applicable, since independence. 5. STRATEGY A pr?s of the national military strategy. It dis- cusses the strategic 'military problems of the nation ill light of geographic location and political, economic, and other pertinent factors; and of the manner in which national leaders, especially defense planners, appear to contemplate meeting these problems, i.e., of the aims of the national military strategy, including, where feasible and appropriate, such elements as stra- tegic dispositions and organization. This Subsection also includes a brief evaluation of the military alliance(s) in effect, together with com- mitments of the country's forces to the alliance(s). Effect of the alliance upon national strategy, training, logistics, and equipment. (NOTE: SECTION 15 pro- vides the details of the political pacts; this Subsection of SECTION 18 treats only the military pacts there- under.) 6. ECONOMIC SUPPORT This Subsection discusses very briefly the ability of the national economy to support its armed forces, and provides a concise appraisal of the economic support available. Discussion of plans for, or existence of, industrial mobilization, together with a brief mention, if applicable, of the relative size of the defense indus- tries complex. (NOTE: Discussion of the financial aspects of the economy (balance of payments, etc.,) is provided in SECTION 16.) PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ammlimmommilmm NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 7. TRAINING 8. LOGISTICS Only over-all or joint aspects of training and logistics are dis- cussed in these Subsections; intel- ligence concerning each service's training or logistics is provided as a part of the applicable Sub- sections below, i.e., ground forces, naval forces, naval air arm, or air force(s). 9. MILITARY BUDGET The procedures whereby funds are allocated to the Defense Department, and, in turn, to the services, is discussed quite briefly. The principal item is a table which covers a selected span of years sufficient to give the table depth and to reveal trends. Where possible, the table is broken down into individual services. The military budget is compared to the national budget only in broad, general terms. When appro- priate, a discussion is included of "hidden items" within the budget which are utilized by the military, but which are not directly allocated to the defense department. B. Ground forces C. Naval forces D. Naval air arm E. Air force(s) (NOTE: Each service---B. C. D. and briefly discussed as follows: 1. GENERAL A brief appraisal of the particular arm as a fighting organization, giving only the most salient points of strength and weakness. This Subsection also discusses other appropriate service topics which are not discussed elsewhere. 2. ORGANIZATION The organization of each service is discussed briefly to show the channel from the army, navy, or air com- mander to the respective operating forces. 3. STRENGTH, COMPOSITION, AND DIS- POSITION Each service is discussed briefly, providing a summary of the strength, the composition, and the general dis- position of the forces. 4. TRAINING Coverage is limited to discussion of the subjects as they affect each 5. LOGISTICS service. 6. MISCELLANEOUS Intelligence not furnished elsewhere. For example, materiel for the army and air facilities for the air force. F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection evaluates briefly the principal source material on the subject field covered by the Section. The comments cover the following elements: 1) cita- tion of major sources of information by general cate- gory only, 2) indication of major gaps in information, 3) assessment of the general reliability of information available in the field under consideration, and 4) indi- cation of general trends in the collection effort per- taining to the field under consideration. Section 19. Map and Chart Appraisal A. General This Subsection is an introduction to rather than a summary of what is included in the following Sub- sections. General statements as to the amount and quality of maps and charts are given. Any additional significant factors pertinent to the NIS Area, such as security restrictions placed on the release of maps and emphasis on particular types of mapping and charting, are indicated. B. Maps and charts This Subsection includes summary statements con- cerning the adequacy of content and extent of areal coverage for the following: topographic maps and tor- PAGE 10 rain models; specialized physical and terrain-evalua- tion maps; aeronautical and air-information charts, air- target charts, and air-transport maps; climatic maps; nautical and oceanographic charts and port maps and plans; railroad, road, and inland-waterway maps and charts; telecommunication ^ maps; urban-area maps and plans; sociological, political, and economic maps; postal maps; and general reference maps and atlases. Detail is avoided. C. Programs underway Only the most significant mapping and charting programs known to be underway are discussed. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001- JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER I Leading Personalities This topic consists of a list of only the most important governmental, military, and other offices in the country concerned, together with the full name of the incum- bent of each. The most outstanding cultural, business, and other publicly recognized figures in the various fields of national life are also listed and identified. NIS Annual OUTLINE GUIDE The situations in all areas covered by published CHAPTERS I are examined on an approximately yearly basis to determine those areas in which unusually prominent events have generated developments of such major importance as to cause fundamental changes in the basic intelligence situations of the areas. For those areas in which such developments have oc- curred and their effects on the basic intelligence situa- tions are reasonably clear, NIS Annuals are published to provide limited maintenance for the pertinent CHAPTERS I pending formal maintenance of the Chap- ters. Map and chart graphics and "Comments on principal sources" are normally not used in the NIS Annual. Area Brief This is included in the Annual only when the major developments have caused significant changes in the data given in the Area Brief of CHAPTER I. When the Area Brief of the Annual is included, it consists only of these significant changes. Section 10. Chronology This Section is a chronological listing of only those significant events which led directly to the major developments set forth in SECTION 11. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 11 maiummilmejaproved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JA NUARY 1962 Section 11. Major Developments This Section sets forth the major developments generated by the events listed in SECTION 10 together with a very brief indication of their general effects upon the basic intelligence situation of the area. Sections 12-19 Of these Sections, only' those appear in the Annual which are needed to set forth significant changes gen- erated by the major developments in the basic intelli- gence situation. Sections of the Annual carry the same Section headings as those of CHAPTER I. Material in Sections of the Annual is normally broken down to the main subsection headings of those Sections of the Chapter which are carried over to Sections of the An- nual. Succinctness in presentation of material is stressed. Leading Personalities This is included in the Annual when the major de- velopments have caused significant changes in the list of personalities constituting Leading Personalities in CHAPTER I. The list consists of only the most im- portant governmental, military, and other offices of PAGE 12 the country, together with the full name of the incum- bent of each. The most outstanding cultural, business, and other publicly recognized figures in the various fields of national life are also listed and identified. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 Chapter I - Brief OUTLINE SECTION 10. CHRONOLOGY SECTION 16. ECONOMIC SECTION 11. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE AREA A. General B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- SECTION 12. MILITARY GEOGRAPHY TER VI A. General Y. Comments on principal sources B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- TER II SECTION 17. SCIENTIFIC Y. Comments on principal sources A. General SECTION 13. TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICA- B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- TIONS TER VII A. General Y. Comments on principal sources B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- TER III SECTION 18. ARMED FORCES Y. Comments on principal sources A. General SECTION 14. SOCIOLOGICAL B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- A. General TER VIII B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- Y. Comments on principal sources TER IV Y. Comments on principal sources SECTION 19. MAP AND ()HART APPRAISAL SECTION 15. POLITICAL A. General A. General B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- B.?X. Summaries of salient features of CHAP- TER IX TER V Y. Comments on principal sources LEADING PERSONALITIES NIS Annual OUTLINE AREA BRIEF SECTION 19, CHRONOLOGY SECTION 1L SIGNIFICANCE OF NEW DEVELOP- MENTS SECTIONS 12-19 (as needed to provide limited maintenance of the correspond- ing Sections of CHAPTER I) LEADING PERSONALITIES .""e1Millminmaimm, Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCT IONS JULY 1959 Chapter I - Brief OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. A conventional CHAPTER I is a succinct analytical summary of the salient basic intelligence aspects of the NIS Area as a whole. It presents a clear, concise, over-all view of the principal factors concerning the NIS Area under consideration and, while stressing succinctness, contains sufficient detail to render it adequate within itself to serve as the basis for initial military and political strategic planning. More spe- cifically, CHAPTER 1 accomplishes the following: Presents a clear view of the NIS Area concerned. Not only presents the salient basic intelligence aspects of the NIS Area concerned but also evaluates the sig- nificance of these aspects. Establishes the interrelationship of such salient aspects by integrating in any one section those aspects of other sections which serve to enhance the meaningfulness of the first. The presentation is made through the medium of succinct textual discussions supplemented by compre- hensive graphic aids wherever practicable. The text may be used to interpret and augment intelligence por- trayed graphically but does not repeat such intelligence. CHAPTER I is prepared under the general direction of the NIS Committee in accordance with allocations of responsibility in the NIS Standard Instructions. CHAPTER I is published as a complete chapter. CHAPTER I is not produced until after the completion of the basic research on and development of CHAPTERS II?IX, inclusive. The approval date for all Sections of CHAPTER I coincides with the month in which the Chapter is scheduled for submission to CIA. Intelli- gence based on information received since the publica- tion of pertinent elements .of CHAPTERS II?IX is selectively integrated into CHAPTER I. Master Index CHAPTER I contains a Master Index. This Index lists detailed topics contained in standard NIS sections and supplements and serves as a guide for use in depth of all components, other than CHAPTER I, of the NIS concerned. The Index also indicates any special treat- ment or omission of intelligence applicable to the NIS under consideration. Section 10. Chronology This Section consists of a list of dates and events of major significance in the history of the country that still have a direct impact on the situation in the PAGE 2 country. Only highlights are given. If no event of major significance occurred in a given year, that year is omitted. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER I Section 11. Significance of the Area This Section is a synopsis of the area that shows its relative importance in terms of geographic location, natural and human resources, and national force. The area is located in relation to such factors as international traffic routes, regional political groups, and great power centers. National force is assessed by means of an appraisal of the moral, political, economic, technical, and military influence the country exerts on other countries. These characterizations are in general the content of the first paragraph of SECTION 11. The statements in the opening paragraph are sup- ported by sufficient record of past events, interna- tional influence of the nation, and international interest in the, area to indicate the vitality and direction of whatever forces are described in these statements. Because the Section has no further formal outline and synthesizes conclusions selected mostly from other Sec- tions, the presentation is flexible and adapts to what- ever content is dictated by the opening statement. The Section depends upon the CHAPTER I Summary Map and the global representation on the inside cover and draws from sections of CHAPTER I and other Chap- ters whatever conclusions are needed to complete the composite statement of national influence and the his- torical perspective of the area. Sections 12 - 19 SECTIONS 12-19 are summaries of the corresponding NIS Chapters, as follows: SECTION SECTION 12 . ? Military Geography . CHAPTER II 13.. . Transportation and Telecom- CHAPTER III munications. SECTION 14.. . Sociological CliArrEn IV SECTION 15.. . Political CHAPTER V SECTION 16.. . Economic CH kPTER VI SECTION 17.. . Scientific CHAPTER VII SECTION 18 . Armed Forces CHAPTER VIII SECTION 19.. . Map and Chart Appraisal CHAPTER IX SECTIONS 12-19, inclusive, present concise analytical summaries of salient basic intelligence elements of the area, selected from CHAPTERS II?IX, respectively. While the discussion in each Section must be extensive enough to insure clear presentation .and explanation of significant aspects, care must be taken to exclude non- essential details. Each Section includes appropriate evaluative and interpretive conclusions. Each Section includes an Introduction Subsection, called in most Sections "A. General"; and this is fol- lowed by such other Subsections as may be selected for orderly presentation and stress of component topics. There should be a final Subsection, "Comments on Principal Sources", except in SECTION 19, which does not require such a Subsection. A. General This Subsection is an introduction rather than a summary of what is included in the following Subsec- tions. It has the same relationship to other Sub- section. topics in the CHAPTER I Section as the appro- priate Introduction Section has to other Sections in the relevant Chapter. Essential background and identifi- cation of functional aspects covered by the Section topic usually includes the following considerations, stressed or minimized as appropriate to presentation of the topic for each country: 1. Characterization and classification of the country in terms of the functional aspect, together with some evaluation that places the country in an international setting and relates the functional aspect or system (as in SECTIONS 13-18) to national needs. This appraisal may take the form of a summary of strategic considera- tions, a characterization of development and adequacy, a statement on stability, or any combination of these elements. The A. General of SECTION 12 here focuses on the military aspects of geography; those of SECTIONS 13-18 (concerned with systems and organizations) on appraisal of the vitality of those aspects and of their adaptability to ordinary and extraordinary needs; and that of SECTION 19 on availability and quality of maps, charts, and aerial photography. 2. Historical background as appropriate, to furnish perspective for the more important conclusions or generalizations presented in the basic appraisal of the country. 3. Coverage of any minor national entities or island areas included in the NIS Area; or of any larger con- sideration or national problem that cannot be con- veniently summarized elsewhere. B.-X. Summaries of salient basic intelli- gence elements In preparation for each of these Subsections, the contributor consults the NIS Outline of the Chapter being summarized as a checklist to insure consideration of all topics. He selects only the most important topi- Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 aiiiimmmemem NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 cal aspects and arranges these for efficient and logical presentation under effective headings. The NIS Out- line suggests, but does not prescribe, the Table of Con- tents for CHAPTER I, where a Subsection may summar- ize a single Section of the related Chapter or several such Sections, as appropriate. Treatment is concise, and topical aspects are allotted space in proportion to their importance. Graphics are used wherever possible to visualize the presentation and to save textual space. Y. Comments on principal sources The purpose of these comments is to evaluate brtelly the status of the entire field of basic intelligence of the category treated in the Section. The evaluation, there- fore, encompasses not only the intelligence contained in the CHAPTER I Section of which Subsection Y is a part but also the Chapter of CHAPTERS II?VIII to which the CHAPTER I Section is related. In view of the inherent nature of CHAPTER IX and SECTION 19, the latter has no Subsection Y. Specifically, Subsection Y, stressing succinctness, covers the following elements as they relate to the entire field of basic intelligence under consideration: 1. Major sources of information on which the intelli- gence is based. No detailed bibliography is desired. Only general categories are indicated. 2. Major gaps in information. While only gaps of major significance are indicated, each indication is specific enough to be reasonably definitive. 3. Assessment of the degree of credence which may, in general, be accorded the basic intelligence available in the field under consideration. Here, broad divisions, determined as appropriate, of the field of basic intelli- gence under consideration, are characterized as gener- ally completely reliable, generally reliable, generally fairly reliable, or generally doubtfully reliable. In appropriate instances, differences in degree of relia- bility between the intelligence contained in the CHAP- TER I Section and previously published related Sec- tions of CHAPTERS II?VIII are pointed out and reasons for the differences briefly explained. 4. Indication of general trends in the collection effort pertaining to the basic intelligence field under consideration. These trends are determined from the viewpoint of historical perspective and indicated ac- cordingly. For instance, it may be appropriate to state that, at the beginning of the NIS Program, numer- ous gaps existed in the field of a certain topic but that these gaps have now been substantially, or completely, filled; or that, at the beginning of the NIS Program, important gaps existed in the field of a certain topic and that many, or most of, these gaps remain. If, for valid reasons, it is infeasible to make reasonable deter- mination of these trends, this element of "Comments on Principal Sources" may be omitted. Leading Personalities This topic consists of a list of only the most important governmental, military, and other offices in the country concerned, together with the full name of the incumbent of each. The most outstanding cultural, business, and other publicly recognized figures in the various fields of national life are also listed and identified. Summary Map Each CHAPTER I includes a comprehensive map presentation which condenses selected intelligence from the general map coverage of the NIS Area. This "Summary Map" normally consists of one fold-in sheet inserted at the end of the Chapter, and normally comprises the following elements: 1. A terrain and transportation map. This map is of suitable scale and shows for the area the terrain features; principal railroads, roads, inland waterways, and airfields; ports; landing beaches; principal cities and towns mentioned in the text; and a suitable map legend. 2. Insets showing the following: a. Population density and administrative divi- sions. PAGE 4 b. C. d. e. f. Economic activity. Land utilization. Strategic areas and approaches. Location and comparative areas. An area brief which succinctly states selected facts concerning the land, people, government, economy, communications, and defense forces of the area. 3. A "Summary map locator" printed on the apron of the map. This consists of two parts: a) an alpha- betical listing of the principal places and terrain fea- tures mentioned in the text, together with the map coordinates of each; and b) an alphabetical listing of the principal airfields, together with the map coordi- nates of each. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAP TER I 411111111011?11101111L NIS Annual OUTLINE GUIDE CHAPTERS I are reviewed on an approximately yearly basis; and NIS ANNUALS are published, in accordance with producing agency capabilities, for those Chapters in which major changes have occurred, for which information has become available to fill major gaps, or both. Changes and gaps which might be significant enough to receive attention in a formal revision of CHAPTER I may well not be significant enough to receive attention in the Annual. Thus, with a minimum of research effort on the part of produc- ing agencies', the Annual provides limited maintenance of CHAPTER I between formal revisions of the Chapter. When more than one Annual is issued between complete revisions of a CHAPTER I, the later Annual will supersede the earlier Annual in its entirety and will incorporate those parts of the superseded Annual that remain valid. Map and chart graphics and "Comments on principal sources" are normally not used in the Annual. Area Brief The Area Brief of the Annual sets forth the same items as does the Area Brief of the CHAPTER I Summary Map. Significant changes in data included in the CHAPTER I Area Brief are reflected in that of the Annual. Data of the CHAPTER I Area Brief which remain essentially unchanged are carried over to the Annual Area Brief. Section 10. Chronology For those CHAPTERS I that do not include SECTIONS 10, CHRONOLOGY, this Section of the Annual consists of a list of dates and events of major significance in the history of the country (normally, since World War II) which still have a direct impact on the situation in the country. For those CHAPTERS I that include SECTIONS 10, CHRONOLOGY, only major events that have occurred during the period covered by the Annual are included. Explanation of the significance of these events is reserved for subsequent Sections of the Annual. If no event of major significance occurred in any given year, that year is omitted. PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Bproved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 Section 11. Significance of New Developments This Section is a brief summary of major new developments that have occurred in the country since the release date of the related CHAPTER I and indicates the significance of these developments to the country and its international relations. If appropriate, geographic, sociological, economic, scientific, and mili- tary, as well as political, developments are included. The major developments are succinctly enumerated and followed by a broad appreciation of their signifi- cance to the country and its international relations. Descriptive, narrative, or expository details elaborating the enumeration of developments are avoided. An .integrated treatment is preferable for the Section. This treatment succinctly enumerates at the outset the major domestic developments in all fields and follows the enumeration with a brief explanation of the significance of the developments. The treatment then enumerates major foreign relations developments and follows the enumeration with a brief explanation of their significance. If, instead of integrated treatment, Subsections for the several categories are used, the major develop- ments treated in each Subsection are succinctly enumerated; and the enumeration is followed by a brief explanation of the significance of the develop- ments to the domestic situation of the country, its foreign relations, or both. SECTION 11 never has an "A. General" Subsection. Sections 12-19 These Sections are directly related to the correspond- ingly numbered Sections of CHAPTER I. Sections of the Annual report major changes in the corresponding Sections of CHAPTER I and fill major gaps in those Sections for which the necessary information has been developed. Sections of the Annual avoid repetition of material appearing elsewhere in the Annual as well as of CHAPTER I material that remains essentially valid. Sections and Subsections of the Annual carry the same captions as the related Sections and Subsections of CHAPTER I. If there is nothing to report in a Section or Subsection of the Annual, the unit is omitted; but the numbering and captioning systems of the related CHAPTER I are retained. New material in the Annual which has no exact counterpart in CHAPTER I is placed under the most nearly appropriate CHAPTER I Subsec- tion caption. "A. General" Subsections are omitted from the Annual except when they are used to report specific changes in, or new material appropriate to, the corre- sponding Subsections of CHAPTER I. Succinctness of presentation in the Annual is es- sential. Inclusion of nonessential details and over- lapping and direct repetition among Sections are carefully avoided. Since the Annual is always used in direct connection with CHAPTER I, background material pertinent to events discussed in the Annual but appear- ing in CHAPTER I is omitted from the Annual. Highly specialized topics, such as coasts and landing beaches and weather and climate, seldom need up- dating in the Annual. Leading Personalities This topic consists of a list of only the most important governmental, military, and other offices in the country concerned, together with the full name of the incumbent PAGE 6 of each. The most outstanding cultural, business, and other publicly recognized figures in the various fields of national life are also listed and identified. 4?41.1.11.1?1111 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS aille1811,11Migmain 4. TREATMENT OF NAMES Geographic names used in the NIS are those ap- proved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Approved names are listed in NIS Gazetteers and are used by contributors in the prepara- tion of text and graphic materials. Pending publica- tion of a pertinent gazetteer, or in the case of names not covered by a published gazetteer, lists of names are prepared arid submitted to OBI according to NIS Memo No. 5. Conventional names are used insofar as they are approved by BGN. The approved native name is added in parentheses the first time the conventional name is used in a section, and thereafter as desirable for clarity. It is desirable to use the native name in parentheses after the conventional name on maps whenever practicable. Approved native names are used where conventional names are not provided. Translation of generic parts of native names (except when the meaning is apparent) is given in parentheses where necessary the first time a generic appears in any segment of text. As a reader aid, English generics may be interspersed in text. All terms referring to man-made features, such as Small Boat Harbor, are in English. Military or other regions arbitrarily designated for convenience in pres- entation are in English and are not subject to BGN approval. In lists of towns and cities, coordinates are given for each of two or more places having identical names. 5. TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY When scientific names are appropriately used in the interest of accuracy, if possible they are preceded by a common name or common name generic; e.g., the colon bacillus (Escherichia coli), malaria mosquitoes (Anoph- eles maculipennis, A. hyrcanus). The scientific names are enclosed in parentheses and marked for italics in every case. In a paragraph discussing malaria mosquitoes, however, italicized scientific names may be used without a preceding common name or generic. Scientific family names (names ending in -idae, as Stomatidae) are capitalized but not italicized. Special-use terms, such as names of military regions, are capitalized (e.g., the Kazakh Hill Country) to clearly maintain identity. 6. STATISTICAL DATA Statistical data normally are expressed either in U.S. units of measure or in the metric system, and are con- sistent within a section or larger NIS unit as feasible, except to conform with common usage, as in discussing 75 mm. and 3" guns. All contributions clearly indicate what system is used, in tables as well as text. When different measurement systems unavoidably appear together in text (e.g., statute and nautical miles) they are clearly differentiated. In the case of areas where available maps or charts use varying measurement sys- tems, the text is expressed in U.S. units with metric conversion following in parentheses, and accompanying maps using extensive metric annotations in their origi- nal form carry a conversion table. Both U.S. and other measurements may be given, as in the case of a table, when contributing to utility. 'Measurements are expressed in terms consistent with the inherent or required degree of accuracy (e.g., 2,340 miles of coast, 16'6 I/1" bridge clearance). Conversions are exact when appropriate; a rounded original figure is not converted into an inconsistently exact figure; rounded conversions may be used with a modifying "about" or "approximate." Units of measurement are clearly defined, e.g., statute miles or nautical miles, short tons or long tons. Both quantity and value may be given when useful for indicating relative importance. In financial data, dated exchange rates are included. 7. EDITORIAL STYLE Development of style for all forms of NIS content is a continuing and coordinated result of contributor and OBI processing of the various types of material. For all matters of style not so developed, and not indicated by specific OBI instructions, the current Government Printing Office Style Manual governs. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 PAGE 8 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS (BLANK) JULY 1959 Gammaiiwimm.m Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER II MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Section 20 Introduction Section 21 Military Geographic Regions Section 22 Coasts and Landing Beaches Section 23 Weather and Climate Section 24 Topography Section 25 Urban Areas CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL Chapter 1962 Chapter II - Military Geography OUTLINE SECTION 20. INTRODUCTION A. Location, size, shape, and boundaries B. Dominant geographic elements C. Strategic areas D. Approaches and internal routes SECTION 21. MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS A. General B. Regional analysis: Regions A, B, etc. SECTION 22. COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES A. General 1. Summary 2. Maps and charts 3. Criteria for beach selection 4. Major beach areas 5. Minor beach areas and landing places 6. Reliability index 7. Glossary B. Coastal oceanography 1. Introduction 2. Tides and currents 3. Sea and swell, breakers and surf 4. Bottom sediments 5. Marine biology C. Sector 1 1. Subsector 2. Subsector 1-B, etc. D. Sector 2 E. Sector 3, etc. X. Comments on principal sources CONFIDENTIAL SECTION 23. WEATHER AND CLIMATE A. General weather and climatic conditions B. Weather and military operations 1. Air operations 2. Air-ground operations 3. Ground surface operations 4. Amphibious operations C. Meteorological facilities- and organiza- tion D. Climatic data tables E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 24. TOPOGRAPHY A. General B. Descriptive analysis 1. Landforms, relief, and drainage pat- tern 2. Drainage characteristics 3. Water resources 4. Soils 5. Rock types 6. Vegetation 7. State of ground 8. Culture features 9. Special physical phenomena C. Military evaluation 1. Cross-country movement 2. Constructional aspects 3. Other military aspects D. Comments on principal sources SECTION 25. URBAN AREAS A. General 1. Urbanization 2. Main characteristics of urban areas B. Principal urban areas 1. Key strategic urban areas 2. Other selected urban areas C. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE I Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. The six Sections of CHAPTER II cover the strategic, regional, and topical aspects of the military geography of the NIS Area. Clear distinction between these three aspects of military geography is essential to the orderly preparation of these Sections and to the efficient use of the Chapter. SECTION 20, INTRODUCTION, furnishes a strategic ap- preciation of the NIS Area as a whole in relation to its surroundings, including evaluations of external ap- proaches. Descriptions of dominant geographic ele- ments, strategic areas, and internal routes highlight the militarily important factors within the NIS Area. SECTION 21, MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS, is an integration and analysis of the key military aspects of the NIS Area by parts. It presents for each region and for each subregion into which a region is divided the significant environmental elements in terms of their combined effects on ground, airborne, and am- phibious operations. Emphasis is on military opera- tions, with descriptive data used to provide a picture of the area being analyzed and to support military eval- uations. SECTIONS 22 through 25 (and SUPPLEMENTS II and IV) comprise the detailed topical treatments of the subject matter necessary for NIS purposes. Within each topic or subtopic the material is organized on a regional or locality basis, as for individual sectors or subsectors of coasts, regions characterized by simi- larities of climate, terrain, soil, or vegetation, and indi- vidual urban areas. The outline presented is designed to provide a basis for appraisal of the military significance of the geog- raphy of any NIS Area. It is intended to be sufficiently flexible to be adaptable to any peculiar situation that the authors of CHAPTER II may encounter. Each topical heading in the outline must, however, be considered by the authors. As indicated in the guidance for each Section, adequate latitude is provided to permit presentation of each topic in the clearest and simplest form, where alternative forms of presentation are practicable. In the event that modification of the outline, or a part thereof, is considered desirable for a particular NIS Area, the proposed modification will not be made without prior approval of the Chapter Coordinator. Section 20. Introduction This Section is designed to provide the reader with a succinct evaluation of the external geographic rela- tionships of the NIS Area and its dominantly significant internal geographic characteristics. The Section is pre- pared after SECTIONS 21 through 25 have been com- pleted. It is not, however, an abridgement of these Sections. Photographs of especially significant aspects of military geography covered by SECTION 20 are included as pertinent. PAGE 2 A. Location, size, shape, and boundaries The significant aspects of the location, size, shape, and boundaries of the MS Area as a whole are pre- sented in integrated paragraphs without topical head- ings, supported by 1) a map on which the NIS Area is centered on an azimuthal projection and on which con- centric circles of air distances are included and 2) a map demonstrating the comparative areas of the NIS Area and of the United States or North America. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER II B. Dominant geographic elements All facts of the environment as presented in SECTIONS 21 through 25 are considered by Army in preparing this discussion. Those environmental elements that are dominantly significant are treated in integrated state- ments supported by one or more overall intelligence maps. C. Strategic areas Each strategic area of the NIS Area is defined and briefly described by Army on the basis of the applica- bility of one or more of the following factors (or other pertinent factors) which are of national or international significance: critical and/or key industries (especially military end-products plants); critical and other stra- tegically significant mining developments and mineral resources; key transportation and communications cen- ters and facilities; military installations including key offensive, defensive, and supporting facilities; popula- tion concentrations (ethnic, religious, social, including significant minorities); key terrain features (passes, corridors, beaches, air-drop sites); food resources, in- cluding production and storage centers; etc. Strategic areas are delimited on a map with the approaches to and internal routes of the NIS Area. CONFIDENTIAL Strategic, for the purposes of evaluating strategic sig- nificance in the NIS Area, is defined as pertaining to the implications of any of the above factors upon a nation's developing and using political, economic, and psychological means and/or armed forces during peace or war to afford the maximum support to national policies, to increase the probabilities and favorable con- sequences of victory, and to lessen the chances of defeat. D. Approaches and internal routes Evaluations of the air, sea, and ground approaches to the NIS Area as a whole are prepared by Air Force, Navy, and Army, respectively, and coordinated by Army. Air approaches are presented on a sector basis. Land and air approaches are shown in suitable manner on a map showing the strategic areas and internal routes of the NIS Area. Internal routes are evaluated and selected with respect to the strategic areas within this and adjacent NIS Areas; first on the basis of current logistical capabilities and second on the basis of potentialities for logistical development. Routes lack- ing existing transportation facilities capable of carry- ing military traffic are evaluated similarly in relation to routes having such facilities. All selected routes are delimited and classified on the strategic areas map which is supported by concise tabular or textual evaluation. Section 21. Military Geographic Regions This Section analyzes the NIS Area in terms of mili- tary geographic regions. A military geographic region as discussed in the NIS is a region in which the com- bination of environmental conditions would have a relatively uniform effect on military operations. Where the environmental conditions differ significantly be- tween parts of a region, the region may be divided into subregions, e.g., a mountain region may be divided into subregions of forested mountains and barren mountains. The military geographic regions and subregions for an NIS Area are delimited on a map by the Army agency responsible for production of SECTION 21. A. General Introductory integrated text summarizes the en- vironmental conditions which comprise the basis for the regional division. Following paragraphs provide a brief comparison of the regions. An orientation map, showing boundaries of the various regions and subregions, is included. CONFIDENTIAL B. Regional analysis: Regions A, B, etc. A textual analysis of each region and its subregions is presented. Each region appears as a separate num- bered heading. An intelligence-type map shows in- terrelated terrain conditions in the regions and sub- regions of the NIS Area. Photographs and other graphics may be used for illustration. The text for each region starts with an integrated description of the region as a whole, which is followed by an overall military evaluation of the region. If the region is divided into subregions, the description highlights the elements that are the bases for this divi- sion; following paragraphs briefly contrast the sub- regions, much as the regions are contrasted in the A, General. A description of the first subregion follows the comparison. For a region that has no subregions or for each sub- region, an analysis of operational conditions follows the description. This analysis includes ground op- erations, airborne operations, and, where applicable, Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 amphibious operations. The order in which these analyses are presented may vary from region to region and from subregion to subregion depending upon their significance. The elements considered for each type of operation will always encompass the following, though not necessarily in the same order. Under ground operations, evaluations will be presented for on-road movement, off-road dispersal, road construc- tion, cross-country movement, concealment, cover, billeting, storage, and the construction of hasty ground shelters and of underground installations. Included under airborne operations are evaluations of conditions for parachute operations, air landings, and the con- struction of airfields, as well as an evaluation of the usability of existing airfields. Always treated under amphibious operations are off-shore approaches, near- PAGE 4 shore approaches, coastal terrain, exits from the coast, and amphibious landing areas. Local factors that might affect the efficiency of troops are mentioned as they apply to any type of operation. These include the psychological hazards of long periods of darkness; the health hazards of disease-bearing in- sects and rodents; the problems of dangerous wild ani- mals, including reptiles; and the potentially incapaci- tating effects of extreme elevations, cold, and heat. Moreover, the analyses of all types of military opera- tions are given in historical perspective. The experi- ences of military forces which have previously operated in the region or subregion are used to give some insight into future problems, particularly as to the extent to which terrain and weather conditions could govern the conduct of operations. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CONFIDENTIAL Chapter II - Military Geography SECTION 20. INTRODUCTION A. B. C. SECTION 21. A. B. A. OUTLINE Location, size, shape, and boundaries Dominant geographic elements Strategic areas Approaches and internal routes MILITARY GEOGRAPIIIC REGIONS General Regional analysis: Regions A, B, etc. SECTION 22. COASTS ANI) LANDING BEACHES General 1. Summary 2. Maps and charts 3. Criteria for beach selection 4. Major beach areas 5. Minor beach areas and landing places 6. Reliability index 7. Glossary B. Coastal oceanography 1. Introduction 2. Tides and currents 3. Sea and swell, breakers and surf 4. Bottom sediments 5. Marine biology C. Sector 1 D. E. X. 1. Subsector 1--A 2. Subsector 1-B, etc. Sector 2 Sector 3, etc. Comments on principal sources CONFIDENTIAL SECTION 23. WEATHER AND CLIMATE A. General weather and climatic conditions B. Weather and military operations 1. Air operations 2. Air-ground operations 3. Ground surface operations 4. Amphibious operations C. Meteorological facilities and organiza- tion D. Climatic data tables E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 24. TOPOGRAPHY A. General B. Descriptive analysis 1. Landforms, relief, and drainage pat- tern 2. Drainage characteristics 3. Water resources 4. Soils 5. Rock types 6. Vegetation 7. State of the ground 8. Culture features 9. Special physical phenomena C. Military evaluation 1. Cross-country movement 2. Constructional aspects 3. Other military aspects D. Comments on principal sources SECTION 25, URBAN AREAS A. General 1. Urbanization 2. Main characteristics of urban areas B. Principal urban areas 1. Key strategic urban areas 2. Other selected urban areas C. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAG Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. The six Sections of CHAPTER II cover the strategic, regional, and topical aspects of the military geography of the NIS Area. Clear distinction between these three aspects of military geography i essential to the orderly preparation of these Sections and to the efficient use of the Chapter. SECTION 20, INTRODUCTION, furnishes a strategic appreciation of the NIS Area as a whole in relation to its surroundings. The Section is a broad evaluation and, although based in considerable part on SECTION 21, is much wider in scope, including discussion of interrelationships between regions, and evaluations of external approaches, strategic areas, and internal routes. It should contain one or more overall intelligence maps depicting such essential elements as strategic areas, coastal and other approaches, barriers to movement, and corridors and passes favorable to movement. SECTION 21, MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS, 15 an integration and analysis of the key military aspects of SECTIONS 22 through 25. It presents for each region the significant elements treated in these Sections in terms of their combined effects on military operations, avoiding overall strategic considerations on the one hand and unnecessary repetition of topical information on the other. Presentation may be by text, tables, and maps. For each region, the text summarizes and evaluates in terms of military significance the out- standing military geographic characteristics of that region; the text is supported by individual regional tables, based on more detailed material in SECTIONS 22 JULY 1957 through 25, presenting the environmental charac- teristics and military evaluation of the region and of any subregions and/or distinctive areas into which it is divided. Intelligence maps and other graphics present military analysis of the environmental factors of each region, subregion, or group of regions. SECTIONS 22 through 25 (and SUPPLEMENTS II and IV) comprise the detailed topical treatments of the subject matter necessary for NIS purposes. Within each topic or subtopic the material is organized on a regional or locality basis, as for individual sectors or subsectors of coasts, regions characterized by simi- larities of climate, terrain, soil, or vegetation, and indi- vidual urban areas. The outline presented is designed to provide a basis for appraisal of the military significance of the geog- raphy of any NIS Area. It is intended to be sufficiently flexible to be adaptable to any, peculiar situation that the authors of CHAPTER II may encounter. Each topical heading in the outline must, however, be considered by the authors. As indicated in the guidance for each Section, adequate latitude is provided to permit presentation of each topic in the clearest and simplest form, where alternative forms of presentation are practicable. In the event that modification of the outline, or a part thereof, is considered desirable for a particular NIS Area, the proposed modification will not be made without prior approval of the Chapter Coordinator. Section 20. Introduction This Section is designed to provide the reader with a succinct evaluation of the external geographic rela- tionships of the NIS Area and its dominantly significant internal geographic characteristics. The Section is pre- pared after SECTIONS 21 through 25 have been com- pleted. It is not, however, an abridgement of these Sections. Photographs of especially significant aspects of military geography covered by SECTION 20 are included as pertinent. PAGE 2 A. Location, size, shape, and boundaries The significant aspects of the location, size, shape, and boundaries of the NIS Area as a whole are pre- sented in integrated paragraphs without topical head- ings, supported by 1) a map on which the NIS Area is centered on an azimuthal projection and on which con- centric circles of air distances are included and 2) a map demonstrating the comparative areas of the NIS Area and of the United States or North America. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CONFIDENTIAL Chapter II - Military Geography OUTLINE SECTION 20. INTRODUCTION A. Location, size, shape, and boundaries B. Dominant geographic elements C. Strategic areas D. Approaches and internal routes SECTION 21. MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS A. General B. Regional analysis: Regions A, B, etc. SECTION 22. COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES A. General 1. Summary 2. Maps and charts 3. Criteria for beach selection 4. Major beach areas 5. Minor beach areas and landing places 6. Reliability index 7. Glossary B. Coastal oceanography 1. Introduction 2. Tides and currents 3. Sea and swell, breakers and surf 4. Bottom sediments 5. Marine biology C. Sector 1 1. Subsector 1-A 2. Subsector 1-B, etc. D. Sector 2 E. Sector 3, etc. X. Comments on principal sources CONFIDENTIAL SECTION 23. WEATHER AND CLIMATE A. General weather and climatic conditions B. Weather and military operations 1. Air operations 2. Air-ground operations 3. Ground surface operations 4. Amphibious operations C. Meteorological facilities and organiza- tion D. Climatic data tables E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 24. TOPOGRAPHY A. General B. Descriptive analysis 1. Landforms, relief, and drainage pat- tern 2. Drainage characteristics 3. Water resources 4. Soils 5. Rock types 6. Vegetation 7. State of ground 8. Culture features 9. Special physical phenomena C. Military evaluation 1. Cross-country movement 2. Constructional aspects 3. Other military aspects D. Comments on principal sources SECTION 25. URBAN AltEAS A. General 1. Urbanization 2. Main characteristics of urban areas B. Principal urban areas 1. Key strategic urban areas 2. Other selected urban areas C. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In, preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. The six Sections of CHAPTER II cover the strategic, regional, and topical aspects of the military geography of the NIS Area. Clear distinction between these three aspects of military geography is essential to the orderly preparation of these Sections and to the efficient use of the Chapter. SECTION 20, INTRODUCTION, furnishes a Strategic appreciation of the NIS Area as a whole in relation to its surroundings. The Section is a broad evaluation and, although based in considerable part on SECTION 21, is much wider in scope, including discussion of interrelationships between regions, and evaluations of external approaches, strategic areas, and internal routes. It should contain one or more overall intelligence maps depicting such essential elements as strategic areas, coastal and other approaches, barriers to movement, and corridors and passes favorable to movement. SECTION 21, MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS, is an integration and analysis of the key military aspects of SECTIONS 22 through 25. It presents for each region the significant elements treated in these Sections in terms of their combined affects on military operations, avoiding overall strategic considerations on the one hand and unnecessary repetition of topical information on the other. Presentation may be by text, tables, and maps. For each region, the text summarizes and evaluates in terms of military significance the out- standing military geographic characteristics of that region; the text is supported by individual regional tables, based on more detailed material in SECTIONS 22 JULY 1957 through 25, presenting the environmental charac- teristics and military evaluation of the region and of any subregions and/or distinctive areas into which it is divided. Intelligence maps and other graphics present military analysis of the environmental factors of each region, subregion, or group of regions. SECTIONS 22 through 25 (and SUPPLEMENTS II and IV) comprise the detailed topical treatments of the subject matter necessary for NIS purposes. Within each topic or subtopic the material is organized on a regional or locality basis, as for individual sectors or subsectors of coasts, regions characterized by simi- larities of climate, terrain, soil, or vegetation, and indi- vidual urban areas. The outline presented is designed to provide a basis for appraisal of the military significance of the geog- raphy of any NIS Area. It is intended to be sufficiently flexible to be adaptable to any peculiar situation that the authors of CHAPTER II may encounter. Each topical heading in the outline must, however, be considered by the authors. As indicated in the guidance for each Section, adequate latitude is provided to permit presentation of each topic in the clearest and simplest form, where alternative forms of presentation are practicable. In the event that modification of the outline, or a part thereof, is considered desirable for a particular NIS Area, the proposed modification will not be made without prior approval of the Chapter Coordinator. Section 20. Introduction This Section is designed to provide the reader with a succinct evaluation of the external geographic rela- tionships of the NIS Area and its dominantly significant internal geographic characteristics. The Section is pre- pared after SECTIONS 21 through 25 have been com- pleted. It is not, however, an abridgement of these Sections. Photographs of especially significant aspects of military geography covered by SECTION 20 are included as pertinent. PAGE 2 A. Location, size, shape, and boundaries The significant aspects of the location, size, shape, and boundaries of the NIS Area as a whole are pre- sented in integrated paragraphs without topical head- ings, supported by 1) a map on which the NIS Area is centered on an azimuthal projection and on which con- centric circles of air distances are included and 2) a map demonstrating the comparative areas of the NIS Area and of the United States or North America. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAP TER I I CONFIDENTIAL B. Dominant geographic elements All facts of the environment as presented in SECTIONS 21 through 25 are considered by Army in preparing this discussion. Those environmental elements that are dominantly significant are treated in integrated state- ments supported by one or more overall intelligence maps. C. Strategic areas Each strategic area of the NIS Area is defined and briefly described by Army on the basis of the applica- bility of one or more of the following factors (or other pertinent factors) which are of national or international significance: critical and/or key industries (especially military end-products plants); critical and other stra- tegically significant mining developments and mineral resources; key transportation and communications cen- ters and facilities; military installations including key offensive, defensive, and supporting facilities; popula- tion concentrations (ethnic, religious, social, including significant minorities); key terrain features (passes, corridors, beaches, air-drop sites); food resources, in- cluding production and storage centers; etc. Strategic areas are delimited on a map with the approaches to and internal routes of the NIS Area. Strategic, for the purposes of evaluating strategic sig- nificance in the NIS Area, is defined as pertaining to the implications of any of the above factors upon a nation's developing and using political, economic, and psychological means and/or armed forces during peace or war to afford the maximum support to national policies, to increase the probabilities and favorable con- sequences of victory, and to lessen the chances of defeat. D. Approaches and internal routes Evaluations of the air, sea, and ground approaches to the NIS Area as a whole are prepared by Air Force, Navy, and Army, respectively, and coordinated by Army. Air approaches are presented on a sector basis. Land and air approaches are shown in suitable manner on a map showing the strategic areas and internal routes of the NIS Area. Internal routes are evaluated and selected with respect to the strategic areas within this and adjacent NIS Areas; first on the basis of current logistical capabilities and second on the basis of potentialities for logistical development. Routes lack- ing existing transportation facilities capable of carry- ing military traffic are evaluated similarly in relation to mutes having such facilities. All selected routes are delimited and classified on the strategic areas map which is supported by concise tabular or textual evaluation. Section 21. Military Geographic Regions This Section analyzes the NIS Area in terms of mili- tary geographic regions. The military geographic region as discussed in the NIS is a region in which the combination of environmental conditions is sufficiently uniform to permit, or to require, throughout its extent the use of the same general mode of military opera- tions or kinds of warfare and the same general types of equipment and personnel. Minor areas in which con- ditions significantly affect but do not prevent the basic mode of military operations may be considered either as military geographic subregions or as distinctive areas within the military geographic region, e.g., a hill belt in a large plain. The military geographic regions and subregions for each NIS are delimited on a map by the Army agency responsible for production of SECTION 21 after topics treated in SECTIONS 22 through 25 have been analyzed sufficiently to permit fixing of boundaries. All CHAP- TER II contributors concerned concur on regional and subregional boundaries previous to any agency's ini- tiating final production Of SECTION 21 material. CONFIDENTIAL A. General Introductory integrated text summarizes significant aspects of each region as is necessary to relate the regions to the NIS Area as a whole and to analogous or comparable areas in North America. An orientation map showing boundaries of the various regions, subregions, and/or distinctive areas is included. Photo- graphs and other graphics may be used for illustration. B. Regional analysis: Regions A, B, etc. A concise textual analysis and a tabular summary of each region and its various subregions and/or dis- tinctive areas are given. Each region appears as a separate numbered heading. Intelligence-type maps showing interrelated factors are presented for each region, group of regions, or important part of a region. The tabular summary of each military geographic region, supporting the map presentation of the region or several subregions, includes the topics shown in the sample layout. Topics carry Subregion and Distinc- tive Area headings internally as needed. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD IN JULY 1959 (Example) FIGURE 21-2. ANALYSIS OF MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGION A. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Landforms, relief, and drainage patterns Drainage characteristics Weather and climate Water resources Soils Rock types Vegetation State of ground Culture features Coasts and landing beaches Special physical phenomena B. MILITARY EVALUATION Cross-country movement Constructional aspects: Airfields Constructional aspects: Roads Constructional aspects: Underground installations Other military aspects Operational experience FIGURE 21-2. ANALYSIS OF MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGION (Continued) INSTRUCTIONS 1) All data in this summary are presented in telegraphic form. The above headings are used and are reproduced on a single-page format. 2) Data included directly under each topic concern those attri- butes which are characteristic of the region as a whole. 3) Arrange subregions and/or distinctive areas in alphabetical and numerical sequence under the appropriate topic heading (i.e., Subregion A-1, Subregion A-2, etc.) 4) Treat content of all Environmental Factors and Military Evaluation topics in definitive terms. Use salient statistics and facts to categorize the subregional or distinctive area charac- teristics when pertinent. A high degree of discrimination must be exercised in the selection of data to be included in each topic. Include only those essential elements treated in other sections. PA GE 4 If a particular topic is not applicable for any subregion or dis- tinctive area, the words "not applicable" are included in the relevant space in the summary. 5) Under the heading Operational Experience include factual statements on known types of military operations such as air- borne, amphibious, arctic, armored, cavalry, desert, infantry, jungle, and mountain, conducted in the region, or identify the region with a geographically analogous area for which types of modern operations are known. Statements should particularly bear on the extent to which specialized forces were employed in operations and whether such employment was required by environmental factors. If the success or lack of success of either conventional or specialized types of operations in the region can be definitely attributed to environmental factors, this should be noted. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAP TER I I CONFIDENTIAL B. Dominant geographic elements All facts of the environment as presented in SECTIONS 21 through 25 are considered by Army in preparing this discussion, and those enviromnental elements that are dominantly significant are treated in integrated state- ments supported by one or more overall intelligence maps and the minimum number of maps from SECTIONS 21 through 25 that are considered desirable to demon- strate the significance of the selected factors. C. Strategic areas Each strategic area of the NIS Area is defined and briefly described by Army on the basis of the applica- bility of one or more of the following factors (or Other pertinent factors) which are of national or international significance: critical and/or key industries (especially military end-products plants) ; critical and other stra- tegically significant mining developments and mineral resources; key transportation and communications cen- ters and facilities; military installations including key offensive, defensive, and supporting facilities; popula- tion concentrations (ethnic, religious, social, including significant minorities) ; key terrain features (passes, corridors, beaches, air-drop sites) ; food resources, in- cluding production and storage centers; etc. Strategic areas are delimited on a map with the approaches to and internal routes of the NIS Area. ? Strategic, for the purposes of evaluating strategic sig- nificance in the NIS Area, is defined as pertaining to the implications of any of the above factors upon a nation's developing and using political, economic, and psychological means and/or armed forces during peace or war ?to afford the maximum support to national policies, to increase the probabilities and favorable con- sequences of victory, and to lessen the chances of defeat. D. Approaches and internal routes Evaluations of the air, sea, and ground approaches to the NIS Area as a whole are prepared by Air Force, Navy, and Army, respectively, and coordinated by Army. Air approaches are presented on a sector basis. All approaches are shown in suitable manner on a map showing the strategic areas and internal routes of the NIS Area. Internal routes are evaluated and selected with respect to the strategic areas within this and ad- jacent NIS Areas; first on the basis of current logistical capabilities and second on the basis of potentialities for logistical development. Routes lacking existing transportation facilities capable of carrying military traffic are evaluated similarly in relation to routes having such facilities. All selected routes are delim- ited and classified on the strategic areas map which is supported by concise tabular or textual evaluation. Section 21. Military Geographic Regions This Section analyzes the NIS Area in terms of mili- tary geographic regions. The military geographic region as discussed in the NIS is a region in which the combination of environmental conditions is sufficiently uniform to permit, or to require, throughout its extent the use of the same general mode of military opera- tions or kinds of warfare and the same general types of equipment and personnel. Minor areas in which con- sditions significantly affect but do not prevent the basic mode of military operations may be considered either as military geographic subregions or as distinctive areas within the military geographic region, e.g., a hill belt in a large plain. The military geographic regions and subregions for each NIS are delimited on a map by the Army agency responsible for production of SECTION 21 after topics treated in SECTIONS 22 through 25 have been analyzed sufficiently to permit fixing of boundaries. All CHAP- TER II contributors concerned concur on regional and subregional boundaries previous to any agency's ini- tiating final production of SECTION 21 material. CONFIDENTIAL A. General A military geographic regions map or maps showing boundaries of the various regions, subregions, and/or distinctive areas is included. The regional breakdown is also presented as a list in the text or as a concise tabu- lar summary. Introductory integrated text summarizes significant aspects of each region as is necessary to re- late the regions to the NIS Area as a whole and to anal- ogous or comparable areas in North America. Pho- tographs and other graphics may be used for illustra- tion. B. Regional analysis: Regions A, B, etc. A concise textual analysis and a tabular summary of each region and its various subregions and/or dis- tinctive areas are given. Each region appears as a separate numbered heading. Intelligence-type maps showing interrelated factors are presented for each region, group of regions, or important part of a region. The tabular summary of each military geographic region, supporting the map presentation of the region or several subregions, includes the topics shown in the sample layout. Topics carry Subregion and Distinc- tive Area headings internally as needed. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 (Example) FIGURE 21-2. ANALYSIS OF MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGION A. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Landforms, relief, and drainage patterns Drainage characteristics Weather and climate Water resources Soils Rock types Vegetation State of ground Culture features and towns Coasts and landing beaches Special physical phenomena B. MILITARY EVALUATION Cross-country movement Constructional aspects: Airfields Constructional aspects: Roads Constructional aspects: Underground installations Other military aspects Operational experience FIGURE 21-2. ANALYSIS OF MILITARY GEOGRAPHIC REGION (Continued) INSTRUCTIONS 1) All data in this summary are presented in telegraphic form. The above headings are used, and are reproduced on a single-page format. 2) Data included directly under each topic concern those attri- butes which are characteristic of the region as a whole. 3) Arrange subregions and/or distinctive areas in alphabetical and numerical sequence under the appropriate topic heading (i.e., Subregion A-1, Subregion A-2, etc.) 4) Treat content of all Environmental Factors and Military Evaluation topics in definitive terms. Use salient statistics and facts to categorize the subregional or distinctive area charac- teristics when pertinent. A high degree of discrimination must be exercised in the selection of data to be included in each topic. Include only those essential elements treated in other sections. PAGE 4 If a particular topic is not applicable for any subregion or dis- tinctive area, the words "not applicable" are included in the relevant space in the summary. 5) Under the heading Operational Experience include factual statements on known types of military operations such as air- borne, amphibious, arctic, armored, cavalry, desert, infantry, jungle, and mountain, conducted in the region, or identify the region with a geographically analogous area for which types of modern operations are known. Statements should particularly bear on the extent to which specialized forces were employed in operations and whether such employment was required by environmental factors. If the success or lack of success of either conventional or specialized types of operations in the region can be definitely attributed to environmental factors, this should be noted. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER II Section 22. Coasts and Landing Beaches CONFIDENTIAL For NIS Areas with numerous beaches, Section 22 is supported by a Supplement II which contains beach tables and illustrations A. General 1. SUMMARY General description of the entire coastal area of study, including relations to major geographic regions ,and to adjacent NIS Areas. State length of coast in statute miles and refer by footnote to use of nautical and statute miles.* Stress best and poorest sectors and subsectors from point of view of amphibious opera- tions; mention specific beaches or coastal stretches that offer access to important routes inland. * In text, distances are in? statute miles unless nautical miles are specifically indicated by "n.," as "14 n. miles." Generalized statements of sea approaches and hydrog- raphy. Define anchorage and port categories pertinent to Area and include general statement on occurrence of each category. Give brief shore and coastal terrain description including mention of beaches, also type of shore and terrain that extends into adjoining NIS Areas. Give general discussion of transportation (land, water, and air) with stress on principal means of transportation and definition of categories, e.g., classes of highways, etc., pertinent to NIS Area; also, climatic discussion for Area, including items pertinent to amphib- ious operations. Conclude with paragraph describing Area coastal breakdown. Follow by tabular descrip- tion of major coastal divisions, as in example below. (Example) FIGURE 22-1. SUMMARY OF COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES SECTOR OR SUBSECTOR SEA APPROACHES BEACHES COASTAL TERRAIN (Geographic title of sector or subsector, followed by lira- iting coordinates in paren- theses.) (Characteristics and dangers in offshore and nearshore approaches; bottom slope; bottom materials; surf; tides; anchorages.) (Number and general dimensions of major beach areas; gradients; material and firmness; general statement for minor beach areas and landing places.) (Characteristics inland 15-20 miles or to first major bar- nor; exits and communica- tions inland.) (Footnote referring to italicized terms) 2. MAPS AND CHARTS Refer to .maps, charts, and Sailing Directions used and discuss any discrepancies involving coastal con- figuration, coordinates, or distances. 3. CRITERIA FOR BEACH SELECTION Discuss methods used for selecting beaches and sources from which selection was made. Define cate- gories such as Major Beach Area, Minor Beach Area, Landing Place, Starred Beach. 4. MAJOR BEACH AREAS Explain beach area numbering. Discuss headings and terms used in tables, and types of information to be included therein. Refer to Beach Profile Diagram. a. BEACH NUMBER AND LOCATION ? flow num- bered in text, on location maps, on photos; how located; reference to photos; reliability rating. b. LENGTH AND USABLE LENGTH ? Definition . of usable and unusable stretches. C. 'WIDTHS: AT LW.: AT How measured; reference to Beach Profile Diagram. CONFIDENTIAL d. GRADIENTS: LW. TO II.W.; H.W. ZONE? How determined; definition of terms to supplement Beach Profile Diagram. C. APPROACH ? Limits; bottom slopes; reference to Beach Profile Diagram and gradient scale. Refer- ence to Sailing Directions and other publications for more complete information on nearshore and offshore areas. f. SURF AND TIDAL RANGE ? How surf is Computed: sources of surf and tidal data. g. MATERIAL AND FIRMNESS ? Discussion of beach trafficability criteria; definitions of firm, soft, loose. h. TERRAIN IMMEDIATELY BEHIND BEACH 15 to 20 miles inland, or to first major barrier or significant change in terrain. i. EXITS AND COMMUNICATIONS INLAND ? In addi- tion to routes inland, include those parallel to shore. Refer to appropriate NIS Sections for detailed data on transportation facilities. 5. MINOR BEACH AREAS AND LANDING PLACES How described in tables and located on maps and photos. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTIlUCT IONS 6. RELIABILITY INDEX 7. GLOSSARY List of common terms relating to terrain features and hydrography. B. Coastal oceanography 1. INTRODUCTION Summary discussion of bathymetry and sediments, tides and currents, sea and swell, surf, and marine biology. Include note: Coastal oceanography covers the marine environment affecting nearshore and amphibious naval operations. Broadly speaking, this is the zone in which oceanographic conditions are modified by bottom and land configuration or surface runoff. The oceanography and marine climatology for the open ocean adjacent to this area are contained in NIS 2. TIDES AND CURRENTS Include charts of cotidal lines, types of tide, tidal ranges (including station values), typical tidal curves; also, chart illustrating local currents. 3. SEA AND SWELL, BREAKERS AND SURF Include histograms and/or roses for sea and swell and for surf. Include textual discussion of method and criteria used in computing surf. 4. BOTTOM SEDIMENTS Include chart. 5. MARINE BIOLOGY Descriptions and illustrations of dangerous marine life such as crocodiles, poisonous snakes, poisonous or aggressive fish; presence or absence of bioluminescence; presence of algae that can conceal water hazards or foul screws and rudders of landing craft. 6. SEA ICE C. Sector 1 Coordinates of sector limits (Reference to location maps, overall map, and gen- eral small-scale USHO charts) Sectors, not exceeding nine in number and preferably many fewer, are based on clear geographic divisions or on major differences in coastal terrain. Because sec- tors are basis for Section division of SUPPLEMENT II, they !should be as long as physical characteristics of NIS Area will permit. Sector general description begins without heading and covers features common to whole sector in brief general- ized statements. Include overall description giving location, coastline length, suitability for amphibious operations, and reference to starred or best beaches. PA.GB 6 JULY 1957 In succeeding paragraphs give brief rosumes on follow- ing topics: Approaches, offshore and nearshore; an- chorages and ports; shore and coastal terrain (including number and types of beaches); cross-country move- ment; urban areas; roads, railroads, inland waterways; air facilities; weather and climate; subsector break.. down, if used. 1. SUBSECTOR 1?A--STRETCH OF COAST OR GROUP OF ISLANDS Coordinates of subsector limits (Reference to location maps and general medium-. scale USHO charts) Subsectors are selected as logical coastal units in which hydrographic or terrain conditions or both are sufficiently uniform to permit generalization. Subsector general description begins without heading and should include features common to whole subsector. Give location, length, suitability for amphibious opera- tions, and reference to best beaches. Summarize ap- proaches, major anchorages and ports, shore and coastal terrain (including number and type of beaches), cross- country movement, urban areas, roads and railroads, inland waterways, and air facilities. a. COAST ? Divide coast into segments based on terrain or hydrographic differences. Segments are de- scribed in accordance with following sample headings: Coastal Segment [1], Point A to Point B (140 coast- line miles, USHO large-scale charts --) General ? Approaches -- Anchorages --- Ports ? Shore -- Coastal terrain -- Cross-country movement ? Urban areas --- Roads ? Railroads ? Inland waterways Air facilities -- b. LANDING BEAUTIES --- Opening paragraph gives general overall statement evaluating landing possi- bilities, including number and location of beach areas, comparison of the area with others, and significance of stretch of coast. Succeeding paragraphs cover in very general terms topics treated in detail in beach tables, including sum- mary of significant beaches. Final paragraph gives generalized summary of minor beaches and landing places. If beach and related hydro- graphic data are presented entirely in Section 22 (with no Supplement II), tabular descriptions for major and minor beaches follow at this point, .using the tabular formats set forth for Figures 1-1, 1-2, and 1-3 of the Supplement II Outline Guide. Otherwise, a Supple- ment II is provided and is .referred to in a statement such as: Tabular descriptions and illustrative material for major and? minor beach areas of .this NIS are con- tained in Supplement IL . CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER II CONFIDENTIAL JULY 1959 If no beaches are identified for the sector or subsector under discussion, include heading and statement as follows: "b. LANDING BEACHES ? None described." 2. SUBSECTOR 1?B; etc. D. Sector 2 E. Sector 3; etc. X. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 23. Weather and Climate This Section is designed to provide the user with a detailed description of the weather and climate of the NIS Area and with an overall explanation of the effects of weather elements on military opera- tions. Maps, photos, and other graphic materials, such as isoline charts, wind roses, line and bar graphs, etc., are used for illustrative purposes. Subsections A and B may include brief tabulations, but all climatic data tables are presented in Subsection D to which reference should be made. A. General weather and climatic conditions Discuss the general weather and climatic conditions in their broad aspects, emphasizing those elements and factors having significance in regard to high-level mili- tary operational planning as specified by the various agencies of the Department of Defense. Subdivision of the NIS Area into militarily significant climatic regions is desirable, depending upon the weather and climatic conditions in the particular Area. The Subsection emphasizes the processes which con- trol climatic regimes and contains the bulk of general climatic discussion. Illustrate destructive effects of weather and weather phenomena such as dust storms, tornadoes, fog banks, etc. B. Weather and military operations 1. AIR OPERATIONS (above friction layer) Discuss climatic factors and conditions which affect all types of aerial operations, e.g., cloudiness, visibility, icing, turbulence, thunderstorms, winds and tempera- tures aloft, dust and blowing sand in the upper air, and special upper-air weather phenomena. 2. AIR-GROUND OPERATIONS (within friction layer) Discuss climatic factors which affect radiological, chemical, and biological warfare, control of atmospheric contamination, parachute, aircraft landing, glider, and similar operations which take place within the lower lay- ers of the atmosphere. These conclusions result from analyses of vertical temperature, moisture, density, and wind structure as influenced by topography and large- CONFIDENTIAL scale meteorological conditions and their translation into microclimatic terms; i.e., distributions (local) of wind, temperature, humidity, stability, fog, haze, etc., as functions of location and topography. Give full consideration to the periodic (diurnal and seasonal) and nonperiodic variations in stability, visibility, tem- perature, humidity, etc. 3. GROUND SURFACE OPERATIONS Discuss climatic factors such as precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, floods, and dry and wet periods, which affect movement of equipment, mobility, clothing, construction, storage, shelter, etc. Make reference to SECTION 24 for the effect of climate on state of ground and cross-country movement. 4. AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS Discuss effects of coastal weather including surface winds and their relation to swell and surf, cloudiness, visibility, air and sea-water temperatures, and drift ice. C. Meteorological facilities and organization Discuss the meteorological facilities in the area, the observational network, types of observation, equip- ment, and personnel. D. Climatic data tables Tables to contain average and extreme climatic data significant to all types of military operations within the area. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD IN JULY 1959 Section 24. Topography This Section is a topical treatment for the NIS Area as a whole of all those environmental factors not treated in SECTIONS 22, 23, and 25 of CHAPTER II and it is intended that maps and tables be used to the practica- ble maximum in presenting the information. Photo- graphs are used for illustrative purposes within the topical scope of the Section. A reliability diagram accompanies each topical map included in the Section. A. General Appraise briefly the relative significance of the ele- ments which comprise the topography of the NIS Area under discussion. B. Descriptive analysis Each of the subordinate topics treats in factual terms descriptively and definitively those aspects of the topic which are known to have military significance. Statements on military interpretations or applications are confined to Subsection 24, C. Subsection 24, B, includes only such evaluations as are prescribed in the following paragraphs. The discussion of each topic is in proportion to its significance in the NIS Area relative to the other topics treated in the Section. Seasonal aspects are considered wherever significant. Tabular presentation is used to a practicable maximum. A map is prepared for each topic where appropriate. 1. LANDFORMS, RELIEF, AND DRAINAGE PATTERN Cover with an integrated discussion developed around maps, supported by text and tables, treating definitively the essential elements of the topic with emphasis on the larger aspects of the patterns involved. 2. DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICS Include the essential following (or other pertinent) data in their seasonal aspects for significant streams, lakes, and other water features: depths, widths, banks, bottom conditions, velocities, gradients, transparency or turbidity, sedimentation, temperatures, and ice conditions. Treat in tabular and graphic form sup- ported by essential text. 3. WATER RESOURCES Definitive information on quantities, qualities, avail- ability, accessibility, and distribution of surface- and ground-water supplies is presented in map(s), table(s), and text. Data on qualities and quantities are selected PAGE 8 in relation to all probable military uses of water and not only with respect to potability. 4. SOILS The treatment of soils is developed around a simpli- fied soils map showing dominant soil units and sup- ported by a table and text describing their physical characteristics and evaluating their engineering prop- erties. 5. ROCK TYPES This topic is developed around a simplified geologic map showing significant lithologic units and supported by a table and text describing their physical charac- teristics and evaluating their potential usefulness as construction materials. 6. VEGETATION Existing significant vegetation types are delimited on a map supported by table(s) and text describing physical characteristics such as heights, density of stand, stem diameters, coloration, cultivation practices, etc., and evaluating their potential usefulness as con- struction materials and as sources of supplies, and their susceptibility to conflagration. 7. STATE OF GROUND This topic is prepared by Army after SECTION 23 and Subsections 24, B, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 have been com- pleted. It is developed around maps supported by tables and text and is a synthesis showing the seasonal occurrence and characteristics of the ground when dry, moist, wet, frozen, and snow covered. 8. CULTURE FEATURES Cover with an integrated discussion of the location and distribution of cultural objects which exist in sufficient concentrations to possess significance in planning of major military operations. Such features as urban areas, mines, quarries, tombs, burial mounds, dikes, ditches, transportation nets, hedge rows, ter- races, etc., are evaluated and presented in map(s), table(s), and photographs supporting the text. 9. SPECIAL PHYSICAL PHENOMENA Such factors as permafrost, seismic disturbances, and volcanic phenomena which are applicable and of significance to the NIS Area are presented in map and table form supported by an integrated textual discussion. This discussion gives definitive informa- tion on the phenomena within the Area; it is not CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER II CONFIDENTIAL If no beaches are identified for the sector or subsector under discussion, include heading and statement as follows: "b. LANDING BEACHES ? None described." 2. SUBSECTOR 1-B; etc. D. Sector 2 E. Sector 3; etc. X. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 23. Weather and Climate A. General weather and climatic conditions Discuss the general weather and climatic conditions in their broad aspects, emphasizing those elements and factors having significance in regard to high-level mili- tary operational planning as specified by the various agencies of the Department of Defense. Subdivision of the NIS Area into militarily significant climatic regions is desirable, depending upon the weather and climatic conditions in the particular Area. The Subsection emphasizes the processes which con- trol climatic regimes and contains the bulk of general climatic discussion. Include figures, photos, maps; and those tables that are necessary to. illustrate espe- cially significant climatic factors. Illustrate destruc- tive effects of weather and weather phenomena such as dust storms, tornadoes, fog banks, etc. B. Weather and military operations 1. AIR OPERATIONS (above friction layer) Discuss climatic factors and conditions which affect all types of aerial operations, e.g., cloudiness, visibility, icing, turbulence, thunderstorms, winds and tempera- tures aloft, dust and blowing sand in the upper air, and special upper-air weather phenomena. Tables to contain data significant to aerial operation. 2. MR-GROUND OPERATIONS (within friction layer) Discuss climatic factors which affect radiological, chemical, and biological warfare, control of atmospheric contamination, parachute, aircraft landing, glider, and similar operations which take place within the lower lay- ers of the atmosphere. These conclusions result from analyses of vertical temperature, moisture, density, and wind structure as influenced by topography and large- scale meteorological conditions and their translation into microclimatic terms; i.e., distributions (local) of wind, temperature, humidity, stability, fog, haze, etc., as functions of location and topography. Give full CONFIDENTIAL consideration to the periodic (diurnal and seasonal) and nonperiodic variations in stability, visibility, tem- perature, humidity, etc. 3. GROUND SURFACE OPERATIONS Discuss briefly movement of equipment, mobility, clothing, construction, storage, shelter, etc., in terms of precipitation, temperature, floods, dry and wet periods, etc., using illustrative tables when necessary to emphasize important elements. Make reference to SECTION 24 for the effect of climate on state of ground and cross-country movement. 4. AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS Discuss effects of coastal weather including surface winds and their relation to swell and surf, cloudiness, visibility, air and sea-water temperatures, and drift ice. C. Meteorological facilities and organization Discuss the meteorological facilities in the area, the observational network, types of observation, equip- ment, and personnel. D. Climatic data tables Tables to contain average and extreme climatic data significant to all types of military operations within the area. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Section 24. Topography This Section is a topical treatment for the NIS Area as a whole of those environmental factors not treated in SEcrioxs 22, 23, and 25 of CHAPTER II and it is in- tended that maps and tables be used to the practicable maximum in presenting the information. Photographs are used for illustrative purposes within the topical scope of the Section. A reliability diagram accompan- ies each topical map included in the Section. A. General Appraise briefly the relative significance of the ele- ments which comprise the topography of the NIS Area under discussion. B. Descriptive analysis Each of the subordinate topics treats in factual terms descriptively and definitively those aspects of the topic which are known to have military significance. Statements on military interpretations or applications are confined to Subsection 24, C. Subsection 24, B, includes only such evaluations as are prescribed in the following paragraphs. The discussion of each topic is in proportion to its significance in the NIS Area relative to the other topics treated in the Section. Seasonal aspects are considered wherever significant. Tabular presentation is used to a practicable maximum. A map is prepared for each topic where appropriate. 1. LANDFORMS, RELIEF, AND DRAINAGE PATTERN Cover with an integrated discussion developed around maps, supported by text and tables, treating definitively the essential elements of the topic with emphasis on the larger aspects of the patterns involved. 2. DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICS Include the essential following (or other pertinent) data in their seasonal aspects for significant streams, lakes, and other water features: depths, widths, banks, bottom conditions, velocities, gradients, transparency or turbidity, sedimentation, temperatures, and ice conditions. Treat in tabular and graphic form sup- ported by essential text. 3. WATER RESOURCES Definitive information on quantities, qualities, avail- ability, accessibility, and distribution of surface- and ground-water supplies is presented in map(s), table(s), and text. Data on qualities and quantities are selected PAGE 8 in relation to all probable military uses of water and not only with respect to potability. 4. SOILS The treatment of soils is developed around a simpli- fied soils map showing dominant soil units and sup- ported by a table and text describing their physical characteristics and evaluating their engineering prop- erties. 5. ROCK TYPES This topic is developed around a simplified geologic map showing significant lithologic units and supported by a table and text describing their physical charac- teristics and evaluating their potential usefulness as construction materials. 6. VEGETATION Existing significant vegetation types are delimited on a map supported by table(s) and text describing physical characteristics such as heights, density of stand, stem diameters, coloration, cultivation practices, etc., and evaluating their potential usefulness as con- struction materials and as sources of supplies, and their susceptibility to conflagration. 7. STATE OF THE GROUND This topic is prepared by Army after SECTION 23 and Subsections 24, B, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 have been com- pleted. It is developed around maps supported by tables and text and is a synthesis showing the seasonal occurrence and characteristics of the ground when dry, wet, frozen, and snow covered. 8. CULTURE FEATURES Cover with an integrated discussion of the location and distribution of cultural objects which exist in sufficient concentrations to possess significance in planning of major military operations. Such features as urban areas, mines, quarries, tombs, burial mounds, dikes, ditches, transportation nets, hedge rows, ter- races, etc., are evaluated and presented in map(s), table(s), and photographs supporting the text. 9. SPECIAL PHYSICAL PHENOMENA Such factors as permafrost, seismic disturbances, and volcanic phenomena which are applicable and of significance to the NIS Area are presented in map and table form supported by an integrated textual discussion. This discussion gives definitive informa- tion on the phenomena within the Area; it is not C ONFID EN TIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER II CONFIDENTIAL concerned with general or theoretical aspects of the subject. C. Military evaluation 1. CROSS-COUNTRY MOVEMENT Evaluate all environmental conditions affecting cross-country movement of military vehicles, equip- ment, and personnel throughout the year. 2. CONSTRUCTIONAL ASPECTS Evaluate the feasibility of constructing airfields, roads, and underground installations during the various seasons as affected by the collective environ- mental factors. Specific military constructional prob- lems other than those applicable to airfields, roads, and underground installations are treated under such addi- tional subordinate headings as are required. 3. OTHER MILITARY ASPECTS Evaluate military aspects of topography not subject to discussion under Cross-country Movement or Con- structional Aspects that are affected by environmental topics treated in SECTION 24. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 25. Urban Areas This Section is designed to be a digest of information on the physical aspects of the urban areas in the NIS Area supplemented by pertinent generalized comments concerning their geographic, political, economic, and military importance. Where the general composition of the cities and towns in the area lends itself to com- parison with the cities and towns in a geographic area of the United States or with those of countries in the same geographic, political, or economic group, such comparison is desirable. Data are presented for the NIS Area as a whole, except when such treatment might be misleading for an included subarea. When the area under consideration is divided into distinctive geo- graphic, political, or economic subareas, the data may be presented by appropriate subarea. Tables and charts are utilized to a maximum to supplement descriptive text. Town plans emphasizing those natural and manmade features of the urban area and its environs that are of primary military signifi- cance are included. They supplement the text and tabulated data. Each key strategic urban area is illus- trated by suitable plans, either as functional overlays on an aerial mosaic, or if no suitable mosaic is avail- able, on a town plan that emphasizes adequately the salient urban characteristics having military signifi- cance. Photographs are used to support the text and other graphics, CONFIDENTIAL A. General Summarize the significant features affecting urban areas collectively including a brief generalized treat- ment of the major collective functions (industrial, agricultural, mining, etc.). 1. URBANIZATION PATTERN ? Ratio of urban population to total populations; distribution of urban areas; effects of ethnic and religious groupings where pertinent. b. FACTORS AFFECTING URBANIZATION, AND TRENDS? With respect to economic development (agri- cultural, industrial, exploitation of natural resources). NOTE Generalized statements with regard to population trends are coordinated with the contributor for CHAPTER IV (SECTION 41). 2. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN AREAS Discuss typical militarily significant characteristics of cities and towns by area or subareas, covering: a. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ? Significant char- acteristics of town construction as influenced by tradi- tion, terrain, climate, etc.; of materials used and their availability; of capacity to resist shock, inundation, conflagration, etc. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD b. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS ? Generalized statements on principal types of intertown communi- cations (rail, road, waterway, and air); their adequacy and effect on the cities and towns of an area. C. UTILITIES, SERVICES, AND FACILITIES ? Evalu- ate the cities and towns of an area collectively with respect to the extent of development generally (includ- ing lack, prevalence, and adequacy) of those elements of urban economy commonly classified as utilities, services or facilities; such as water supply, sewerage, sanitation (including public health conditions), electric power, transit, telecommunications, storage, hospitals, gas, refrigeration, etc. d. PLANNING ? Programs for reconstruction in war-devastated or other devastated areas; future plan- ning and expansion programs. NOTE Emphasis is given to the items discussed in 25, A, 2, a. B. Principal urban areas Principal urban areas include key strategic urban areas and other selected urban areas (never more than 100) chosen for consideration because of their size and their military, political, and economic importance. These two categories of urban areas are discussed in separate subsections as indicated below. (Army submits lists of key strategic urban areas and other selected urban areas through the CHAPTER II Coor- dinator to the NIS Committee for transmission to IAC agencies for concurrence and/or comment. In the event of nonconcurrence(s) only or comment, CHAPTER II Coordinator arranges a conference of IAC agencies concerned to resolve differences and to obtain a generally acceptable selection.) Introductory text explains the method of treatment of principal urban areas and highlights the most im- portant of these areas and their military significance in the country's political and economic structure. 1. KEY STRATEGIC URBAN AREAS Key strategic urban areas are those considered to be of primary military, political, or economic signifi- cance. Introductory statement of the number of key stra- tegic urban areas and their importance generally (rea- sons for selecting). The following indicates the preferred order of dis- cussion in the detail required for individual key stra- tegic urban areas. a. URBAN AREA A ? Name to be in the spelling approved by the Board on Geographic Names, fol- lowed by variant names and spellings, in parentheses; PAGE 10 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 below the name, geographic coordinates, followed by the figure number of the town plan in parentheses. NOTE Normally, only one paragraph is required for each of the subheadings, (1) to (5), following. If the importance justifies, appropriate subparagraphs may be used for expanded treatment. Appropriate references are made to the accompanying illustra- tive material. (1) Significance ? Brief statements outlining the significant facts about the urban area, covering: its location (political and geographic); its population (as of a stated date) and trend (only if significant); its importance based upon its political, cultural, military, and economic functions. (2) Physical characteristics ? Generalized state- ments covering: topography of the site (including underlying earth structure) and natural landmarks; general layout of urban area, shape, and dimensions (illustrated by an annotated aerial photograph, by town plans with suitable overlays showing functional and structural patterns and features, and by photo- graphs, if available); ratio of roof coverage to ground area; street pattern (passability for military traffic, width of streets, and clearances), crossings of natural obstacles, and bypassing of town; predominating types of construction and manmade landmarks, and heights of buildings (by stories); other pertinent character- istics. (3) External communications ? Factual state- ment of existing rail, road, water and air communica- tions (including the location of airfields serving the urban area); the adequacy of such communications and their importance to the town. Details of road widths, trackage, length of runways, etc., are not required. (4) Utilities, services, and facilities ? General statements covering: water supply; sewerage system; sanitation (including public health conditions); electric power; transit (streetcar, trolley bus, bus, and cab); telecommunications; billeting capacity (public build- ings, schools, institutions, barracks, etc.); storage (open, closed, cold, petroleum, explosives); hospitals (total bed capacity); and any other utilities, services, or facilities. NoTE Specific items are correlated and coordinated with the producers of counterparts in other chapters or sections. (5) Important industrial and other installations ? Whenever possible the relative national or interna- tional industrial or other importance generally of the urban area is indicated. Similarly, the national or international importance of specific installations in relation to their respective industries is indicated. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER II concerned with general or theoretical aspects of the subject. C. Military evaluation 1. CROSS-COUNTRY MOVEMENT Evaluate all environmental conditions affecting cross-country movement of military vehicles, equip- ment, and personnel throughout the year. 2. CONSTRUCTIONAL ASPECTS Evaluate the feasibility of constructing airfields, roads, shelters, and underground installations during the various seasons as affected by the collective environ- mental factors. Specific military constructional prob- lems other than those applicable to airfields, roads, and underground installations are treated under such addi- tional subordinate headings as are required. 3. OTHER MILITARY ASPECTS Evaluate military aspects of topography not subject to discussion under Cross-country Movement or Con- structional Aspects that are affected by -environmental topics treated in SECTION 24. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 25. Urban Areas This Section is designed to be a digest of information on the physical aspects of the urban areas in the NIS Area supplemented by pertinent generalized comments concerning their geographic, political, economic, and military importance. Where the general composition of the cities and towns in the area lends itself to com- parison with the cities and towns in a geographic area of the United States or with those of countries in the same geographic, political, or economic group, such comparison is desirable. Data are presented for the NIS Area as a whole, except when such treatment might be misleading for an included subarea. When the area under consideration is divided into distinctive geo- graphic, political, or economic subareas, the data may be presented by appropriate subarea. Tables and charts are utilized to a maximum to supplement descriptive text. Town plans emphasizing those natural and man-made features of the urban area and its environs that are of primary military signifi- cance are included. They supplement the text and tabulated data. Each key strategic urban area is illus- trated by suitable plans, either as functional overlays on an aerial mosaic, or if no suitable mosaic is avail- able, on a town plan that emphasizes adequately the salient urban characteristics having military signifi- cance. Photograplis.-are' used to support the text and other graphics... A. General ? Summarize the significant features affecting urban areas collectively including a brief generalized treat- ment of the major collective functions (industrial, agricultural, mining, etc.). 1. URBANIZATION a. PATTERN ? Ratio of urban population to total populations; distribution of urban areas; effects of ethnic and religious groupings where pertinent. b. FACTORS AFFECTING URBANIZATION, AND TRENDS? With respect to economic development (agri- cultural, industrial, exploitation of natural resources). NoTE Generalized statements with regard to population trends are coordinated with the contributor for CHAPTER IV (SECTION 41). 2. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN AREAS Discuss typical militarily significant characteristics of cities and towns by area or subareas, covering: a. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ? Significant char- acteristics of town construction as influenced by tradi- tion, terrain, climate, etc.; of materials used and their availability; of capacity to resist shock, inundation, conflagration, etc. PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 '?16.1111.1filialith? NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS b. EXTERNAL COM1VIUNICATIONS ? Generalized statements on principal types of intertown communi- cations (rail, road, waterway, and air); their adequacy and effect on the cities and towns of an area. C. UTILITIES, SERVICES, AND FACILITIES Evalu- ate the cities and towns of an area collectively with respect to the extent of development generally (includ- ing lack, prevalence, and adequacy) of those elements of urban economy commonly classified as utilities, services or facilities; such as water supply, sewerage, sanitation (including public health conditions), electric power, transit, telecommunications, storage, hospitals, gas, refrigeration, etc. d. PLANNING ? Programs for reconstruction in war-devastated or other devastated areas; future plan- ning and expansion programs. _Num Emphasis is given to the items discussed in 25, A, 2, a. B. Principal urban areas Principal urban areas include key strategic urban areas and other selected urban areas (never more than 100) chosen for consideration because of their size and their military, political, and economic importance. These two categories of urban areas are discussed in separate subsections as indicated below. (Army submits lists of key strategic urban areas and other selected urban areas through the CHAPTER II Coor- dinator to the NIS Committee for transmission to IAC agencies for concurrence and/or comment. In the event of nonconcurrence(s) only or comment, CHAPTER II Coordinator arranges a conference of IAC agencies concerned to resolve differences and to obtain a generally acceptable selection.) Introductory text explains the method of treatment of principal urban areas and highlights the most im- portant of these areas and their military significance in the country's political and economic structure. 1. KEY STRATEGIC URBAN AREAS Key strategic urban areas are those considered to be of primary military, political, or economic signifi- CariCe. Introductory statement of the number of key stra- tegic urban areas and their importance generally (rea- sons for selecting). The following indicates the preferred order of dis- cussion in the detail required for individual key stra- tegic urban areas, a. URBAN AREA A Name to be in the spelling approved by the Board on Geographic Names, fol- lowed by variant names and spellings, in parentheses; PAGE 10 JULY 1057 below the name, geographic coordinates, followed by the figure number of the town plan in parentheses. NOTE Normally, only one paragraph is required for each of the subheadings, (I) to (5), following. If the importance justifies, appropriate subparagraphs may be used for expanded treatment. Appropriate references are made to the accompanying illustra- tive material. (1)74Signifcance ? Brief statements outlining the significant facts about the urban area, covering: its location (political and geographic); its population (as of a stated date) and trend (only if significant); its importance based upon its political, cultural, military, and economic functions. (2) Physical characteristics ? Generalized state- ments covering: topography of the site (including underlying earth structure) and natural landmarks; general layout of urban area, shape, and dimensions (illustrated by an annotated aerial photograph, by town plans with suitable overlays showing functional and structural patterns and features, and by photo- graphs, if available); ratio of roof coverage to ground area; street pattern (passability for military traffic, width of streets, and clearances), crossings of natural obstacles, and bypassing of town; predominating types of construction and man-made landmarks, and heights of buildings (by stories); other pertinent character- istics. (3) External communications ? Factual state- ment of existing rail, road, water and air communica- tions (including the location of airfields serving the urban area); the adequacy of such communications and their importance to the town. Details of road widths, trackage, length of runways, etc., are not required. (4) Utilities, services, and facilities ? General statements .covering: water supply; sewerage system; sanitation (including public health conditions); electric power; transit (streetcar, trolley bus, bus, and cab); telecommunications; billeting capacity (public build- ings, schools, institutions, barracks, etc.); storage (open, closed, cold, petroleum, explosives); hospitals (total bed capacity); and any other utilities, services, or facilities. Nomn Specific items are correlated and coordinated with the producers of .counterparts in other chapters or sections, (5) Important industrial and other installations ? Whenever possible the relative national or interna- tional industrial or other importance generally, of the urban area is indicated. Similarly, the national or international importance of specific installations in relation to their respective industries is indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY- 1057 CHAPTER II milmommimmi? b. URBAN AREA B C. URBAN AREA C, etc. 2. OTHER SELECTED URBAN AREAS Present information on other selected urban areas in tabular form. The text provides an introduction giving the number and general importance of these areas. In the tabular presentation, towns are grouped by subareas, if this is desirable. Appropriate column headings are used for the following information: Name, followed by variant names and spellings in pa- rentheses. Geographic coordinates, Population. Importance --a brief statement of the dominant facts on which selection is based. Remarks--other appropriate comment. C. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. PAGE .11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER III TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Section 30 Introduction Section 31 Railway Section 32 Highway Section 33 Inland Waterway Section 34 Petroleum Pipeline (Treated in Subsection 62, C and Supplement V) Section 35 Ports and Naval Facilities Section 36 Merchant Marine Section 37 Civil Air Section 38 Telecommunications CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. gorrvrsiniAT,T`T IT Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 1=diassiimmmleiliam CONFIDENTIAL Chapter 111-Transportation and Telecommunications OUTLINE SECTION 30. INTRODUCTION SECTION 31. RAILWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the network 1. General 2. Way and structures 3. Fuel and water 4. Construction and maintenance C. Control, organization, and personnel 1. Control 2. Organization 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 1 Traffic 3. Financial data E. Equipment 1. General 2. Motive power 3. Rolling stock 4. Work equipment F. Selected rail lines G. Tabular and graphic data H. Comments on principal sources SECTION 32. HIGHWAY A. General B. Highway network 1. General 2. Roadway, structures, and facilities 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Development program 5. Traffic interruption factors C. Governmental control, organization, and personnel 1. Governmental control 2. Organization 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Principal carriers 3. Traffic 4. Financial data Ciliiii10111111111.01 E. Vehicles and equipment 1. General 2. Motor vehicles 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Animal-drawn F. Principal routes G. Highway technical data H. Comments on principal sources SECTION 33. INLAND WATERWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the waterway system 1 General 2. Waterway facilities 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Development program C. Control and organization 1. Control 2. Principal carriers 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Craft and equipment F. Individual waterways G. Inland waterway ports H. Comments on principal sources SECTION 35. PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES When there is no Supplement I: A. General 1. Ports 2. Naval facilities 3. Shipyards 4, Explanatory notes Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE I Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 "IMPIPAniumem. NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS B. C. D. E. F. G. Principal ports Secondary ports Minor ports Naval facilities Shipyards Comments on principal sources When there is a Supplement I: A. General 1. Ports 2. Naval facilities 3. Shipyards B. Comments on principal sources SECTION 36. MERCHANT MARINE A. General B. Organization 1. Ownership (government or private; if private, include beneficial owner- ship) 2. Administration 3. National policy 4. Foreign interests 5. Personnel and training C. Composition D. Shipping program 1. Construction program 2. Purchase or sale of vessels 3. Chartering of vessels E. Normal shipping routes and ports of call F. Operations and traffic G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 37. CIVIL AIR PAGE 2 A. General B. Governmental organization, control and policy 1. Organization and administration of civil air 2. Governmental policy and support for civil aviation C. International relations 1. Affiliations 2. Air agreements and arrangements 3. Foreign air carrier operations 4. Foreign aid and influence D. Civil air activities 1. Scheduled air carriers 2. Miscellaneous air services 3. Government and private operators JANUARY 1962 4. Performance, general characteristics, and capability of selected transport aircraft E. Civil aviation training 1. Aviation schools 2. Aeroclubs 3. Other F. Services and supplies 1. Maintenance installations 2. Sources of supply G. Civil air facilities 1. Airfields 2. Operational aids H. Mobilization potential 1. Mobilization potential and plans 2. Aircraft potential and availability 3. Personnel strength and readiness I. Personalities J. Means of identification K. Comments on principal sources SECTION 38. TELECOMMUNICATIONS A. General B. Administration and control 1. Government organizations 2. Commercial organizations C. Domestic systems 1. General 2. Public intercity networks a. Transmission facilities b. Switching systems and facilities 3. Local facilities 4. Special systems D. International facilities 1. General 2. Landlines 3. Radio 4. Submarine cables E. Broadcast and television 1. General 2. AM and FM broadcast 3. Television 4. Wired broadcast F. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER III OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 30. Introduction This Section is an overall appreciation of the trans- portation and telecommunication systems of the coun- try or area under study. It treats those general aspects which are necessary to the proper concept of the subject as a whole and which cannot be treated adequately elsewhere. It is prepared upon completion of the remaining Sections of this Chapter so as to be able to present in a single Section an integrated account of all phases of trans- portation and telecommunications. Material is presented in graphic form whenever practicable. Section 31. Railway A. General An appreciation of rail transportation in the country, including relationship to other transportation, salient characteristics, physical environmental factors, and economic and logistical significance. B. Characteristics of the network 1. GENERAL A discussion of such basic factors as total route mileage by trackage, gage, and ownership; pattern and geographical distribution of the rail lines; connections and interchange with adjacent countries, including any special interchange equipment requirements; gen- eral status and condition of the railroads, including repair of war damage and projected development. 2. WAY AND STRUCTURES Characteristics of the fixed facilities and structures, including general conditions affecting the right of way and structures as reflected in grades, curves, and characteristics of structures; general and detailed standards for rail, ties, and ballast, and resultant axle- load limitations; characteristics and comprehensive statistics on bridges, tunnels, and similar track-support- ing and track-sheltering structures; characteristics and statistics on ferries; structural clearance, loading, and equipment diagrams with supporting discussion of standards and practices; characteristics of signal and communications equipment and operations; general features of yards ana terminals, with detailed data (including diagrams or plans when available on major yards and terminals); details of the nature and extent of electrification, including characteristics of power supply and installations. 3. FUEL AND WATER A general survey of fuel and water supply, including such factors as characteristics and availability, treat- ment required, and any special factors such as reliance on foreign source of fuel supply. 4. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance policy, problems, and procedures, including standards, organization, and availability and quality of materials, equipment, and labor; evaluative discussion of heavy off-track con- struction and maintenance equipment employed. C. Control, organization, and personnel 1, CONTROL The development and present status of control and ownership, and the nature and extent of governmental control and regulation. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 V.) 1.U.CLLN 1A-1-1 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS 2. ORGANIZATION Operational organization and administrative struc- ture, supported as appropriate by selected organiza- tional charts and diagrams. 3. PERSONNEL A discussion of the number and allocation of em- ployees, the general level of competency, training, labor relations, and such aspects as pay rates and health and retirement provisions. D. Operations 1. OPERATING FACTORS Routine operating regulations and practices, in- cluding train control; significant operating statistics, with evaluative comment; significant or unusual operating problems and practices, particularly those representing traffic interruption factors. 2. TRAFFIC A discussion of traffic conditions and trends, includ- ing pattern of traffic and relative importance of freight and passenger traffic; principal commodities carried and any significant regional characteristics; selective statistics for representative years on such factors as freight tons, freight ton-miles, and other applicable indicators of traffic volume and handling. 3. FINANCIAL DATA A discussion of the financial position of the railroad or railroads, including corporate or governmental budget data, and significant statistics on incomes, ex- penses, and general financial characteristics. E. Equipment 1. GENERAL An overall quantitative and qualitative survey of the adequacy of existing equipment, domestic and foreign sources of equipment, shops and repair facilities, and interchangeability and other characteristics of equipment. 2. MOTIVE POWER Predominant types (including tabulated basic charac- teristics and inventory of each type of locomotive), PAGE 4 JANUARY 1962 general condition of locomotives, and nature and source of supply. 3. ROLLING STOCK Predominant types, general condition, and sources of supply of freight and passenger rolling stock, with tabulation of basic characteristics and inventory of each type. 4. WORK EQUIPMENT Types, characteristics, and inventories of all equip- ment utilized in construction and maintenance. F. Selected rail lines A selection and analysis of the selected lines of major importance for both economic and logistics purposes, followed by a summary of the characteristics and significance of each selected line in terms of the follow- ing factors: Terminals, mileage, gages, and types of power; economic and strategic importance; nature and volume of traffic; brief geographic description of route; important and/or unusual structures; rail, ties, ballast, etc., as used on the line; axleload limit on line between all major junctions; ruling grades both directions be- tween all major junctions; minimum radii of curves between all major junctions; maximum distance between passing sidings; minimum length of passing sidings; number and total length of bridges and tunnels; tabulation of remaining facilities such as: yards, enginehouses, fueling and watering facilities, other G. Tabular and graphic data This Subsection contains information in tabular and graphic form in the general order of reference in text. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030 CHAP7'Ell 111 JANUARY 1962 Section 32. Highway A. General An appreciation of highway transportation in the country, including relationship to other transportation, salient characteristics, physical environmental factors, significant historical developments, bottlenecks, and economic and logistical significance, including a discus- sion of highway density and vehicle ratio in relation to population. Compare highway density and vehicle ratio with that of a neighboring country and with a state in the United States of similar size or population. B. Highway network 1. GENERAL A discussion of such factors as total highway mileage by classification, indicating correlation between surface types and administrative classification; pattern and geographic distribution; connections with adjacent countries; numbering and marking system; density and nature of traffic; and present status and general condition of the network. 2. ROADWAY, STRUCTURES, AND FACIL- [TIES Detailed characteristics of surface types, base types, and shoulder types; drainage characteristics and gen- eral condition of all the highways by type or adminis- trative designation; design and specification standards of highways; characteristics and comprehensive sta- tistics on bridges and tunnels, including design and specification standards; characteristics and statistics on ferries and fords; vehicle repair and fueling facilities, types of fuels used, and domestic or import origin of fuels. 3. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance policy, problems, and procedures in relation to character of terrain, weather and climate, characteristics of original design and construction, and present condition. Official atti- tude toward highway construction and maintenance. Frequency or cyclic period of road and structures inspection, overhauling, repair, replacement, or recon- struction. Construction and maintenance procedures, including standards and specifications and such factors as the sectionalizing of roads for maintenance and the prevalence of hand as against mechanical methods. Availability of necessary funds, and availability and quality of materials, equipment, and labor. 4. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM New construction and improvement under way or planned. 5. TRAFFIC INTERRUPTION FACTORS A survey of critical points or features of the highway system, with emphasis on existing or potential factors which might adversely affect traffic. C. Governmental control, organization, and personnel 1. GOVERNMENTAL CONTROL The present status of control and the nature and extent of governmental control and regulation. 2. ORGANIZATION Current organizational structures, preferably in chart form. 3. PERSONNEL The number of operating personnel and employees by department; personnel efficiency and training, labor relations, and such aspects as pay rates and health and retirement provisions. D. Operations 1. OPERATING FACTORS Operating regulations and practices for passenger and freight traffic, significant operating statistics, and significant or unusual operating problems and practices. 2. PRINCIPAL CARRIERS Ownership and organizational structure of representa- tive principal carriers. 3. TRAFFIC Traffic conditions and trends, including pattern of traffic and relative importance of freight and passenger traffic; principal commodities carried and any signifi- cant regional characteristics; selective statistics for representative years on such factors as freight tons, freight ton-miles, and other applicable indicators of traffic volume and handling, including flow charts and flow breakdown by vehicle. 4. FINANCIAL DATA Operating revenues, expenses, and ratios, including governmental financial aspects. PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 suomaggred For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCT IONS JANUARY 1962 K Vehicles and equipment 1. GENERAL An overall quantitative and qualitative survey of the adequacy of existing vehicles and equipment, domestic and foreign sources of vehicles and equipment or principal components, amounts and types imported and exported, and vehicle standards. 2. MOTOR VEHICLES A tabulation of the number, capacity, make and year of vehicles by type. 3. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance equipment, including the major construction and maintenance equipment items used in highway work and the stations where such equipment is assigned. Domestic availability or dependence on imports as a source of supply of heavy and automotive construction equipment. A tabulation of road construction and maintenance equipment. 4. ANIMAL-DRAWN A tabulation of any significant animal-drawn equip- ment. F. Principal routes A selection and analysis of principal routes of major importance for both economic and logistical purposes followed by a summary of the characteristics and sig-. nificance of each principal route in terms of the follow- ing factors: route number and/or name; starting points, terminals, and route mileage; principal intersections and international connections; adequacy of clearance from ports and principal cities; main thoroughfares through and bypasses around large population centers (by map); traffic flow; bottlenecks; fueling facilities; general pavement data; bridges; tunnels; ferries; fords; route logs; special weather restrictions; and terrain features. G. Highway technical data An explanation of the special highway numbering system used in SECTION 32, and tabular and other presentations of detailed highway data, including reference to the indigenous map included in the Sec- tion. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the-following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 33. Inland Waterway 3. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance policy, problems, and procedure in relation to terrain, weather and climate, characteristics of original design and construction, and present condition of waterway structures and stream improvement works. Official attitude toward water- way construction and maintenance. Discussion of construction and maintenance procedures includes standards and specifications, whether work is done by governmental organization or private contractor, avail- ability of funds, equipment, materials, and qualified personnel. New construction and improvements un- derway or planned. A. General An appreciation of inland waterway transportation in the country, including relationship to other trans- portation, salient characteristics, physical environ- mental factors, and economic and logistical significance. B. Characteristics of the waterway system 1. GENERAL A discussion of such basic nationwide features as topography (watersheds, flood plains, banks, etc.), areal distribution of navigable streams, climate and weather conditions causing seasonal variations in water level and freezing, mileage and limits of navigability, con- nections with adjacent countries, density and nature of traffic, and present status and general condition of waterways. 2. WATERWAY FACILITIES Characteristics of fixed facilities (locks, bridges, dams, navigational aids), with summarizing statistics; specification standards for structures; location of major ports and cargo handled by type and tonnage (with appropriate reference IO SECTION 35 and SUPPLEMENT I). PAGE 6 4. TRAFFIC INTERRUPTION FACTORS A survey of critical points or features of the waterway system, with emphasis on existing or potential factors which might adversely affect traffic. 5. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM New construction and improvements underway or planned for waterways and ports. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 JANUARY 1962 CH AP T C. Control and organization 1. CONTROL Governmental control and regulations affecting the waterways and the carriers. 2. PRINCIPAL CARRIERS Ownership, organization, and administrative struc- ture of each principal carrier. 3. PERSONNEL Maintenance, operational, and carrier personnel in terms of number, competency, labor relations, pay rates, and health and retirement provisions. D. Operations 1. OPERATING FACTORS Routine operating regulations and practices, signifi- cant operating statistics and significant or unusual operating problems and practices. 2. TRAFFIC Traffic conditions and trends, including statistics for passengers carried and cargo by commodities. 3. FINANCIAL DATA Operating revenue and expenses of carriers, and gov- ernmental budget data for waterways. E. Craft and equipment General survey of adequacy of craft, present con- dition, fuel used, and facilities for repairing and con- structing craft. Craft census by number, type (pas- senger or cargo), propulsion (including horsepower for : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030(262.1.4 E 1? III tugs), capacity, condition, and other pertinent charac- teristics. Special equipment used for construction and maintenance on the waterways and at the ports. F. Individual waterways General discussion giving location, tributaries, entire length and navigable length by craft (capacity or draft), types of cargo moved with performance sta- tistics. Physical characteristics such as banks, bottom, seasonal variations (water level, currents, freezing, floods, etc.), and navigational hazards will be pre- sented in tabular format to the maximum practicable extent. Tabulation of locks (location, dimensions, type of gates and how operated, locking time), bridges (location, horizontal and vertical clearance, moveable span), and other structures such as dams, aqueducts, safety gates, tunnels, ferry crossings. G. Inland waterway ports Description of ports, giving total wharfage with depths, storage facilities, mechanical-handling facilities, craft repair facilities, and the type and amount of cargo handled. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 4ingoilwaved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Section 35. Ports and Naval Facilities (When there is no Supplement I) A. General 1. PORTS General discussion covering: Geography of area as it relates to the establish- ment of ports. Brief history of growth and development of port system. Areal distribution and grouping of ports as determined by geographical, historical, eco- nomic, and strategic factors. Categories of ports and brief summary of criteria used in classifying. Cross-reference to summary table of principal and secondary ports and index map. Alphabetical list of principal, secondary, and minor ports (with coordinates). Summary table of significant characteristics and facilities of principal and secondary ports using standard table with following headings: NAME (coordinates) PAGE 8 HARBOR: Type Fairway limitations Largest vessel accommodated Tides Ice BERTHS: Anchorage Mooring: Fixed Free-swinging Alongside MECHANICAL HANDLING FACILITIES: Shore cranes Floating cranes Special handling equipment STORAGE CAPACITY: General cargo Bulk liquid storage Bulk dry storage CLEARANCE: Rail Road Other if applicable ESTIMATED MILITARY PORT CAPACITY NAVAL ACTIVITY SHIPYARDS REMARKS 2. NAVAL FACILITIES General analysis covering: Size, condition, and adequacy of naval estab- lishment. Brief summary of organization into naval dis- tricts and commands. Brief discussion of principal bases and summary of other activities; basis on which classified. Alphabetical list of naval facilities (with coordi- nates). 3. SHIPYARDS General analysis covering: Extent and distribution of shipyard facilities. Capability and size of yards. Predominance of shipbuilding or ship-repairing facilities. Cross-reference to Subsection 64, E for discus- sion of economic aspects of shipbuilding and ship-repairing industry. 4. EXPLANATORY NOTES a. PORT ADMINISTRATION b. UNITS OF MEASURE C. RAILROAD GAGE d. PORT PLANS e. CROSS-REFERENCES f. GLOSSARY B. Principal ports 1. NAME OF PORT (Coordinates, H.O. Chart No.) (From this point on, Subsection outline guide is identical with Sections 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of Supplement I except that head- ing designations are dropped one level, e.g., Section 3, Second- ary Ports becomes C. Secondary Ports.) Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A0003000300 1-4 , JANUARY 1962 Supplement I- Ports and Naval Facilities OUTLINE SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION A. List of ports and naval facilities B. Classification of ports and naval facilities C. Explanatory notes 1. Port administration 2. Units of measure 3. Railroad gage 4. Port plans 5. Cross-references 6. Glossary D. Comments on principal sources SECTION 2. PRINCIPAL PORTS A?X. Name of port 1. Introduction 2, Harbor 3. Landing facilities 4. Storage facilities 5. Clearance facilities 6. Supplies and utilities 7. Trade of port 8. Port operations 9. Port administration 10. Estimated military port capacity 11. Naval facilities 12. Shipyards 13. Port development SECTION 3. SECONDARY PORTS SECTION 4. MINOR PORTS SECTION 5. NAVAL FACILITIES A. Coastal naval facilities B. Inland naval facilities SECTION 6. SHIPYARDS A. Coastal shipyards 1. Category I and II shipyards 2. Category III shipyards B. Inland shipyards (Category I and II shipyards) PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 1. Introduction A. List of ports and naval facilities List all ports alphabetically, indicating name, coordi- nates, and classification; cross-reference index map. List all naval facilities alphabetically, indicating name, coordinates, and type. Separate coastal and inland facilities by means of shoulder heads; cross- reference index map. B. Classification of ports and naval facilities Give criteria used in classifying ports into principal, secondary, and minor. State basis on which naval facilities have been classified. C. Explanatory notes 1. PORT ADMINISTRATION Whenever the ports of a country come under the jurisdiction of a national government department the administration of ports on the national level is normally described in SECTION 1, and the description of the administration of each individual port on the local level is carried in the study of the port. 2. UNITS OF MEASURE Statement concerning use. 3. RAILROAD GAGE Give the standard gage for the country and also any other gages that serve the various ports. PAGE 2 4. PORT PLANS Make statement such as the following: The port plan provides a graphic representation of the port, showing the relationship of its component parts and the loca- tions of the principal port facilities. Although the port plan carries depth patterns, it is in no sense a navigational instrument and should not be used as a chart. The port plans in this Supplement have been based on the best charts and plans available and have been amended from the most recent photography and reports. Dimensions and scales represent close ap- proximations. 5. CROSS-REFERENCES Point out topics which receive additional treatment in other Sections of the NIS. Provide appropriate cross-references for each subject. 6. GLOSSARY List with English equivalents of foreign generic terms used in Supplement. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: 1) To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Supplement and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Supplement. 2) To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 SUPPLEMENT I Section 2. Principal ports A?X. Name of port (Coordinates, H.O. Chart No.) 1. INTRODUCTION (General summary to include following items where pertinent) Relative location Importance (strategic and/or economic) Principal characteristics and activities of port (include types of cargo handled and annual volume of trade) Summary of harbor Position and layout Largest vessel that can be accommodated in port Anchorage Summary of capacity Estimated military port capacity Berthage Summary of port facilities Wharves and wharf facilities (mechanical handling facilities, transit sheds, rail and road clearances, utilities) Storage and specialized terminal facilities Clearance facilities Summary of naval facilities Type Function Significant features Shipyard facilities Summary of port development 2. HARBOR a. GENERAL ? Brief general overall picture of harbor including: Location in relation to town and coast General form and type Framework and component parts b. PROTECTION ? SUITIIIIRTy of protective system as a whole. Analysis of component parts of principal protective system covering; Position Shape and alinement Dimensions Construction Brief analysis of auxiliary or inner protective works. c. HARI3OR DIVISIONS Description of each vision, when appropriate, covering: Relative position Use Dimensions Defined channels Turning basins d. FAIRWAY LIMITATIONS (1) Approach ? Brief summary indicating char- acter of approach and limitations, if any. (2) Entrance Describe briefly (if harbor has defined entrance); give controlling dimensions. (3) harbor C. SILTING AND DREDGING ? Liability to silting and dredging requirements of all navigable fairways and berths. f. ANCHORAGE ? Indicate the location of anchor- ages (any area, customarily used for anchorage or specifically reserved for that purpose and in any way associated with the port) and cover each in terms of: Depths Bottom sediments (evaluation of holding qualities) Protection from sea and weather Number of free-swinging berths by classes when anchorage is such that a vessel berthed there would be considered to have entered the port and the number of berths falls within the limit set in the anchorage berth cht,ssification standards. If in estimating military port capacity the berths used to serve the lighter wharfage of the port are insufficient or are entirely lacking, areas that tppear to be suitable for anchoring may be described as anchorages, but it must be made clear that they have been determined from ;in interpretation of the chart and not from evidence that ships actually anchor there. g. MOORING BERTHS (1) Fixed Location and layout Number, types, sizes, and capacities of berths (2) Free-swinging Location and layout Number, sizes, and capacities of berths IL HYDROGRAPHIC AND WEATHER CONDITIONS Tides. f)epths and heights Adverse conditions affecting port operations Pilotage i. DEFENSES ? Summary of port defense system with brief description of operations and significant di- facilities such as nets and booms, detection devices, mines, shore and antiaircraft batteries, entrance con- trol post, and patrol operations. 3. LANDING FACILITIES a. WHARVES AND LANDINGS Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 (I) Principal wharves ? Brief statement in- eluding the following items if significant. Principal wharves Total wharfage Wharf distribution Wharf evaluation Wharf construction: Generic types Construction Decking and apron Condition Wharf ancillary facilities: Rail facilities on wharf Clearing roadways Transit sheds Mechanical handling facilities Utilities Cross-reference to table of wharves Table of wharves (2) Offshore-pipeline berths (3) Supplemental wharves and landings Summary (1 or 2 sentences) List of supplemental wharves and landings b. MECHANICAL HANDLING FACILITIES (1) Cranes ? Summary of shore cranes; indicate general types and capacities; divide cranes into cargo, shipyard, and miscellaneous categories; cross-reference to table of shore cranes. Table of shore cranes. Floating cranes. (2) Stevedore gear ? Availability of stevedore gear: carriers, forklifts, jitneys, wharf trucks, portable conveyors, etc. (3) Special handling equipment ? Summary statement of special cargo-handling equipment (coal and ore loaders, grain unloaders, industrial track, pipe- lines, etc.) indicating types, numbers, and uses. C. HARBOR CRAFT ? General statement of extent and adequacy of service fleet. Details of craft (arrange by type): Tugs and launches Breakdown by classes (seagoing and harbor). Give type of power, horsepower, and any special equipment such as salvage and firefighting equipment; indicate operat ing ranges of seagoing salvage tugs Lighters Breakdown by capacity and type (self-propelled or dumb). Give numbers (in round figures or general terms), con- struction, capacity, draft loaded, and type of power if self-propelled Bunkering and watering craft Details of each craft: Type, capacity, equipment, delivery rate, whether pri- vately or governmentally owned Dredging equipment Details of each craft: Type, capacity in terms of operating depth and cubic yards per hour (include hopper barges) PAGE 4 Miscellaneous craft Details of miscellaneous harbor service craft such as fire- boats, icebreakers, ferries, piledrivers, etc. Cover sig- nificant characteristics of each in detail comparable to above 4. STORAGE FACILITIES a. GENERAL CARGO STORAGE (1) Covered ? Summary of all transit sheds, warehouses, and other general-cargo storage buildings directly associated with port operations; give general location of facilities and total capacity (in round figures) of transit sheds, warehouses, and other general- cargo storage buildings. Cross-reference to table of covered general-cargo storage. Table of covered general-cargo storage (2) Refrigerated ?Summary of facilities asso- ciated with port operations; include total capacity (in round figures) and for each installation cover: Name Location Use Storage capacity (breakdown by controlling temperatures) Ice-making capacity Remarks (include machinery and equipment if significant) (3) Open stacking space ? Summary sentence on availability of open space in waterfront area suitable or reserved for storing general cargo, indicating if served by rail and/or road. List of specific sites covering: Location Size b. BULK-CARGO STORAGE (1) Liquid (a) PETROLEUM -- Summary of facilities in port including total capacity and breakdown by product, and general location of installations. Cross- reference to table of principal wharves and/or table of offshore-pipeline berths for details of cargo and bunker- ing berths. Cross-reference to table of petroleum storage terminals. Table of petroleum storage terminals. (b) (NAME OF COMMODITY OR MISCELLANE- OUS) ? Scope, detail, and arrangement similar to that for "Petroleum"; cover such commodities as molasses, vegetable oils, wine, etc. (2) Dry Table of dry bulk-cargo terminal facilities. (a) GRAIN Summary of facilities directly associated with port operations; include total capacity (in round figure) and general location of installations. Cross-reference to table of bulk terminal facilities. Cross-reference to details of special handling equipment. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A00030003 -4 SUPPLEMENT I JANUARY 1962 (b) COAL Summary of facilities directly associated with port operations; include total capacity (in round figure), and general location of installations. Cross-reference to table of bulk terminal facilities. Cross-reference to table of principal wharves for details of berths and special handling equipment. (C) (NAME . OF COMMODITY OR MISCELLANE- OUS) ? Scope, detail, and arrangement similar to that for "Coal" and "Grain"; cover such commodities as ore, lumber, etc. 5. CLEARANCE FACILITIES a. RAIL (1) Lines clearing port ? Identification of each line and brief summary of each: Number of tracks Gage Connecting points Distances Direction (2) Rail facilities in port Summary of port rail network; include the following: Connecting line to port area from main terminal point Bridges and ferries forming integral part of port network Trackage in port area Railroad yards Cross-reference to table of railroad yards Table of railroad yards b. ROAD (1) Roads clearing port ? Identification of prin- cipal routes and brief summary of each: Construction Width Connecting points Distances Direction Condition (2) Streets in port General analysis of ade- quacy in relation to port operation. C. INLAND WATERWAY ? Identification of each route clearing port and brief summary of each: Type Connecting points Distances Direction Controlling dimensions d. PIPELINE ? Identification of pipelines clearing port and brief summary of each: Commodity carried Size Terminus Distances Direction Capacity 6. SUPPLIES AND UTILITIES a. PETROLEUM BUNKERS ? Brief summary 011 availability of bunkers including type of fuel, methods of supply, and names of terminals. Cross-reference to table of principal wharves and table of petroleum terminals. b. COAL BUNKERS Summary of availability of bunkers with cross-reference to table of principal wharves. C. WATER ? Summary statement on availability of water to ships; methods of supply and extent of facilities; quality of water; type and adequacy of port supply; if port has no water barges, give dimensions of largest watering berth. d. ELECTRICITY ? General summary covering: Characteristics of service currents distributed in port area Adequacy of supply for port operations State if current is produced locally, taken from a grid sys- tem, or both e. PROVISIONS AND CHANDLERY ? Brief summary of availability. 7. TRADE OF PORT a. SHIPPING ? Summary of volume of shipping calling at port for most recent 5 years; analysis of trends and significance; cross-reference to table and graph of shipping. b. COMMERCE ? Summary of volume of- cargo handled through port and analysis of trends and sig- nificance of passenger traffic for most recent 5 years; enumerate principal receipts and shipments; table and graph if appropriate. 8. PORT OPERATIONS a. CARGO HANDLING ? General analysis of opera- tional factors related to cargo-handling procedure and potential. These may include: Average cargo tonnage handled, daily and monthly Average cargo-handling rates, hourly and daily Ratio of receipts to shipments Ratio of bulk cargoes to general cargoes Ratio of cargo worked alongside to cargo worked in stream (lightered from vessels at anchor or moorings) Average vessel turnaround Prevailing methods of cargo transfer and regulations affect- ing Fish landed from fishing craft Cargo transferred over wharves from one part of port to another Limiting factors (actual or potential) b. LABOR ? General analysis covering such fac- tors as: Size of normal stevedore force Adequacy of force for normal port operations Efficiency of stevedore personnel Availability of labor reserve Political orientation 9. PORT ADMINISTRATION General statement on port authority. Discuss official services such as quarantine, customs, security organization, and free-port zone where pertinent. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 arahmemmmiummomum NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 10. ESTIMATED MILITARY PORT CAPACITY 11. NAVAL FACILITIES a. SUMMARY ? General summary covering: Location Type Function Administration Facilities Base development b. HARBOR C. BASE FACILITIES (1) Landing facilities ?Brief summary and cross-reference to Subsection 3, Landing Facilities, for principal treatment. (2) Shipyard facilities ?Brief summary and cross-reference to SECTION 6, Shipyards, for principal treatment. (3) Ordnance facilities (a) MANUFACTURING FACILITIES Analyze typo of manufacturing and give details of plant includ- ing: current activity and capabilities; identification of buildings and facilities; size, construction, and principal equipment of each building. (b) ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE FACILITIES ? Analyze type of operations performed and give details of plant including: current activity and capabilities; identification of buildings and facilities; size, construc- tion, and principal equipment of each building. (4) Supply facilities (a) MATERIAL STORAGE AND SUPPLY ? Analyze activities and give details of facilities including: use, construction, capacity, and principal equipment of each building; indicate in general terms stocks of materiel normally maintained. (b) PETROLEUM STORAGE AND SUPPLY -- Brief summary of facilities and supply. Cross-reference as appropriate to Subsection 4, b, Bulk-cargo Storage; 6, a, Petroleum Bunkers; and table of principal wharves. (C) ORDNANCE STORAGE AND SUPPLY ? Iden- tification of buildings and facilities and details of each: use, construction, capacity. Indicate normal stocks of ordnance maintained. (5) Communications facilities ? General anal- ysis of organization and function of communications activities. For each facility or installation (radio station, relay station, message center, etc.) cover such details as type, construction, dimensions, layout, and equipment. (6) Training facilities ? Identification and de- scription of facilities including school buildings and quarters, instruction shops, practice equipment, etc. PAGE 6 (7) Medical facilities ? General description of medical facilities including hospitals, dispensaries, etc. (8) Miscellaneous facilities ? Detailed descrip- tion of all special activities not included in above. d. BASE UTILITIES (I) Housing and messing facilities ? Identifi- cation and detailed description of barracks, quarters, and ancillary installations, such as mess halls. (2) Transportation facilities (a) CLEARANCE Brief summary of rail and road facilities clearing base indicating connecting points with main rail lines and roads. (b) FACILITIES IN BASE ? SI1111111ary analysis covering layout and construction of streets; details of vehicles and vehicle-service facilities; layout of railroad trackage; details of railroad equipment. (3) Water ?Summary analysis covering: source, quantity, and quality of supply; details of transmission; purification, distillation, storage, and distribution. (4) Electricity ? Summary analysis covering: Sources of supply; type and capacity of base power plants; details of generating equipment and trans- formers; characteristics of current as produced and distributed. (5) Fire protection ? Summary analysis cover- ing: equipment and alarm system; fire mains and pressures; firefighting force. C. BASE DEFENSES ? Summarize base defenses, covering such aspects as protective construction and concealment; chemical-, biological-, and atomic-war- fare defense; and internal security. 12. SHIPYARDS a. CATEGORY I AND II SHIPYARDS ? General sum- mary of shipbuilding and ship-repair facilities and capabilities; indicate size of largest ship that can be drydocked by giving capacity of largest drydocking facility and largest ship that could be built; give num- ber of yards in each category and names of yards; cross-reference to SECTION 6 for details. b. CATEGORY III SHIPYARDS ? Brief summary; cross-reference to SECTION 6. C. AUXILIARY REPAIR FACILITIES d. SALVAGE FACILITIES C. DETAILS OF DRYDOCKING INSTALLATIONS Table of graving docks Table of floating drydocks Table of marine railways (only when of considerable significance) 13. PORT DEVELOPMENT Detailed description of projected harbor works and port improvements. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 SUPPLEMENT I Silsorammisimiim JANUARY 1962 Section 3. Secondary Ports A-X. Name of port Describe secondary ports in the same manner as principal ports, the treatment being indicated by the outline guide in SECTION 2, Principal Ports. Section 4. Minor Ports Tabulate pertinent details of minor ports (those not treated in SECTION 2 or 3 but having some significance or potential utility) using standard table with follow- ing headings: Name (coordinates) Harbor: Fairway limitations Tidal rises Ice Currents Anchorage Landing facilities: Wharves Supplemental landings Mechanical handling facilities Harbor craft Storage and utilities Clearance: Rail Road Inland waterway Shipyards Remarks Section 5. Naval Facilities General analysis of naval establishment covering size, adequacy, and organization into districts or com- mands and distribution and overall condition of vari- ous activities. A. Coastal naval facilities Tabulate significant characteristics of naval activi- ties using standard table with following headings: Location Type of activity and mission Facilities Cross-reference to SECTIONS 2 and 3 for detailed des- cription of activities. B. Inland naval facilities 1. NAME OF PLACE (COORDINATES) NOTE From this point, this outline guide is identical with items a, b, c, d, and e, of 11. Naval Facilities, SEC- TION 2. If facilities are small and of relatively little importance they may be tabulated in the same fashion as coastal naval facilities in Subsection 5, A. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 1.1.41111REMNfthir NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Section 6. Shipyards General analysis of shipyards of area covering extent and distribution of shipyard facilities, capability and size of yards, and predominance of shipbuilding or ship-repairing facilities. Cross-reference to Subsection 64, E for discussion of economic aspects of shipbuilding and ship-repairing industry. A. Coastal shipyards 1. CATEGORY I AND II SHIPYARDS Tabulate significant characteristics of each yard using standard table with the following headings: Name Shipbuilding installations: Shipbuilding ways Shipbuilding docks Shipbuilding sites Drydocking installations: Graving docks PAGE 8 Floating drydocks Marine railways Fitting-out and repair berths Shops Cranes Utilities Labor 2. CATEGORY III SHIPYARDS Tabulate significant characteristics of each yard using standard table with the following headings: Port (coordinates) Name and location in port Activities and facilities B. Inland shipyards Tabulate Category I and II Shipyards in same man- ner as Category I and II Coastal Shipyards. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER III mIllimummommmm Section 35. Ports and Naval Facilities (When there is no Supplement I) A. General 1. PORTS Comprehensive evaluative discussion covering: Geography of area as it relates to the establish- ment of ports. Brief history of growth and development of port system. Areal distribution and grouping of ports as de- termined by geographical, historical, eco- nomic, and strategic factors. Comparative analysis of ports, either by area or individually, on basis of commercial activ- ity, military port capacity, and any other pertinent factors if appropriate or significant. Governmental control and administration when applicable. Categories of ports and brief summary of criteria used in classifying. Cross reference to summary table of principal and secondary ports. Alphabetical list of principal, secondary, and minor ports (with coordinates). Summary table of significant characteristics and facilities of principal and secondary ports using standard table with following headings: NAME (coordinates) HARBOR.: Type Fairway limitations Largest vessel accOmmodated Tides Ice BERTIIS: Anchorage Mooring: Fixed Free-swinging Alongside MECHANICAL HANDLING FACILITIES: Shore cranes Floating cranes Special handling equipmen t STORAGE CAPACITY: General cargo Bulk liquid storage Bulk dry storage Open stacking space CLEARANCE: Rail Road Other if applicable ESTIMATED MILITARY PORT CAPACITY NAVAL ACTIVITY SHIPYARDS REMARKS 2. NAVAL FACILITIES General analysis covering: Size, condition, and adequacy of naval estab- lishment. Brief summary of organization into naval dis- tricts and commands. Alphabetical list of naval facilities (with coordi- nates). 3. SHIPYARDS General analysis covering: Extent and distribution of shipyard facilities. Capability and size of yards. Predominance of shipbuilding or ship-repairing facilities. Cross reference to Subsection 64, E for discus- sion of economic aspects of shipbuilding and ship-repairing industry. Alphabetical list of category I and IT shipyards (with coordinates). ' Alphabetical list of locations (with coordinates) having facilities with capabilities less than those of category II shipyards but engaged in or capable of ship construction and/or ship repair. 4. TECHNICAL NOTES From this point on, this Subsection outline guide is identical with Subsections C, D, El, and 17, of Section 1. Intro- duction of Supplement I. However, heading designations are dropped two levels, e.g., C. Berth-classifi,cation standards becomes a. Berth-classification standards. B. Principal ports 1. NAME OF PORT (Coordinates, H.O. Chart No.) From this point on, Subsection outline guide is identical with Sections 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of Supplement I except that head- ing designations are dropped one level, e.g., Section 3, Second- ary Porte becomes C. Secondary Ports, and the final Subsec- tion is Comments on Principal Sources. Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 0 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 "Migliftionur NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS X. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. A. General JULY 1957 To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 36. Merchant Marine Give a brief summary of the merchant marine of the country including: number of ships involved, ownership, normal trade, place in the economy, general policy, and adaptability for military use. B. Organization 1. OWNERSHIP (government or private; if pri- vate, include beneficial ownership). 2. ADMINISTRATION 3. NATIONAL POLICY To include subsidies, regulation, and international relations of the merchant marine. 4. FOREIGN INTERESTS 5. PERSONNEL AND TRAINING C. Composition Number of ships by type, (1,000 gross tons and up) . Name, speed, tonnage (GRT and DWT), size (length, beam, and draft), type of power, type of fuel used, daily fuel consumption, origin, year built, passenger accommodations, crew strength, and special equip- ment. Any special modifications or readily adaptable com- bat features, i.e., gun emplacements. Detail to include an analysis of the fuel, speed, ton- nage, and age groupings and any conclusions drawn therefrom. A discussion of the availability of fuel, and of the number and tonnage of the vessels from 500 to 1,000 gross tons. D. Shipping program 1. CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM a. FUNDS APPROPRIATED b. SCHEDULE BY TYPES AND NUMBER PAGE 10 C. SHIPYARD LOCATIONS d. AVERAGE NUMBER OF SHIPYARD WORKERS e. CAPACITY OF SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY f. KEELS LAID -- Details for approximately one year together with long time general trends. g. LAUNCHINGS (same explanation as f). h. DELIVERIES (same explanation as f). 2. PURCHASE OR SALE OF VESSELS List number and countries from and to which vessels were sold, and new and former names for last year. 3. CHARTERING OF VESSELS List number and countries from and to which vessels were chartered for past year together with any signifi- cant trends, either long time or recent. E. Normal shipping routes and ports of call F. Operations and traffic Discuss generally the place of the merchant marine in the economy of the nation including such items as invisible income, exchange earned, percentage of population dependent, and other related matters. G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the information contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER III Section 37. Civil Air A. General A resume of the salient characteristics of the domestic and international civil aviation operation with reference to its magnitude and adequacy in serving the air transportation needs of the nation, and the factors affecting civil air, such as the geography of the area, and effectiveness of other transportation media; number of civil or paramilitary aircraft; number of major aircraft by types; total persons engaged in civil or paramilitary aviation; and the number of key individuals, such as pilots and technicians. An evaluation of civil air capability for augmenting military air strength; current trends, such as expansion programs, reequipment and development programs, pending changes on a national basis, proposed changes in subsidy and organization and some statistics or estimates to depict the relative regional or international position. B. Governmental organization, control and policy 1. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF CIVIL AIR a. CONTROLLING AGENCY ? Description of agency responsible for civil aviation, including the composition and functions of controlling agencies and their relation- ship to other government agencies, particularly the military, supplemented with organizational charts showing channels of authority, administration, opera- tions and coordination. Evaluation of the organiza- tion, citing strengths and weaknesses, noting dissident or other elements exerting influence or control. Eval- uation of government policies which may have con- tributed to the operational capabilities and effective- ness of civil aviation. b. LAWS AND REGULATIONS ? Summarization Of the basic laws governing civil aviation, including laws providing for governmental control, those establishing controlling agencies, and the general aviation regula- tions pertaining to registry of aircraft, airworthiness certificates, licensing, certification, and other general subjects, including any data on unusual restrictions applicable to foreign or other aircraft operating within the nation. 2. GOVERNMENTAL POLICY AND SUPPORT FOR CIVIL AVIATION a. OWNERSHIP ? The pattern of ownership favored by the government for civil air enterprises. The extent to which federal and municipal govern- ments and private companies or individuals participate .forialiardiam. in the national enterprise. The degree of foreign participation in national organizations, and the degree of investment in foreign civil aviation by national civil air enterprises. b. PRIVATE OR OTHER AIR ENTERPRISE ? Dis- cussion of government policies concerning private and public ownership, control and operation of domestic scheduled air carriers, nonscheduled carriers and charter operators; the government attitude toward scheduled and nonscheduled air carriers of foreign nations, private flying, aeroclubs and schools. c. SUBSIDIES ? Description of financial aid by the government, covering the nature, extent and purpose of support given to carriers, aeroclubs, and schools; the method of application of such aid; the national civil aviation budgets; governmental aid, other than direct financial support, for air facilities, navigational aids, and meteorological services, includ- ing names of agencies supplying this aid; and the attitude of the government toward financial support of civil aviation by foreign governments or individuals. C. Civil and paramilitary air enterprises 1. SCHEDULED AIR CARRIERS A discussion of each carrier offering scheduled air services; the full corporate name and the short or popular name by which the carrier is known; and its main bases of operation. Other salient points for discussion are: a. OWNERSHIP, CAPITALIZATION, ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL ? Listing of the persons or organizations participating in ownership; the total capitalization and the percentage held by each participant, with comments on any political or economic significance attached to this participation. Evaluation of combinations forming control of the carrier and its operational organization. Tables of organization. Description of any participa- tion by the carrier in other enterprises or activities, financial or otherwise, foreign or domestic. Evaluation of any contractual arrangements for financial, man- agerial, operational, or other assistance from other enterprises or governments, foreign or domestic. b. OPERATIONS (1) Air services ? Description of scheduled serv- ices. Tabulation of terminals and intermediate points served, and frequencies of each service. Illustration of domestic and interbloc or international air route network on a map. Description of the carrier's ad- herence to published schedules, effectiveness of opera- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Imililliiiimeimmumnsmum NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 tions and any nonscheduled operations or other flight activities. (2) Operational statistics, scheduled air car- riers ? Listing of the most recent operational statistics to indicate the scope of operations; utilization rates of selected aircraft; accident rates; passengers carried; route-miles flown; serviceability rates; ton-miles of cargo and mail, and other pertinent data. (3) Aircraft ? Description of numbers and types of aircraft owned by air carriers and the number normally operational; numbers and types of aircraft on order and estimated dates of delivery; leased or borrowed aircraft with numbers, types and ownership; and leasing or lending of the carrier's aircraft. (4) Maintenance ? Description of maintenance and overhaul facilities and capabilities, with comment on availability of its maintenance facilities to others. If the carrier does not perform its own maintenance, shows where and by whom the work is done. (5) Personnel Tabulation of employees in each major category, showing total number of em- ployees. Discussion of the efficiency of personnel in the various categories; training of employees and nonemployees; pensions, pay and flight hours, and a listing of foreign national employees by category. c. HISTORY Narration of the most significant factors in the founding and development of the carrier and its relative national and international importance. 2. MISCELLANEOUS DOMESTIC NONSCIIED- ULED AIR CARRIERS AND SERVICES A discussion of each air service operator engaged in irregular or nonscheduled operations; charter, passenger or cargo services, aerial spraying, aerial advertising, ambulance services and aerial photographic surveys, including the following tabular description: Legal name. Short or popular name. Headquarters. Type(s) of service. Numbers and types of aircraft owned. Numbers and types of employees, including a listing of foreign nationals. 3. GOVERNMENT, PARAMILITARY, AND PRIVATE OPERATORS A listing of government agencies and other enter- prises owning civil aircraft; type of agency, business or organization; numbers and types of aircraft used; purpose of use; number and types of air and ground crewmen employed; numbers and types of aircraft owned by individuals and used for noncommercial purposes; and names of individuals owning significant numbers of private aircraft or major transport types. PAGE 12 4. PERFORMANCE, GENERAL CHARACTER- ISTICS, AND CAPABILITY OF SELECTED TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Designation by name, manufacturer, and model number of the transports mentioned in the Section, including performance and characteristics such as cruising and maximum speeds, range, gross weight, passenger seats, cargo loads for basic type missions; engine types (jet, piston, turboprop); engine models. 5. SELECTED NATIONAL OPERATIONAL STATISTICS Inclusion of operational statistics indicating the scope and effectiveness of civil aviation, with emphasis on the total of all air carrier operations. Includes total passengers; tons of cargo and mail; passenger-miles; cargo-mail-ton miles; representative load factors; ac- cident rates and safety records; unduplicated route- miles; budget figures and items from annual reports and financial statements; examples of typical fare rates; and other available data. D. International relations and operations 1. AGREEMENTS AND ARRANGEMENTS Evaluation of international air transport agreements and all other arrangements that sanction international scheduled air sorvices to and from the nation; including formal, informal, provisional or other arrangements, with the type, effective date, duration and major provisions of each. Analysis of the agreements in terms of their purpose, significance and effect. This is also applicable to negotiations with other nations for formal, informal, provisional, or other agreements or arrangements 2. FOREIGN AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS A listing of foreign scheduled air carriers conducting services into or through the nation, including company names, nationalities, routes, and frequency of services. Tabulation of such services showing terminal points, points served in the country and frequency of flights. A map may be used to depict the international services. Note important foreign irregular or semischeduled air carriers that afford frequent or significant service to the nation. 3. FOREIGN AID AND INFLUENCE Description of any significant aid furnished to the nation's civil aviation by foreign states, organizations, or individuals, including an assessment of the scope, value, and effectiveness of any foreign aid program. Evaluation of any significant direct or indirect in- fluence on any phase of the national civil aviation effort by foreign countries, organizations, or individuals, giving source, nature and extent of this influence. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAP TEI? III 6.1111111minglim Section 37. Civil Air A. General Overall discussion of civil aviation within and re- lated to the subject nation, summarizing detailed information of all topics, and generally in topical sequence, appearing in subsequent paragraphs and including ? 1. DOMESTIC STATUS Give a resumo of the development and present characteristics of the national civil aviation effort, with particular reference to its adequacy and effective- ness in serving the transportation needs of the nation and its capability for augmenting the military air strength. State the total number of aircraft and avia- tion personnel engaged in civil aviation, showing the aircraft by types, and the personnel by category of employment. 2. INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS Outline briefly the position occupied by the nation in world air transportation activities, with emphasis on any important geographic relation to world air routes, and/or any significant international civil avia- tion affiliations. 3. OTHER GENERAL TOPICS Other information which affects or applies to civil air but which is not appropriate to any of the main subsections. B. Government control and policy 11 ADMINISTRATION a. LAWS AND REGULATIONS ? Summarize the basic law or laws governing civil aviation and discuss briefly any significant provisions. Itemize any general regu- lations which may have been adopted (i.e., those per- taining to the registry of aircraft, the issuance oCair-. worthiness certificates, the licensing of aviation per- sonnel, the certification of airline companies, or other general subjects). If air corridors have been prescribed for use by foreign and/or national air carriers, give a brief discussion and supplement the text with a map on which the corridors are depicted. Indicate any further special controls applicable to foreign aircraft operating inside the nation. b. CONTROLLING AGENCY ? Designate the govern- ment agency. (ministry, department or bureau) charged with civil aviation and outline the functional organiza- tion of the agency. Discuss briefly the effectiveness of the organization, citing salient points of strength or weakness. Supplement the text with an organization chart reflecting the channels of authority. 2. SUPPORT a. OWNERSHIP ? Discuss briefly the pattern of ownership favored by the government for national civil air enterprises, indicating the extent to which the fed- eral and municipal governments, and/or private enter- prises are permitted to participate. The degree of foreign participation, if foreign investment is author- ized, is specified. The extent to which national civil air enterprises are permitted to invest in foreign aviation enterprises likewise is specified. b. SUBSIDIES ? Describe any financial aid ren- dered civil aviation by the government, to include both direct and indirect subsidies, indicating the method, extent and purpose of such aid. 3. TRENDS If applicable, state whether the policies adopted by the government have fostered the operational capabili- ties and effectiveness of civil aviation, referring briefly to any future developments indicated. C. International relations 1. AFFILIATIONS Designate the international civil aviation conven- tions to which the nation is signatory, and the inter- national civil aviation organizations of which the nation is a member. Where appropriate, describe briefly the position taken by the government in regard to civil air policies of other nations (such as the U.S.- U.K. air policy). 2. AIR AGREEMENTS a. FORMAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENTS ? List all formal air transport agreements and any interim agreements (or tacit understandings) contracted by the nation, and outline significant provisions. Discuss any important departure from the U.S.-sponsored standard form of agreement. b. FOREIGN AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS ? Indicate the foreign scheduled air carriers conducting services into the subject nation under the agreements, supple- menting the text where feasible with a map depicting the services. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE...1i Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 saimuleisiiman NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS 3. FOREIGN INFLUENCE Discuss briefly any significant influence exerted on the national civil aviation effort by foreign nations, organizations or individuals. The discussion includes details of any specific foreign aid programs, such as the U.S. Economic Cooperation Administration as it relates to civil aviation. Any Communist influence is specified. D. Civil air enterprises 1. SCHEDULED AIR CARRIERS a. HISTORY Sketch briefly the history of each national scheduled air .carrier, indicating the relative importance of the enterprises. b. OWNERSHIP List the interests having finan- cial investment in each carrier, showing percentage participation, and commenting briefly on any foreign participants. Specify any investment by the na- tional air carriers in foreign aviation enterprises. C. ORGANIZATION ? Discuss briefly the organi- zational setup of the carriers, including management and operations, and supplement the text with organi- zation charts where appropriate. d. OPERATIONAL STRENGTH Tabulate for each airline company: Name and headquarters Capitalization (in U.S. dollar equivalent) Operating base or bases Number and type aircraft (operational and non-operational) by base of operations Number and nationality of personnel (flight, ground, other) by base of operations C. SCHEDULED AIR SERVICES ? Discuss briefly the scope of the air services conducted by each carrier (domestic and international). Show the services cur- rently in operation on a route map, and itemize the services on a table showing route terminals, ports of call, and number of flights per week. Note any significant charter-type services performed by these carriers. 1. AIR CARRIER PERFORMANCE ? Indicate the gen- eral effectiveness of the carriers in providing trans- portation and comment briefly on such factors as ade- quacy and proficiency of personnel, utilization rate, accident rate, and adherence to schedules. Summa- rize any expansion or retrenchment programs. 2. MISCELLANEOUS AIR CARRIERS Comment briefly on the activities of non-scheduled air carriers, charter, taxi, ambulance, crop dusting or other special air services. If the activities are of suf- ficient importance, present comparable data for the special carrier as is presented for the scheduled car- rier companies. Otherwise, show in tabular form: Name and headquarters Type of activity PAGE 12 JULY 1957 Number and type aircraft (operational and non-operational) Number and nationality of personnel (by category of em- ployment) 3. GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE OPERA- TORS List the government agencies, individuals and/or private business enterprises (other than scheduled or miscellaneous air carriers) owning civil transport aircraft, showing the number and type of aircraft owned by each, the number and employment of avia- tion personnel, and the purpose for which the aircraft are utilized. E. Civil aviation training 1. PREPARATORY Describe the attitude of the government toward fos- tering civil aviation schools and clubs and/or other pri- vate flying activities indicating whether sports flying or premilitary training is the primary objective. Dis- cuss the extent to which these activities are supplying the military air arm with trained or partially trained personnel. a. AVIATION SCHOOLS Give name and location of all civil aviation schools, citing whether owned and operated by the government or by private inter- ests. Include a brief r?m?f the curriculum, the instructor staff, the student body, the aircraft or glider strength, other related school facilities and equipment, and general effectiveness of the schools. b. AERO CLUBS -- List all aero clubs, giving lo- cation and ownership. Indicate membership, aircraft, or glider strength, related equipment, and general effectiveness of the clubs. C. OTHER ? List and cite use of training type aircraft and related equipment other than in military use owned by the government or private interests (other than schools or clubs). 2. AIR CREW AND GROUND PERSONNEL Describe all training activities carried out by th.e national scheduled, miscellaneous or other air opera- tors. Give details of training programs under which nationals are provided aviation training in foreign states. F. Services and supplies 1. MAINTENANCE INSTALLATIONS Discuss briefly the maintenance installations owned and operated by the government, the air operators and/or other activities showing location, type of main- tenance, standards of performance and adequacy and proficiency of maintenance personnel. Give an over- all estimate of maintenance capabilities. If perti- nent, indicate maintenance arrangements with foreign nations and/or agencies. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER III 4. AFFILIATIONS Discussion of all governmental affiliations with civil aviation and paramilitary organizations. Listing of the international civil aviation or para- military organizations of which the nation is a member and the conventions to which the nation is signatory, including adherence to, or participation in, any signifi- cant policies or postures adopted by other nations. Description of civil air missions to other countries, their number, countries to which sent, number of mem- bers, and the organization, functions and purpose of each mission. E. Mobilization potential 1. MOBILIZATION POTENTIAL AND PLANS General assessment of the civil aviation potential to augment the armed forces in an emergency, and the methods by which it could be realized, including proposals or actual systems for mobilization of civil aviation for military or other emergency use. Description of the mobilization plan. 2. AIRCRAFT POTENTIAL AND AVAIL- ABILITY Recapitulation from other Subsections, including the total civil aircraft strength, and totals for each general type of aircraft, number of engines for each type, identifying jet or turboprop types, and the normal civil passenger capacity. Indicates any significant numbers of aircraft that are out of service for reasons other than normal maintenance and overhaul. 3. PERSONNEL STRENGTH AND READINESS Recapitulation from other Subsections of the total of civil or paramilitary pilots and other aircrew; a breakdown of ground personnel by occupation; and the percentage of foreign nationals. Estimate of the percentage of nationals in each category who are members of the reserve forces of the nation. F. Civil and paramilitary aviation training Description of government policy toward sub- sidizing or fostering civil and paramilitary aviation, schools, clubs and other aviation training activities, indicating whether sports flying or premilitary training is a primary objective. Evaluation of the extent and effectiveness of programs that supply military aviation with trained or partially trained men and women. 1. AVIATION SCHOOLS Tabulation or textual description of civil and paramilitary aviation schools by name and location, citing whether owned or sponsored by the government or by other organizations. Includes curriculum, its suitability for primary or basic military training; aircraft owned or operated by each school and related UONFIDENti school facilities; size and competence of instructional staff; size of student body; annual training totals; general effectiveness of the schools; the governmental subsidy; and types of aviation licenses awarded to graduates. 2. AEROCLUBS A listing of all aeroclubs, locating the significant ones. Description of membership, club activities; numbers and types of aircraft owned or used by the clubs, and related equipment and facilities; and the annual training totals by category. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the clubs as a group. Description of support of clubs by significant individuals, organizations, or groups; outline of typical courses; student subsidization; type licenses awarded members; and the degree of flying performed annually by the average member. 3. OTHER Description of any other civil air training provided to nationals, including foreign aid programs providing ground, technical or flying training in the country or abroad, and numbers and categories of persons trained. 4. AIRCREW, GROUND, AND OTHER LICENSES ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT Discussion of types of aircrew and ground licenses issued, and requirements for issuance and maintenance. G. Civil air facilities 1. AIRFIELDS A listing of the total number of airfields and seaplane stations, showing those utilized by civil air organiza- tions. Describes the capability of air facilities to meet air traffic needs, and the significance of the airfield distribution pattern. Tabulation of all significant civil air facilities; principal international airports and airports of entry, designating agencies that provide and maintain airfields for civil aviation. Description of plans for major improvements of the civil airfield systems and air facilities, and a listing of any civil air- fields operated by foreign agencies or powers. Evaluation of each principal airfield in terms of its capacity for cargo aircraft and its capability for handling logistics pertinent to ground and paratroop operations. Depiction of selected civil airfields on a map. 2. OPERATIONAL AIDS a. AIDS TO NAVIGATION -- A listing of the agencies that provide, operate, and maintain the operational aids to air navigation for civil aircraft, with a descrip- tion of the types of aids in service, and their adequacy for air safety and modern flight control. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 13 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 attimititiaiima NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 b. AIRWAYS ? Description of major programs for improvement of airways, using a map to show important airways or corridors and selected navigational aids. C. METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES ? Description of meteorological services and assessment of their adequacy, and the name of the agency furnishing air weather information. H. Services and supplies 1. MAINTENANCE INSTALLATIONS Evaluation of overall maintenance and overhaul facilities available to civil aircraft operators including: names of enterprises; their location and ownership; types of maintenance, repair, and overhaul performed; numbers and types of employees; and any significant number of foreign nationals employed. 2. SOURCES OF SUPPLY a. AIRCRAFT AND SPARE PARTS Listing of the main sources from which aircraft and spare parts are procured and description of any lack of equipment that may affect maintenance capabilities. b. AVIATION PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Extent of self-sufficiency in production of aviation fuels and lubricants; indication of the major foreign sources of supply and evaluation of any special procurement problems or deficiencies in supply. A. General I. Personalities Listing of prominent personalities connected with civil aviation, including officials of the government and airline companies, together with their positions. In- cludes brief biographical sketches of leading personages showing their aviation experience and political affilia- tions. J. Means of identification Description of markings, emblems, and insignia used to identify national civil aircraft and government systems for marking commercial, private, and experi- mental aircraft. Description of uniforms and insignia worn in civil or paramilitary aviation. K. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be ac- corded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 38. Telecommunications Brief history of telecommunications including basic concept and reasons (political, economic, military) for development of telecommunication facilities Overall coverage, adequacy, and capability of facili- ties Relative importance, geographic coverage, and princi- pal function (domestic, international, private) of the main elements of the telecommunication facilities Relative rates of growth and general plans for modernization and expansion of installations and systems Relationship between economy of the area and the telecommunication facilities pattern Domestic potential for production of telecommunica- tion materials Support provided by domestic research and develop- ment Import and export of telecommunication products and raw materials necessary to the manufacture of telecommunication products PAGE 14 Technical education facilities and availability of engineers and skilled technicians B. Administration and control 1. GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Government organization administering and/or oper- ating the national telecommunication facilities, its functions, relationship to national government struc- ture, location of major offices, names of key personnel (include charts necessary to depict the flow of control and the organizational elements) Unusual government telecommunication regulations and policies Censorship policy and facilities 2. COMMERCIAL TELECOMMUNICATION ORGANIZATIONS Names, office locations, and operational areas of companies owning and operating commercial and private telecommunication facilities Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 JULY 1957 CHAP? 2. AIRCRAFT AND SPARE PARTS Discuss briefly the origin of aircraft and spare parts, indicating the general condition of aircraft and the adequacy of spare parts stocks. 3. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS State the supply position of civil air activity with respect to aviation gasoline and lubricating oil (with a cross-reference to Subsection 62, C, Petroleum, for details). G. Civil air facilities 1. AIRFIELDS Discuss briefly on a broad rather than a detailed basis the general adequacy of the airfields assigned for civil aviation use. Include a reference to the Air fa- cilities Subsection of SECTION 83, and a general dis- cussion of ancillary facilities such as ground handling and servicing equipment and terminal facilities. Cite joint use of airfields by military and civil aircraft. 2. OPERATIONAL AIDS a. AIDS To NAVIGATION ? Discuss the aids to navigation, equipment used, the operating agency, and reliability of service including a reference to radio fre- quencies of major airports. b. AIRWAYS ? Discuss airways, flight traffic con- trols along airways, and aviation communications fa- cilities between ground stations. Broadly cover traffic control in vicinity of airfields. Airways, where exist- ent, may be schematically shown on a map or chart. C. METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES ? Briefly summa- rize meteorological services to aircraft. d. AVIATION SCHOOLS AND AERO CLUB FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT H. Military potential 1. AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Recapitulate from Subsections D and E above the total civil aircraft strength of the nation, showing totals by types. Estimate for each typo the percent- age normally operational, discussing maintenance, per- : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 'ER III 08.11.111Minim sonnel or other factors upon which the estimate is based. 2. PERSONNEL READINESS Recapitulate from Subsections D and E the total number of pilots and other aviation personnel engaged in civil air activities, showing totals by type of em- ployment. Indicate the air reserve or other personnel with military aviation training in each category. 3. MOBILIZATION PLANS Discuss in detail plans for integrating civil air ac- tivities into the military air arm. I. Means of identification Describe the markings, emblems or insignia used to identify national civil aircraft or to distinguish major individual owners; and uniforms and insignia worn in any phase of the civil aviation effort. Black and white page-sized drawings or photographs with color nota- tions may be utilized. J. Personalities Name the important personalities connected with civil aviation including officials of the government, the airline companies and any other important civil aviation activity, showing the position held by each. Supply a brief biographical sketch, to include aviation experience and political affiliations of the leading per- sonalities. K. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be ac- corded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby pro- vide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 13 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 GINNIINIMIMINNO NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Section 38. Telecommunications A. General Brief history of telecommunications including basic concept and reasons (political, economic, military) for development of telecommunication facilities Overall coverage, adequacy, and capability of facili- ties Relative importance, geographic coverage, and princi- pal function (domestic, international, private) of the main elements of the telecommunication facilities Relative rates of growth and general plans for modernization and expansion of installations and systems Relationship between economy of the area and the telecommunication facilities pattern Domestic potential for production of telecommunica- tion materials Support provided by domestic research and develop- ment Import and export of telecommunication products and raw materials necessary to the manufacture of telecommunication products Technical education facilities and availability of engineers and skilled technicians B. Administration and control I. GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Government organization administering and/or oper- ating the national telecommunication facilities, its functions, relationship to national government struc- ture, location of major offices, names of key personnel (include charts necessary to depict the flow of control and the organizational elements) Unusual government telecommunication regulations and policies Censorship policy and facilities 2. COMMERCIAL TELECOMMUNICATION ORGANIZATIONS Names, office locations, and operational areas of companies owning and operating commercial and private telecommunication facilities Organizational or financial relationship to each other or to foreign agencies Names of key personnel, overall number of personnel by skills (engineers, technicians, administrative, etc.), relative efficiency, nationality and numerical adequacy of personnel by company PAGE ? 14 C. Wire communication facilities I. GENERAL Brief synopsis of wire facilities, relationship to each other (telephone, telegraph, submarine cable) Adequacy for national and international service requirements Efficiency and dependability of service as indicated by: traffic capacity vs. traffic loading; speed of service rendered; type, quantity, and condition of equipment Rate of growth of usage and facilities (number of calls, number of telephone sets, number of toll circuits, etc.), presentation to be more graphic than textual Geographic and meteorological conditions affecting the construction, distribution, and operation of wire facilities 2. TELEPHONE a. DOMESTIC FACILITIES ? Discussion of the serv- ice rendered by long-haul toll systems shown on accompanying map: Significance of the patterns of the various networks Analysis of the service rendered by systems Discussion of the local telephone plant facilities Traffic capacities of circuits and exchanges providing local and long-distance service Operating condition of inside and outside plant equipment Microwave relay systems used for telephone service Services offered by special and private networks (utilities, railroads, pipelines, power companies, etc.) Location and storage capacities of storage depots and warehouses b. INTERNATIONAL FACILITIES Present and potential traffic capacities Operating condition of lines and equipment Significance of international transit routes Significance of international border crossing points 3. TELEGRAPH Same typo of coverage as for telephone. If all tele- phone and telegraph systems use joint facilities, Sub- sections 2 and 3 may be combined. 4. INTERNATIONAL SUBMARINE CABLES Discussion of submarine cable network shown on map Analysis of service rendered by cables Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER III Organizational or financial relationship to each other or to foreign agencies Names of key personnel, overall number of personnel by skills (engineers, technicians, administrative, etc.), relative efficiency, nationality and numerical adequacy of personnel by company C. Wire communication facilities 1. GENERAL Brief synopsis of wire facilities, relationship to each other (telephone, telegraph, submarine cable) Adequacy for national and international service requirements Efficiency and dependability of service as indicated by: traffic capacity vs. traffic loading; speed of service rendered; type, quantity, and condition of equipment Rate of growth of usage and facilities (number of calls, number of telephone sets, number of toll circuits, etc.), presentation to be more graphic than textual Geographic and meteorological conditions affecting the construction, distribution, and operation of wire facilities 2. TELEPHONE a. DOMESTIC FACILITIES ? Discussion of the serv- ice rendered by long-haul toll systems shown on accompanying map: Significance of the patterns of the various networks Analysis of the service rendered by systems Discussion of the local telephone plant facilities Traffic capacities of circuits and exchanges providing local and long-distance service Operating condition of inside and outside plant equipment Microwave relay systems used for telephone service Services offered by special and private networks (utilities, railroads, pipelines, power companies, etc.) Location and storage capacities of storage depots and warehouses b. INTERNATIONAL FACILITIES Present and potential traffic capacities Operating condition of lines and equipment Significance of international transit routes Significance of international border crossing points 3. TELEGRAPH Same type of coverage as for telephone. If all tele- phone and telegraph systems use joint facilities, Sub- sections 2 and 3 may be combined. 4. INTERNATIONAL SUBMARINE CABLES Discussion of submarine cable network shown on map Analysis of service rendered by cables 11.111.1411L.Plikimm Present and potential traffic capacities, number of circuits, types and condition of terminal equipment Cable landing huts and terminals D. Radio communication facilities 1. GENERAL Principal networks and stations (include maps) Type, adequacy, and efficiency of service as indicated by: traffic capacity vs. traffic loading; speed of service rendered; type, quantity, and condition of equipment Call letter blocks, station designations, and codes used Spectrum use (frequency block assignments and usage) Availability of engineers and skilled technicians Location, content, and storage capacities of ware- houses Significance of amateur operator and station potential Geographical, meteorological, and propagation fac- tors affecting the construction or operation of radio facilities 2. DOMESTIC RADIO Analysis of service rendered by stations and networks Capability to accommodate centers of population and geographic areas Rate of growth of usage and facilities (number of messages, number of circuits, etc.), presentation to be more graphic than textual Operational condition of equipment Primary power sources Safety and special radio services (public safety, land transportation, industrial, marine, aeronautical ground facilities) 3. INTERNATIONAL RADIO Location of control, transmitting, and receiving facilities Analysis of service rendered Adequacy, efficiency, and dependability of service Number of international circuits by type of circuit Present and potential traffic loading and capacity Operating condition of equipment Primary power sources E. Broadcast facilities 1. GENERAL Types of broadcasting systems in use (indicate on map) Relative sizes of networks and rate of growth Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 15 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 11/4,01.1.11-11.A NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 2. DOMESTIC RADIO BROADCAST (IN- CLUDES AM, FM, TV) a. PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES - Present and potential national coverage; approximate service areas of stations and networks Rate of growth (number of stations, number hours of operation, total radiated power, average radiated power, etc.) Analysis of service rendered by stations and networks Spectrum use Operating condition and quality of equipment Adequacy, efficiency, and dependability of service Primary power sources b. RECEPTION FACILITIES Number, type, and distribution of receivers Spectrum coverage Rate of growth Listening habits of population 3. WIRE PROGRAM DISSEMINATION Size and distribution of wire broadcast networks Types of transmission and reception equipment Number of individual receivers and community re- ceivers Rate of growth of service Types of programs and program material 4. INTERNATIONAL RADIO BROADCAST Program transmission facilities Present and potential world coverage Rate of growth Analysis of service rendered Spectrum use Operating condition and quality of equipment Interconnection and operating agreements with other nations Adequacy, efficiency, and dependability of service Primary power sources Major aspects of monitoring, jamming, clandestine operation, and Voice of America relay stations (when applicable) PAGE 16 F. Integration of facilities Integration of telecommunication facilities within the nation including wire-to-wire, wire-to-radio, etc. Integration of major domestic circuits with important international arterial circuits, both internal and ex- ternal Importance of international circuits, gateways, and interchange points with the nation G. Military appreciation and vulnerability 1. MILITARY USE OF FACILITIES National policy concerning use of telecommunication facilities by the military in peace and war Reserve capacity available for military use Capacity available by confiscation; policy on con- fiscation Adaptability of systems and facilities to military use Relation of communication arteries to historic mili- tary routes 2. VULNERABILITY OF FACILITIES Physical and electrical features which contribute to vulnerability or lack of vulnerability including critical aspects of power and emergency power sources, and aspects especially susceptible to damage by sabotage Potential bottlenecks ? points of heavy traffic hav- ing minimum rerouting potential in event service is disrupted Susceptibility of radio facilities to electronic warfare H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source ma- terial used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 JULY 1957 CHAP Present and potential traffic capacities, number of circuits,- types and condition of terminal equipment Cable landing huts and terminals D. Radio communication facilities 1. GENERAL Principal networks and stations (include maps) Type, adequacy, and efficiency of service as indicated by: traffic capacity vs. traffic loading; speed of service rendered; type, quantity, and condition of equipment Call letter blocks, station designations, and codes used Spectrum use (frequency block assignments and usage) Availability of engineers and skilled technicians Location, content, and storage capacities of ware- houses Significance of amateur operator and station potential Geographical, meteorological, and propagation fac- tors affecting the construction or operation of radio facilities 2. DOMESTIC RADIO Analysis of service rendered by stations and networks Capability to accommodate centers of population and geographic areas Rate of growth of usage and facilities (number of messages, number of circuits, etc.), presentation to be more graphic than textual Operational condition of equipment Primary power sources Safety and special radio services (public safety, land transportation, industrial, marine, aeronautical ground facilities) 3. INTERNATIONAL RADIO Location of control, transmitting, and receiving facilities Analysis of service rendered Adequacy, efficiency, and dependability of service Number of international circuits by type of circuit Present and potential traffic loading and capacity Operating condition of equipment Primary power sources E. Broadcast facilities 1. GENERAL Types of broadcasting systems in use (indicate on map) Relative sizes of networks and rate of growth : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 TER III 2. DOMESTIC RADIO BROADCAST (IN- CLUDES AM, FM, TV) .a. PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES ? Present and potential national coverage; approximate service areas of stations and networks Rate of growth (number of stations, number hours of operation, total radiated power, average radiated power, etc.) Analysis of service rendered by stations and networks Spectrum use Operating condition and quality of equipment Adequacy, efficiency, and dependability of service Primary power sources b. RECEPTION FACILITIES Number, type, and distribution of receivers Spectrum coverage Rate of growth Listening habits of population 3. WIRE PROGRAM DISSEMINATION Size and distribution of wire broadcast networks Types of transmission and reception equipment Number of individual receivers and community re- ceivers Rate of growth of service Types of programs and program material 4. INTERNATIONAL RADIO BROADCAST Program transmission facilities Present and potential world coverage Rate of growth Analysis of service rendered Spectrum use Operating condition and quality of equipment Interconnection and operating agreements with other nations Adequacy, efficiency, and dependability of service Primary power sources Major aspects of monitoring, jamming, clandestine operation, and Voice of America relay stations (when applicable) F. Integration of facilities Integration of telecommunication facilities within the nation including wire-to-wire, wire-to-radio, etc. Integration of major domestic circuits with important international arterial circuits, both internal and ex- ternal Importance of international circuits, gateways, and interchange points with the nation Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE :15 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 milimmoompinimm NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 G. Military appreciation and vulnerability 1. MILITARY USE OF FACILITIES National policy concerning use of telecommunication facilities by the military in peace and war Reserve capacity available for military use Capacity available by confiscation; policy on con- fiscation Adaptability of systems and facilities to military use Relation of communication arteries to historic mili- tary routes 2. VULNERABILITY OF FACILITIES Physical and electrical features which contribute to vulnerability or lack of vulnerability including critical aspects of power and emergency power sources, and aspects especially susceptible to damage by sabotage PAGE 16 Potential bottlenecks ? points of heavy traffic hav- ing minimum rerouting potential in event service is disrupted Susceptibility of radio facilities to electronic warfare H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source ma- terial used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER III G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 35. Ports and Naval Facilities (When there is a Supplement I) A. General 1. PORTS General discussion covering: Geography of area as it relates to the establish- ment of ports. Brief history of growth and development of port system. Areal distribution and grouping of ports as determined by geographical, historical, eco- nomic, and strategic factors. Categories of ports and brief summary of criteria used in classifying. Cross-reference to sum- mary table of principal and secondary ports and index map. Enumeration of principal and secondary ports and brief description of each including rela- tive location, importance, principal charac- teristics and activities, size and character of harbor, port capacity, and port facilities. Governmental control and administration where applicable. Alphabetical list of principal, secondary, and minor ports (with coordinates). Summary table of significant characteristics and facilities of principal and secondary ports using standard table with following column heads: NAME (coordinates) 11ARnoR Type Fairway limitations Largest vessel accommodated Tides Ice BERTHS Anchorage Mooring: Fixed Free-swinging Alongside MECHANICAL HANDLING FACIILITIES Shore cranes Floating cranes Special handling equipment STORAGE CAPACITY General cargo Bulk liquid storage Bulk dry storage CLEARANCE Rail Road Other if applicable ESTIMATED MILITARY PORT CAPACITY NAVAL ACTIVITY SHIPYARDS REMARKS 2. NAVAL FACILITIES General analysis covering: Size, condition, and adequacy of naval establish- ment. Brief summary of organization into naval dis- tricts and commands. Brief description of principal naval bases and summary of secondary bases and other activities; basis on which classified. Alphabetical list of naval facilities (with co- ordinates). Separate coastal and inland facilities by means of headings. 3. SHIPYARDS General analysis covering: Extent and distribution of shipyard facilities. Capability and size of yards. Predominance of shipbuilding or ship-repairing facilities. Cross-reference to Subsection 64, E for discus- sion of economic aspects of shipbuilding and ship-repairing industry. List all shipyards (except inland Category III yards) by place (seaport or inland city), with coastal and inland places under separate heads. Arrange place names alphabetically under each heading and give coordinates of each place. List shipyards by category under name of each place. PA GE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 rimirpikeared For Release 19.9909121 ? CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 1V.IN 'STA/ DAIID INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 B. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. A. General To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 36. Merchant Marine Give a brief summary of the merchant marine of the country including: number of ships involved, ownership, normal trade, place in the economy, general policy, and adaptability for military use. B. Organization 1. OWNERSHIP (government or private; if pri- vate, include beneficial ownership). 2. ADMINISTRATION 3. NATIONAL POLICY To include subsidies, regulation, and international relations of the merchant marine. 4. FOREIGN INTERESTS 5. PERSONNEL AND TRAINING C. Composition Number of ships by type (1,000 gross tons and up). Name, speed, tonnage (GRT and DWT), size (length, beam, and 'draft), type of power, type of fuel used, daily fuel consumption, origin, year built, passenger accommodations, crew strength, and special equip- ment. Any special modifications or readily adaptable com- bat features, i.e., gun emplacements. Detail to include an analysis of the fuel, speed, ton- nage, and age groupings and any conclusions drawn therefrom. A discussion of the availability of fuel, and of the number and tonnage of the vessels from 500 to 1,000 gross tons. D. Shipping program 1. CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM a. FUNDS APPROPRIATED b. SCHEDULE BY TYPES AND NUMBER PAGE 1.0 C. SHIPYARD LOCATIONS d. AVERAGE NUMBER OF SHIPYARD WORKERS C. CAPACITY OF SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY f. KEELS LAID -- Details for approximately one year together with long time general trends. g. LAUNCHINGS (same explanation as f). h. DELIVERIES (same explanation as f). 2. PURCHASE OR SALE OF VESSELS List number and countries from and to which vessels were sold, and new and former.names for last year. 3. CHARTERING OF VESSELS List number and countries from and to which vessels were chartered for past year together with any signifi- cant trends, either long time or recent. E. Normal shipping routes and ports of call F. Operations and traffic Discuss generally the place of the merchant marine in the economy of the nation including such items as invisible income, exchange earned, percentage of population dependent, and other related matters. G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the information contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER III Section 37. Civil Air A. General A resume of the salient characteristics of the domestic and international civil aviation operation with reference to its magnitude and adequacy in serving the air transportation needs of the nation, and the factors affecting civil air, such as the geography of the area, and effectiveness of other transportation media; number of civil or paramilitary aircraft; number of major aircraft by types; total persons engaged in civil or paramilitary aviation; and the number of key individuals, such as pilots and technicians. An evaluation of civil air capability for augmenting military air strength; current trends, such as expansion programs, reequipment and development programs, pending changes on a national basis, proposed changes in subsidy and organization and some statistics or estimates to depict the relative regional or international position. B. Governmental organization, control and policy 1. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF CIVIL AIR a. CONTROLLING AGENCY ? Description of agency responsible for civil aviation, including the composition and functions of controlling agencies and their relation- ship to other government agencies, particularly the military, supplemented with organizational charts showing channels of authority, administration, opera- tions and coordination. Evaluation of the organiza- tion, citing strengths and weaknesses, noting dissident or other elements exerting influence or control. Evalu- ation of government policies which may have con- tributed to the operational capabilities and effective- ness of civil aviation. b. LAWS AND REGULATIONS ? Summarization of the basic laws governing civil aviation, including laws providing for governmental control, those establishing controlling agencies, and the general aviation regula- tions pertaining to registry of aircraft, airworthiness certificates, licensing, certification, and other general subjects, including any data on unusual restrictions applicable to foreign or other aircraft operating within the nation. 2. GOVERNMENTAL POLICY AND SUPPORT FOR CIVIL AVIATION a. OWNERSHIP?The pattern of ownership favored by the government for civil air enterprises. The extent to which federal and municipal govern- ments and private companies or individuals participate in the national enterprise. The degree of foreign participation in national organizations, and the degree of investment in foreign civil aviation by national civil air enterprises. b. PRIVATE OR OTHER AIR ENTERPRISE ? Dis- cussion of government policies concerning private and public ownership, control and operation of domestic scheduled air carriers, nonscheduled carriers and charter operators; the government attitude toward scheduled and nonscheduled air carriers of foreign nations, private flying, aeroclubs and schools. C. SUBSIDIES ? Description of financial aid by the government, covering the nature, extent and purpose of support given to carriers, aeroclubs, and schools; the method of application of such aid; the national civil aviation budgets; governmental aid, other than direct financial support, for air facilities, navigational aids, and meteorological services, includ- ing names of agencies supplying this aid; and the attitude of the government toward financial support of civil aviation by foreign governments or individuals. C. International relations 1. AFFILIATIONS Designate the international civil aviation conven- tions to which the nation is signatory, and the inter- national civil aviation organizations of which the nation is a member. Where appropriate, describe briefly the position taken by the government in regard to civil air policies of other nations (such as the U.S.- U.K. air policy). 2. AIR AGREEMENTS AND ARRANGEMENTS Evaluation of international air transport agreements and all other arrangements that sanction international scheduled air services to and from the nation; including formal, informal, provisional or other arrangements, with the type, effective date, duration and major pro- visions of each. Analysis of the agreements in terms of their purpose, significance and effect. This is also applicable to negotiations with other nations for formal, informal, provisional, or other agreements or arrangements. 3. FOREIGN AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS A listing of foreign scheduled air carriers conducting services into or through the nation, including company names, nationalities, routes, and frequency of services. Tabulation of such services showing terminal points, points served in the country and frequency of flights. PAGE 11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS A map may be used to depict the international services. Note important foreign irregular or semischeduled air carriers that afford frequent or significant service to the nation. 4. FOREIGN AID AND INFLUENCE Description of any significant aid furnished to the nation's civil aviation by foreign states, organizations, or individuals, including an assessment of the scope, value, and effectiveness of any foreign aid program. D. Civil air activities 1. SCHEDULED AIR CARRIERS A discussion of each carrier offering scheduled air- services; the full corporate name and the short or popular name by which the carrier is known; and its main bases of operation. Other salient points for discussion are: a. OWNERSHIP, CAPITALIZATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONTROL ? Listing of the persons or organizations participating in ownership; the total capitalization and the percentage held by each participant, with comments on any political or economic significance attached to this participation. Evaluation of combinations forming control of the carrier and its operational organization. Tables of organization. Description of any participa- tion by the carrier in other enterprises or activities, financial or otherwise, foreign or domestic. Evaluation of any contractual arrangements for financial, man- agerial, operational, or other assistance from other enterprises or governments, foreign or domestic. b. OPERATIONS (1) Air services ? Description of scheduled serv- ices. Tabulation of terminals and intermediate points served, and frequencies of each service. Illustration of domestic and interbloc or international air route network on a map. Description of the carrier's ad- herence to published schedules, effectiveness of opera- tions and any nonscheduled operations or other flight activities. (2) Operational statistics, schejuled air car- riers ? Listing of the most recent operational statistics to indicate the scope of operations; utilization rates of selected aircraft; accident rates; passengers carried; route-miles flown; serviceability rates; ton-miles of cargo and mail, and other pertinent data. (3) Aircraft ? Description of numbers and types of aircraft owned by air carriers and the number normally operational; numbers and types of aircraft on order and estimated dates of delivery; leased or borrowed aircraft with numbers, types and ownership; and leasing or lending of the carrier's aircraft. (4) Maintenance ? Description of maintenance and overhaul facilities and capabilities, with comment on availability of its maintenance facilities to others. If the carrier does not perform its own maintenance, show where and by whom the work is done. PAGE 12 JANUARY 1962 (5) Personnel ? Tabulation of employees in each major category, showing total number of em- ployees. Discussion of the efficiency of personnel in the various categories; training of employees and nonemployees; pensions, pay and flight hours; and a listing of foreign national employees by category. c. HISTORY ? Narration of the most significant factors in the founding and development of the carrier and its relative national and international importance. 2. MISCELLANEOUS AIR SERVICES A discussion of each air service operator engaged in irregular or nonscheduled operations; charter, passenger or cargo services, aerial spraying, aerial advertising, ambulance services and aerial photographic surveys, including the following tabular description: Legal name. Short or popular name. Headquarters. Type(s) of service. Numbers and types of aircraft owned. Numbers and types of employees, including a listing of foreign nationals. 3. GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE OPER- ATORS A listing of government agencies and other enter- prises owning civil aircraft; type of agency, business or organization; numbers and types of aircraft used; purpose of use; number and types of air and ground crewmen employed; numbers and types of aircraft owned by individuals and used for noncommercial purposes; and names of individuals owning significant numbers of private aircraft or major transport types. 4. PERFORMANCE, GENERAL CHARACTER- ISTICS, AND CAPABILITY OF SELECTED TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Designation by name, manufacturer, and model number of the transports mentioned in the Section, including performance and characteristics such as cruising and maximum speeds, range, gross weight, passenger seats, cargo loads for basic type missions; engine types (jet, piston, turboprop); engine models. E. Civil aviation training Description of government policy toward sub- sidizing or fostering civil and paramilitary aviation, schools, clubs and other aviation training activities, indicating whether sports flying or premilitary training is a primary objective. Evaluation of the extent and effectiveness of programs that supply military aviation with trained or partially trained men and women. 1. AVIATION SCHOOLS Tabulation or textual description of civil and paramilitary aviation schools by name and location, citing whether owned or sponsored by the government or by other organizations. Includes curriculum, its suitability for primary or basic military training; kO1N11IJEN I 1AL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER III aircraft owned or operated by each school and related school facilities; size and competence of instructional staff; size of student body; annual training totals; general effectiveness of the school; the governmental subsidy; and types of aviation licenses awarded to graduates. 2. AEROCLUBS A listing of all aeroclubs, locating the significant ones. Description of membership, club activities; numbers and types of aircraft owned or used by the clubs, and related equipment and facilities; and the annual training totals by category. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the clubs as a group. Description of support of clubs by significant individuals, organizations, or groups; outline of typical courses; student subsidization; type licenses awarded members; and the degree of flying performed annually by the average member. 3. OTHER Description of any other civil air training provided to nationals, including foreign aid programs providing ground, technical or flying training in the country or abroad, and numbers and categories of persons trained. F. Services and supplies 1. MAINTENANCE INSTALLATIONS Evaluation of overall maintenance and overhaul facilities available to civil aircraft operators including: names of enterprises; their location and ownership; types of maintenance, repair, and overhaul performed; numbers and types of employees; and any significant number of foreign nationals employed. 2. SOURCES OF SUPPLY a. AIRCRAFT AND SPARE PARTS ? Listing of the main sources from which aircraft and spare parts are procured and description of any lack of equipment that may affect maintenance capabilities. b. AVIATION PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ? Extent of self-sufficiency in production of aviation fuels and lubricants; indication of the major foreign sources of supply and evaluation of any special procurement problems or deficiencies in supply. G. Civil air facilities 1. AIRFIELDS A listing of the total number of airfields and sea- plane stations, showing those open to civil air activities. Describes the capability of air facilities to meet air traffic needs, and the significance of the airfield dis- tribution pattern. Tabulation of all significant civil air facilities; principal international airports and air- ports of entry, designating agencies that provide and maintain airfields for civil aviation. Description of plans for major improvements of the civil airfield systems and air facilities, and a listing of any civil air- fields operated by foreign agencies or powers. Evaluation of each principal airfield in terms of its capacity for cargo aircraft and its capability for handling logistics pertinent to ground and paratroop operations. Depiction of selected civil airfields on a map. 2. OPERATIONAL AIDS a. AIDS TO NAVIGATION ? A listing of the agencies that provide, operate, and maintain the operational aids to air navigation for civil aircraft, with a descrip- tion of the types of aids in service, and their adequacy for air safety and modern flight control. b. AIRWAYS ? Description of major programs for improvement of airways, using a map to show important airways or corridors and selected navigational aids. C. METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES ? Description of meteorological services and assessment of their ade- quacy, and the name of the agency furnishing air weather information. H. Mobilization potential 1. MOBILIZATION POTENTIAL AND PLANS General assessment of the civil aviation potential to augment the armed forces in an emergency, and the methods by which it could be realized, including proposals or actual systems for mobilization of civil aviation for military or other emergency use. Description of the mobilization plan. 2. AIRCRAFT POTENTIAL AND AVAIL- ABILITY Recapitulation from other Subsections, including the total civil aircraft strength, and totals for each general type of aircraft, number of engines for each type, identifying jet or turboprop types, and the normal civil passenger capacity. Indicates any significant numbers of aircraft that are out of service for reasons other than normal maintenance and overhaul. 3. PERSONNEL STRENGTH AND READINESS Recapitulation from other Subsections of the total of civil or paramilitary pilots and other aircrew; a breakdown of ground personnel by occupation; and the percentage of foreign nationals. Estimate of the percentage of nationals in each category who are members of the reserve forces of the nation. PAGE 13 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Como NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS I. Personalities Listing of prominent personalities connected with civil aviation, including officials of the government and airline companies, together with their positions. In- cludes brief biographical sketches of leading personages showing their aviation experience and political affilia- tions. J. Means of identification Description of markings, emblems, and insignia used to identify national civil aircraft and government systems for marking commercial, private, and experi- mental aircraft. A. General JANUARY 1962 Description of uniforms and insignia worn in civil or paramilitary aviation. K. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be ac- corded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 38. Telecommunications Overall summary of present domestic, international, and special systems with an evaluation of their ade- quacy and capability for the major classes of users. Brief history of telecommunications, including basic reasons (political, economic, military, etc.) for develop- ment of telecommunication facilities. Resume of development plans, sources of equipment and material, and supporting research and develop- ment. Brief discussion of unusual meteorological, geograph- ical, or other factors with a significant effect on tele- communications installation and operation. Resume of technical education facilities and avail- ability of engineers and skilled technicians. B. Administration and control 1. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS A description (with organization chart) of govern- ment organization(s) administering and/or operating principal telecommunication systems, their position In the government structure, location of major offices, names of key personnel. Brief discussion of membership and participation in international telecommunications organizations. Summary of regulations for special telecommunica- tion systems and of any unusual policies or procedures regarding technical operations of censorship. 2. COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Brief discussion of any nongovernment or foreign organizations that own and/or operate telecommunica- tion terminals or systems within the country. PAGE 14 C. Domestic systems 1. GENERAL An overall description of domestic telecommunication facilities, including means of transmission, types of service (telephone; regular telegraph; teleprinter; fac- simile; radio and television netting, including tables to show station location, name, frequency, range, and modulation; etc.), special networks, degree of integra- tion between facilities or systems, and amount of traffic handled (graphs or tables). Location and capacity of depots and warehouses. Resume of factors contributing to vulnerability and susceptibility to sabotage, with particular attention to military considerations. 2. PUBLIC INTERCITY NETWORK a. TRANSMISSION FACILITIES A description, supported by maps, charts, tables, and photos, of the facilities and installations (wire lines, cables, radio, repeaters, carrier, or other) that constitute the means of moving telecommunication traffic between cities within the country. Technical features of radio terminals and relays, carrier facilities, and repeaters are covered in this subsection, even though they may be collocated with switching facilities described in the next subsection. b. SWITCHING SYSTEMS AND FACILITIES A description of the system for routing and handling intercity telecommunication traffic and the major technical characteristics of the equipment used, sup- ported by appropriate tabular and graphic material. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER III 3, LOCAL FACILITIES A general description of the subscribers' equipment and distribution and switching facilities that consti- tute the local telecommunication systems of cities, towns, and urban areas of the country. Major technical features of equipment and photos of equipment and typical installations are included. 4. SPECIAL SYSTEMS A brief description of the coverage and function of any special purpose telecommunication facilities or networks in the country. Their degree of dependence on or integration with the public system is described. D. International facilities 1. GENERAL A summary description of the pattern, purpose, arid relative importance of the landline, submarine cable, and radio facilities that provide telecommunications with other countries. Any unusual factors contribut- ing to vulnerability, with particular attention to mili- tary considerations, are mentioned. 2. LANDLI NES A description of the characteristics and traffic han- dling capability of landlines to adjacent countries. Lo- cations normally are shown on the maps associated with paragraph C, 2. 3.- RADIO A description of the location, uses, and capabilities of the radio transmitting, receiving, and control in- stallations for public correspondence with foreign countries. Special purpose and private use facilities are covered only if they constitute a very significant part of the total international telecommunication capability. 4. SUBMARINE CABLES A description of the location, use, and capabilities of submarine cables connecting with other countries. Locations normally are shown on the maps associated with paragraph C, 2. E. Broadcast and television 1. GENERAL A summary description (with map) of the pattern, quality, and effectiveness of the radio and television transmitting and receiving facilities used to entertain, educate, or propagandize the general public of the country. Wired broadcast facilities, if in use, are included. 2. AM AND FM BROADCAST A qualitative and general technical description of the AM and FM transmitter and studio installations in the country. Photos are included when available. Netting arrangements and facilities, if separate from the public intercity system, are described. Types and distribution of receivers are discussed. 3. TELEVISION Same as for AM and FM broadcast, plus a brief of standards. 4. WIRED BROADCAST (WHEN PERTINENT) A general description of the extent and character- istics of any systems using wire lines to interconnect the program sources and remote multiple listeners as for example in entertainment, education, or propa- ganda. F. Comments on principal sources This subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source- material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be ac- corded intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for the collection effort. In this connection, only principal sources actually used are indicated. PAGE 15 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Chapter HI-Transportation and Telecommunications OUTLINE SECTION 30. INTRODUCTION SECTION 31. RAILWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the rail network 1. General 2. Way and structures 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Fuel and water C. Control, organization, and personnel 1. Control 2. Organization 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Equipment 1. General 2. Motive power ? 3. Rolling stock 4. Special equipment F. Selected rail lines G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 32. HIGHWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the highway network 1. General 2. Roadway, structures, and facilities 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Development program C. Control and organization 1. Governmental regulation 2. Principal carriers 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Vehicles and equipment 1. General 2. Motor vehicles 3. Special equipment 4. Other F. Principal routes G. Highway technical data H. Comments on principal sources SECTION 33. INLAND WATERWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the waterway system 1. General 2. Waterway facilities 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Development program C. Control and organization 1. Control 2. Principal carriers 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Craft and equipment F. Individual waterways G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 34. PETROLEUM PIPELINE (Treated in Subsection 62, C and Supplement V) SECTION 35. PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES When there is a Supplement I: A. General 1. Ports 2. Naval facilities 3. Shipyards B. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PACE Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 When there A. B. C. D. E. F. G. is no Supplement I: General 1. Ports 2. Naval facilities 3. Shipyards 4. Technical notes Principal ports Secondary ports Minor ports Naval facilities Shipyards Comments on principal sources SECTION 36. MERCHANT MARINE A. General B. Organization 1. Ownership (government or private; if private, include beneficial owner- ship) 2. Administration 3. National policy 4. Foreign interests 5. Personnel and training C. Composition D. Shipping program 1. Construction program 2. Purchase or sale of vessels 3. Chartering of vessels E. Normal shipping routes and ports of call F. Operations and traffic G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 37, CIVIL AIR A. General PAGE 2 B. Governmental organization, control, and policy 1. Organization and administration of civil air 2. Governmental policy and support for civil aviation C. Civil and paramilitary air enterprises 1. Scheduled air carriers 2. Miscellaneous domestic nonscheduled air carriers and services 3. Government, paramilitary, and private operators 4. Performance, general characteristics, and capability of selected transport aircraft 5. Selected national operational sta- tistics D. International relations and operations 1. Air agreements and arrangements 2. Foreign air carrier operations 3. Foreign aid and influence 4. Affiliations E. Mobilization potential I. Mobilization potential and plans 2. Aircraft potential and availability 3. Personnel strength and readiness F. Civil and paramilitary aviation training 1. Aviation schools 2. Aeroclubs 3. Other 4. Aircrew, ground, and other licenses issued by the government G. Civil air facilities 1. Airfields 2. Operational aids H. Services and supplies 1, Maintenance installation 2. Sources of supply I. Personalities J. Means of identification K. Comments on principal sources SECTION 38. TELECOMMUNICATIONS A. General B. Administration and control 1. Governmental organizations 2. Commercial telecommunication or- ganizations C. Wire communication facilities 1. General 2. Telephone 3. Telegraph 4. International submarine cables D. Radio communication facilities 1. General 2. Domestic radio 3. International radio E. Broadcast facilities 1. General 2. Domestic radio broadcast 3. Wire program dissemination 4. International radio broadcast F. Integration of facilities G. Military appreciation and vulnerability 1. Military use of facilities 2. Vulnerability of facilities H. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Chapter 111-Transportation and Telecommunications OUTLINE SECTION 30. INTRODUCTION SECTION 31. RAILWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the rail network 1. General 2. Way and structures 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Fuel and water C. Control, organization, and personnel 1. Control 2. Organization 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Equipment 1. General 2. Motive power 3. Rolling stock 4. Special equipment F. Selected rail lines G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 32. HIGHWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the highway network 1. General 2. Roadway, structures, and facilities 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Development program C. Control and organization 1. Governmental regulation 2. Principal carriers 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Vehicles and equipment 1. General 2. Motor vehicles 3. Special equipment 4. Other F. Principal routes G. Highway technical data II. Comments on principal sources SECTION 33. INLAND WATERWAY A. General B. Characteristics of the waterway system 1. General 2. Waterway facilities 3. Construction and maintenance 4. Traffic interruption factors 5. Development program C. Control and organization 1. Control 2. Principal carriers 3. Personnel D. Operations 1. Operating factors 2. Traffic 3. Financial data E. Craft and equipment F. Individual waterways G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 34. PETROLEUM PIPELINE (Treated in Subsection 62, (7 and Supplement V) SECTION 35. PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES When there is a Supplement I: A. B. General 1. Ports 2. Naval facilities 3. Shipyards Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS ;flax 1957 When there is no Supplement I: N. General 1. Ports 2. Naval facilities 3. Shipyards 4. Technical notes B. Principal ports C. Secondary ports D. Minor ports E. Naval facilities F. Shipyards G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 36. MERCHANT MARINE A. General B. Organization 1. Ownership (government or private; if private, include beneficial owner- ship) 2. Administration 3. National policy 4. Foreign interests 5. Personnel and training C. Composition D. Shipping program 1. Construction program 2. Purchase or sale of vessels 3. Chartering of vessels E. Normal shipping routes and ports of call F. Operations and traffic G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 37. CIVIL AIR PAGE 2 A. General 1. Domestic status 2. International aspects 3. Other general topics B. Government control and policy 1. Administration 2. Support 3. Trends C. International relations 1. Affiliations 2. Air agreements 3. Foreign influence D. Civil air enterprises 1. Scheduled air carriers 2. Miscellaneous air carriers 3. Government and private operators E. Civil aviation training 1. Preparatory 2. Air crew and ground personnel F. Services and supplies 1. Maintenance installations 2. Aircraft and spare parts 3. Petroleum products G. Civil air facilities 1. Airfields 2. Operational aids H. Military potential 1 Aircraft availability 2. Personnel readiness 3. Mobilization plans I. Means of identification J. Personalities K. Comments on principal sources SECTION 38. TELECOMMUNICATIONS A. General B. Administration and control 1. Governmental organizations 2. Commercial telecommunication or- ganizations C. Wire communication facilities 1. General 2. Telephone 3. Telegraph 4. International submarine cables D. Radio communication facilities 1. General 2. Domestic radio 3. International radio E. Broadcast facilities 1. General 2. Domestic radio broadcast 3. Wire program dissemination 4. International radio broadcast F. Integration of facilities G. Military appreciation and vulnerability 1. Military use of facilities 2. Vulnerability of facilities H. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER .1.11 OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 30. Introduction This Section is an overall appreciation of the trans- portation and telecommunication systems of the coun- try or area under study. It treats those general aspects which are necessary to the proper concept of the subject as a whole and which cannot be treated adequately elsewhere. It is prepared upon completion of the remaining Sections of this Chapter so as to be able to present in a single Section an integrated account of all phases of trans- portation and telecommunications. Material is presented in graphic form vitenever practicable. Section 31. Railway A. General An appreciation of rail transportation in the country, including relationship to other transportation, salient characteristics, physical environmental factors, and economic and logistical significance. B. Characteristics of the rail network 1. GENERAL A discussion of such basic factors as total route mileage by trackage, gage, and ownership; pattern and geographical distribution of the rail lines; density and nature of traffic; connections and interchange with adjacent countries, including any special interchange equipment requirements; general status and condition of the railroads, including repair of war damage and projected development. 2. WAY AND STRUCTURES Characteristics of the fixed facilities and structures, including general conditions affecting the right of way and structures as reflected in grades, curves, and characteristics of structures; general and detailed standards for rail, ties, and ballast, and resultant axle- load limitations; characteristics and comprehensive statistics on bridges, tunnels, and similar track-support- ing and track-sheltering structures; characteristics and statistics on ferries; structural clearance, loading, and equipment diagrams with supporting discussion of standards and practices; characteristics of signal and communications equipment and operations; general features of yards and terminals, with detailed data (including diagrams or plans when available on major yards and terminals); details of the nature and extent of electrification, including characteristics of power supply and installations. 3. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance policy, problems, and procedures, including standards, organization, and availability and quality of materials, equipment, and labor; evaluative discussion of heavy off-track con- struction and maintenance equipment employed. 4. TRAFFIC INTERRUPTION FACTORS A discussion of natural conditions, and of other factors such as congestion points or operational bottle- necks, which cause or might cause interruptions in operations. 5. FUEL AND WATER A general survey of fuel and water supply, including such factors as characteristics and availability, treat- ment required, and any special factors such as reliance on foreign source of fuel supply. C. Control, organization, and personnel 1. CONTROL The development and present status of control and ownership, and the nature and extent of governmental control and regulation. PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 2. ORGANIZATION NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Operational organization and administrative struc- ture, supported as appropriate by selected organiza- tional charts and diagrams. 3. PERSONNEL A discussion of the number and allocation of em- ployees, the general level of competency: training, labor relations, and such aspects as pay rates and health and retirement provisions. D. Operations 1. OPERATING FACTORS Routine operating regulations and practices, in- cluding train control; significant operating statistics, with evaluative comment; significant or unusual operating problems and practices. 2. TRAFFIC A. discussion of traffic conditions and trends, includ- ing pattern of traffic and relative importance of freight and passenger traffic; principal commodities carried and any significant regional characteristics; selective statistics for representative years on such factors as freight tons, freight ton-miles, and other applicable indicators of traffic volume and handling. 3. FINANCIAL DATA A discussion of the financial position of the railroad or railroads, including corporate or governmental budget data, and significant statistics on incomes, ex- penses, and general financial characteristics. E. Equipment 1. GENERAL An overall quantitative and qualitative survey of the adequacy of existing equipment, domestic and foreign sources of equipment, shops and repair facilities, and interchangeability and other characteristics of equipment. 2. MOTIVE POWER Predominant types (including tabulated basic charac- teristics and inventory of each type of locomotive), PAGE 4 general condition of locomotives, and nature and source of supply. 3. ROLLING STOCK Predominant types, general condition, and sources of supply of freight and passenger rolling stock, with tabulation of basic characteristics and inventory of each type. 4. SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Types, characteristics, and inventories of all special equipment (including equipment discussed under Con- struction and Maintenance). F. Selected rail lines A selection and analysis of the selected lines of major importance for both economic and logistics purposes, followed by a summary of the characteristics and significance of each selected line in terms of the follow- ing factors: Terminals, mileage, gages, and types of power; economic and strategic importance; nature and volume of traffic; brief geographic description of route; important and/or unusual structures; rail, ties, ballast, etc., as used on the line; axleload limit on line between all major junctions; ruling grades both directions be- tween all major junctions; minimum radii of curves between all major junctions; maximum distance between passing sidings; minimum length of passing sidings; number and total length of bridges and tunnels; tabulation of remaining facilities such as: yards, enginehouses, Fueling and watering facilities, other facilities. G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER III Section 32. Highway A. General An appreciation of highway transportation in the country, including relationship to other transportation, salient characteristics, physical environmental factors, significant historical developments, bottlenecks, and economic and logistical significance. B. Characteristics of the highway network 1. GENERAL A discussion of such factors as total highway mileage by classification, indicating correlation between surface types and administrative classification; pattern and geographic distribution; connections with adjacent countries, numbering and marking system; density and nature of traffic; present status and general condi- tion of the network, and programs for highway de- velopment in the country. 2. ROADWAY, STRUCTURES, AND FACIL- ITIES Detailed characteristics of surface types, base types, and shoulder types; drainage characteristics and gen- eral condition of all the highways by type or adminis- trative designation; design and specification standards of highways; characteristics and comprehensive sta- tistics on bridges and tunnels, including design and specification standards; characteristics and statistics on ferries and fords; vehicle repair and fueling facilities, types of fuels used, and domestic or import origin of fuels. 3. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance policy, problems, and procedures in relation to character of terrain, weather and climate, characteristics of original design and construction, and present condition. Official atti- tude toward highway construction and maintenance. Frequency or cyclic period of road and structures inspection, overhauling, repair, replacement, or recon- struction. Construction and maintenance procedures, including standards and specifications and such factors as the sectionalizing of roads for maintenance and the prevalence of hand as against mechanical methods. Availability of necessary funds, and availability and quality of materials, equipment, and labor. Construction and maintenance equipment, including the major construction and maintenance equipment items used in highway work and the stations where such equipment is assigned. Domestic availability or "1611111111111161fabliim dependence on imports as a source of supply of heavy and automotive construction equipment. 4. TRAFFIC INTERRUPTION FACTORS A survey of critical points or features of the highway system, with emphasis on existing or potential factors which might adversely affect traffic. 5. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM New construction and improvement under way or planned. C. Control and organization 1. GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION Major regulatory bodies having jurisdiction over highways, specific functions of each, and where appli- cable the relationship between these bodies and other transportation agencies. 2. PRINCIPAL CARRIERS Ownership, organization, and administrative struc- ture of each principal carrier. 3. PERSONNEL The number of operating personnel and employees by department; personnel efficiency and training, labor relations, and such aspects as pay rates and health and retirement provisions. D. Operations 1. OPERATING FACTORS Operating regulations and practices for passenger and freight traffic, significant operating statistics, and significant or unusual operating problems and practices. 2. TRAFFIC Traffic conditions and trends, including pattern of traffic and relative importance of freight and passenger traffic; principal commodities carried and any signifi- cant regional characteristics; selective statistics for representative years on such factors as freight tons, freight ton-miles, and other applicable indicators of traffic volume and handling, including flow charts and flow breakdown by vehicle. 3. FINANCIAL DATA Operating revenues, expenses, and ratios, including governmental financial aspects. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 milommimiftimmmm NIS STANDARD E. Vehicles and equipment 1. GENERAL An overall quantitative and qualitative survey of the adequacy of existing vehicles and equipment, domestic and foreign sources of vehicles and equipment or principal components, amounts and types imported and exported, and vehicle standards. 2. MOTOR VEHICLES A tabulation of the number, capacity, make and year of vehicles by type. 3. SPECIAL EQUIPMENT A tabulation of road construction and maintenance equipment. 4. OTHER A tabulation of any significant other types of equip- ment, including animal-drawn vehicles when appro- priate. F. Principal routes A selection and analysis of principal routes of major importance for both economic and logistical purposes followed by a summary of the characteristics and sig- nificance of each principal route in terms of the follow- INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 ing factors: route number and/or name; starting points, terminals, and route mileage; principal intersections and international connections; adequacy of clearance from ports and principal cities; main thoroughfares through and bypasses around large population centers (by map) ; traffic flow; bottlenecks; fueling facilities; general pavement data; bridges; tunnels; ferries; fords; route logs; and special weather restrictions. G. Highway technical data An explanation of the special highway numbering system used in SECTION 32, and tabular and other presentations of detailed highway data. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 33. Inland Waterway A. General An appreciation of inland waterway transportation in the country, including relationship to other trans- portation, salient characteristics, physical environ- mental factors, and economic and logistical significance. B. Characteristics of the waterway system 1. GENERAL A discussion of such basic nation-wide features as topography (watersheds, Hood plains, banks, etc.), areal distribution of navigable streams, climate and weather conditions causing seasonal variations in water level and freezing, mileage and limits of navigability, con- nections with adjacent countries, density and nature of traffic, and present status and general condition of waterways. 2. WATERWAY FACILITIES Characteristics of fixed facilities (locks, bridges, dams, navigational aids), with summarizing statistics; specification standards for structures; location of major ports and cargo handled by type and tonnage (with appropriate reference to SECTION 35 and SUPPLEMENT I). PAGE 6 3. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Construction and maintenance policy, problems, and procedure in relation to terrain, weather and climate, characteristics of original design and construction, and present condition of waterway structures and stream improvement works. Official attitude toward water- way construction and maintenance. Discussion of construction and maintenance procedures includes standards and specifications, whether work is done by governmental organization or private contractor, avail- ability of funds, equipment, materials, and qualified personnel. New construction and improvements un- derway or planned. 4. TRAFFIC INTERRUPTION FACTORS A survey of critical points or features of the waterway system, with emphasis on existing or potential factors which might adversely affect traffic. 5. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM New construction and improvements underway or planned for waterways and ports. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER III 6111.1.1.1111..1 C. Control and organization 1. CONTROL Governmental control and regulations affecting the waterways and the carriers. 2. PRINCIPAL CARRIERS Ownership, organization, and administrative struc- ture of each principal carrier. 3. PERSONNEL Maintenance, operational, and carrier personnel in terms of number, competency, labor relations, pay rates, and health and retirement provisions. D. Operations 1. OPERATING FACTORS Routine operating regulations and practices, signifi- cant operating statistics and significant or unusual operating problems and practices. 2. TRAFFIC Traffic conditions and trends, including statistics for passengers carried and cargo by commodities. 3. FINANCIAL DATA Operating revenue and expenses of carriers, and gov- ernmental budget data for waterways. E. Craft and equipment General survey of adequacy of craft, present con- dition, fuel used, and facilities ?for repairing and con- structing craft. Craft census by number, type (pas- senger or cargo), propulsion (including horsepower for tugs), capacity, condition, and other pertinent charac- teristics. Special equipment used for construction and maintenance on the waterways and at the ports. F. Individual waterways General discussion giving location, tributaries, entire length and navigable length by craft (capacity or draft), types of cargo moved with performance sta- tistics. Physical characteristics such as banks, bottom, seasonal variations (water level, currents, freezing, floods, etc.), and navigational hazards. Tabulation of locks (location, ditnensions, type of gates and how operated, locking time), bridges (location, horizontal and vertical clearance, moveable span), and other structures such as dams, aqueducts, safety gates, tun- nels, ferry crossings. Description of ports, giving total wharfage with depths, storage facilities, mechanical handling facilities, and repair facilities for craft, type and tonnage of cargo. G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 34. Petroleum Pipeline (Treated in Subsection 62, (7 and Supplement V) Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAG E 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 sommilimmob NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Section 35. Ports and Naval Facilities (When there is a Supplement I) A. General 1. PORTS Comprehensive evaluative discussion covering: Geography of area as it relates to the establish- ment of ports. Brief history of growth and development of port system. Areal distribution and grouping of ports as de- termined by geographical, historical, eco- nomic, and strategic factors. Comparative analysis of ports, either by area or individually, on basis of commercial activity, military port capacity, and any other pertinent factors if appropriate or significant. Enumeration of principal and secondary ports and brief description of each including rela- tive location, importance, principal charac- teristics and activities, size and character of harbor, port capacity, and port facilities. Governmental control and administration where applicable. Alphabetical list of principal, secondary, and minor ports (with coordinates). Summary table of significant characteristics and facilities of principal and secondary ports using standard table with following column heads and column lines: NAME (Coordinates) HAI/Boa Type Fairway limitations Largest vessel accommodated Tides Ice BERTHS Anchorage Mooring: Fixed Free-swinging Alongside MECHANICAL IIANDLING FACIILITIES Shore cranes Floating cranes Special handling equipment STORAGE CAPACITY General cargo Bulk liquid storage Bulk dry storage Open stacking space PAGE 8 CLEARANCE Rail Road Other if applicable ? ESTIMATED MILITARY PORT CAPACITY NAVAL ACTIVITY SIIIPYARDS REMARKS 2. NAVAL FACILITIES General analysis covering: Size, condition, and adequacy of naval establish- ment. Brief summary of organization in to naval dis- tricts and commands. Brief description of principal naval bases and summary of secondary bases and other activities. Alphabetical list of naval facilities (with co- ordinates). Separate coastal and inland facilities by means of headings. 3. SHIPYARDS General analysis covering: Extent and distribution of shipyard facilities. Capability and size of yards. Predominance of shipbuilding or ship-repairing facilities. Cross reference to Subsection 64, E for discussion of economic aspects of shipbuilding and ship- repairing industry. List all shipyards by place (seaport or inland city), with coastal and inland places under separate heads. Arrange place names alphabetically under each heading and give coordinates of each place. List shipyards by category under name of each place. B. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. mOsigiMPRIPRT Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER IV SOCIOLOGICAL Section 40 Introduction Section 41 Population Section 42 Characteristics of the People Section 43 Religion, Education, and Public Information Section 44 Manpower Section 45 Health and Sanitation Section 46 Welfare CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 amommummum, JANUARY 1962 Chapter IV - Sociological OUTLINE SECTION 40. INTRODUCTION SECTION 41, POPULATION A. General B. Size, composition, and geographic distri- bution 1. Size and composition 2. Distribution and density 3. Pattern of settlement and urban areas 4. Internal migration C. Population structure D. Population change 1. Vital statistics 2. Immigration and emigration 3. Trends and projections E. Population problems and policies F. Reference data G. Comments on principal sources SECTION 42. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE A. General B. Physical characteristics C. Languages 1. Distribution 2. Content and structure 3. Social significance 4. International ties D. Social organization 1. Social structure 2. The family 3. The community 4. Social organizations and movements 5. The individual in the society E. Social values, attitudes, and customs 1. Basic value system 2. Basic attitudes 3. Significant customs F. Artistic and intellectual expression G. Distinctive culture groups II. Comments on principal sources SECTION 43. RELIGION, EDUCATION, AND PUBLIC IN- FORMATION A. B. General Religion 1. Significance of religion in the country 2. Principal faiths C. Education 1. Education in the national life 2. The government and education 3. Educational system 4. General content of instruction 5. Noncurricular student activities 6. Educators D. Public information 1. Communications development, use, and control 2. Press and periodicals 3. Book publishing 4. Libraries 5. Motion pictures 6. Radio and television 7. Other means of communication E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 44. MANPOWER A. General B. Manpower resources 1. Total manpower resources 2. Labor force 3. Labor reserve C. Labor legislation and agencies of govern- ment 1. Basic labor legislation 2. Manpower planning 3. Forced labor 4. Labor agencies of government D. Standards and practices of employment 1. Utilization of the labor supply 2. Income 3. Working conditions E. Management 1. 'Characteristics of management per- sonnel 2. Organization of management person- nel 3. Management leadership F. Labor 1. Organization of labor 2. Policies 3. Political ties 4. Leadership G. Labor-management relations 1. Labor problems 2. Collective bargaining H. Reference data I. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 viNV LULA 11AL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS SECTION 45. HEALTH AND SANITATION A. General B. Factors affecting health 1. Topography and climate 2. Socio-economic pattern 3. Animal and plant life 4. Nutrition 5. Water 6. Waste disposal C. Diseases 1. Diseases of man 2. Animal diseases D. Medical organization and administration 1. Civilian 2. Military SECTION JANUARY 1962 E. Medical personnel and training F. Medical care facilities G. Medical supplies H. Comments on principal sources 46. WELFARE A. General B. Levels of living and social welfare C. Social security and welfare aid 1. Social security 2. Public welfare service 3. Private welfare services 4. Leadership D. Comments on principal sources OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. in preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 40. Introduction This Section provides a concise synthesis of the gen- eral character of the society, its civilization, and social stability. The dynamic factors in the society and its cohesiveness and flexibility in relation to social change are pointed out briefly. This Section serves as a so- ciological introduction to the country and to CHAPTER IV, presenting a brief overview of the people and their society, with such historical factors woven into the text as necessary to explain or give perspective to pres- ent-day social institutions, characteristics, and atti- tudes. The Section answers succinctly and in broad terms such questions as the following, emphasizing wherever possible the interplay of significant forces and factors in shaping the society: 1) What are the main patterns and trends of social life and social organization? Are they based primarily on an agricultural or industrial tradition, on a mixed or other type of economy, on abundance or scarcity? Indicate the status of, and the relationships among, the various classes, races, religions, nation- ality or language groups. 2) What has been the effect of environmental fac- tors (including locational, topographical, and climatic factors as well as availability of natural resources) on a) population composition, growth, and distribution, PAGE 2 b) social organization, and c) cultural, including tech- nological, development? 3) Is the society stable or unstable, is it confused, disunited, or imbued with a sense of common destiny and mission? 4) What are the dominant social motives of indi- viduals? In broad terms what social values motivate behavior and how do social institutions reflect these values? Do the people have an individualistic or col- lectivist bent or tradition? 5) Is there a dominant tradition of learning, philo- sophical, scientific, or artistic? Are the people pre- dominantly literate or illiterate? To what extent is language a unifying factor or a barrier to unity and strength? 6) What are the most powerful internal and external forces molding public opinion and group behavior? What is the pattern of public opinion formation and of individual thought? Such an evaluation should take into consideration the homogeneity of the population, its age or youth, its manpower resources, the attitude of the people toward their cultural-political heritage, and the ade- quacy of social institutions in meeting defined social needs. The relation of the society to neighboring na- tions, the U.S.S.R., and the United States, especially in regard to cultural development, should be noted. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ?T8TRimiwinom.' SECTION 40. INTRODUCTION SECTION 41. POPULATION A. B. C. D. E. F. G. SECTION 42. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. SECTION 43. A. B. Chapter IV - Sociological OUTLINE General Size, composition, and geographic distri- bution 1. Size and composition 2. Distribution and density 3. Pattern of settlement and urban areas 4. Internal migration Population structure Population change 1. Vital statistics 2. Immigration and emigration 3. Trends and projections Population problems and policies Reference data tables Comments on principal sources CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE General Physical characteristics Languages 1. Distribution 2. Content and structure 3. Social significance 4. International ties Social organization 1. Social structure 2. The family 3. The community 4. Social organizations and movements 5. The individual in the society Social values, attitudes, and customs 1. Basic value system 2. Basic attitudes 3. Significant customs Artistic and intellectual expression Distinctive culture groups Comments on principal sources RELIGION, EDUCATION, AND PUBLIC IN- FORMATION General Religion 1. Significance of religion in the country 2. Principal faiths C. Education 1. Education in the national life 2. The government and education 3. Educational system 4. General content of instruction 5. Noncurricular student activities 6. Educators D. Public information 1. Communications development, use, and control 2. Press and periodicals 3. Book publishing 4. Libraries 5. Motion pictures 6. Radio and television 7. Other means of communication E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 44. MANPOWER A. General B. Manpower resources 1. Total manpower resources 2. Labor force 3. Labor reserve C. Labor legislation and agencies of govern- ment 1. Basic labor legislation 2. Manpower planning 3. Forced labor 4. Labor agencies of government D. Standards and practices of employment 1. Utilization of the labor supply 2. Income 3. Working conditions E. Management 1. Characteristics of management per- sonnel 2. Organization of management person- nel 3. Management leadership F. Labor 1. Organization of labor 2. Policies 3. Political ties 4. Leadership G. Labor-management relations 1. Labor problems 2. Collective bargaining II. Comments on principal sources PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUOTIONS JULY 1.957 SECTION 45. HEALTH AND SANITATION A. General B. Factors affecting health I. Topography and climate 2. Socio-economic pattern 3. Animal and plant life 4. Nutrition 5. Water 6. Waste disposal C. Diseases I. Diseases of man 2. Animal diseases D. Medical organization and administration 1. Civilian 2. Military E. Medical manpower I. Personnel 2. Training F. Medical care facilities G. Medical supplies H. Comments on principal sources SECTION 46. WELFARE A. General B. Levels of living and social welfare C. Social security and welfare aid I. Social security 2. Public welfare service 3. Private welfare services 4. Leadership D. Comments on principal sources OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 40. Introduction This Section provides a concise synthesis of the gen- eral character of the society, its civilization, and social stability. The dynamic factors in the society and its cohesiveness and flexibility in relation to social change are pointed out briefly. This Section serves as a so- ciological introduction to the country and to CHAPTER IV, presenting a brief overview of the people and their society, with such historical factors woven into the text as necessary to explain or give perspective to pres- ent-day social institutions, characteristics, and atti- tudes. The Section answers succinctly and in broad terms such questions as the following, emphasizing wherever poss.ible the interplay of significant forces and factors in shaping the society: I) What are the main patterns and trends of social life and social organization? Are they based primarily on an agricultural or industrial tradition, on a mixed or other type of economy, on abundance or scarcity? Indicate the status of, and the relationships among, the various classes, races, religions, nation- ality or language groups. 2) What has been the effect of environmental fac- tors (including locational, topographical, and climatic factors as well as availability of natural resources) on a) population composition, growth, and distribution, PAGE 2 b) social organization, and c) cultural, including tech- nological, development? 3) Is the society stable or unstable, is it confused, disunited, or imbued with a sense of common destiny and mission? 4) What are the dominant social motives of indi- viduals? In broad terms what social values motivate behavior and how do social institutions reflect these values? Do the people have an individualistic or col- lectivist bent or tradition? 5) Is there a dominant tradition of learning, philo- sophical, scientific, or artistic? Are the people pre- dominantly literate or illiterate? To what extent is language a unifying factor or a barrier to unity and strength? 6) What are the most powerful internal and external forces molding public opinion and group behavior? What is the pattern of public opinion formation and of individual thought? Such an evaluation should take into consideration the homogeneity of the population, its age or youth, its manpower resources, the attitude Pf the people toward their cultural-political heritage, and the ade- quacy of social institutions in meeting defined social needs. The relation of the society to neighboring na- tions, the U.S.S.R., and the United States, especially in regard to cultural development, should be noted. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER IV Section 41. Population A. General This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material in the remainder of the Section. It in- cludes a brief statement of the significant aspects of population as a whole and its major segments, noting the most important and distinctive demographic facts as they relate to economic, political, and other major problems of the country. It should not be merely a digest of what follows. B. Size, composition, and geographic distri- bution 1. SIZE AND COMPOSITION Give the total size of the population by the most recent census or estimate. Compare with neighboring, rival, or other countries as appropriate. Identify the major segments, racial and/or ethnic, giving numbers and regional distribution (with map if possible). Have realinements of boundaries or migrations due to war or economic or other disaster affected the composition of the population? In a mixed population state defini- tions used by the national census for identifying indi- viduals with these segments (race, language, religion). 2. DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY Give data on the density of the total population of the area as a whole and present a table of area and population in the chief administrative subdivisions (states, provinces, departments, etc.) with number of persons per square mile, preferably accompanied by a map of population density. 3. PATTERN OF SETTLEMENT AND URBAN AREAS Discuss the general pattern of settlement?orienta- tion toward the sea, natural resources, river commerce, industrial activities. Note characteristics of major ethnic or other segments of the population in the pat- terns of settlement. Give percentage of population which is rural and urban as defined by the census of the country under discussion. Is it concentrated in major agglomerations or dispersed, and why? Note the ex- tent to which the rural population is collected in villages, hamlets, or in isolated households. Tabulate population of major cities and the chief metropolitan areas, including the total population of each with the percentages of the significant ethnic or other segments of the population. Comment on the patterns of settlement of these segments in metropolitan centers. Do population groups tend to be segregated, live and work apart from other segments, or are they interspersed in the community pattern? 4. INTERNAL MIGRATION Discuss the role of internal migration in the distribu- tion of the population. Indicate the chief origins, destinations, and causes of internal migratory move- ments, particularly rural-urban migration. Comment on seasonal migrations. Note any marked differences identified with the major segments of the population. C. Population structure Tabulate total population (in thousands) classified by five-year groups (0-4, 5-9, 10-14 . . . 65 and over) for males, females, and total as of postwar census or estimate. Illustrate by using an age-sex profile. Is it a young or old population? Point out any significant excess or deficit of either sex and state ages. Discuss age at first marriage and the proportion of unmarried males and females. Is there a large unmarried or wid- owed population arising from late marriage, war cas- ualties, or other factors? Is there polygamy? Give data on number of families or households by size. Give similar data for significant segments of the population, geographical, racial, or ethnic, and show their relation- ship to the statistics for the nation as a whole. Indicate the percentages of the total population in working ages (e.g., 15-64) and in dependent ages (e.g., 0-14 and 65 and over). Are there marked regional urban-rural, or ethnic variations from the national pattern? Do the statistics reflect the actual degree of dependency on the population of working age, due to such factors as years required for education, compulsory retirement, etc.? Point out any significant variations for major segments of the population. (Cross-refer to SECTIONS 42 and 44 where pertinent.) Comment also on the manpower available to the armed forces. D. Population change 1. VITAL STATISTICS Tabulate births, deaths, and excess of births over deaths for postwar years. Show vital rates per 1,000 of the population for postwar years and such earlier periods (e.g., averages for 1921-25, 1926-30, 1931-35, and 1936-39) as are necessary to give proper perspec- tive, preferably illustrated by a graphic. If possible give infant mortality rates (infant deaths in first year of life per 1,000) and comment on life expectancy. Are there significant variations for major geographic or ethnic segments of the population? Comment on the PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 major social, political, economic, environmental, and mental and physical health characteristics affecting the vital statistics. 2. IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION If available, give table showing immigrants by coun- try of origin and birth, and emigrants by chief country of destination for postwar years and summary data for prewar periods. Indicate the residue of migration as measured by the number of foreign-born and the num- ber of aliens and naturalized citizens. Discuss war :migration across national borders and other population dislocations if any. 3. TRENDS AND PROJECTIONS Cite the dates and figures for national census-taking in the area. Compare the rate of growth with those of neighboring or rival countries. Has the country been a population vacuum (cf. France) or a source of out- ward population pressure (cf. Germany and Japan)? Give best available estimates for casualties of World War II, or other hostilities since 1945, military and civilian. What are the factors affecting growth and the present trends? Indicate prospective future population trends, during the next 15 to 25 years, in size and structure of the population, based on natality, mortality, and migration. Comment on prospective changes in regional, urban- rural, and ethnic composition. E. Population problems and policies What problems are presented by growth, decline, or distribution of the population? Have these problems particular significance for major segments of the popula- A. General tion? Note the attitudes of different groups of people toward these problems if they are significant to national stability. What policies have been proposed or adopted by the government that affect the size, distribution, or rate of growth of the population? Indicate migration policies and discuss the present and prospective role of migration and settlement in relieving population pres- sure or in developing thinly populated areas. Has the government adopted policies to increase the numbers of marriages and births, such-as family allowance, or is encouragement given to practices of family limitation? Cross-refer to SECTION 46 where appropriate, and to other NIS areas where these problems and policies have significant impact. F. Reference data This Subsection accommodates lengthy statistical material which provides data in addition to short tables interspersed in the text. G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 42. Characteristics of the People This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Section. It describes the crucial historical developments con- ditioning the society. Those factors in the physical environment which have contributed to the society's distinctive cultural development are noted, pointing out, for example, accessibility to hostile neighbors, or natural features and resources such as mountain ranges and oil deposits as in the case of Iran. Describe the degree of racial and cultural homogeneity and complex- ity of the society. Indicate briefly the factors in the society that have led to national strength or weakness, national solidarity or disunity, as well as susceptibility to foreign psychological influences and/or desire for expansion of influence over other areas. The funda- PAGE 4 mental ideological trends are discussed in relation to the culture of the people. This Subsection is an ap- proach to and not a digest of what follows. B. Physical characteristics Describe the distinctive physical characteristics of the population. Include those characteristics which are the result of climate, diet, health conditions, and other environmental factors. Note the characteristic physical differences among groups in the population where significant. Include photographs of character- istic physical types, How do these types compare with native and alien concepts or stereotypes of them? To the maximum extent use nontechnical language, es- pecially avoiding extensive use of anthropological terminology. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAP TER IV Section 41. Population A. General This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material in the remainder of the Section. It in- cludes a brief statement of the significant aspects of population as a whole and its major segments, noting the most important and distinctive demographic facts as they relate to economic, political, and other major problems of the country. It should not be merely a digest of what follows. B. Size, composition, and geographic distri- bution 1. SIZE AND COMPOSITION Give the total size of the population by the most recent census or estimate. Compare with neighboring, rival, or other countries as appropriate. Identify the major segments, racial and/or ethnic, giving numbers and regional distribution (with map if possible). Have realinements of boundaries or migrations due to war or economic or other disaster affected the composition of the population? In a mixed population state defini- tions used by the national census for identifying indi- viduals with these segments (race, language, religion). 2. DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY Give data on the density of the total population of the area as a whole and present a table of area and population in the chief administrative subdivisions (states, provinces, departments, etc.) with number of persons per square mile, preferably accompanied by a map of population density. 3. PATTERN OF SETTLEMENT AND URBAN AREAS Discuss the general pattern of settlement?orienta- tion toward the sea, natural resources, river commerce, industrial activities. Note characteristics of major ethnic or other segments of the population in the pat- terns of settlement. Give percentage of population which is rural and urban as defined by the census of the country under discussion. Is it concentrated in major agglomerations or dispersed, and why? Note the ex- tent to which the rural population is collected in villages, hamlets, or in isolated households. Tabulate population of major cities and the chief metropolitan areas, including the total population of each with the percentages of the significant ethnic or other segments of the population. Comment on the patterns of settlement of these segments in metropolitan centers. Do population groups tend to be segregated, live and work apart from other segments, or are they interspersed in the community pattern? 4. INTERNAL MIGRATION Discuss the role of internal migration in the distribu- tion of the population. Indicate the chief origins, destinations, and causes of internal migratory move- ments, particularly rural-urban migration. Comment on seasonal migrations. Note any marked differences identified with the major segments of the population. C. Population structure Tabulate total population (in thousands) classified by five-year groups (0-4, 5-9, 10-14 . . . 65 and over) for males, females, and total as of postwar census or estimate. Illustrate by using an age-sex profile. Is it a young or old population? Point out any significant excess or deficit of either sex and state ages. Discuss age at first marriage and the proportion of unmarried males and females. Is there a large unmarried or wid- owed population arising from late marriage, war cas- ualties, or other factors? Is there polygamy? Give data on number of families or households by size. Give similar data for significant segments of the population, geographical, racial, or ethnic, and show their relation- ship to the statistics for the nation as a whole. Indicate the percentages of the total population in working ages (e.g., 15-64) and in dependent ages (e.g., 0-14 and 65 and over). Are there marked regional urban-rural, or ethnic variations from the national pattern? Do the statistics reflect the actual degree of dependency on the population of working age, due to such factors as years required for education, compulsory retirement, etc.? Point out any significant variations for major segments of the population. (Cross-refer to SECTIONS 42 and 44 where pertinent.) Comment also on the manpower available to the armed forces. D. Population change 1. VITAL STATISTICS Tabulate births, deaths, and excess of births over deaths for postwar years. Show vital rates per 1,000 of the population for postwar years and such earlier periods (e.g., averages for 1921-25, 1926-30, 1931-35, and 1936-39) as are necessary to give proper perspec- tive, preferably illustrated by a graphic. If possible give infant mortality rates (infant deaths in first year of life per 1,000) and comment on life expectancy. Are there significant variations for major geographic or ethnic segments of the population? Comment on the Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS major social, political, economic, environmental, and mental and physical health characteristics affecting the vital statistics. 2. IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION If available, give table showing immigrants by coun- try of origin and birth, and emigrants by chief country of destination for postwar years and summary data for prewar periods. Indicate the residue of migration as measured by the number of foreign-born and the num- ber of aliens and naturalized citizens. Discuss war migration across national borders and other population dislocations if any. 3. TRENDS AND PROJECTIONS Cite the dates and figures for national census-taking in the area. Compare the rate of growth with those of neighboring or rival countries. Has the country been a population vacuum (cf. France) or a source of out- ward population pressure (cf. Germany and japan)? Give best available estimates for casualties of World War II, or other hostilities since 1945, military and civilian. What are the factors affecting growth and the present trends? Indicate prospective future population trends, during the next 15 to 25 years, in size and structure of the population, based on natality, mortality, and migration. Comment on prospective changes in regional, urban- rural, and ethnic composition. E. Population problems and policies What problems are presented by growth, decline, or distribution of the population? Have these problems particular significance for major segments of the popula- A. General JULY 1957 tion? Note the attitudes of different groups of people toward these problems if they are significant to national stability. What policies have been proposed or adopted by the government to affect the size, distribution, or rate of growth of the population? Indicate migration policies and discuss the present and prospective role of migration and settlement in relieving population pres- sure or in developing thinly populated areas. Has the government adopted policies to increase the numbers of marriages and births, such as family allowance, or is encouragement given to practices of family limitation? Cross-refer to SECTION 46 where appropriate, and to other NIS areas where these problems and policies have significant impact. F. Reference data tables This Subsection accommodates lengthy statistical tables which provide data in addition to the shorter tables interspersed in the text. G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 42. Characteristics of the People This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Section. It describes the crucial historical developments con- ditioning the society. Those factors in the physical environment which have contributed to the society's distinctive cultural development are noted, pointing out, for example, accessibility to hostile neighbors, or natural features and resources such as mountain ranges and oil deposits as in the case of Iran. Describe the degree of racial and cultural homogeneity and complex- ity of the society. Indicate briefly the factors in the society that have led to national strength or weakness, national solidarity or disunity, as well as susceptibility to foreign psychological influences and/or desire for expansion of influence over other areas. The funda- PAGE 4 mental ideological trends are discussed in relation to the culture of the people. This Subsection is an ap- proach to and not a digest of what follows. B. Physical characteristics Describe the distinctive physical characteristics of the population. Include those characteristics which are the result of climate, diet, health conditions, and other environmental factors. Note the characteristic physical differences among groups in the population where significant. Include photographs of character- istic physical types. How do these types compare with native and alien concepts or stereotypes of them? To the maximum extent use nontechnical language, es- pecially avoiding extensive use of anthropological terminology. (1(m:win DINTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTEI? IV C. Languages 1. DISTRIBUTION Designate the major languages and dialects com- monly spoken in the country, showing the number of speakers, their percentages of the total population, and their geographical distribution. Illustrate with map where possible. 2. CONTENT AND STRUCTURE Discuss the major languages and dialects, including vocabulary and structure, and Covering the following points: 1) mutual intelligibility; 2) adequacy for special fields of knowledge, especially as compared with English; 3) the extent to which, and internal and ex- ternal sources from which, new elements are being introduced into the language. What do the new language elements suggest as to the cultural trend of the society? 3. SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE To what extent are languages, dialects, or distinctive pronunciations identified with social or ethnic groups, and what iS their prestige value (such as cockney or Oxford English)? Discuss official policy in regard to languages (e.g., for use in the schools, in the courts, on the radio, and in the armed services). Comment on the attitudes of each of the major linguistic groups toward each other's language or dialect and their status in relation to the nationally dominant group. Discuss briefly characteristic patterns of communica- tion and word usage. Are imagery and poetic or formalized expressions characteristic of the conversa- tion of the people? Are there variations in communi- cation patterns between youth and their elders, men and women, rich or poor, etc.? Is conversation a highly developed technique? Comment on the significance of gestures as auxiliary to or substitutes for language. 4. INTERNATIONAL TIES Are the major language groups related to similar groups across national boundaries? If so, comment briefly on the relations of these peoples of common language traits. Indicate the degree to which there is a local knowledge of English, and other foreign lan- guages and dialects. Note any significant attitudes of the people toward these languages and dialects which reflect a fundamental social sympathy or an- tagonism. D. Social organization Describe briefly the composition of the total society including major racial, ethnic, religious or other seg- ments. Note briefly the historical factors which have given rise to the present social group relations and present trends. Include charts diagramming these relationships where possible. Identify those groups which have sufficient internal cultural differences from the dominant society to be discussed in Subsection G. Distinctive Culture Groups, below. 1. SOCIAL STRUCTURE a. SOCIAL CLASSES ? Describe and analyze the structure of the dominant society. Note the basis upon which important social status distinctions are made. Where there are clearly defined social classes, discuss their relative size and geographic distribution. To what extent do the various classes exercise leadership or control over national life and in what way? (Cross- refer to SECTION 59 and/or Key Personalities unit.) What are the effects of social divisions upon national solidarity? Are social distinctions relaxed in a national emergency? Is the society relatively dynamic or static? Note the direction of change taking place in the organization and traditional functioning of this society. What changes are taking place in the size and composition of the social classes. Point out the significance of changes in social stratification as they affect political develop- ment. What is the importance of the individual's role in the social structure? Indicate briefly the prestige factors which determine the individual's relative place in the society and the important influences of social status which mold individual behavior. By what means can the individual gain or lose social status? To what extent may and do individuals move from one social class to another? Is there opportunity for change of social status in the local community or must the indi- vidual go outside of it to seek higher status? Are changes taking place in the social structure which tend to alter or reorient individual attitudes or behavior such as a new stress on competition, new desires created by education which the society does not satisfy, strains of increased mobility on family ties, etc. Present the main personality characteristics of the people, including those characteristics which the society considers especially desirable or undesirable. Compare the roles of men and of women in the so- ciety. Indicate the influence of sex differences on patterns of social mobility, on the total impact of social mores, on individual behavior, and on the structure of social taboos and distinctions. Note distinctive be- havior patterns of each sex toward the other. b. SOCIAL GROUPS ? Note the relative importance of major types of activities and groups in the function- ing of the society. These may be tribal groups, kin groups, economic groups, religious groups, language groups, etc. If there are significant racial, ethnic, or other segments of the society which, even though they have acquired the major characteristics of the society, are seen as having separate group identity, note: 1) their size and distribution in relation to the dominant group and to the society as a whole (cross-refer to Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 SECTION 41); 2) their distinctive features; 3) their place in the soeial structure; 4) the degree of isolation main- tained; 5) any special legal provisions made for them; and 6) their significance to the national strength or weakness. Summarize the distinctive social motiva- tions of each such segment. What effect does member- ship in these groups have on individual behavior and personality development? For a discussion of social organization and values of nationally important groups of predominantly different culture, such as the Africans in South Africa, cross-refer to Subsection G, below. Does the society have a national power elite group or groups distinct from the social classes? If so, note whether their power is mainly political, economic, re- ligious, intellectual, or social. Comment on each group from the following viewpoints: usual background of the elite membership, breadth of social base from which members are recruited, their education, the ease of admittance to the group, intragroup mores, nature and type of influence, training and discipline, their custom- ary means of acquiring information, interest in and level of understanding of national and international problems, basic attitudes and predispositions toward the United States, -U.S.S.R., etc., manner of exercising influence and molding opinion, flexibility and account- ability of the leaders and the response to them. Is leadership considered a group or individual responsibil- ity and prerogative? What behavior is expected of followers? To what extent does the public support them and by what means? Indicate probable future trends concerning their effectiveness. What is the typical motivation of individuals of the elite group, to what extent are they satisfied or frus- trated, and what are their vulnerabilities both as indi- viduals and as a group under the impact of domestic or foreign pressures to which they are or may be subjected? In particular, does the elite give expression to the ex- pectations or needs of the society as a whole? What combinations of power, either through overlapping leadership or agreement on concerted action, are apparent or likely to develop? 2. THE FAMILY Explain the characteristic forms of family and kin- ship groupings (whether single family, joint family, clan, etc.). Note important intrafamily relationships (including the status of the father and the mother in the family, the relationships of sons and daughters with their parents and of brothers and sisters to each other). Discuss the prestige, privileges, and responsibilities of women in the family. What is the place of old people in the family? Note any significant prevailing pattern of attitudes of adults in the family toward young people and their contacts outside the family. Note the major differences in the treatment of boys and girls in the family and their distinctive rights and responsibilities in such matters as inheritance and family support. PAGE 6 Comment on the disciplinary training of children and the processes and symbols of growth. Analyze the role of the family as a basic unit of the society. To what extent does the family as a group participate in com- munity affairs? To what extent does family affiliation determine social status? Are most marriages within the community or with persons of other communities? What is the domicile pattern? Compare the family pattern and influence with that of the family in the United States. Do family patterns differ significantly for different segments of the population?racial, reli- gious, regional, urban, or economic? Are family patterns changing; if so, in what direction and why? Special attention should be given under this subtopic to mar- riage and those distinctive processes of child-rearing from birth to maturity which demonstrably form or affect basic social attitudes. (See below, under Social Values, Attitudes and Customs.) 3. THE COMMUNITY Discuss the social structure in relation to the local community. Do the villages, cities, and regions of the country display distinctive spatial patterns, such as the location of dwelling units in relation to areas of work? Are there distinctive community patterns for racial and ethnic groups in the society? For agricul- tural and industrial centers? For rural and urban areas? Illustrate with photos. At what level of de- velopment are community facilities and services? Does the community provide facilities for the customary leisure-time activities? How do the physical charac- teristics of these communities affect their social organi- zation? Note characteristic community-type special interest groups or organizations (cross-refer to SECTION 52 for local government). To what extent, and how, are community patterns influenced by the national government? 4. SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MOVE- MENTS Note extent to which the people seek self-expression and prestige through organized groups in the society and are traditionally "joiners." Describe important social organizations other than those formed on the basis of social status or family or those political, eco- nomic, labor, and military groups discussed elsewhere. This discussion might include such organizations as significant patriotic societies, veterans' organizations, civic groups, secret societies, cooperatives (other than those covered in SECTIONS 44, 46, and 61), lodges, busi- ness and professional associations (not covered in SECTIONS 43 and 44), women's organizations, youth groups, sports and other special interest organizations not covered elsewhere. Concerning each major organi- zation indicate the size, geographic distribution, and character of membership, stated objectives of organiza- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ommeinnummumm?mm? CHAPTER IV tion, and financial resources. A table listing these organizations and giving the essential data on each would be appropriate and valuable for those organiza- tions not presented in detail elsewhere. In some countries, there are social movements which include several types of organizations; for example, the labor movement, the missionary movement, or the youth movement. Where such movements exist, de- scribe the origin, causal conditions, goals, membership and participation, directing leaders or agencies, and activities. Describe the opposition to the movement. If the movement is subversive in character, cross-refer to SECTION 57. What important factors determine status, prestige, and leadership within each important organization and movement? What are their professed or real aims? Estimate the influence of each as a center of group action and its strength in attitude formation. How are the attitudes of members molded? Comment on the composition and distinguishing characteristics of the leadership. Note attitudes and predispositions of each group toward the United States, U.S.S.R. and other bloc countries, neighbors, and other countries with which the society has ties or influence. Does it exert leadership in regard to major internal or foreign poli- cies? What tools are used to influence the public? Comment on the significant leaders of each group, with qross reference to SECTION 59 or the NIS Key Per- sonalities unit as appropriate. 5. THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIETY Although the individual takes his values from his social group, the complete picture of the individual often does not emerge from such a social focus of analysis. The individual as lie conceives himself and the manner in which he interprets his relations to others are of additional importance. What traits in others does he prize? Does he see others in antagonistic or cooperative relation to himself? Are persons helping him or hindering him in his achievement of aims? What is his view of the basic nature of things, and how does he feel he is personally involved? (Cross-refer to SECTION 43.) What are the chief factors motivating his behavior, such as religion, ancestry, social position, wealth, desire for economic security? What are his personal definitions of purpose? What does he feel gives his life meaning? What goals does he seek? Does he think in terms of a career? Of bettering himself? What are the sources of his anxiety? What are his primary frustrations? Does he think that social changes are affecting his life? If so, how does he feel about them? Does individual behavior in urban areas differ markedly from that in rural areas? Is there regional variation? Are there variations according to social, economic, or occupational status? E. Social values, attitudes, and customs 1. BASIC VALUE SYSTEM Every society exhibits certain central themes which become the basis for understanding behavior in all areas of social life; for example, the American stress on competition, the Burmese attitude toward after-life, and the Chinese notion of filial piety. Describe briefly the central values of the society, especially those de- rived from religious and educational systems. (Cross- refer to SECTION 43.) Are there competing values which are in conflict? Point out within the framework of the central value system, what the goals of the society as a whole are?material property, peace, conquest, preservation of the culture, racial superiority, propaga- tion of a religion or ideology, etc.? Do the means of achieving these accepted individual and collective goals accord generally with democratic or authoritarian standards? What are the characteristic fears both of the individual and of the whole society associated with the effort to achieve the respective goals? Indicate briefly any significant similarities and contrasts in basic values existing between the society concerned and the United States or other countries with which the society is intimately concerned. Is the basic value system undergoing change and, if so, what is the direction of this change, what are the chief factors causing it, and how rapidly is it proceed- ing? Is man's role conceived to be that of opposing, accepting, or provoking social change; of accepting his physical environment or changing it, for example, through adoption of improved methods of production or new modes of life such as urbanization? What are the most effective sanctions motivating or inhibiting behavior, such as prestige, material rewards, ostracism, legal punishment, the outstanding beliefs, traditions, myths and taboos, etc.? (Cross-refer to SECTION 43 under Religion and/or to SECTION 54 under the Penal System.) To what extent is deviant be- havior from group norms tolerated? Describe any significant rural-urban, ethnic, sex, class, or racial group differences in basic social values and motivations. Cross-refer to Subsection G. Dis- tinctive Culture Groups, below. Indicate the extent to which these differences threaten national solidarity. 2. BASIC ATTITUDES Discuss under this subheading only the prevailing and more lasting attitudes of the people, rather than current public opinion. Identify the specific groups whose attitudes are presented. Where possible, indi- cate major group differences from national norms. The attitudes discussed here are the deep-seated concepts growing out of the basic value system. Cross-refer to other Sections such as SECTIONS 53, 55, and 58, for atti- tudes on specific national, domestic, and foreign con- ditions or issues. eigiowinimpir Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 a?itiolummla NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS a. TOWARD OWN SOCIETY Where specific data: are available, information on such questions as the fol- lowing would be pertinent: What group attitudes toward their own society and toward various classes and/or groups in the society are developed by the cul- ture and. how are they molded? Note basic attitudes and awareness of the people toward freedom or the subordination of the individual and the factors in the social experience of the various groups which foster this attitude. What is the attitude of the people toward the responsibility of the society for the welfare of its members? (Cross-refer to SECTION 46.) What attitudes tend to divide the people into antagonistic groups? Are the unifying attitudes basically strong enough to prevent divisive attitudes from being a threat to national solidarity? Is there a clear and widely held concept of patriotism? In what national achievements do the people take special pride? What are the prevailing attitudes in regard to aggrandizement of the nation? What are the established national symbols (e.g., caricatures, slogans, national anthem, flag), and what is their present effec- tiveness as they operate on individuals or groups? Comment briefly on the major social rituals such as national holiday celebrations, and on the texts of national songs or historical monuments and documents reflecting important symbols of the nation. Note their effectiveness in crystallizing thought and attitudes. What symbols are currently used by the leadership? On what motivations do they play? What symbols appeal most to each important social group, such as intellectuals or labor? In order to illustrate group attitudes, it is suggested that the following be exam- ined briefly: The chief stereotypes of leaders and the behavior such stereotypes evoke, using the great leaders of the nation's past to illustrate. What emotions are attached to structured positions in the nation such as the crown, the governor-generalship, the presidency, the prime-ministership, party presidency, etc.? Is the people's attitude toward persons holding political office characterized by a widespread feeling of cynicism, un- questioning worship, confidence, or something else? b. TOWARD OTHER SOCIETIES ? What are the basic attitudes toward peoples of other societies and other cultures?curiosity, fear, friendliness, respect, indifference, hostility? How are these attitudes fos- tered? Do the people consider their way of life su- perior to all others, or to certain others, and :if so, to which others? Do they understand, like, or dislike, Americans and American culture, and for what reason? Other countries? Do any classes or segments in the society identify themselves with foreign groups? In general, what are their attitudes toward Soviet citizens, nations, and culture or those of other Communist so- cieties? What caricatures do they use, to designate foreigners? (Cross-refer to SECTION 55.) PAGE 8 JULY 1957 Is there a prevailing attitude in favor of cooperation with other nations in the achieving of common goals and, if so, among what segments of the society iS this attitude most marked? How are these attitudes ex- pressed? Cross-refer to CHAPTER V where appropriate. e. TOWARD INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT ? What are the marked attitudes toward war as an instrument of foreign policy, toward military activities and traditions, toward compulsory or volunteer military service, and toward national defense (including civil defense)? Are attitudes toward military service affected by the class origins of the military leaders? Comment on the morale of the civilian population during World War II or more recent wartime conditions. Do veterans hold a position of prestige in the society? Cross-refer to SECTION 55 for attitudes on national policies. 3. SIGNIFICANT CUSTOMS Describe briefly any unique or distinguishing customs that have national significance, such as the tea cere- mony of Japan, the autumn festival in China, or the sauna (steam bath) of Finland. What social values are demonstrated in these customs? Who participates in them? Have these customs been modified by urbani- zation, industrialization, ideologieal pressures, war or other changes? F. Artistic and intellectual expression Describe briefly present and past trends in outstandL ing intellectual, literary, artistic, religious, and other forms of expression. Is each form of expression founded on well-developed native traditions or bor- rowed? Indicate the degree of popular appreciation of or participation in the various types of artistic expression, including a brief discussion of popular or folk music, folk art, and folk theater (e.g., traditional pageants, pantomimes, etc.). What are the common attitudes toward cultural achievements and what is the effect of these achievements on national traditions? What symbols are traditionally used in artistic media to evoke behavior in the characteristic patterns described in other parts of this Section and is this symbolism static or in a state of Aux? What are the extent and pace of present-day changes? Do artists and intel- lectuals enjoy prestige in the society? To what extent are artistic forms and "schools of thought" (philo- sophical, scientific, literary, etc.) important as express- ing or determining the national outlook? Identify important individuals and evaluate their work in this regard. For detailed information on current artistic and intellectual leaders, cross-refer to SECTION 59 and/or the Key Personalities unit where appropriate. Intellectual and artistic organizations should be dis- cussed here, with references to Social Organizations and Movements (above) for details. .rrwamiatilmimwip. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAP TEI? IV ? G. Distinctive culture groups Identify each of the nationally important, divergent groups?racial, ethnic, or other?which has its own cultural values and characteristics. Note whether the group is numerically greater or smaller than the domi- nant group. Analyze in terms of its power relation- ships and status in the society. Describe the salient features of the social organization, social values, atti- tudes and customs, artistic and intellectual expression of each, covering the details included under Subsec- tions D, E, and F above. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source ma- terial used in preparing the Section and thereby in- form the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby pro- vide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 43. Religion Education, and Public Information A. General This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Sec- tion. It includes a brief statement of the role and rela- tive importance of religious, educational, and informa- tional institutions in shaping the life and outlook of the people. Itis not a digest of what follows. B. Religion 1. SIGNIFICANCE OF RELIGION IN THE COUNTRY a. RELIGION AND NATIONAL CULTURE - Note the most important -religious faiths and their relative significance. Describe the part religion plays in the nation's culture and its effect on the value system. Discuss the influence of religion on the social institu- tions of the country. Estimate . the importance of religion to the people as a whole and to various .socio- economic groups. Indicate the features of religion which are important in the daily life of the .people and in their relations with other people. (Cross-refer to SECTION 42.) Estimate the influence of religious affinities and dif- ferences on national unity and stability, including, briefly, such historical background data as are necessary to understand the present situation. Are there sym- pathies or antipathies toward those of other sects or faiths, or toward those of ito faith? Are there ties with those of similar faith in other countries? Discuss the relation of organized religion to the political ? objectives and procedures of the established regime. .Are the prevailing beliefs compatible with or influenced by either Communism or Western democracy. When pertinent, discuss the activities and influence of foreign missionary work (Christian and other) in the society, noting the attitude of the government leaders and the people toward these activities. Discuss any major antireligiotis movements or organized persecution of particular religious groups and note the nature of the leadership in these activities. Do these leaders have any significant foreign ties? b. GOVERNMENT AND RELIGION - Indicate the relationship between the government and organized religion, including laws that pertain to the status and activities of religious organizations, e.g., is there an established church? Is religious liberty guaranteed and if so, how (by constitution, law, international treaty, etc.)? Note any divisions of the government which have administrative or other responsibilities for the activities of religious organizations, and for foreign religious groups. Note the general reactions of religious elements to them. C. SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGIOUS MEMBER- SHIP - Give the number, percentage, and distribution of inhabitants adhering to the principal faiths. Include important sects. Illustrate with a map if possible. Indicate whether specific religious faiths are linked with specific ethnic, linguistic, or racial groups. 2. PRINCIPAL FAITHS a. [DEsioNATios] ? For each of the principal faiths (for example, a. Roman Catholicism, b. Islam, etc.) discuss the following topics: (1) Organization,? Give a brief account of the organizational structure of each major group, including the relationship of all its recognized religious and lay organizations, and the degree of responsibility assumed by the parent body over their activities. Describe any organizational ties with groups outside of the country, e.g., with the Vatican or the World Council of Churches. (2) Activities and .facilities ? Present briefly the nature and extent of activities carried on by each re- ligious group. If possible, state the objectives of these activities. Note briefly the attitudes of the society toward these activities. Comment briefly on the types Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PA dt 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 moimmummumummi NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS of facilities available for worship and other activities such as the church buildings, wayside shrines and other places of worship; schools and other plants and their equipment; real estate and other material interests; the finances of each religious group. Are these activi- ties and facilities tax-supported and/or tax free? (3) Leadership ?Discuss the spiritual and lay leadership, including educational qualifications and role in the religious life of the community, position of re- ligious leadership in the society, and relationship with leaders of other, religious groups. Include in the dis- cussion of each a statement on the role of women. Discuss also the extent of control exerted by the church organization over its leaders and their nationally sig- nificant attitudes or opinions on secular affairs. Coor- dinate with SECTION 59 or Key Personalities unit. (4) Tenets and practices ? For each of the prin- cipal religious groups describe the traditional tenets and practices which have special importance for the society. To what extent is there controversy over religious doctrines and what are the major points at issue? Do deviations in the faith result in antagonism, and, if so, what is their significance? Indicate the extent to which formal church adherence and partici- pation in other religious activities reflect religious faith. (5) Official attitudes -- Discuss significant offi- cial positions taken by the various religious organiza- tions on secular matters in general and toward specific national and international political, social, and eco- nomic problems. Note the influence such actions have on national life. C. Education 1. EDUCATION IN THE NATIONAL LIFE a. EDUCATION AND NATIONAL CULTURE -- Discuss the concepts and existing aspirations of the people in regard to education, noting the general character of available education, its thoroughness and effectiveness. Provide a concise introduction to this Subsection by describing those forces that left a lasting impression on the educational system, such as government policy, religious interests, or foreign influences. Indicate the relative strength and the distinctive purpose and characteristics of public and private education. Discuss the extent to which the various segments of the society, such as industry, philanthropic foundations, wealthy individuals, etc., support education, noting the trends and objectives of this support. Point up the role of the educational system in social, political, and economic life. Discuss such problems as its adequacy in meeting the demands of national life, its impact on social mobility, and its effectiveness in molding attitudes of influential groups. Estimate the relative extent and effectiveness of ideological indoctrination by the educa- tional system (where indicated). Describe in general terms its relation to informal educational influences PAGE 10 JULY 1957 in the society (such as family, youth programs, military training, or information media). b. LEVEL OF LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVE- MENT ? Discuss the level of literacy and educational achievement in the society as a whole, and with reference to socio-economic classes and to women. Discuss the size of enrollment at each educational level and note the extent of educational opportunities in relation to the extent of the school age population. Note trends of educational development, including a projection of the school population. Explain the extent and effectiveness of efforts to reduce illiteracy and to broaden educational opportunity, leaving the details of an adult education program for discussion under Educational System and under General Content of Instruction, below. 2. THE GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION Where education is considered an appropriate func- tion of government discuss the extent to which educa- tion is the responsibility of central provincial and/or local government. Comment on the nature, extent, and purpose of government control over and aid to public and private education, including such devices as educational requirements for employment, provision of educational grants, examinations for government certification, etc. If there are any devices for controlling the political loyalty of faculty and students these should be noted. Are the political purposes of the regime in power emphasized through public education? The relation of laws and administrative action in con- trol over education should be noted. Discuss also the extent arid nature of public influence over educational policy at all levels. a. LEGAL FRAMEWORK ? Note the constitutional and legal provisions affecting education and the effec- tiveness of their enforcement, including such factors as guarantees of academic freedom, free and compulsory education; language of instruction; control over text books and content of teaching; and provisions con- cerning religious education. b. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATION ? De- scribe the position of public education in the govern- mental structure, illustrating where practical with an organizational chart (coordinate with SECTION 52). Note the relation of the central government's division of education with other levels of governmental respon- sibility for education. C. FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND FACILITIES -- Note the nature, source, and extent of financial support and expenditure and the adequacy of educational facilities and equipment in relation to the size and distribution of enrollment at each educational level. d. FOREIGN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS -- Describe the government's policy concerning participation in the exchange of students, professors, and other edu- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAP TER JV cational personnel with foreign countries. Is the government a recipient of foreign aid or does it con- tribute to foreign educational programs? If so, de- scribe the nature, extent and mechanisms of this educa- tional activity, noting the other countries participating, with the extent of exchange with each. If the United States is a participant, note the amount of U.S. funds invested in the program over a series of years and the educational emphases. Note also the nature and ex- tent of nongovernmental and educational aid to and/or from abroad, as, for example, exchanges between uni- versities, foundation aids, etc. Discuss their contri- bution to the knowledge, educational program, and attitudes of the people and their leaders. It is sug- gested that the broad significance of the foreign educa- tional activities in which the country participates be discussed here, with reference to specific developments, past and present, such as the Boxer Indemnity or the Fulbright programs. 3. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Describe, briefly, the general organization of educa- tion, both public and private, from elementary schools through universities, including provisions for adult education, vocational and industrial training, and graduate education. What is the role of research institutions? Point out any notable inadequacies of the educational system. Illustrate with charts showing types of education provided at various age levels and the number of students and teachers for each grade. 4. GENERAL CONTENT OF INSTRUCTION Discuss the content of formal education at various levels, its major emphases with past and present trends (e.g., acquisition of formal knowledge or technical and practical knowledge), and its effect. a. GENERAL EDUCATION ? Describe the significant content of education in the general schools at primary and secondary levels, including the nature and extent of preprimary training where pertinent. Discuss the general methods and objectives of instruction and its effectiveness. Note where available the percentage of entrants who complete the course and the percentage of graduates advancing to higher levels. b. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING ? De- scribe the apprenticeship system and vocational school- ing to the extent that they are within the framework of the educational system, and in particular cover methods and conditions of instruction. Supply pertinent sta- tistics, and evaluate technical and general effectiveness of the system. C. HIGHER EDUCATION ? Discuss the content of higher learning, noting the methods and intellectual level, orientation and degree of isolation from or accessibility to world developments in scholarship, degree of general training, role of faculties and students in national life, and role of research in the educational process. Discuss the nature of professional training available and the quality of its discipline, noting the requirements for legal recognition and practice in a profession, if any, and the types of internship or apprenticeship involved. Note the relation between the professions and this training. Note the relative prestige of various types of careers as factors in shaping the development of education. d. ADULT EDUCATION ? Discuss adult education in the fields of both specific training and general educa- tion, whether conducted within the educational system or by private organizations, such as churches and labor unions. In particular, describe participation, level of instruction, credits, etc. Evaluate adult education in relation to the regular educational system and the general educational level. 5. NONCURRICULAR STUDENT ACTIVITIES Discuss the extent to which the school authorities at the primary, secondary, and university levels encourage noncurricular activities by providing facilities, pro- fessional guidance, and controls. Note the agencies other than schools which provide trained personnel or other assistance to the schools for specialized non- curricular activities for students at different levels. How well developed and important, for example, are student publications and associations? Are there student political, civil defense, military, or other significant activities? Note the extent to which student activities have social and political significance beyond the school groups. To what extent have the student activities been influenced by subversive elements? In discussing student organizations of national importance cross-refer to SECTION 42 for their relation to youth movements; to CHAPTER V, SECTION 53, Political Dynamics, and SECTION 57, Subversive; and to CHAP- TER VIII, for military activities, as appropriate. Where groups are essentially pressure groups or subversive in nature they should be mentioned but detailed discus- sion should be reserved for other appropriate Sections. Are student activities of an international character encouraged by educators? For example, foreign lan- guage clubs, organized student vacation visits to foreign countries and organized entertainment of foreign students, fraternal association with or support of foreign "sister institutions," etc., should be discussed, noting specific programs, the countries preferred in such activities, and the extent and nature of govern- mental assistance provided for such noncurricular activities. Note especially student activities in relation to the United States and the 'U.S.S.R. Is student leadership in noncurricular activities democratically chosen or predominantly determined by the student's social or political status or by the school authorities? Is there any fraternal association among student groups or leaders from different schools (e.g., student editors, inter-collegiate sports, etc.), and, Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE ii Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 4milumeno NIS STANDARD 'INSTRUCTIONS if so, by whom is it fostered? Is there national interest in any type of student association and in student lead- ers? Is student participation in noneurricular activi- ties a factor in later career development? Are alumni groups well organized and do alumni ties have social or political significance? 6. EDUCATORS Discuss the level of competence of those responsible for the administration and teaching at the various levels of education, in both public and private schools. Include not only the school administrators and teachers but also national, provincial, and local officials charged with the administration of education and the members of boards of education or other policy groups. Give the number of teachers in relation to the stu- dent body, their general socio-economic level and other background factors, their educational level, how they are selected. How do their rates of pay compare with those of other professional groups? Discuss their prestige in the community; the degree to which they support the regime in power; the habitual means for acquiring information; awareness, interest, and level of understanding of national and international prob- lems; and prevailing attitudes toward the United States and the U.S.S.R. Note any marked predispositions and attitudes as a group. To what extent are teaching appointments politically determined? Do teachers have permanent job tenure and pension provisions? Assess their role as molders of opinion within and with- out the schools. What contribution do they make-- and how?to industry, labor, and government, and to the formulation of national policy? Is there a marked difference between characteristics of the teaching force in rural and urban areas; in different sections of the country; in different types of schools? Note the num- ber of women teachers at each level and any special limitations in their appointment, training, advance- ment,, or pay. Discuss the adequacy of teachers at various levels in relation to the prevailing concepts of pedagogy. What special qualities are considered essential to a good teacher and what provisions are made to incul- cate these qualities? How large a proportion of the teachers have training and/or experience abroad? Does the educational system utilize this foreign experi- ence and does it provide additional prestige and ad- vancement for the teachers? To what type of foreign training is greatest prestige attached? Important teachers' associations or organized groups should be identified with a description of each major organization, including its size, geographic distribution, level of teaching of its members, and other character- istics of membership, objectives, finances, program activities, influence over members, national meetings or conventions, vulnerability to subversion, and char- acter of leaders. Are these activities used by the regime or its unofficial agencies for propaganda pur- PAGE 12 JULY 1957 poses? If so, cross-refer to SECTION 58. Insofar as they serve as a pressure group, cross-refer to SECTION 53. Note the group's international ties, if any. In sonic cases tabular presentation of these data may be desirable. D. Public information This Subsection is designed to provide overall presentation of the level of development of public information. CHAPTER V, SECTION 58, Propaganda, presents an integrated analysis of governmental and nongovernmental action designed to influence behavior and collective attitudes in support of national policies. 1. COMMUNICATIONS DEVELOPMENT, USE, AND CONTROL Describe briefly the level of development of mass communication of ideas and information. Note the principal and most popular media of communication used, noting the extent and characteristics of their use. What is the relative importance of other media, and the chief purposes for which they are characteristically used? For example, to what extent are word-of- mouth (e.g. rumor, cafe talk, grapevine) and non- written signals (e.g. drums) used? What are the main media used for dissemination of news and information and transmission of messages? How extensively are postal, telegraph, and telephone systems used? Are they adequate? How are records kept and information stored (e.g. archives, legends, etc.)? Are movies, radio, arid television well-developed means of communication? Do the uses of different forms of communication differ among social strata? What are the main barriers to different types of communication within and be- tween groups? Is any social significance attached to different forms of communication? Note briefly the medium in which people tend to place the most trust and why. To what extent, and how, does government use the various media of communication? ? Is freedom of speech and of the press guaranteed (see SECTION 51, Subsection D)? Discuss the degree of responsibility assumed by the government in this field, noting specific laws and/or administrative machinery designed to control communication and all types of public information and to protect guarantees of free- dom. Note the extent of government financial support of the various media. Note the overall extent of govern- ment or other forms of censorship, control, or influence over media including significant subversive or foreign influence. Note the nature and scope of important professional groups in the communications field, such as editors, publishers, writers, and producers. Give, in tabular form, where suitable, location, size, character and qualifications of members, aims and objectives of leadership, amount of influence exerted, and orienta- tion toward the United States and the U.S.S.R. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 WiiiMPPRIPAR CHAPTER IV JULY 1957 2. PRESS AND PERIODICALS Under this subheading should be noted the level of development of the industry as a whole, the nature and extent of the audiences reached, languages used, the nature and source of content, the nature and in- fluence of ownership and control in the industry, including interlocking interests; sources of news; rela- tive influence on public opinion; and the general char- acteristics of the system of distribution. Note the extent of use of foreign publications, those that are most popular, the language in which written, the source of origin, and agencies of distribution. a. IMPORTANT INDIVIDUAL NEWSPAPERS ? Describe important individual newspapers, using the tabular form if suitable, and covering the following points: name, location, language, frequency of publication, circulation, audience reached, source of revenue, owner- ship and control, political leanings, editorial policy including general policy toward the United States and the U.S.S.R., key editorial personalities, relative influ- ence, physical plant, and estimates of the amount of space given to national and international news and other subjects. b. PRESS SERVICES -- Describe the important do- mestic and foreign press services available, including U.S. agencies. Indicate the extent to which each service is used; the type of news for which each is relied upon; the accuracy and reputation of the service (domestic only); the extent of coverage provided; and any outstanding editorial personalities. c. PERIODICALS ? Describe and analyze generally along the same lines as noted for newspapers above. 3. BOOK PUBLISHING Describe and analyze the overall book publishing industry in terms of total size of press runs and sales, location, physical facilities, quality and type of output, price structure, languages used, exports, markets reached, ownership and control, political leanings, sub- sidization, censorship, and influence. a. PUBLISHING HOUSES ? Identify and describe the principal book publishing companies, covering the following points: name and location, ownership and control, physical facilities, press runs and sales, and significance. Use tabular form where suitable. b. DISTRIBUTION ? Describe the distribution sys- tem, giving the number and location of major whole- salers or regional distribution points and retailers, and include some information on the system with regard to ownership and control, size of various establishments, and evaluation of the medium. C. FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS ? C01111-11ent on the ex- tent of importation of foreign books, the type most widely circulated, and special government regulations concerning their importation and distribution. 4. LIBRARIES Describe the system and general types of libraries, covering: size and popularity, control, location, method of operation, character of stock, and groups reached. 5. MOTION PICTURES Briefly describe the industry and medium as a whole covering such points as: audiences reached, languages used, popularity of various types of films, both do- mestic and foreign, and the audiences they most appeal to; imports as compared with domestic produc- tion; sources of foreign films; places and hours of show- ing; extent of government censorship and control; leading personalities; and general effectiveness as a medium. a. DOMESTIC PRODUCTION ---- D es crib e domestic production facilities covering: number of companies and location; volume and type of films produced; owner- ship and control; sources of financing; physical plant and facilities; sources of equipment; technical quality; artistic quality; political orientation; and leading actors, directors, and producers involved. Note foreign investment, foreign technical assistance, and foreign talent used in domestic production. b. DISTRIBUTION ? Describe the distribution sys- tem and the methods of exhibition, giving the number, location, and capacity of theaters, and analyzing owner- ship and control, technical equipment (size of pro- jectors, screens, etc.) frequency of showings, and prices. C. FOREIGN FILMS ? Discuss the distribution of foreign films including: the volume used (analyzed by country of source), the channels of importation, the major agencies of distribution, and government or other controls. Note the relative screen time afforded U.S. and non--U.S. films and estimate the long-term effect of U.S. pictures on public attitudes and opinions. 6. RADIO AND TELEVISION The physical plants, equipment, and technical quality of radio and television stations are discussed in some detail in CHAPTER III, SECTION 38. Describe here each overall medium, giving the number of broad- casting networks and stations and their location with relation to the potential audience and covering the following: Languages used, general characteristics of ownership and control, source of financing, source of news, number of receivers by wave bands and distribution, general characteristics and economic status of listeners, estimated total size of audiences, type of programs most popular, most favored listen- ing hours, vulnerability of media to use for subersive propaganda (cross-reference to SECTION 57), political leanings, important personalities, and relative influ- ence and effectiveness of medium. Also describe any PAGE 13 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 important managerial or professional groups and organizations connected with the media. Important individual networks and stations should be described also with coverage of the following: name, call letters, wave lengths, frequencies, power, and loca- tion; ownership and control, source of revenue, program schedules, types of programs with an indication of their degree and source of popularity, languages used, hours of broadcasting, political leanings, program personali- ties, and relative popularity and influence. Note which networks and stations are foreign-sponsored and list the foreign elements involved. 7. OTHER MEANS OF COMMUNICATION Discuss other mass media of communications such as public address systems, posters, pamphlets, leaflets, wall newspapers, mobile theaters, balloons, etc., using in general the criteria listed in the Subsections above. Include also, where pertinent, information and anal- ysis of word-of-mouth, person-to-person communica- tion (rumors, whispering campaigns, public meetings, cafe talk, etc.), and indicate (if not already covered in A. General above) to what extent informal word-of- mouth communication supplements or contradicts the regular mass media. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. FIGURE 43-1. PRINCIPAL MEDIA OF (COUNTRY), (DATE) NAME, PLACE, AND FREQ UENCY OF PRODUCTION LANGUAGE (S) US E D CIRCULA- TION OR AUDIENCE KEY PRODUCTION PERSONNEL GOVERNMENT OR PRI- VATE OWNERSHIP COMMENTS Section 44. Manpower A. General The purpose of this Subsection is to provide an ap- propriate approach to a full consideration of the prob- lem of manpower and its capabilities. It is not a digest of what follows in the remainder of the Section. How have the basic characteristics of the society affected manpower utilization? Has it developed a scientific maturity in the utilization of manpower and the exploitation of its natural resources? What is the dominant economic activity? Has the society a primi- tive or mature economy? Is the society rigidly organ- ized along economic lines or is there a fluid situation? Analyze briefly the extent of opportunities for eco- nomic advancement, utilization of specialized skills and training, attitudes toward work (especially toward manual work), the role of the individual in choosing PAGE 14 his occupation, and the extent to which these factors influence national attitudes or social unrest. Describe briefly the extent and nature of the organi- zation of major business, financial, industrial, and other management groups and of the cooperative and labor organizations, indicating the status and prestige of such groups in the society. Do they work together harmoniously or do they clash? Does this affect the national strength and stability? Has the society had experience in centralized governmental control of its manpower resources in the past, and what is the situa- tion today? What in general, is government policy toward labor and labor-management relations? To what extent is forced or slave labor utilized and what is its significance to the economy? Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAP TER IV 4mmilliminumeri B. Manpower resources 1. TOTAL MANPOWER RESOURCES Describe briefly the total manpower resources of the country, including not only the labor force (those cur- rently engaged in economic activity including workers who are unemployed, the armed forces, and other governmental personnel) but also the labor reserve (those able to work in time of crisis but not now in the labor force). Of the total manpower resources, what percentage is in the labor force? Note the size of the labor force, indicating the number and/or percent- age under 15 years of age, between 15 and 64, and over 65. Discuss also the size of the labor reserve. Note the relationship to the nation's manpower of the balance of the population (the residual population) who are unemployable, as well as of the labor reserve. Esti- mate the percentage of the total manpower resources trained and/or experienced in the techniques of modern industrialized production and services and of primitive subsistence economy. 2. LABOR FORCE What percent of the working-age group in the popu- lation (conventionally defined as those aged 15 to 64 inclusive) are in the labor force? Comment in regard to the age-sex distribution. Illustrate, if possible, by a labor force pyramid superimposed on the population pyramid (see SECTION 41). Note any significant deviations from the overall pattern of economic par- ticipation on the part of racial or ethnic minorities. Show the trends and prospects for a change in the size of the labor force (by sex), indicating how the size of the labor force is affected by such factors as seasonal changes, business and other:conditions calling for partial or full mobilization, and social, technological, and structural changes. Note the significant changes in definitions and enumerative procedures which may be reflected in the statistics presented. a. COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION - Analyze the characteristics of the labor force, pointing out trends and factors of special importance to the develop- ment of a modern industrialized economy such as the general level of aptitudes and educational background needed. Insofar as possible, compare with neighboring or rival countries. Also show significant trends as indicators of the various types of labor mobility (indus- trial, occupational, status, and territorial). If appro- priate, note the occupational specialization of minority groups. Show the industrial composition of the labor force in tabular form, by sex if possible, commenting on the significance of numbers engaged in the major sectors of the economy: 1) agriculture, forestry and fishing; 2) mining, construction, manufacturing, and utilities; and 3) the supply and service industries. Discuss the role of mechanization and other factors necessary to an understanding of labor-force trends in the principal industries of the country. (1) Types of occupation -- For many countries, the census data will show the distribution of the labor force members not only by industries in which they are engaged but also by occupational groups, i.e., the types of work they do. Both types of information are de- sired, with an appraisal of the extent to which certain occupational groupings are concentrated in specific industry groups. The data for each occupational group in the table should show number of males and females, and percentage of total labor force. Also analyze the labor force as to the proportion of managerial, technical, skilled, and unskilled workers, if possible with a break- down for age and sex. Comment on the manner and extent to which the mechanization of industries has affected occupations, and on the established profes- sions. (Cross-refer to SECTIONS 42 and 43 where perti- nent.) (2) Occupational status ? Analyze the distribu- tion of the labor force in the following groups: 1) em- ployers and the self-employed; 2) unpaid family workers; 3) salaried employees; and 4) wage earners. Analyze by industry groups with age-sex breakdown where feasible. Note the extent of employment of women, children under 15, and persons over 65. Note the extent of family industries and the size of the entrepreneurial class in relation to wage and salary workers. Where possible, give data indicating the trend in the movement of workers from one status to another. (3) Geographic distribution Indicate the sig- nificant aspects of geographic distribution of the workers, especially as to concentrations of types of workers and skills in specific localities. If possible, illustrate with a map showing the locations of major types of industries including agriculture and the approximate number of workers employed, indicating whether these areas offer a variety of occupations (for men; for women). Are there areas in which there is a high degree of competition for certain types of skills or for unskilled labor? Comment on the territorial mobility of workers, distinguishing long-term tendencies (cross-refer to SECTION 41 for immigration and emigra- tion and internal migration) and short-term aspects (such as commuting, seasonal migrations, or employ- ment in neighboring countries). (4) Unemployment and underemployment -- Note the number and proportion of the unemployed in the labor force, if possible by regional sectors of the econ- omy. These would include migrants, refugees, dis- placed persons, workers laid off through cutbacks, those in process of changing jobs, unpaid helpers (usually family dependents), and victims of misfortune (on relief). Note the extent of underemployment by industry. Note the -percentage of the personnel in these categories available and qualified -for work. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 15 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 simimemmism NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 b. GOVERNMENTAL SERVICES PERSONNEL ? The purpose of this topic is to appraise the importance of governmental personnel in relation to the total labor force. For some countries it will be useful to distin- guish the public and private segments of the labor force, with a breakdown of the public segment into such categories as: armed forces, police and other para- military services, administrative services, and other public services and industries (such as teaching, com- munications, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, transport, etc.). (1) Armed forces in relation to the civilian labor force?What percentage of the population is in the armed forces? Are there women in the armed forces and for what type of work are they recruited? Do the armed forces provide training in skills which are trans- ferable to the civilian economy? Show the manpower used in the armed forces, if possible, by means of an age-sex pyramid superimposed on the total labor force pyramid. Indicate what percentage of the population is enrolled in the military reserve forces and would not therefore be available to the civilian economy in case of total mobilization. Indicate also, if possible, the percentage of the civilian labor force which is composed of veterans of the armed forces and the percentage of these veterans which is enrolled in the military reserve forces. How large a civilian force is employed by the government to service the military and in what types of work is it utilized? (Coordinate with CHAPTER VIII.) (2) Police and other governmental personnel? In some countries the support of governmental personnel (including police) imposes a substantial burden on the public. Is there a large police, fire-fighting, protective, custodial, and industrial force maintained by the gov- ernment? (Coordinate with SECTION 54.) If so, indi- cate the size of this group and the percentage of the total labor force it constitutes. C. EXTENT OF FORCED LABOR ? In those areas where forced labor exists, present a quantitative anal- ysis of the forced and/or convict labor population, noting geographic distributions where possible. Re- serve detailed discussion of forced labor for Subsection C, 3 below. 3. LABOR RESERVE Discuss briefly the characteristics and activities of the labor reserve, pointing out skills and experience which would be available in time of emergency. Note the customs of the society which would condition the full utilization of this potential; i.e., to what extent and how are women educated and employed? Is there a marked difference between men and women in the training and experience they receive? What is the attitude and practice of the society in regard to the employment of children? Are there religious or social taboos concerning types of employment for special PAGE 16 classes or groups in the population? Of the reserve, how many, or what percentage, are now in technical schools, colleges, or universities? Is the practice of unpaid apprenticeship widespread? Comment on the practices and policies concerning the utilization of those over 65 years of age. C. Labor legislation and agencies of govern- ment 1. BASIC LABOR LEGISLATION Discuss briefly the nature and scope of basic labor legislation (with dates), such as the following: the legal right to organize, strike, and bargain collectively; wages, hours, and conditions of employment; the em- ployment of women and children; the employment of veterans; social insurance (cross-refer to SECTIONS 46 and 52). To what extent is labor legislation a political issue? Comment briefly on the relation of existing labor legislation to the actual conditions and demands of labor. 2. MANPOWER PLANNING Is there government policy-planning, guidance or control (budgeting, etc.) of manpower utilization; of turnover; of transfer between industries, etc.? Are regulations enforced? Are there government manpower controls over all labor or over important segments such as those with scarce skills; or is there an entirely free competitive labor market? Were there wartime man- power controls? If so, comment on the organization of manpower resources and the degree of public support. How and to what extent do management and labor participate in the formulation of government policy and practices on employment? 3. FORCED LABOR In those areas where it is the policy of the govern- ment to use slave or forced labor, state the significance of this source of manpower to the economy and its potentials in case of war. Note the industries and occupations most affected by the use of this type of labor. (Reserve for SECTION 54 the discussion of convict or forced labor under the penal system.) If forced labor exists outside the penal system, discuss work and living conditions. What are public attitudes toward forced labor and what is the attitude of organized labor? 4. LABOR AGENCIES OF GOVERNMENT Comment briefly on the agencies of government de- signed to work on problems of labor. (Cross-refer to SECTION 52.) How do these agencies serve the interests of labor and management? How effectively do they protect the foreign employers (especially U.S. business) and foreign workers? In this connection, a chart show- ing the structure of the ministry or department of labor and its enforcement agencies is desirable. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER IV Where suitable, also present the government ma- chinery for the consideration of labor disputes such as the labor courts and arbitration boards. (Cross-refer to SECTION 52.) D. Standards and practices of employment 1. UTILIZATION OF TIIE LABOR SUPPLY Is there any centralized planning on the utilization of the labor supply on the part of government, manage- ment, or labor? Describe the overall pattern of prac- tices and attitudes of workers and employers in regard to the method and degree of employment. a. UTILIZATION OF CAPABILITIES ? IS the labor supply utilized to its fullest capacity? Are there im- pediments to the ?free exercise of a worker's ability to secure suitable employment such as social distinctions based, for example, on class, family, race, or religion? Can the worker become a manager or employer? State whether any trades or other occupations are the special province of any particular religious, ethnic, or other groups. If so, indicate any institutional or other handicaps to efficient development of the manpower potential. Discuss the training made available by management, unions, and government for the worker's fuller develop- ment of his capacities, including apprenticeship train- ing, on-the-job training, union training, and vocational training available in the schools and in adult education programs, noting the nature and extent of these pro- grams and the worker's utilization of them. (Cross- refer to SECTION 43.) Is the economy sufficiently fluid for the worker to move upward as he develops his skills through training and experience? b. PRODUCTIVITY ? Discuss the productivity of labor in agriculture, industry, and other important occupations, with special reference to human and technological factors affecting output, e.g., ability and willingness of labor to learn new techniques and adjust to the demands of the work situation, quota system, interchangeability of manual labor, managerial ability, government and union restrictions, and incentives such as high pay, job security, status factors, and other benefits. How much do turnover, absenteeism, work slowdowns, and other forms of worker resistance affect production? Are they an indication of social unrest? C. MOBILITY OF LABOR AND HIRING PRACTICES ? Discuss methods of recruiting, systems of apprentice- ship, labor contracts, conscription, etc. Can labor move freely between geographic locations, from occupa- tion to occupation, and from industry to industry? How much and what kind of labor mobility is there; e.g., primarily seasonal, or sporadic? Have well- defined trends developed? Has this movement of labor resulted in a condition of instability or growth? d. UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT -- What are the causes of unemployment and underem- ployment and what industries and occupations are most affected? Identify that part of the labor force which has the largest number available but not actively em- ployed. Discuss technological unemployment. Do technically trained or educated personnel experience difficulty in securing employment because of the system of recruitment such as the appointment of family con- nections, political preference or preference for heads of families? Discuss the special problems of youth in competition with older workers; women; and racial or other minority problems of employment. Discuss the unemployed and underemployed from the standpoint of sources of economic and social unrest. What is the attitude of these groups toward the economic system of which they are a part? Do they have assistance, public or private? (Cross-refer to SECTION 46.) Does their economic status create an element of instability for the society as a whole? Discuss underemployment and the industries in which this is most prevalent. What are its causes? To what extent and in what types of work are partially disabled workers and convicts and prisoners employed? 2. INCOME Describe methods of wage determination. Indicate briefly trends of wage rates and real earnings and the effects of these on government wage-price policy. Where possible, show the range of wage rates paid skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled labor, and of salaries paid white-collar and professional workers. Specify wage rates for both men and women; include also be- ginners' pay and that for apprentices and young work- ers. Indicate "low-wage" and "high-wage" industries and trends in the wage gap between them. In those economies where compensation is paid wholly or partly in kind, indicate nature of payment. What additions to real income are derived from such items as social services and family allowances, housing and purchasing discounts, old age pensions, sickness insurance, etc.? What is the attitude of workers toward the wage scale? 3. WORKING CONDITIONS Indicate briefly the character of working conditions in general and in important industries. To what extent are working conditions controlled by the gov- ernment? Is there a highly developed understanding of industrial hygiene and occupational hazards and are the workers insured against disaster? Are special- ized clothing and safety devices required? If -possible, include pictures of typical working conditions in major industries. To what extent are housing, stores, and other community facilities and services provided or controlled by management? Are the working condi- tions and fringe benefits or lack of them a source of employee discontent? Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS E. Management 1. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL Evaluate owners and managers in business, industry, and agriculture as a group. Does absentee ownership create any manpower problems? Is corporate owner- ship a characteristic of the economy? Is there a large class of salaried top and middle management employed by private industry and government? To what extent are they trained in the methods of scientific manage- ment? Discuss, for the several levels of management, educational practices and information facilities, inter- national ties and exchanges, especially with the United States and the U.S.S.R. In addition to an overall appraisal and description of the entrepreneurial and management groups, such questions as the following should be noted: the part management plays in na- tional life; regard for the public interest as opposed to personal interest; and predispositions and attitudes toward the role of government and toward national policies. Include a brief description and analysis of U.S. and other foreign industrial management activities in the country in regard to information and training pro- grams and, when significant, what the attitudes of the people are toward such activities. (Coordinate with SECTIONS 43, C and 58, D and cross-refer to avoid extensive duplication.) 2. ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PER- SONNEL To what extent are employers and managers organ- ized? List the major organizations with their constit- uent members, giving the basis of the organization and their separate and total membership. State the objectives and structure of each organization and de- scribe the way in which they operate. If any function as pressure groups, coordinate with SECTION 53. Note also professional and technical associations and analyze the part they play in raising the standards of manage- ment. Note the part they have played in the develop- ment of national economic and political policies. 3. MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Indicate the character and quality of the leaders of business and industry as a group. What is their level of education and ability? Comment on their standards and practices from the standpoint of the effective utilization of labor and of the welfare of the whole society. (Correlate with SECTION 59 and/or the Key Personalities unit.) Is there a close tie between mili- tary, government, and industrial leadership? Note the international ties of management and the part they play in public policy. PAGE 18 F. Labor JULY 1957 Describe the prevailing patterns of work, exclusive of management and the armed services, indicating whether these are in process of change and, if so, what forces are precipitating such change. Is the work which is necessary for the maintenance of the economy done largely by a labor force highly specialized and highly organized in unions, or by people working in traditional family, clan, or caste patterns of associa- tion? Are there any pronounced patterns of work related to ethnic or political factors in the community (e.g., as a result of colonialism)? If the economy is in process of change from nonindustrialized agriculture, crafts, or herding to modern industry, including mass production, note the occupation(s), geographic areas, and segments of the population most affected by the change. What percentage of the civilian labor force is working in occupations which are frequently union- ized in industrial societies? Compare this number with the actual extent of unionization. 1. ORGANIZATION OF LABOR List the national federations of labor organizations, each with its major constituents, showing the basis of their organization (whether industry or occupation) and their separate and total membership. Describe briefly the characteristic structure, tactics, aims, financial support, and major objectives of labor unions. Do the unions have any international affiliations? 2. POLICIES Note, where pertinent, the policies of labor unions in regard to such questions as: The wage-price policy of the government Efforts to increase productivity Vocational training The relocation of industry and land redistribution The use of foreign labor Foreign enterprise National defense 3. POLITICAL TIES Indicate briefly the political affiliations of organized labor and the political role it plays. To what extent and how does labor participate in the formulation of national political and economic policies? Note the reactions of various elements in the society to this relationship. Has the government or any nonlabor group established or sponsored any labor organizations? If so, why? Note reaction of labor. Correlate this dis- cussion of the political ties of labor with CHAPTER V, particularly SECTIONS 53 and 55, to avoid extensive duplication. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 C'HAPTER IV 4. LEADERSHIP Are labor leaders well established and highly repre- sentative of industrial and agricultural workers? Is the labor movement an indigenous development or in- spired and/or organized by outside interests? Comment on the caliber of its leaders and their training for leadership. What degree of control can or do the leaders exercise over the rank-and-file? To what extent does the opinion of the rank-and-file influence the leaders? What is the attitude of organized labor and labor leaders toward nonsupport and nonconformity with union policies within the country? What is the attitude of the public press and important elements of the population toward them? Note the international affiliations of the union leadership and the part they play in public policy. Comment on specific leaders in the labor movements. (Correlate with SECTION 59 and/or the Key Personalities unit.) G. Labor-management relations 1. LABOR PROBLEMS What is the customary relation between employer and employee? Is large-scale employment a charac- teristic of the country's economy or is it a characteristic of only a special type of work or region? To what extent do labor-management relations involve foreign employers and/or foreign workers and what special significance does this have in interesting the govern- ment in the problems of labor? A. General What are the specific sources of friction? What are the causes of the problems requiring solution? What are the prevailing methods for settling these disputes? 2. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING Indicate the extent and character of collective bar- gaining, the number and duration of strikes and lock- outs, and the methods of dealing with industrial dis- putes. Does the government play an important part in this field? If so, how? Are there significant de- velopments in organization for the settlement of indus- trial disputes, as, for example, industrial councils and boards, workshop organization and labor courts? (Cross-refer to SECTION 52.) H. Reference data This Subsection accommodates lengthy statistical material which provides data in addition to short tables interspersed in the text. I. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 45. Health and Sanitation This Subsection provides an appropriate introduc- tion to a survey of the health conditions of the area under observation in terms of both indigenous inhabit- ants and alien personnel entering the area. It is an evaluative overview of the content of the Section, including an estimate of the state of health and public sanitation as reflected in general morbidity and mor- tality. The level of medical capabilities, both in knowledge and techniques, as well as the readiness or otherwise of government and private sources to supply facilities is stressed. Political, sociological, and eco- nomic factors bearing on the organization and adminis- tration of public health and the implementing of measures pertinent thereto are noted. Recent changes in government are included but only as they affect medical standards. B. Factors affecting health 1. TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE Include a brief account of the relationship of the topography and climate of the area to the health of man and animals. 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PATTERN Give an evaluative summary of the living conditions of the population, including subsistence problem areas and group customs which are significant to health. 3. ANIMAL AND PLANT LIFE Discuss insects and other types of animal life which affect the health and well-being of man and animals. This discussion (supplemented by tabular data) should be related to health and working efficiency; it includes vectors of disease, mechanical transmitters of disease, pests, and harmful or injurious types. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 19 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 011.1.111.11.kmi NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Give an evaluative summary of medically important plant life, cultivated or wild, which has significance for the well-being of the population at large. When significant, toxic or noxious vegetation is to be included. 4. NUTRITION Discuss the general nutritional status and dietary level, including a brief summary of factors which in- fluence the supply of food. Appropriate reference can be made to SECTION 61, Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry under Food Balance Sheet. Discuss nutrition standards and any features such as religious customs which create or influence dietary habits. Discuss storage, distribution, and facilities for refrigeration of food in relation to health. Discuss existing conditions relative to the inspection of food, such as meat, the pasteurization of milk, and the inspec- tion and control of food stores and eating establish- ments. 5. WATER Discuss the adequacy and safety of the water supply in relation to health, including its vulnerability to contamination. Summarize the status of water dis- tribution and purification, and formulate general con- clusions as to the efficiency. Material will summarize and not duplicate the detailed subject matter of NIS CHAPTER II sections. 6. WASTE DISPOSAL Discuss in general disposal facilities and practices for human excreta, animal wastes, garbage, and rub- bish. Material will summarize and not duplicate the detailed subject matter of NIS SUPPLEMENT IV. C. Diseases Precede the discussion of specific diseases by an evaluative statement as to the prevalence of certain types of diseases, the recurrence of severe epidemics, apparent immunities to certain diseases or extreme susceptibility to others, or similar generalizations, giving possible reasons for these or for any unusual trends. Briefly discuss the adequacy of disease reporting in the area. 1. DISEASES OF MAN a. DISEASES PREVALENT AMONG THE POPULATION ? Discuss the prevalence of all those diseases (including communicable, deficiency, and mental) causing high morbidity and mortality among the native peoples. Indicate the control measures currently enforced. b. DISEASES WHICH MAY AFFECT A MILITARY FORCE AND OTHER NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONNEL -- Dis- cuss those diseases which would be of particular concern to a military force from the viewpoint of loss of man- PAGE 20 power. Cover logistical and other problems related to the control or prevention of the disease. Include discussion of diseases which might be introduced or might be increased in incidence during war. 2. ANIMAL DISEASES Discuss prevalence and control of animal diseases which affect domestic animals. Discuss those animal diseases which can likewise affect man, including their prevalence in men. D. Medical organization and administration 1. CIVILIAN a. ADMINISTRATION ? Describe the overall medi- cal, dental, veterinary, and public health organization and administration. This should begin with a pres- entation of the control and supervision of all types of medical practice. Describe the medical organization in any political subsections of the nation with relation to the central government. Any national health service, public or private, compulsory or voluntary, should be discussed as to its organization, adminis- tration, practice, and effectiveness. b. LEGAL CONTROLS ? Discuss legal control and policy as they concern the practice of medicine, in- cluding standards, licensing, control of narcotics, mental diseases, and public health laws and regulations. C. PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS ? De- scribe any national and local professional and social service organizations and their activities. d. MEDICAL RESEARCH ? Summarize the status of medical and related research, formulating conclu- sions as to its value in contributing to the progress of the nation in those fields. e. INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ? Discuss organization, administration, types of service, extent of coverage, and standards of industrial hygiene. f. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES ? Discuss emer- gency medical services for disaster relief, including the medical aspects of civil defense. Organization, adminis- tration, and scope of such services should be included. 2. MILITARY Describe the general organization and administration of the medical services of the armed forces. This should include a discussion of the command and staff struc- tures within the medical services, the relation to other staff agencies, and the civilian medical organization. Cross-reference to NIS CHAPTER VIII sections should be made. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 4. LEADERSHIP CHAPTER IV dein Are labor leaders well established and highly repre- sentative of industrial and agricultural workers? Is the labor movement an indigenous development or in- spired and/or organized by outside interests? Comment on the caliber of its leaders and their training for leadership. What degree of control can or do the leaders exercise over the rank-and-file? To what extent does the opinion of the rank-and-file influence the leaders? What is the attitude of organized labor and labor leaders toward nonsupport and nonconformity with union policies within the country? What is the attitude of the public press and important elements of the population toward them? Note the international affiliations of the union leadership and the part they play in public policy. Comment on specific leaders in the labor movements. (Correlate with SECTION 59 and/or the Key Personalities unit.) G. Labor-management relations 1. LABOR PROBLEMS What is the customary relation between employer and employee? Is large-scale employment a charac- teristic of the country's economy or is it a characteristic of only a special type of work or region? To what extent do labor-management relations involve foreign employers and/or foreign workers and what special A. General significance does this have in interesting the govern- ment in the problems of labor? What are the specific sources of friction? What are the causes of the problems requiring solution? What are the prevailing methods for settling these disputes? 2. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING Indicate the extent and character of collective bar- gaining, the number and duration of strikes and lock- outs, and the methods of dealing with industrial dis- putes. Does the government play an important part in this field? If so, how? Are there significant de- velopments in organization for the settlement of indus- trial disputes, as, for example, industrial councils and boards, workshop organization and labor courts? (Cross-refer to SECTION 52.) H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 45. Health and Sanitation This Subsection provides an appropriate introduc- tion to a survey of the health conditions of the area under observation in terms of both indigenous inhabit- ants and alien personnel entering the area. It is an evaluative overview of the content of the Section, including an estimate of the state of health and public sanitation as reflected in general morbidity and mor- tality. The level of medical capabilities, both in knowledge and techniques, as well as the readiness or otherwise of government and private sources to supply facilities is stressed. Political, sociological, and eco- nomic factors bearing on the organization and adminis- tration of public health and the implementing of measures pertinent thereto are noted. Recent changes in government are included but only as they affect medical standards. B. Factors affecting health 1. TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE Include a brief account of the relationship of the topography and climate of the area to the health of man and animals. 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PATTERN Give an evaluative summary of the living conditions of the population, including subsistence problem areas and group customs which are significant to health. 3. ANIMAL AND PLANT LIFE Discuss insects and other types of animal life which affect the health and well-being of man and animals. This discussion (supplemented by tabular data) should be related to health and working efficiency; it includes vectors of disease, mechanical transmitters of disease, pests, and harmful or injurious types. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 19 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Give an evaluative summary of medically important plant life, cultivated or wild, which has significance for the well-being of the population at large. When significant, toxic or noxious vegetation is to be included. 4. NUTRITION Discuss the general nutritional status and dietary level, including a brief summary of factors which in- fluence the supply of food. Appropriate reference can be made to SECTION 61, Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry under Food Balance Sheet. Discuss nutrition standards and any features such as religious customs which create or influence dietary habits. Discuss storage, distribution, and facilities for refrigeration of food in relation to health. Discuss existing conditions relative to the inspection of food, such as meat, the pasteurization of milk, and the inspec- tion and control of food stores and eating establish- ments. 5. WATER Discuss the adequacy and safety of the water supply in relation to health, including its vulnerability to contamination. Summarize the status of water dis- tribution and purification, and formulate general con- clusions as to the efficiency. Material will summarize and not duplicate the detailed subject matter of NIS CHAPTER II sections. 6. WASTE DISPOSAL Discuss in general disposal facilities and practices for human excreta, animal wastes, garbage, and rub- bish. Material will summarize and not duplicate the detailed subject matter of NIS SUPPLEMENT IV. C. Diseases Precede the discussion of specific diseases by an evaluative statement as to the prevalence of certain types of diseases, the recurrence of severe epidemics, apparent immunities to certain diseases or extreme susceptibility to others, or similar generalizations, giving possible reasons for these or for any unusual trends. Briefly discuss the adequacy of disease reporting in the area. 1. DISEASES OF MAN a. DISEASES PREVALENT AMONG THE POPULATION ? Discuss the prevalence of all those diseases (including communicable, deficiency, and mental) causing high morbidity and mortality among the native peoples. Indicate the control measures currently enforced. b. DISEASES WHICH MAY AFFECT A MILITARY FORCE AND OTHER NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONNEL -- Dis- cuss those diseases which would be of particular concern to a military force from the viewpoint of loss of man- PAGE 20 power. Cover logistical and other problems related to the control or prevention of the disease. Include discussion of diseases which might be introduced or might be increased in incidence during war. 2. ANIMAL DISEASES Discuss prevalence and control of animal diseases which affect domestic animals. Discuss those animal diseases which can likewise affect man, including their prevalence in men. D. Medical organization and administration 1. CIVILIAN R. ADMINISTRATION ? Describe the overall medi- cal, dental, veterinary, and public health organization and administration. This should begin with a pres- entation of the control and supervision of all types of medical practice. Describe the medical organization in any political subsections of the nation with relation to the central government. Any national health service, public or private, compulsory or voluntary, should be discussed as to its organization, adminis- tration, practice, and effectiveness. b. LEGAL CONTROLS ? Discuss legal control and policy as they concern the practice of medicine, in- cluding standards, licensing, control of narcotics, mental diseases, and public health laws and regulations. C. PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS ? De- scribe any national and local professional and social service organizations and their activities. d. MEDICAL RESEARCH -- Summarize the status of medical and related research, formulating conclu- sions as to its value in contributing to the progress of the nation in those fields. O. INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ? Discuss organization, administration, types of service, 'extent of coverage, and standards of industrial hygiene. f. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES ? Discuss emer- gency medical services for disaster relief, including the medical aspects of civil defense. Organization, adminis- tration, and scope of such services should be included. 2. MILITARY Describe the general organization and administration of the medical services of the armed forces. This should include a discussion of the command and staff struc- tures within the medical services, the relation to other staff agencies, and the civilian medical organization. Cross-reference to NIS CHAPTER VIII sections should be made. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 CIA-RDP79-01055A00030003044141rT JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER II" E. Medical personnel and training Give a summary description of the medical physi- cians of the country (inclusive of all specialists) as a group, their proportional representation among the professionals of the country, the popular attitude toward them, and their attitude toward their work. Add a general appraisal of their competency, their standards of practice and the ethical level of their medical activities. In this group include those medical practitioners (ayurvedic, herb, etc.) who hold a pro- fessional rating in their own societies and communities. Similarly describe the veterinarians and dentists. In detail discuss the physicians and each of the pro- fessional categories in terms of numbers, together with doctor/population ratios, distribution (geographic and urban/rural), their origins (native or foreign), their training (local or foreign), area of specialization, and employment (private, government, institutional, busi- ness and industry?insurance, factory or plant medical units). Under training, name the indigenous schools of medicine and discuss the courses of study, the years spent, the availability of equipment, and the quality of instruction to which the student is exposed before being awarded his degree. Enumerate the numbers of so-called "assistant" doctors, such as feldshers, as well as nurses (all varie- ties), midwives, nurses' aides, and technicians (labora- tory, X-ray, etc.). Besides their numbers give as much information as possible about their distribution, employment, and training, particularly the latter, giving the names of institutions, courses, numbers of years spent in training, and any other pertinent infor- mation surrounding their preparation and functioning. A. General F. Medical care facilities Evaluate the various types of civilian and military medical care facilities which are used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries. Include public and private hospitals, sanatoriums, clinics, and dispen- saries. Discuss the availability and adequacy of clinical diagnostic laboratories used in diseases of man and animals. G. Medical supplies Discuss the availability, quality, and suitability of supplies used in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. Include discussion of self-sufficiency of pharmaceuticals and biologicals and the extent to which deficiencies are met by imports. Describe the manufacturing facilities for medical supplies and equip- ment, the organization and location of the principal establishments, and the quantity and quality of pro- duction. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 46. Welfare This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Sec- tion and is not a digest thereof. It contains a brief statement of the level of public welfare and its relation- ship to national strength or weakness and unity or dis- unity. The prevailing attitudes of the people toward governmental or private responsibility for improving the public welfare and toward various needy and de- pendent segments of the population are also dealt with here, along with the dominant ideals of social welfare. What are the general types of public and private groups engaged in social welfare work? Note the tradi- tional concept of the government concerning its re- sponsibilities in the field of public welfare and indicate recent trends. 11111101"11116111Imm B. Levels of living and social welfare Describe the general material welfare of the popula- tion as reflected in diet, clothing, housing (including electrification, plumbing, and heating), health, educa- tion, and recreation, and compare it with that of the people of selected other countries including the United States. (Cross-refer to SECTION 45 for health and sani- tation and to SECTION 43 for education.) Discuss major class or regional variations in material welfare and significant gaps between actual levels of living and the country's existing standards of living. Are stand- ards of living well defined for different social classes and are the differences a source of resentment? Is any group particularly affected by an adverse wage-price relationship? Give particular attention to important related social tensions. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 21 _Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 Comment on the types and incidence of crime as indicators of social problems. Note the extent of slums, alcoholism, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, traffic in women and children, the use of narcotics, begging, vagabondage, and other adverse conditions recognized in Western societies as social problems and briefly examine the causal factors, e.g., are war, cataclysms, technological innovations, or cultural or social changes at the root of these problems? Discuss those social situations which the society itself regards as threats to its values or as having significant adverse effects upon public welfare, or as making the society vulnerable to subversive influences. C. Social security and welfare aid This Subsection deals with important public and private practices, modern as well as traditional, de- signed to or baying the effect of protecting and assisting those in need of help. 1. SOCIAL SECURITY Where pertinent describe the social security laws and the extent of their operation, including unemploy- ment and other social insurance, old age and invalidity pensions and other forms of social security. Describe briefly the origin and development of these laws and the effectiveness of their operation. Discuss the financial support of the program. Cross-refer to SECTION 44 if necessary. To what extent and in what way do political leaders interest themselves in social security. 2. PUBLIC WELFARE SERVICE For those countries having a public welfare service, its origin, development, and present scope should be briefly noted, together with description of the govern- ment agency charged with administrative responsibility for it, its place in the structure of government, and its financial support. Include the government program PAGE 22 for the provision of aid which may not be included under social security, such as maternity aid, child welfare services, aid to the aged and physically and mentally handicapped, and provisions for emergency relief. What is the public attitude toward these activities? 3. PRIVATE WELFARE SERVICES Important private groups engaged in social welfare work are identified and discussed. Give information on each group concerning its objectives, its sources of support, the type of personnel directing its activities, and the public attitude towards its services. Indicate briefly the nature of the work carried on and the loca- tion of each organization's major endeavors. In a society in which social welfare has not been organized or is only partly provided through organized agencies, describe the prevailing ways in which those in need of help receive care, such as through the joint family, the tribe, religious practices, etc. 4. LEADERSHIP Describe the background and training of persons in positions of leadership in the development of the social welfare program. Is there a nucleus of professionally trained personnel? What is the status of the social worker in the society? Discuss social service training facilities. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER IV iiimmosismaim E. Medical manpower 1. PERSONNEL On a quantitative and qualitative basis describe the availability of civilian and military personnel, such as physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and other associated professional and scientific groups, including nurses, subprofessional practitioners, and technicians. Discuss factors which influence the availability of medical man- power. Discuss the availability of all types of medical personnel to the military in peace and war. 2. TRAINING Describe the educational and training facilities, policies, and programs for all types of medical personnel. Indicate the degree of effectiveness in carrying out medical training. Training facilities and procedures utilized or maintained by the military forces should be included. (Correlate with CHAPTER IV, SECTION 43.) F. Medical care facilities Evaluate the various types of civilian and military medical care facilities which are used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries. Include public and private hospitals, sanatoria, clinics, and dispen- saries. Discuss the availability and adequacy of clinical A. General diagnostic laboratories used in diseases of man and animals. G. Medical supplies Discuss the availability, quality, and suitability of supplies used in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. Include discussion of self-sufficiency of pharmaceuticals and biologicals and the extent to which deficiencies are met by imports. Describe the manufacturing facilities for medical supplies and equip- ment, the organization and location of the principal establishments, and the quantity and quality of pro- duction. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 46. Wel/ are This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Sec- tion and is not a digest thereof. It contains a brief statement of the level of public welfare and its relation- ship to national strength or weakness and unity or dis- unity. The prevailing attitudes of the people toward governmental or private responsibility for improving the public welfare and toward various needy and de- pendent segments of the population, as well as the dominant ideals of social welfare, are also dealt with here. What are the general types of public and private groups engaged in social welfare work? Note the tradi- tional concept of the government concerning its re- sponsibilities in the field of public welfare and indicate recent trends. B. Levels of living and social welfare Describe the general material welfare of the popula- tion as reflected in diet, clothing, housing (including electrification, plumbing, and heating), health, educa- tion, and recreation, and compare it with that of the people of selected other countries including the United morniiignimumwri States. (Cross-refer to SECTION 45 for health and sani- tation and to SECTION 43 for education.) Discuss major class or regional variations in material welfare and significant gaps between actual levels of living and the country's existing standards of living. Are stand- ards of living well defined for different social classes and are the differences a source of resentment? Is any group particularly affected by an adverse wage-price relationship? Give particular attention to important related social tensions. Comment on the types and incidence of crime as indicators of social problems. Note the extent of slums, alcoholism, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, traffic in women and children, the use of narcotics, begging, vagabondage, and other adverse conditions recognized in Western societies as social problems and briefly examine the causal factors, e.g., are war, cataclysms, technological innovations, or cultural or social changes at the root of these problems? Discuss those social situations which the society itself regards as threats to its values or as having significant adverse effects upon public welfare, or as making the society vulnerable to subversive influences. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 21 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 mIllOgiumunimmoi NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 C. Social security and welfare aid This Subsection deals with important public and private practices, modern as well as traditional, de- signed to or having the effect of protecting and assisting those in need of help. 1. SOCIAL SECURITY Where pertinent describe the social security laws and the extent of their operation, including unemploy- ment and other social insurance, old age and invalidity pensions and other forms of social security. Describe briefly the origin and development of these laws and the effectiveness of their operation. Discuss the financial support of the program. Cross-refer to SECTION 44 if necessary. To what extent and in what way do political leaders interest themselves in social security. 2. PUBLIC WELFARE SERVICE For those countries having a public welfare service, its origin, development, and present scope should be briefly noted, together with description of the govern- ment agency charged with administrative responsibility for it, its place in the structure of government, and its financial support. Include the government program for the provision of aid which may not be included under social security, such as maternity aid, child welfare services, aid to the aged and physically and mentally handicapped, and provisions for emergency relief. What is the public attitude toward these activities? PAGE 22 3. PRIVATE WELFARE SERVICES Important private groups engaged in social welfare work are identified and discussed. Give information on each group concerning its objectives, its sources of support, the type of personnel directing its activities, and the public attitude towards its services. Indicate briefly the nature of the work carried on and the loca- tion of each organization's major endeavors. In a society in which social welfare has not been organized or is only partly provided through organized agencies, describe the prevailing ways in which those in need of help receive care, such as through the joint family, the tribe, religious practices, etc. 4. LEADERSHIP Describe the background and training of persons in positions of leadership in the development of the social welfare program. Is there a nucleus of professionally trained personnel? What is the status of the social worker in the society? Discuss social service training D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER V POLITICAL Section 50 Introduction Section 51 The Constitutional System Section 52 Structure of the Government Section 53 Political Dynamics Section 54 Public Order and Safety Section 55 National Policies Section 56 Intelligence and Security Section 57 Subversion Section 58 Propaganda Section 59 Biographies of Key Personalities CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 meitimunimm. JULY 1959 i Chapter V - Political OUTLINE SECTION 50. INTRODUCTION SECTION 55. NATIONAL POLICIES A. General SECTION 51. THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM B. Domestic policies C. Foreign policies A. General D. National defense policies B. Constitution E. Comments on principal sources 1. Origin and development 2. Principal features C. Constitutional pattern of government SECTION 56. INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY D. Civil and religious rights and privileges E. Other important provisions of the con- stitution A. B. General Services of intelligence and security F. Comments on principal sources C. Key officials D. Comments on principal sources SECTION 52. STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT A. General SECTION 57. SUBVERSION B. Central government C. Regional government A. General D. Local government B. Soviet and Communist subversive activ- E. Dependencies and associated states ities F. Comments on principal sources C. Other subversive activities D. Comments on principal sources SECTION 53. POLITICAL DYNAMICS SECTION 58. PROPAGANDA A. General B. C. Political parties Electoral procedures A. B. General Domestic propaganda D. Pressure groups C. Propaganda directed abroad E. Comments on principal sources D. Propaganda by foreign countries E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 54. PUBLIC ORDER AND SAFETY A. General SECTION 59. BIOGRAPHIES OF KEY PERSONALITIES B. Police system C. Penal system A. General D. Civil defense B. Individuals E. Comments on principal sources C. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE I Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 L1,111 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general ar- rangement. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 50. Introduction This Section serves as a political introduction both to the country and to the other Sections of CHAPTER V, drawing upon chapter content to present a political overview but avoiding a summary. It should show the strategic significance of the political, aspects of the country and indicate, however briefly, the relative significance of, and interrelationships among,. those specific aspects that are the subjects of SECTIONS 51-58. Include a brief overall evaluation of the political strength and international influence of the nation in terms of degree of national unity, will to independence, strength of purpose, fighting spirit, relative stability and efficiency of the political system, locus of power, the nature and significance of the relationships between A. General JULY 1957 alb military and political systems, and basic objectives of the government and the nation at home and abroad. Where relevant, include brief reference to the develop- ment and character of nationalism. (Correlate with the discussion of basic attitudes in SECTION 42.) Historical factors affecting present day political attitudes and institutions should be woven into the above discussion to the extent necessary to explain these attitudes and institutions. (Political background material in SECTION 50 should be so correlated with the discussions in CHAPTER IV, SECTION 40, and CHAPTER VI, SECTION 60, that together they will give a rounded picture of significant social, economic, and political background on the area.) Section 51. The Constitutional System This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the description of the general nature of the constitu- tional system contained in the remainder of the Section. It notes briefly significant developments in the na- tion's constitutional history, taking into account such factors as traditional respect for and adherence to con- stitutional processes and civil rights. The Subsection also indicates the relationship between the constitu- tional system and the degree of national political sta- bility and efficiency. (Correlate all SECTION 51 mate- rial with the Outline Guide for SECTION 52, which covers in detail structure, organization, and function- ing of the various branches and agencies of the govern- ment at national, regional, and lciesd levels.) B. Constitution 1. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT Discuss briefly the origin and development of the present constitution, including the political, economic, and social groups dominant when the constitution was adopted, the foreign influences present, and the extent PAGE 2 to which it represented public opinion at the time of adoption. Include an estimate of the current degree of popular support of the constitution; note briefly factors contributing to that support and those arous- ing resentment. 2. PRINCIPAL FEATURES The type of government for which the constitution provides is defined and the salient features of the system described, but only to the extent necessary to give the reader a general understanding of the character of the constitutional system. (Reserve detailed discussion of these salient features for Subsections C, D, and E.) The relationship between the principal provisions of the constitution and actual practice is indicated in general terms. Features which differentiate the constitution from those of the past may be considered briefly. The amending process and the interpretation of the consti- tution by the various branches of government are dis- cussed, particularly with regard to its flexibility in terms of responsiveness to the popular will and the degree to which it is susceptible to manipulation by government officials. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER V dimmoidaNimiin C. Constitutional pattern of government Describe briefly the national pattern of government established by the constitution, indicating the prin- cipal powers of each branch of government, the rela- tionships among the several branches, and the extent to which pertinent constitutional provisions are ap- plied in actual practice. Outline the constitutional provisions determining the pattern of regional and local government if this aspect is not covered ade- quately under Principal Features above. (Reserve for SECTION 52 the discussion of details of the constitution pertaining to organization and functioning of the vari- ous branches and agencies of the government at all levels.) D. Civil and religious rights and privileges Give the constitutional and legal provisions and a statement of the actual situation in respect to civil and religious rights and privileges, considering especially freedom of speech, press, radio, assembly, organization, and religion. The civil and religious rights and privi- leges of foreigners, particularly Americans, are exam- ined and compared with those of nationals. With respect to the suffrage, only law and practice concern- ing the qualifications of electors such as age, sex, and property, are considered. (Percentage of the popula- tion excluded from voting and extent of actual partici- pation in elections is reserved for SECTION 53.) A. General E. Other important provisions of the consti- tution (optional) Describe in broad terms other important constitu- tional provisions such as those relating to economic, social, and military matters, if separate Subsection treatment is deemed appropriate. (In some instances a Subsection entitled "Economic and social provisions" may be preferred.) Note any important differences between constitutional provisions and actual practice. (Avoid extensive duplication of detail on these pro- visions that might more appropriately appear in other Sections, e.g., in the Subsection on Labor in SECTION 44, or in SECTION 46, Welfare.) F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source ma- terial used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 52. Structure of the Government This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to and framework for tile treatment of material contained in the remainder of the Section and should be brief. It takes into consideration conditions, situations, and practices which alter the structure or operation of gov- ernment as provided for in the constitution. There is an analysis of the relationship of the central, regional, and local governments, indicating factors of strength and weakness in this relationship. (Include an orienta- tion map, showing administrative boundaries.) The analysis might also indicate the oxtent to which the framework for regional and local government differs from that established for the nation as a whole. Indi- cate the nature and degree of popular participation at all levels of government and the extent to which govern- ment officials are political leaders. Describe briefly the general characteristics, qualifications, and perform- ance of the bureaucracy as a group. Note any signifi- cant regional or other. variations. B. Central government Describe in detail and with the aid of appropriate charts the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the government, including representative subdivi- sions and agencies of each branch, and civil defense agencies. This discussion includes basic legal pro- visions (except those covered in SECTION 51) and actual procedures of operation to the extent needed to provide a clear understanding of the structure, authority, functioning, and effectiveness of the central government and its major agencies. Include character of personnel, with specific reference to significant indi- viduals where helpful (correlate with SECTION 59 or the Key Personalities unit). The material is presented in such a way as to give the reader a clear conception of the actual locus of power in formation and administra- tion of public policy. In discussing the judicial organization and court structure indicate the general character of the body of law, written or unwritten, upon which the system is based (reserve detailed discussion of the penal code and PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CONFIDENTIAL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 criminal procedure for SECTION 54). Mention the prosecuting agencies and court officials in the judicial organization, indicating briefly the function of the most important but reserving discussion of their roles in the penal system for SECTION 54. Include also such judicial and quasi-judicial bodies as labor and commer- cial courts. In this and other Subsections avoid excessive quotations from laws and regulations. Any significant demands for change on the part of influential groups, e.g., the military, are pointed out, with cross-reference to SECTION 53 for details concerning the group. C. Regional government Delineate the major political subdivisions, e.g., states in the United States, and describe structural organiza- tion and procedures of operation. It may be essential to include some data of the type called for in Subsection B in cases where an understanding of the nature, effectiveness, and popular support of the regional gov- ernments is necessary to an understanding of the operations of the political system as a whole. D. Local government The considerations applicable in Subsections B and C above are applicable here. A. General E. Dependencies and associated states Discuss types of dependencies (colonies, trust terri- tories, protectorates), their governmental organization and relation to the mother country, and the extent of internal conflict and its domestic and international implications. (Tabular treatment may be used to sup- plement discussion.) Illustrate with map if appro- priate. Describe the structure and internal relation- ships of associations of states (e.g., British Common- wealth of Nations, French Union, etc.) which have grown out of previous colonial relationships. Where a country has no dependencies, omission of this Subsec- tion is appropriate and such lack of dependencies would then be mentioned in Subsection A. F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 53. Political Dynamics This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Section. It outlines the salient features of the political system, indicating the locus of power, the nature of political leadership and the manner in which it is exer- cised, the extant to which political power is used within or outside of the constitutional system, and the degree of governmental and constitutional stability and in- stability arising out of the political system. It dis- cusses the development and extent of political aware- ness among the people and indicates the degree to which education and past experience prepare them for political responsibility. Throughout, the Subsection relates political surface phenomena to underlying social, eco- nomic, and cultural forces, with cross-references to the appropriate Sections in CHAPTER IV and CHAPTER VI. In this connection indicate the political effects of social tensions from such factors as class struggles, labor-management disputes, the aspirations of minority groups, and religious beliefs. While discussion of sub- versive activities, whether by legal or illegal groups, is reserved for this Chapter, SECTION 57, the effects of PAGE 4 such activities on the country's political dynamics are briefly described in this Subsection with cross-reference to SECTION 57. Finally, the Subsection might compare the system of political dynamics and its leadership with those of the United States or other appropriate coun- tries. B. Political parties This Subsection sets forth the constitutional and legal provisions defining a party, regulating member- ship, governing collection and expenditure of money, and controlling campaigns. These provisions are com- pared with actual conditions and significant proposals for change. The major existing legal parties are described?in- cluding economic, social, and religious interests repre- sented, internal organization, avowed program and apparent real objectives, position on major issues of national policy, attitudes toward the United States, U.S.S.R., and other foreign nations, propaganda and propaganda methods, finances, recruitment, rank-and- file control, and intraparty disputes that may affect party orientation. Mention should be made of out- CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER V ailmommenew standing national leaders, and their major influence on party policies. (Correlate with SECTION 59 and/or the Key Personalities unit.) The influence of the parties in the formation of public opinion as well as their own susceptibility to propaganda, both foreign and domestic, and other vulnerabilities is analyzed. A brief account of the history of political parties is included where neces- sary to explain trends in political alignments and objectives. There also is a comparison of party strength at the national, regional, and local levels. Significant concentrations of strength are noted, and an effort made to estimate the role played by each party in regional and local government as well as in national affairs. Include a brief evaluation of the strength of subversive groups in relation to other political group- ings if subversive elements significantly affect the country's political dynamics (reserve details on such groups for SECTION 57). Legal quasi-political parties or groups having political influence to an extent greater than that normally attributed to pressure groups are discussed here. Portray the distribution of the major parties. Include the ratio of party strength to the population, urban and rural, and the extent and loca- tion, indicating where there has been a significant turn- over in party membership at any level. As appropriate use graphics or tabular presentation. C. Electoral procedures This Subsection describes in detail the mechanics of important elections, evaluating them as representative procedures (coordinate with SECTIONS 51 and 52). It includes the important constitutional and legal pro- visions governing the character of the ballot, guaran- tees of secrecy, accuracy of counting, and a discussion of actual practices. It also notes any significant resent- ment toward the electoral system or demands for change. With respect to the suffrage, the groups ex- cluded, percentage of population excluded, and the extent of actual participation are discussed in detail. D. Pressure groups This Subsection examines in detail the function of pressure groups in the political system, the manner in which political pressure is exercised and its effect upon the political process. It discusses the constitutional and legal position with respect to lobbying, propa- ganda, expenditure of money, and participation in elections, as well as the extent to which public opinion sanctions, tolerates, or disapproves the exercise of political pressure by private groups. It identifies the groups or organizations of major importance, indicating for each the race, size, character, and distribution of its membership, organization, financial resources, habits, and relation (if any) to foreign governments. When feasible, this information is presented in tabular form. Give a brief analysis of the outstanding national leaders and their major influence on the groups with which they are associated. (Correlate with SEC- TION 59 and/or the Key Personalities unit.) Apparent objectives are briefly analyzed and an effort made to estimate the influence of each group in national and local affairs, and its overall ability to affect U.S. inter- ests. The discussion brings out the position of these groups on major issues of national policy, their attitudes toward the United States, the U.S.S.R., and other foreign nations, their propaganda and propaganda methods, and the role they play in molding public opinion, as well as their own susceptibility to propa- ganda, both foreign and domestic. (Whenever appro- priate, cross-refer to SECTION 58.) The treatment of pressure groups differentiates be- tween groups specifically organized for the purpose of influencing government policies and activities other than through elections or subversive action, and those special-interest groups that are primarily organized for other purposes but that may act as political pressure groups when the occasion demands. Only the former are given primary treatment in this Subsection; the latter may include labor unions, employers' organiza- tions, consumer cooperatives, veterans' groups, youth movements, and similar organized groups whose mem- bership, organization, finances, etc., have been dis- cussed at length in other Sections of the NIS (notably SECTIONS 42, 43, 44, and 46). They should be touched upon here merely in connection with the issues on which they become pressure groups, making cross-reference to the appropriate NIS Sections for the primary treatment. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 Section 54. Public Order and Safety A. General This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material contained in the remainder of the Sec- tion. It includes a brief discussion of the conditions affeCting the maintenance of public order and safety, including public attitudes in general toward the admin- istration of justice. The Subsection indicates any sig- nificant aspects of the police and penal system as a whole, such as size, adequacy, extralegal procedure, or importance as a political, social, or economic force, which distinguish it from those of other areas. (Treat- ment of police, intelligence, and defense organizations insofar as they are concerned primarily with defense of the regime against political activities at home and abroad aimed at its overthrow by unlawful means is reserved for SECTION 56.) B. Police system A brief description is given of the organization and operation of the police system, including a discussion of the relation to other parts of the government. Also describe briefly the criminological facilities (such as fingerprinting and fingerprint files), techniques of riot- control, organization and jurisdictions of forces for suppression of crime (including traffic in narcotics), and the extent of use of police informers. Mention briefly such devices as police identity cards and registration systems, if employed primarily for the maintenance of public order and safety. Discuss fully the nature and implementation of any civil defense functions that may be assigned to the police. What are the attitudes of the public toward the police system? What is the gen- eral ability of the police to preserve order and safety? Illustrate, where applicable, with recent incidents that have left a mark on the minds of the people. Discuss the police personnel with respect to honesty and efficiency, the social base from which the person- nel are recruited, the attributes of leadership, the type of indoctrination and training received, relations be- tween officers and men, intraservice rivalries, discipline, incentives, and in general any factors affecting the morale of the police, the spirit in which they approach their task, and their loyalty to the government. The social standing of the police and the extent to which police officers can become national leaders are dis- cussed. PAGE 6 C. Penal system Give a brief description of the organization and op- eration of the penal system including its basic position. in the legal system, relation to other parts of the gov- ernment, honesty and efficiency of administration, and the public attitude toward it. Indicate abuses of the ethical principles set forth in the system of law, from the standpoint of the society under discussion. This Subsection includes a discussion of the criminal codes and procedure, types of offenses and punishments, legal or constitutional rights of the individual (with cross- reference to SECTION 51, Subsection D), and the extent to which these rights are respected in practice, the incidence of crime, and the prison and reform system. In discussing criminal procedure, briefly trace the prin- cipal steps facing an offender from the time of accusa- tion to imprisonment or appeal; avoid excessively tech- nical treatment, stressing marked variations between legal requirements and practice, and also differences from U.S. procedures (correlate with SECTIONS 51 and 52). In discussing the rehabilitation of former crimi- nals include women and juvenile delinquents. Explain the differences, if any, in the handling of criminals and others sentenced to forced labor for major or minor criminal or political offenses. In discussing the penal institutions, including forced labor and concentration camps, note the governmental agency responsible for overall administration and con- trol, and the component exercising local jurisdiction. Depict by map, where feasible, the number and loca- tion of penal institutions and camps. Give the name, location, and size of each major institution, distribu- tion of estimated total in such institutions by main categories of inmates, such as political prisoners, crimi- nals, ethnic groups, religious sects, foreigners, etc. Where meaningful data are available note work condi- tions, food, housing, guard system, physical and medi- cal care available, life expectancy; also morale, effec- tiveness of indoctrination system, policy in regard to length of sentence, term of actual service, and screen- ing for return to private life. Comment on the posi- tion, rights, and penalties of families of forced laborers. What are the restrictions placed on released prisoners? (Correlate with SECTION 44.) For countries where the courts serve primarily as in- struments of the regime for the repression and control of the population, detailed treatment of the judicial structure may be presented here, or as a separate Subsection of SECTION 54, rather than in SECTION 52. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER V .M1111191MMATImm D. Civil defense The Subsection presents an integrated survey of civil defense, its organization, place in the governmental structure, relationship with other pertinent public ac- tivities, and other principal characteristics as discussed elsewhere in CHAPTER V or other appropriate chapters, to which cross-reference is made as appropriate. The discussion includes plans or provisions for pertinent types of emergency actions, and the extent of civil de- fense instruction and facilities. (For an Area not war- ranting a separate Subsection, civil defense is referred to briefly in Subsection A. General of SECTION 54.) A. General E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 55. National Policies This Subsection provides an appropriate framework for and approach to the material presented in the re- mainder of the Section. It identifies briefly the funda- mental political, psychological, economic, and social factors necessary to understand national policies as a whole? e.g., their origins and the major factors con- ditioning their formulation and implementation, in- cluding characteristics of individual policymakers if helpful (with cross-reference to SECTION 59 and the Key Personalities unit). In some instances, it may be necessary to emphasize the impact of history upon the development of national policies. This Subsection like- wise notes the important interrelationships among domestic, foreign, and defense policies, especially as to cause and effect, disproportionate emphasis, and incon- sistencies and conflicts. The. popularity of national policies as a whole and their significance to the political system are also touched upon. Any significant differ- ences in the extent of public awareness, interest, and level of understanding of national, in contrast to inter- national, problems and policies, are noted. Detailed discussions of domestic, foreign, and defense policies are left to the following Subsections. B. Domestic policies This Subsection provides a general statement on domestic policy as a whole and an analysis of major issues and individual policies that are fundamental to the stability of government, that preoccupy public opinion, or that strongly affect foreign and defense policies. Where meaningful, include policy on domestic use and control of nuclear power. Important domestic issues or policies treated in detail elsewhere in the NIS, especially in CHAPTERS IV and VI and in other Sections of CHAPTER V, are discussed briefly here with appro- priate cross-reference. Such discussions emphasize long-standing and probably continuing trends, and include a brief consideration of the characteristic political reactions of the people (such as mistrust of power), the implementation of policies, and the effects of domestic policies upon the political system. In individual instances, it might be advisable to show the extent to which the domestic policies are patterned after or integrated with those of another government. The attitudes of the principal opinion-forming elements toward important individual issues or policies are dis- cussed in some detail. Whenever such groups have been given primary treatment in other Sections of the NIS (e.g., political parties and pressure groups in SEC- TION 53, social organizations in SECTION 42, religious groups in SECTION 43, labor unions in SECTION 44) dis- cussion here is brief and cross-reference is made to the appropriate Section. C. Foreign policies This Subsection presents as concisely as possible the important relations of the country to and its alignment with individual countries and major power blocs, and the principal objectives and policies of the country in these relationships (correlate with SECTIONS 55 for the countries concerned). Mention policy on international use and control of nuclear power, if significant. Indi- cate the extent of participation in international organi- zations, and the extent of popular satisfaction with foreign policies and their conduct. Discuss the organi- zation and powers of foreign policymaking components and their relations to other agencies of the government, supplementing, as necessary, the treatment given in SECTION 52. The Subsection treats such factors as evidence of desire for rectification of borders, measures for exchange of population, measures for expulsion of ethnic groups, extent of adoption of immigration quotas, and efforts to extend control over foreign areas. A dis- cussion of major treaties and agreements of a strategic PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 nature, particularly those affecting the United States, is included. Discuss briefly the attitudes of govern- ment leaders and various groups of the people toward foreign nations (particularly the U.S.S.R., and the United States and Americans) and toward international organizations (especially the United Nations or regional groupings for defense or other purposes), and toward foreign investments and foreign aid and the causes underlying these attitudes. Public attitudes and pop- ular support for policy in this and the following Subsec- tion are discussed primarily in relation to specific, cur- rent issues, leaving the sociological and psychological analysis of basic and more lasting attitudes to SECTION 42, to which reference is made. While the discussion indicates whether the attitude of a group or of the pub- lic at large on a specific issue is deeply rooted or of a more ephemeral nature and whether it can more or less easily be influenced by propaganda, it does not attempt a detailed analysis of the processes of opinion formation or of prevalent social values of the society. D. National defense policies This Subsection discusses the present defense policies of major political importance, including civil defense, and the influence of these policies upon domestic and foreign policies (avoid duplication of discussion of domestic and foreign policies, above). A discussion of - World War II policies and postwar changes may be in- cluded to provide necessary perspective. The Subsec- tion describes the role of the defense establishment and of the armed forces in the government as far as it affects A. General defense policies. Differences in viewpoint between the military establishment and the civilian policymaking bodies which are significant in the formulation of de- fense policies are pointed out. The Subsection also discusses the, influence upon defense policies of official and popular reactions toward war, rearmament, and compulsory military training. It identifies ithportant organized groups (such as veterans' organizations) that seek to influence the government, the legislature, or public opinion on issues of national defense. It esti- mates the impact of action by these organizations on specific policies, but leaves the primary treatment of these groups to appropriate other Sections of the NIS, such as SECTION 43, for religious, educational, and public information organizations; SECTION 44, for management and labor groups; SECTION 46, for social welfare bodies; SECTION 53, for political pressure organizations; SEC- TION 57, for essentially subversive groups; and SECTION 42, for organizations not otherwise classified. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 56. Intelligence and Security This Subsection is designed to provide the back- ground information which will serve as a framework for the details in the remainder of the Section. It de- scribes, with the aid of charts if appropriate, the national structure of civilian and military organizations concerned with internal security and the procurement of intelligence on other countries, and discusses their background and development, demarcations of foreign and domestic responsibility, political aspects, and pro- fessional standards. By way of background, enough of the past is presented to convey a clear understanding of the present services. As part of the explanation of general intelligence and security structure, the man- dates, legal powers, and/or de facto responsibilities of the services are discussed. Discussion of political PAGE 8 aspects above indicates how the services of intelligence and security have been shaped or affected by the inter- national position and subversive situation of the country (as set forth in SECTION 57 and/or SECTION 50); the discussion also evaluates the relationship of the intelligence and security services to the government and the attitude of the populace toward them. Reference is made, if appropriate, to responsibility for censorship of public communications and publications. Profes- sional standards are discussed in terms of integrity, efficiency, security, and morale and disciplinary meth- ods. The discussion of standards includes the extent to which they are met and the general effectiveness of the services. A careful coordination with other perti- nent Sections of CHAPTER V is necessary. Primary treatment of police organizations mainly concerned with public order and safety is reserved for SECTION 54. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER V B. Services of intelligence and security This Subsection is designed to provide information about the national services of intelligence and security, both civilian and military, in appropriate detail. It includes discussion of their functions, organization, administrative practices, methods of operation, and relationships with other services. The specific func- tions of each service are explained in detail; and, so far as possible, the relative order of significance of these functions is indicated. The internal structure of each service is explained, together with the responsibilities of its subordinate units. Descriptions of complex organizations are supplemented by charts. Adminis- trative practices are explained in terms of the selection and training of staff personnel, budgets and appropria- tions, salaries, and records and files. The security practices of each service are analyzed, both with respect to physical security (classification, guarding, and con- trol of classified documents, etc.) and security of per- sonnel (clearances, indoctrination, security conscious- ness, etc.). As elements of methods of operation, practices regarding agents are discussed, as well as techniques, available technical facilities, and devices for security control of the population. The relation- ships of each national service with the other national services and with foreign (non-U.S.) services are considered. C. Key officials This Subsection presents as concisely as possible the background of key personalities of the agencies previ- ously discussed, duly coordinated with SECTIONS 59 and Key Personalities units of the NIS. The approach is selective, with emphasis upon those elements of per- sonal history that have specific bearing upon profes- sional capabilities and characteristics. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection is designed to aid in the evaluation of text material. Any portions of the text derived from covert information not originally produced by the contributing agency is so indicated. Within the text, material originally acquired by the contributing agency and less than generally reliable is appropriately labeled. This Subsection indicates, accordingly, that the ma- terial not thus qualified in the text is considered gen- erally reliable. If overt materials have been used to any great extent in the Section, this fact is stated. A bibliography of such sources may be included. Section 57. Subversion A. General This Subsection provides an appropriate approach to the material presented in the remainder of the Section. It discusses the fundamental factors affecting subversive activities and capabilities in the country. Toward this end it touches briefly on the underlying social, political, diplomatic, religious, cultural, and economic factors making for susceptibility or resistance to Communist or other forms of subversion. Both vulnerabilities and strengths are to be related to the social structure, cul- tural values, social and political institutions, and eco- nomic conditions as discussed in other Sections of CHAPTERS IV, V, and VI. Give particular attention to manifestations of social disunity. The Subsection presents an overall picture of sub- versive activities (both Communist and other) from within or without the country directed against the regime, characterizing the different types of subversion and identifying the principal subversive groups and target groups, especially those in the government and among police, and defense forces. Note the overall relative strength, discipline, and influence of sub- versive groups. Review government policy with re- spect to subversive activities, including constitutional, legislative, and administrative measures designed to contain and control subversion, the policies and atti- tudes of the country's political leadership, and the effectiveness of police and security forces in dealing with subversive activities. Whenever possible, the Subsection concludes with an estimate of overall sub- versive capabilities and an analysis of subversive trends, particularly in the government and among police and defense forces. B. Soviet and Communist subversive activ- ities This Subsection includes a discussion of Soviet and Communist subversive activities within and directed against the country, with emphasis upon the activities of 1) the Communist Party, 2) Communist or Com- munist-dominated trade unions, and 3) Communist front organizations, designed to appeal either to the nation as a whole ("Peace" movement, Soviet Friend- ship Societies) or to special groups in the population such as veterans, students, youth, women, racial and religious minorities, and intellectuals. Each organiza- tion or group of importance is presented, with informa- tion as to name, size, character of membership, tech- PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 niques of recruitment, affiliated national and inter- national organizations, key figures, funds, aims, meth- ods of operation (both overt and covert), propaganda policies and techniques, utilization for the purpose of espionage and sabotage or as a cover for paramilitary activities, strength or weakness of Communist influence within the groups, internal differences or rivalries among the leadership, influence in national or local affairs, and ability to affect U.S. interests. When feasible, such information may be presented in tabular form. Dis- cuss the significant history, covert apparatus, and relationship of these organizations and groups to Com- munist and Communist-influenced organizations out- side the country. (Correlate with SECTION 53.) Note the extent and manner in which subversive activities are supported by economic, political, military, and other action. Plans or potentialities for sabotage under war- time conditions are considered, including infiltration of civil defense organizations. The discussion throughout indicates the extent to which Communism has suc- ceeded in infiltrating the economic, social, political, military, and cultural life of the country and has gained control over key positions in government, the armed forces, commerce, industry, transportation, and com- munications. Whenever possible the reasons for failure or success are explained. (When SECTION 57 applies to a Communist-controlled country, the Subject Outline may be adapted as seems appropriate.) C. Other subversive activities This Subsection includes a discussion of all non- Communist groups that threaten to overturn the exist- ing order by extralegal means, including any under- Section 58. For the purposes of this Section, propaganda covers 1) governmental action to influence individual and collective attitudes and behavior at home and abroad, and 2) similar action within the area by significant unofficial agencies formed for the purpose of conducting propaganda on an international scale and constituting an important adjunct to official propaganda, e.g., Radio Free Europe. Detailed treatment of the propa- ganda of private groups is normally reserved for the Sections in CHAPTERS IV and V containing the primary treatment of these groups: religious and educational groups in SECTION 43, labor and management groups in SECTION 44, political and pressure groups in SECTION 53, subversive groups in SECTION 57. Mass communica- tion media and the extent of their use are discussed in detail in SECTION 43, under Public Information. A. General This Subsection brings into perspective the categories of propaganda contained in the remainder of the Sec- tion. It gives an overview of the relative importance PAGE 10 ground, guerrilla, or resistance movements. It pro- vides detailed information on the origin and history, political doctrine, aims and tactics, character of mem- bership, organization, leadership, financing, methods of operation, propaganda policies and techniques, affilia- tions with other national and international organiza- tions, and clandestine activities of each group and attempts to estimate its subversive potential. The re- lationship of such movements to the Communists is noted, including Communist cooperation, support, or opposition. The Subsection also includes the sub- versive activities of representatives of non-Communist countries directed against the country, if the country is not under Communist control, reserving for SECTION 58 primary treatment of their propaganda. Special attention is given to any organized resistance to military service, with statistics on evasion cases, if available. D. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby pro- vide general guidance for collection effort. In this con- nection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Propaganda of the following elements of the propaganda effort: the process of conscious manipulation of any or all means of communication, the ideas and doctrines disseminated by means of such manipulation, the plans and projects as well as agents established or used to further such ideas or doctrines, and the proportion of the national budget spent on propaganda activities. It indicates briefly the extent to which government propaganda at home and abroad is supported or undermined by the propaganda of domestic political parties or other un- official groups (reserve discussion of the specific propa- ganda of each such group for the Section in which it receives primary treatment). The prevalent attitude of the people toward propaganda is noted, i.e., resistance toward or awareness of propaganda as such, both domes- tic and foreign. Indicate the part played by important educational, religious, and social groups and traditions in shaping this attitude. This Subsection also discusses the extent and aims of the nation's propaganda effort abroad in relation to its regional and international political and economic status. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER V B. Domestic propaganda Explain overall domestic propaganda activity with a general analysis of the governmental organization, ob- jectives, major themes, content, method, effectiveness, trends, and target groups. Include some general ob- servations concerning the degree of susceptibility of the target groups as a whole. Discuss the organization and functioning of the major domestic propaganda agencies and efforts in terms of the following criteria: 1) Identification and description of activity; any international connections; approximate size of effort? giving number of offices and personnel; source of funds; level of expenditures; leadership in terms of general background, connections, and ability of the key per- sonnel as a group (include names of individual leaders, if helpful) ; real source of sponsorship or control if other than government, with an indication as to whether target groups are aware of such control; and method of operation, whether overt, clandestine, or both. Civil defense propaganda is included when appropriate. (Coordinate with SECTIONS 52, 59, and/or Key Person- alities unit.) 2) Long- and short-range objectives and principal themes utilized to achieve them, in relation to specific target groups. Indicate the significance of these groups, why they were selected as targets, and the priorities assigned. (For primary treatment of such groups correlate with other appropriate Sections such as SECTION 42.) 3) Content in relation to specific themes. De- scribe, wherever possible, specific message content used to put themes across, such as use of slogans, e.g., "Asia for Asiatics," catchwords, e.g., "Iron Curtain," and symbols, e.g.., "capitalism," etc. 4) Communication methods used. Describe in some detail, where possible, the methods and media used by the agencies concerned, covering the extent, kind, and effectiveness of use of: press and periodicals, books and libraries, information centers, exhibits, posters, radio and TV, motion pictures, and person-to- person communication, e.g., planted rumors, whispering campaigns, lectures, paid agitators, etc. (Correlate with SECTION 43, under Public Information.) 5) Effectiveness. Where possible, analyze the effectiveness of coverage and the degree of penetration of specific target groups. C. Propaganda directed abroad Deal fully with the domestic organization and func- tioning of the major governmental agencies involved in directing propaganda abroad, including headquarters' organization, source and extent of funds, facilities, con- trol, leadership, objectives, and nature and extent of foreign influence on operations. Discuss from the same standpoint the activities within the area of unofficial agencies, domestic or foreign, engaged in directing significant propaganda abroad in support of the official effort. A discussion and graphic presentation showing the proportion of the national propaganda effort being expended toward various countries or general geo- graphic areas should be included. Target audiences, organization and methods abroad, and effectiveness will be dealt with in detail by the NIS on the recipient country(ies) (see below, under Propaganda by Foreign Countries) and will be treated here only to the extent necessary to place in perspective the domestic opera- tions involved in dissemination of propaganda abroad. Full information should be given here, however, on target audiences, organization and methods, and quality, type, and volume of propaganda directed to the United States. D. Propaganda by foreign countries Deal fully with the major efforts within the area of both friendly and unfriendly governments, including targets, audiences, organization, methods (such as "friendship" campaigns, visits by official or unofficial delegations, etc.) and facilities within the area for the dissemination of their propaganda. Treat in the same way the local activities of unofficial foreign agencies which serve as an important adjunct to the propaganda of foreign governments. Assess the effectiveness of each major propaganda effort in achieving its objec- tives, except that of the U.S. Government (however, data on the factually measurable response to U.S. efforts, such as numbers using USIS libraries, may be included). In NIS areas not under Communist control, indicate the extent to which domestic Communist organizations serve as vehicles for the dissemination of Soviet or Soviet-bloc propaganda (reserve the primary discussion of domestic Communist propaganda for SECTION 53 or 57 and, where applicable, SUPPLEMENT VI). Organiza- tion and functioning in the countries of origin of the major foreign agencies and groups involved will be treated here only to the extent necessary to explain their operations within the recipient country, detailed treatment being reserved for the NIS on the originating countries (see above under Propaganda Directed Abroad). E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. PAGE 11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 Section 59. Biographies of Key Personalities A. General Point out briefly the general characteristics of the group of personalities selected for treatment in this Section, particularly with reference to political affilia- tion, education and training, experience, religion, and social status. Also note the nature and social status of the groups through which the individuals rose to power. Indicate clearly the ba?is on which personalities were selected for treatment in this Section. If the nation produces few leaders or if there are few or many leaders in certain fields such as labor, indicate the major factors underlying this situation. B. Individuals This Section consists of individual studies of key people who play or are likely to play vital roles in the fields of politics, government, religion, education, art and cultural activities, labor, business, or public infor- mation. Each individual study covers the following areas: 1) the subject's position, influence, and poten- tialities in his respective field; 2) his or her personality as revealed by significant attitudes and behavior, and PAGE 12 interests and aptitudes; 3) education and occupational history; 4) group (family, class, racial, ethnic, national, and other) affiliations; 5) religious -background and extent of participation in religious activity; 6) personal accomplishments (publications, knowledge of languages, etc.); 7) attitudes and predispositions toward the United States, the U.S.S.R., and other countries and toward major national and international problems; 8) any significant personal interests or hobbies which might have a bearing on accessibility and a determina- tion of vulnerabilities; and 9) media habits. C. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Under Maintenance, SECTION 59 is generally superseded by Key Personalities, in which all NIS biographical material is consoli- dated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER VI ECONOMIC Section 60 Introduction Section 61 Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Section 62 Fuels and Power Section 63 Minerals and Metals Section 64 Manufacturing and Construction Section 65 Trade and Finance CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 SECTION 60. INTRODUCTION A. B. C. D. Chapter VI Economic structure Economic dynamics Economic planning Strategic aspects of the economy Economic OUTLINE SECTION 61. AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, AND FORESTRY A. General B. Agriculture 1. General aspects 2. Physical features 3. Land use 4. Size of farm holdings, tenure, and labor 5. Production practices, equipment, and supplies 6. Production and trade 7. Agricultural organizations, institu- tions, and policies 8. Prospects for expanding production C. Fisheries 1. Catch of fish and other aquatic prod- ucts 2. Major fishing areas 3. Fishing operations 4. Utilization of catch 5. Foreign trade in fishery products 6. Ownership and control 7. Government and industry policies D. Food balance sheet E. Forests and forest products 1. The forest resources 2. Primary forest products industries 3. Supply position 4. Forest policies and programs F. Comments on principal sources SECTION 62. FUELS AND POWER A. B. C. General Solid fuels Petroleum 1. General 2. Strategic supply position 3. Exploration and development 4. Refining and processing 5. Transportation 6. Equipment and materials 7. Labor, finance, and government policy 8. Natural gas D. Electric power 1. Role of electric power in the national economy 2. Growth of electric power production and capacity 3. Generating plant 4. Sources of energy 5. Transmission system 6. The coordinated or interconnected systems 7. Consumption of electric energy 8. Organization of the electric power industry 9. Future developments E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 63. MINERALS AND METALS A. B. C. D. E. F. G. General Iron ore Iron, steel, and mill products Nonferrous ores, metals, and alloys Nonmetallic minerals Construction materials Comments on principal sources SECTION 64. MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION A. B. C. D. E. General Industrial machinery and equipment Vehicles 1. General 2. Civilian-type vehicles 3. Specialized military vehicles Aircraft production Shipbuilding 1. General 2. Production and repair activity 3. Economic resources and requirements 4. Shipyard facilities and production methods 5. Future prospects of the industry Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS F. Explosives (industrial and military) G. Arms and ammunition (including ex- plosive devices), fire-control equipment, and bomb sights II. Other military equipment and supplies I. Telecommunications equipment J. Chemical industries 1. General 2. Industrial chemicals 3. Chemicals used in agriculture 4. Synthetic. rubber and fibers, and plastics 5. Pharmaceuticals K. Agricultural processing industries L. Fibers, fabrics, and rubber M. Construction industries N. Other industries 0. Comments on principal sources SECTION 65. TRADE AND FINANCE JULY 1957 A. General B. Business organization C. Domestic trade and finance 1. Pattern of domestic trade 2. Domestic financial institutions and their structure 3. Government finance and fiscal policy D. International trade and finance 1. Balance of payments position 2. Foreign assets and liabilities 3. Government policies, practices and institutions relative to international trade and finance 4. Foreign trade organizations E. Government wartime financing F. Comments on principal sources OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. It is essential that analysts and editors be thoroughly familiar with all of the following -explanatory material, even though they are concerned with only a portion of the outline of the Chapter. Analysts should keep in mind that the outline is meant to serve as a guide and not as a hard and fast statute of requirements for every Section. It is to be used flexibly, adapted to suit the particular economic circumstances of each area, and the analysis elicits those economic features and develop- ments which are important to that area. 1) Purpose: The purpose of CHAPTER VI is to pro- vide a concise but complete survey of the economic structure, potential, and importance of the Area. The various Sections of the Chapter provide, in the aggregate, an integrated view of the economy, the pattern and direction of its development and the capac- ity of the economy to adjust itself to change. 2) Treatment: SECTION 60, which is designed to give an overall evaluation of the economy, is to be treated in the special manner described under SECTION 60 below. The other Sections deal with basic materials, energy resources, industries, trade and finance, and such related subjects as are essential to an evaluation of the economy of the Area and of the manner in which it functions. PAGE 2 Each Section includes all the factual data needed to support the analysis. Such data are set forth, so far as possible, in statistical tables, on charts and maps, and in tabulations. Text is used for the purpose of singling out the more significant aspects of the statis- tical and graphic material and of assembling data that do not readily lend themselves to tabular and graphic presentation, or where scantiness of data makes tabular treatment more bulky. The general or "A" portions of each Section indicate the significant aspects of the subject under discussion and consider them as they would affect the nation's strength as an enemy, neutral, or ally. Special em- phasis is given to such problems as self-sufficiency, capacity to expand production and supplies, and direc- tion and rate of economic development. It is especially important that full footnotes be carried in file copies of the final draft, indicating source of data plus any other notes necessary for full under- standing of any qualifications of the data. This is important for the implementation of the maintenance program and for further research. For the copies to be submitted to CIA only the principal references and explanatory notes are carried. 3) Visual presentation: Maps, charts, graphs, and photographs are provided wherever they will serve in lieu of text, or to summarize or clarify textual and Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER V1 4.01?????????? statistical matter. Appropriate reference regarding such visual aids always appears in the text. 4) Use pattern: Major uses of items are shown quan- titatively. This information is given for all consump- tion including those items that are imported. In the case of items that are used for one purpose which is self-evident, the requirement for this information does not of course apply. 5) Units of measure and value: See NIS Editorial Instructions (E, 6, Statistical Data) for detailed rules. 6) Years to be reported: Annual statistical data (by calendar, crop, or fiscal years) are reported in accord- ance with the practice in the Area. For the most recent data, however, if not annual, reporting is in the largest available fraction of a year. As a general rule, figures for any significant span of years or an average of such years will suffice for comparative pur- poses. If data are taken from two or more sources, care must be exercised to assure comparability; if data are not comparable, appropriate footnotes explaining the noncomparability will be included. Section 60. Introduction The purpose of this Section is twofold. Firstly, it gives an integral view of the structure of the economy, the pattern and direction of the development, and the capacity of the economy to adjust itself to external or internal political, economic, and social changes. Sec- ondly, it serves as a frame of reference for proper evaluation of the material, both factual and interpre- tive, presented in the subsequent Sections of the Chapter. Detailed accounts of the component parts of the economy are presented in the respective Sections of this and other Chapters and Supplements. Here, the significant aspects of each sector of the economy are defined, and the part each sector plays in the total economic scope and direction of the economic process is assessed. The Section presents the overall produc- tion or other figures needed to indicate the position of any vital industries (such as steel), both in structure of the economy of the Area and in relation to world production. A. Economic structure This Subsection describes in broad terms the main structural features of the economy. It examines the position and importance of the various sectors of economic activity (including distribution and transpor- tation) both in terms of their contribution to national income and in relation to the country's resources and to their potential development. It also considers em- ployment patterns as bearing upon the above require- ments. It notes the relation of the various sectors of the economy to national stability. It discusses types and rate of domestic capital accumulation, recent pattern of utilization, and factors stimulating or limiting capital formation such as pri- vate or government investment policies, domestic and foreign markets, foreign investments, etc. The discus- sion, moreover, analyzes the nature of the economic development in terms of 'changes in the composition of the gross product. B. Economic dynamics This Subsection is devoted to a definition and analysis of the forces, including socioeconomic trends and attitudes, which at present determine the orienta- tion of the economy. The discussion examines the technological advance of economic processes along with other factors making for development of the various sectors of the economy, as well as obstacles to develop- ment, and factors making for recession or disintegra- tion. It notes the effect, if any, of U.S. and other foreign activities in the country which have significance to the economy. It evaluates the competitive strength of the economy in terms of productivity of labor, degree of mechanization, etc., and appraises the ability of the economy to make appropriate adjust- ments to change, including changing patterns of world trade. It also examines the role of the state in con- trolling and influencing economic organization, activity, and development and evaluates the significance of entrepreneurial activities of the state. C. Economic planning This Subsection describes briefly the orientation of current national policy and indicates the areas of economic activity to which it applies, the scope and orientation of long-range economic planning, and examines critically the degree of disparity between plans and economic capabilities of the area. It notes important factors influencing economic planning and development such as the ability and attitudes of the economic elite, its political power and international ties. It indicates how the government proposes to finance the realization of its long-range economic plans, and examines the extent to which such plans are being realized. It discusses the nature and amount of assistance, if any, from abroad in furthering plans. , PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 41.01111.1111111.111.1 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 D. Strategic aspects of the economy In this Subsection discussion covers the problem of the strategic supply position and economic war po- tential, including the extent to which the country is or can readily become self-sufficient in its major re- quirements and what conditions must be fulfilled in order to increase the degree of self-sufficiency of the _ area. The problems of self-sufficiency and economic. capacity for war are considered not only with respect to available natural resources but also in relation to existing manpower and its technical capabilities, and in relation to available installatiens affecting produc- tion. With respect to manpower, consideration is given to conclusions reached in CHAPTER IV On problems of mobility, existing skills, adaptability of labor to new productive processes, and feasibility of increasing the labor force through mobilization of overage and under- A. General age laborers and women. With respect to the existing productive plant, attention is given to the degree of utilization of existing facilities. The analysis indi- cates the 'causes of significant deficiencies or surpluses. It also indicates the degree to which the economy is vulnerable to military attack, in terms of dependence on a particular sector of the economy or a particular group of installations. In this connection it considers conclusions reached in CHAPTER III with respect to the transportation system and the manner in which it affects the economic war potential of the area. Special attention is given to the economy's vulnerability to manipulation by foreign interests either through infil- tration of the economy or external economic measures. The Subsection notes the extent to which the nation is able to or does carry on similar activity abroad (with cross-reference to SECTIONS 57 and 58 if appropriate). Section 61. Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry This Subsection gives a concise appraisal of the agricultural sector of the economy. It defines the position of agriculture, including primary processing, in terms of its contribution to national income, as a field of capital investment and source of employment. It discusses briefly recent developments or major trends in land ownership and land use with particular reference to production patterns and techniques. The degree of the country's self-sufficiency in food, feed, and industrial crops is indicated, and the coun- try's position as a market for and an international sup- plier of agricultural commodities, including processed products, is discussed briefly. The Subsection summarizes current governmental policies with respect to ownership and utilization of land, agricultural production, and prices, as well as in relation to international controls and agreements that bear upon production, international prices, and allo- cation of markets. It indicates the relative importance of the fishing industry in the national economy, and briefly describes the organization of the industry and the manner in which it is protected and regulated by the government. It discusses in broad terms the position of the forest industry in the national economy, with an indication of the extent and distribution of forest resources. Recent developments in the exploitation of resources and government policies relating to the conservation and national utilization of forest resources and to primary processing activity are summarized, and the PAGE 4 country's dependence upon foreign markets and sources of supply is discussed. B. Agriculture 1. GENERAL ASPECTS This subtopic briefly indicates the general extent and nature of agriculture including the relative im- portance of the different types of farming such as self- sufficiency, commercial, state or collective, cooperative, quasi-feudal, and paternalistic. It mentions any social and cultural attitudes which have a direct and signifi- cant effect on agricultural production and practices or on consumption. It also notes the extent of regional and crop specialization versus mixed farming. 2. PHYSICAL FEATURES This subtopic indicates the suitability of the country for agriculture in terms of terrain, soil fertility, and climate (temperature and precipitation). (Correlation with SECTIONS 23 and 24, where weather, climate, and topography are treated from the standpoint of military operations.) The principal agricultural regions are described. 3. LAND USE The discussion covers the approximate amount and percentage of the land area that is in agricultural use; the relation of physical features to the pattern and possibilities of land use; the uses of arable land (crop, orchard, and rotation pasture and meadow land) and its distribution among the major agricultural pursuits. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAP TER VI 4. SIZE OF FARM IIOLDINGS, TENURE, AND LABOR This subtopic gives an overall statement in regard to land ownership and size of operating units and farm properties. It discusses prevailing systems of tenure and the distribution of the farm labor force between owner-operators, tenants, and hired labor. It indi- cates types of labor contracts and the extent of unem- ployment or underemployment of farm labor. 5. PRODUCTION PRACTICES, EQUIPMENT, AND SUPPLIES The discussion here covers production practices and techniques with reference to intensity of farming, multiple cropping and intercropping, -crop rotation, control of plant diseases and parasites, use of seed, farm machinery and equipment, draft animals, and fertilizers. It indicates the nature and need for clear- ing, irrigation, draining, and terracing. Quantitative data on principal types of farm machinery used are included. Use and feasibility of tractors and combines and other power equipment are indicated. As data permit, the degree of self-sufficiency and foreign trade in regard to farm machinery, chemical fertilizers, seed, insecticides, and fungicides is discussed. Cross-reference is made to SECTION 64, Subsections B (Industrial Machinery), C (Motor Vehicles), and J (Chemical Fertilizers) if these Subsections contain additional information on sources of agricultural supplies. 6. PRODUCTION AND TRADE This subtopic summarizes briefly total crop and live- stock production and supply, indicating the relative importance of products or product groups to the economy and dependence on external trade for supply. It accompanies this summary with a production and net trade summary for a representative period or year, showing amount available for domestic consumption. a. MAJOR CROPS ? The following is discussed for each of the major food, feed, and industrial crops: coin- parative importance in the agricultural economy, area under cultivation and geOgraphical location, total out- put, yields, imports and/or exports, domestic consump- tion, planting and harvesting dates, diseases, and insect pests. Broad indication is given of the manner in which crops move within the country from land or storage facilities to processing centers and consump- tion areas, or to export ports. Rice milling on farms and other on-farm processing for household use are discussed in detail here, cross-reference being made to SECTION 64, Subsection K, for all other agricultural processing industries, including commercial wheat and rice milling. Farm and commercial storage and drying facilities are discussed. As much of the data as possible are presented in tabular form or on maps. b. LIVESTOCK AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS ? Num- bers, products, and, if feasible, breeds, animal diseases, and parasites are discussed here. If appropriate, the geographical location and carrying capacity of grazing areas are indicated; the scale of individual enterprises and production methods are discussed. The supply of livestock feed and feeding practices in both moat and dairy products are discussed briefly. Production of and trade in livestock products, in- cluding movements of livestock and products to proc- essing plants or the consumption markets and export ports, are noted. As appropriate, cross-reference is made to SECTION 64, Subsections K and L, for the com- mercial processing of livestock products. Tables, charts, and maps are used wherever possible. C. MARKETING AND TRANSPORTATION ? An evalu- ation is given here of the adequacy of transportation and markets for agricultural products and the effect on agriculture. Marketing and transportation facili- ties needed for further development of agricultural resources are indicated. d. INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PROD- UCTS ? The discussion here covers briefly agriculture's contribution to total export and import trade and the composition of agricultural trade. The major foreign markets and sources of imports and the nature of trade arrangements in agricultural products are indicated. 7. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS, INSTI- TUTIONS, AND POLICIES a. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS ? This subtopic discusses farm operators' and workers' associations, specialized producers' organizations, cooperatives, and the organization and functions of the Ministry of Agri-. culture and other government agencies assisting agriculture. b. GOVERNMENT POLICIES The discussion here covers such elements of trade and market policy as price and production controls and guarantees, protec- tion, and subsidies. Land reform and/or development programs including foreign aid programs, if any, are discussed, cross-reference being made to preceding sub- headings as appropriate. C. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND SERVICES ? The discussion here deals with sources and availability of agricultural credit, the burden of taxation, and crop and property insurance. The level and pattern, types, need, and sources of agricultural investment are indicated. d. EDUCATION, RESEARCH, AND EXTENSION ? The general level of literacy and education of the farm population is indicated here. The extent of agricul- tural education and of agricultural extension and re- search activities is discussed briefly (correlation with SECTION 43, Subsection C, Education). The ade- quacy of professional and technical services such as Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PA Cr E 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ?????????????? NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS veterinary science, horticulture, agricultural engineer- ing, and agronomy is indicated briefly. 8. PROSPECTS FOR EXPANDING PRODUC- TION This subtopic dismisses the outlook for agricultural production and productivity in the light of existing and impending programs. The major factors limiting expansion and the prospective relationship between agricultural production and population growth are indicated. C. Fisheries Whaling is included throughout this Subsection, wherever it is of importance. 1. CATCH OF FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC PRODUCTS This discussion covers total annual production, with tabulated data; seasons of abundance; trends in pro- duction, and reasons for changes. 2. MAJOR FISHING AREAS Discussion of significant aspects, such as accessi- bility, with inclusion of appropriate map material. 3. FISH ENG OPERATIONS a. METHODS Types of gear used; advances in introduction of new techniques; brief reference to availability of materials for manufacturing netting, rope, and other equipment, and plant facilities for manufacturing gear and other fishing equipment. b. FISHING VESSELS ? Types and numbers of motorized and nonmotorized fishing craft; condition of fishing fleet; programs for modernization of fleet; pro- ductive capacity of fleet. C. PERSONNEL ? Number employed full and part time. 4. UTILIZATION OF CATCH a. DISTRIBUTION OF CATCH ? Domestic consump- tion, amounts marketed fresh, frozen, canned, salted, dried, smoked, etc., methods of distribution with brief mention of availability of refrigeration and ice-making facilities. b. PROCESSING ? Types of processed products; location and number of processing installations; pro- ductive capacity of installations; employment; avail- ability of processing material (cans, salt, etc.). C. MANUFACTURE OF BY-PRODUCTS ? Types of by- products; location and number of plants;. productive capacity of plants; employment. Cross-reference is made to SECTION 64, Subsection K to avoid duplication. PAGE 6 JULY 1957 5. FOREIGN TRADE IN FISHERY PRODUCTS 6. OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL Brief description of concentration or spread of ownership including ownership of vessels as well as ownership or control of related industries and services such as transport, refrigeration and canning 7. GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY POLICIES Current regulations for fisheries; international agree- ments; programs for expansion; industry organization, if any, with its policies and program. D. Food balance sheet The food consumption habits of the population are discussed briefly. A food balance sheet for the area is included. This Subsection summarizes the data on production, trade in, and quantities available for con- sumption, of all significant food products. It presents, insofar as possible, a concise picture of the type of products consumed, the proportion supplied from do- mestic sources, the dependence upon outside sources, and the surplus supplies of food products normally available for export. E. Forests and forest products 1. THE FOREST RESOURCES The general extent and nature of the forest resources are described here, indicating the relationship of total and productive forest areas to total land area and other classes of land use. A summary is given of the overall forest situation, with emphasis on productive potential as compared with actual forest products output and requirements. The geographic distribution of forests and their general condition and accessibility are discussed. A description is given of the major forest types and their principal commercial timber species. An analysis is given of the pattern of forest ownership and the influence of ownership on forest condition. The volume and accessibility of standing timber by broad categories is indicated and the volume distribu- tion appraised in terms of economic exploitation. A comparison of the annual growth and cut of timber is made and any imbalance as affecting present and future self-sufficiency or deficiency in forest products is evaluated. 2. PRIMARY FOREST PRODUCTS INDUS- TRIES The discussion here treats the establishment, de- velopment, and potential of these industries in relation to their raw material base and their present position in the national economy. A description is given of the individual industries, such as timber extraction, lumber, plywood and ve- neer, railway ties, pulpwood and woodpulp, fuelwood, Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 CHAP T other roundwood products, cork, naval stores, and other nonwood products such as natural dyes and tannins. Overall industry structure and location, in- vestment, output, productive capacity, employment, factors affecting production, power sources, equipment, production techniques, and trade associations are discussed. Cross-reference is made to SECTION 64 for data on synthetic dyes and for additional data on paper pulp and other wood products including cork products. 3. SUPPLY POSITION An analysis is made of the general position of the area with respect to self-sufficiency or dependency in forest products and overall wood balances in terms of roundwood equivalents. The discussion indicates trends and patterns as concerns consumption of and requirements for principal wood and nonwood forest products. The foreign trade in forest products, with emphasis on products of strategic importance, is examined. A. General : CIA-R0P79-01055A000300030001-4 6111111111.111,01411MIP ER VI , 4. FOREST POLICIES AND PROGRAMS An outline is given of the basic national policies, and the principal laws and regulations affecting for- estry, forest industries, and foreign trade in forest products are described. The organization, administration, and efficiency of the forestry agencies and the status of forestry educa- tion are discussed. Current public, private, and cooperative forestry programs, including research, are examined. F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 62. Fuels and Power Discuss the position of the fuels and power industry in the national economy. Discuss the supply and use patterns of various forms of energy, including the conversion of coal to coke and related products, manufactured gas, and petroleum substitutes. Comment upon the interchangeability of fuels in temis of the area's requirements and economic activities. Indicate the country's dependence upon foreign sources of supply. Relate the country's do- mestic resources and their development to. future requirements. Include in this Section: 1) a table showing in calories equivalents consumption of primary fuels (coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power); 2) a table showing in calories equivalents consumption of all fuels by major consumer classes. B. Solid fuels The following outline insofar as applicable is to be used for each of the fuels to be discussed. The principal categories of fuels are treated separately: coal and lignite; peat; fuelwood and charcoal. Discus- sion of coal is to include the broad aspects of conver- sion of coal to coke and related products, manufactured gas, and petroleum substitutes; this discussion is not to approach the depth of detail and technical aspects contained in the Subsections on petroleum, iron and steel, explosives, chemicals, and rubber. Appropriate cross reference is made to these Subsections. Discuss production and consumption trends, and domestic use pattern. Analyze the competitive position of the industry in the world market and conditions affecting foreign trade and indicate the country's dependence upon foreign sources of supply. Describe in general terms the nature, extent and location of deposits and indicate factors affecting exploitation, such as accessibility, capital requirements, and manpower. Discuss government policies with respect to develop- ment of reserves, exploitation of available deposits, utilization of foreign capital, and foreign competition. Discuss production in the more important individual mines. Indicate factors affecting operation of the mines, such as degree of mechanization, manpower, transportation, availability of fuel, by-product opera- tions, etc. Present in tabular form: 1) location of mines, grade and extent of deposits, type of operation, production capacity, manpower, ownership, remarks on extent of mechanization; 2) annual production by regions and/or ?Lolimerimme Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 arnammusifform NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS mines; 3) annual consumption by consumer; 4) i ports and exports by countries; 5) stocks. C. Petroleum Throughout this Subsection, cross reference to tions of SUPPLEMENT V wherever appropriate. 1. GENERAL a. SUMMARY Overall petroleum supply and mand situation. Analysis of principal aspects of the industry in-: eluding development pattern and reserve position. b. STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE ? Asset Or liability position petroleum-wise to the United States. C. INTERNATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE ? Importance as a world source of, or world market for, crude and re- fined petroleum products. Influence of the world petroleum situation, in both strategic and economic terms, on the area's petroleum activity and development. d. DOMESTIC SIGNIFICANCE Degree of self-suffi- ciency or import dependence for crude and petroleum products, as well as technical personnel, equipment, and supplies for the petroleum industry. Importance of the industry to the overall domestic economy. Importance of the industry as a source of govern- ment revenue and foreign exchange. Domestic requirements demand on foreign exchange assets. JULY 1957 Refined products?production for representative pe- '.Hods. Discuss trends. Imports of crude oil and refined products for latest year available, showing principal products and coun- tries of origin. Discuss trends. Indicate briefly manner Sec- and extent trade is affected by foreign exchange, tariffs, quotas, and other trade restrictions. Exports of crude oil and refined products for the latest year available, showing principal products and de- country of destination. Discuss trends. Indicate briefly the manner and extent trade is affected by foreign exchange, tariffs, quotas, and other trade restrictions. Consumption of refined products for the latest year available, showing principal refined products and major consumer interests. Discuss trends. Also discuss adequacy of supply and indicate, if deficiencies exist, the probable effect on industrial expansion and the con- duct of military operations, 0. GEOGRAPHIC AND TRANSPORTATION ASPECTS ? Indicate the geographic dispersion of producing areas, refineries, consuming centers, export and import ports, as well as transportation pattern and facilities, and discuss their general effect on petroleum industry de- velopment. f. GENERAL VULNERABILITY OF PETROLEUM IN- D USTRY INSTALLATIONS Producing fields Refineries and processing plants Pipelines Storage Terminals and docks g. EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION ? Discuss any probable expansion or contraction of exploration, pro- duction, processing and consumption, including the effect of labor-management relationships, with respect to crude petroleum, natural gas, natural gas liquids, and substitute liquid fuels. 2. STRATEGIC SUPPLY POSITION Crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbon substi- tutes?production for representative periods. Discuss trends. PAGE 8 3. EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT Discuss the significant historical and technological aspects, as well as present pattern, of exploration and development, giving a succinct appreciation of the country's petroliferous character. State the amount of reserves, indicating their relative importance to world reserves. Indicate the proved reserves by main fields. With respect to concessions, summarize the development to date, indicating areas, concessionaires, and terms of important concessions. 4. REFINING AND PROCESSING Brief historical background, including war damage and restoration. General pattern and present relative significance of crude oil refining, natural gas liquids processing, and synthetic liquid fuels manufacture. Present in tabular form names, location, type, capacity, ownership, and operators of existing and proposed refineries. Relative adequacy to meet peacetime domestic requirements. Succinct discussion of future plans and factors affecting them. Potential importance in event of a wartime emergency. 5. TRANSPORTATION General appreciation of overall petroleum trans- port, storage, and terminal facilities, including extent, purpose, capacities, relationship to adjacent countries, and other geographic considerations, as well as to other means of transport and relative adequacy for peace- time requirements. Describe the principal pipelines, indicating the location, length, size, capacity, and date of construction. A short account of significant his- torical and geographical aspects, including war damage and restoration, and a brief discussion of probable development. Where pertinent, comparisons to United States facilities are made for general orientation and appreciation. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 iiiiimmormsm" CHAPTER VI JULY 1957 6. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Summarize the domestic capabilities for the manu- facture of equipment and supplies required by the petroleum industry for exploration, production, refining and processing, and distribution, indicating the degree of self-sufficiency. Where deficiencies exist, indicate source of import. 7. LABOR, FINANCE, AND GOVERNMENT POLICY Indicate the availability, relative importance, effi- ciency, political complexion, and political influence of the petroleum labor force. Examine the extent of capital investment in, or control over, the various components of the industry, by nationality and ownership, indicating overall rela- tionship of foreign to local capital investment. De- scribe the organizational pattern and external control exercised over foreign oil companies. Evaluate briefly the nature and extent of the domestic capital market for petroleum industry investment. Discuss factors affecting foreign capital investment in the industry, such as the relationship of risk to return and the limi- tations placed on the transfer abroad of capital and earnings. Discuss, analyze, and evaluate government policy and basic or pertinent laws relating to the petroleum industry, indicating particularly their relative influence on the operations of foreign oil companies. Indicate and evaluate the degree of control over oil industry operations exercised by government organizations. 8. NATURAL GAS Discuss the relative importance of the natural gas industry to the economy of the country, indicating reserves, production, and describing briefly the distri- bution system. Discuss the extent of use for industry, space heating and light, repressuring of oil fields, for the production of natural gas liquids, as well as the amount flared. D. Electric power 1. ROLE OF ELECTRIC POWER IN THE NA- TIONAL ECONOMY Discuss extent to which population and industry are served with electricity, for example, percentage to total of households having electricity, of population living in electrically lighted homes, of farms electrified, and percentage of electric power employed in industry related to total motive power employed in industry. Discuss share of electric power industry in the na- tional income, number of employees in the electric power industry, and share of total capital assets em- ployed in the electric power industry. 2. GROWTII OF ELECTRIC POWER PRODUC- TION AND CAPACITY Present and discuss summary data showing growth of electric power production and capacity related to population; distribution of electric power capacity and production, by type of generation, for the country as a whole; and distribution of electric power capacity and production by major regions or systems. 3. GENERATING PLANT Present and discuss summary data showing extent to which plant capacity and production may be con- centrated in a small number of large plants or dis- tributed among a large number of small plants. Describe major or special hydroelectric plants or developments. Where water power constitutes an im- portant source of energy for the production of electric power, either potential or developed, discuss extent to which these resources have been developed. If possible, develop summary information of the follow- ing type: Location of undeveloped water power: REGION NUMBER ov SITES ESTIMATED AVERAGE ANNUAL OTJTPUT ESTIMATED INSTALLED CAPACITY Discuss accessibility of these resources to load centers. Give specific references to important studies which have been made pertaining to power development of the country's water resources. Describe major thermal plants. Discuss extent to which location may be influenced by supply of fuel, availability of cooling water, consumption centers, defense considerations. Tabulate significant generating station statistics. 4. SOURCES OF ENERGY Discuss relative importance of various sources of energy in the production of electric power and extent to which average annual fuel rates per kwh. production reflect increases in efficiency of steam generation or lack of modernization. Discuss source of fuel, whether imported or indig- enous, and, if imported, availability of foreign ex- change for purchase of fuel. 5. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Describe important transmission networks. Discuss extent to which system serves to transfer power from fuel and hydro sources to load centers; to interconnect isolated communities and large population or industrial centers; to provide emergency supply for normal facili- ties out of service; t6 reduce reserve requirements; or to eliminate inefficient plants. PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 miume NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS Discuss principal connections with other countries and present summary data showing transfer of power across international boundaries related to total pro- duction or consumption. 6. TIIE COORDINATED OR INTERCON- NECTED SYSTEMS Describe present organization, arrangements, or agreements for integrating interconnected facilities. 7. CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY Discuss the utilization of electric energy within the area and tabulate electric energy consumption by class of use, by number of customers, if available, and by percent of total consumption and of annual kw.-hr. consumption by each class. Analyze the relationships disclosed in these computations. Discuss present limitations in the use of electricity. 8. ORGANIZATION OF THE ELECTRIC POWER 'INDUSTRY Present and discuss summary data showing distri- bution of electric power production and capacity by class of ownership such as industrials, private utility corporations, state-owned monopolies, distribution co- operatives, etc. Discuss extent to which industry is government- owned, regulated, or operated. Discuss extent to which production, transmission, and distribution facilities are unified, or extent to which production, transmission, and distribution facili- ties are separately owned or operated. Describe 'any central organizations that may exist for planning and developing a national power policy or program. Discuss extent to which foreign capital may be employed in this industry and its effect upon the in- dustry's operating policies and practices. PAGE 10 JULY 1957 9. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS Describe important programs for the expansion of electric power and show the effect of these programs upon present capacity and production. Describe any factors which may encourage or limit the future of. this industry such as unsatisfied demand, shortage of capital, lack of resources, legislation, etc. Attach a system map showing geographic location of generating stations. In addition, show principal transmission lines and substations by which these plants are interconnected and by which energy is trans- mitted to areas of consumption. Show construction planned or in progress, as well as present capacity. Statistical and operating data are to be shown in the form prescribed in the example tables for FIGURES 62-1 through 62-9 on the following pages. Where information is not available according to the required standards, submit the best information available with explanation of deviations from these standards. Data in tables, FIGURES 62-7 through 62-9, are to be fur- nished for the most recent period. Data in tables, FIGURES 62-1 through 62-6 are to be furnished for several years so that long-time trend analyses may be developed. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source? material used in preparing the -Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 LITARFIRIMmara? CHAPTER VI (EXAMPLES) FIGURE 62-1. INSTALLED CAPACITY OF GENERATING FIGURE 62-2. ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION AND PLANTS AND PRODUCTION CAPACITY (By type of prime mover) (By major regions and systems) TYPE OF PRIME MOVER UTILITIES Privately owned Publicly owned Industrials Ilydro: No. of plants Capacity (kw) Production (kwh) Steam: No. of plants Capacity (kw) Production (kwh) Internal combustion: No. of plants Capacity (kw) Production (kwh) REGION OR SYSTEM CAPACITY PRODUCTION kw kwh, FIGURE 62-3, ELECTRIC UTILITY CONSUMPTION OF MAJOR FUELS TYPE OF FUEL PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION kwh tons FIGURE 62-4. ENERGY TRANSFERRED ACROSS INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES (List receipts and deliveries separately) ITEM NO. TRANSFERRED FROM TRANSFERRED TO POINT OF TRANSFER (0) ANNUAL KWH TRANSFERRED (f) Company or agency. (a) Cbuntry (b) Company or agency (0) Country (d) FIGURE 62-5. ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION CLASS OF USE (SUCH AS RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, INDUS- TRIAL, ETC.) NO. OF CUB- TOMERS (IF READILY AVAILABLE) % OF TOTAL CON- SUMPTION ANNUAL CONSUMP- TION kwh FIGURE 62-6. ELECTRIC ENERGY USED IN INDUSTRIAL OPERATION (In kilowatts) MAJOR CLASS OF IN- DUSTRY GENERATED PURCHASED CONSUMED FIGURE 62-7. GENERATING STATION STATISTICS?FOR PLANTS OF .... KILOWATTS OR OVER (OPERATING, UNDER CONSTRUCTION, OR PLANNED AS OF ? ) (List plants under subheadings for industrial or public utility; privately or publicly owned; steam, hydro, or internal combustion.) MAP REF. NO. NAME AND LOCATIONOPERATOR* OF PLANT TYPE INSTALLED , CAPACITY ANNUAL PRO- DUCTION REMARKS (Including condition Of plant, generator voltage, phase and frequency, etc.) * If the operator is not the same as the owner, or if control is held in another corporation, explain. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD TRANSMISSION INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 LINE. FIGURE 62-9. SIGNIFICANT SUBSTATION STATISTICS FIGURE 62-8. SIGNIFICANT STATISTICS CHANGES UNDER CHANGES UNDER IN SERVICE WAY OR IN SERVICE WAY OR PLANNED PLANNED Name of operator and owner Name of operator or owner Line designation Name and location of substa- tion From Character of substation To Voltage Voltage Capacity Operating No. of transformers Designed Nature of change Pole length of line Date of change Number of circuits Start Type of construction Completion Nature of change Date of change Start Completion Section 63. Minerals and Metals A. General Discuss briefly the position of the area's mineral and metal industries in the national and world econ- omies. Analyze the relative importance of the industry in terms of its contribution to the national income, as an employer of labor, and as an investment area. Discuss the size of the industry in terms of the country's requirement and in relation to foreign demand for the industry's output. Indicate the salient characteristics of the indus- try such as: extent of reserves, locational and trans- portation factors; dependence upon foreign sources for supplies and equipment; productive potential; degree of integration of the industry; technological aspects of production; ownership; international agreements; gov- ernment policies. B. Iron ore Discuss production and consumption trends, and domestic use pattern. Analyze the competitive position of the industry in the world market and conditions affecting foreign trade, and indicate the country's dependence upon foreign sources of supply. Describe in general terms the nature, extent, and location of deposits, and indicate factors affecting exploitation, such as accessibility, capital require- ments, and manpower. Discuss government policies with respect to de- velopment of reserves, exploitation of available deposits, utilization of foreign capital, and foreign competition. PAGE 12 Discuss production in the more important individual mines. Indicate factors affecting operation of the mines, such as degree of mechanization, manpower, transportation, availability of fuel, byproducts, etc. Tables, maps, and graphics: Give in tables and, where practicable, in graphic form, the following: 1) location of mines, grade and extent of deposits, type of operation, production capacity, manpower, owner- ship, remarks on extent of mechanization; 2) annual production by regions, fields and/or mines; 3) imports and exports by countries; 4) stocks. C. Iron, steel, and mill products This Subsection includes primary processing, which is defined as including production of the following: pig-iron, ingots, castings, finished hot-rolled products (plates, sheets and strip, strip and sheet for cold re- duced black plate and tin plate, hoops and cotton ties and baling bands, bars, structural shapes, rails, splice bars and tie plate bars, skelp, blanks or pierced billets, wire rods, rolled forging billets, blooms and billets for export, car wheels) ; further finished steel mill products (cold finished and tool steel bars, cold rolled sheets and strip, tin and terne slate, galvanized terne sheets, finished black slate, tie plates, wire, woven wire fence, bale ties, fence posts, nails and staples, pipe and tubes). Discuss briefly productive capacity of the industry and indicate current output, including data on lime- stone and metallurgical coke (with cross-reference to Subsection 62, B). Examine current production pat- tern. Discuss the ability of the industry to meet domestic requirements for particular steel products Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER VI IPPPRIUMPARIPP and the extent of imports. Examine competitive position of industry, government policies affecting operation of industry, efficiency of operations, etc. Discuss factors affecting production of the industry as a whole and of major individual plants such as degree of mechanization and efficiency of operations with respect to supply of raw materials (including ferro- alloys), fuel, transportation, manpower, markets, etc. List in tabular form individual plants giving name, location, productive capacity, number and typo of furnaces, number and type of finishing installations, output by products, operating and beneficial owner- ship. List in tabular form annual production, consumption including use pattern, imports and exports by coun- tries and principal types of products. List in tabular form annual consumption and source .of major raw materials: iron ore, ferroalloys, scrap, fluxes, and fuels. D. Nonferrous ores, metals, and alloys Textual analysis and discussion are by Subsections similar to those indicated above for Subsection B, Iron Ore. Only those ores, metals and alloys of economic or strategic importance are treated. A checklist is pro- vided below. This Subsection includes the processes through smelting, refining, and forming metal into basic shapes. In treating the processing industries, data are also given on annual consumption and use pattern, includ- ing scrap. Data for ores are given in terms of specified content or of the metal content of the ore, in accordance with U.S. Bureau of Mines practice in the "World Review" section of the Minerals Yearbook. The following list serves as a guide for selecting the products of importance in the area. Others not on the list are treated if their importance warrants. METALS AND ORES Aluminum Copper Lead Magnesium Nickel Tin Zinc Gold Platinum and allied metals (iridium, osmium, palladi- um, rhodium, ru- theniurn) Silver Radium Thorium Uranium Antimony Arsenic (Monazite) Beryllium Bismuth Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Columbium Lithium Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Selenium Tantalum Tellurium Thorium Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Zirconium ALLOYS Brass Bronze Bearing metal Monel metal Nichrome Nickel silver Stellite Solder E. Nonmetallic minerals Textual analysis and discussion are by Subsections similar to those indicated above for Subsection B, Iron Ore. Only those materials of economic impor- tance are treated. A checklist is provided below. Except for fertilizer minerals, which are covered in Subsection 64, J, this Subsection includes primary processing as well as mining. In treating the processing facilities, data are also given on annual consumption, including use pattern. The following list serves as a guide for selecting the products of importance in the area. Others are treated if their importance warrants. Asbestos Barite Bentonite Celestite Chalk Clays Corundum, emery, and artificial abra- sives Cryolite Diamonds Feldspar Fluorspar Graphite Helium Iodine Kyanite Limestone Magnesite Mica F. Construction materials Nitrates Phosphate rock Potash Pyrite Quartz crystals Salt Sapphire and ruby Sulfur Talc Discuss the position of the country's basic products which comprise the major materials used in construc- tion, exclusive of lumber, plywood, structural iron and steel, and asphalt, which are treated in detail in other Sections of CHAPTER VI. This Subsection is devoted mainly to cement and other construction materials such as sand, aggregate, glass sand, building stone, brick, cement, structural glass, lime, gypsum and roofing materials. Examine the importance in the economy of the in- dustry producing these materials and indicate its capacity to meet domestic requirements. Examine the size of the industry in terms of production, capital investment and in relation to markets. Discuss pro- duction trends including technological advances. Indi- cate problems confronting the industry with respect to raw materials, location, domestic and foreign com- petition, and government policies and contracts. (Tables: Production and consumption including use patterns where possible, imports and exports by coun- tries of origin and destination, stocks, etc.) List in table name, location, output, capacity, equip- ment, number of employees, ownership of major indi- vidual plants. Indicate factors affecting production of individual plants such as efficiency of operation, availability of fuels, adequacy of transportation, effi- ciency of labor, plans for expansion, ability to meet foreign competition, etc. PAGE 13 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS G. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. A. General JULY 1957 To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 64. Manufacturing and Construction Review the salient features of the country's manu- facturing and construction industry, including owner- ship, degree of integration, government policies, and international agreements. Discuss the position of the industry within the country as an employer of man- power, a sector for investment and a contributor to national income. Indicate the degree of dependence of the industry on foreign sources for raw materials and equipment, components, and finished products. Dis- cuss the co.mpetitive position of the industry in domestic and in foreign markets. Describe the general level of technological progress, including the degree of depend- ence on foreign technicians. Evaluate the capacity of the manufacturing industry to meet normal require- ments and potential increased demands. B. Industrial machinery and equipment Under this heading the following manufactures are to be included: agricultural machinery and equipment (including tractors); machine tools; electrical ma- chinery and equipment; general purpose machinery (e.g., engines, turbines, conveyors, pumps, cranes, etc.) ; specialized equipment (e.g., coal mining machinery, metallurgical equipment, construction machinery, etc.); precision and machine building instruments; railroad motive power and rolling stock production and repair facilities. 1) Examine the importance of the industry in the economy and indicate its capacity to meet domestic requirements. Examine the size of the industry in terms of total production, capital investment and in relation to markets. Discuss production trends in- cluding technological advances. Indicate problems confronting the industry with respect to raw materials, location, domestic and foreign competition, and govern- ment policies and controls. (Tables: Total production and consumption including use pattern where possible, imports and exports by countries of origin and destina- tion, stocks, etc.) PAGE 14 2) List name, location, output, capacity, equipment, number of employees, and ownership of principal plants. Indicate factors affecting production of individual plants such as efficiency of labor, ability to meet foreign competition, plans for expansion, etc. C. Vehicles This Subsection discusses all civilian and military vehicles (with the exception of rail vehicles and agricul- tural tractors). Nonmotorized vehicles are treated only in countries where they play an important role. Manufacture and distribution are discussed as a sub- sector of the economy, with special consideration for past, present, and future contributions to military po- tential. Whenever applicable, production of military vehicles is separated from that of purely commercial ones. For countries not producing complete vehicles or engaging in extensive assembly the discussion is modified; special attention is given to the volume and sources of imports of complete vehicles, components, and spare parts. Civilian types discussed include pas- senger cars; trucks; highway tractors, trailers, and semi-trailers; buses, including trolley buses; and motor- cycles, scooters, and other small motorized vehicles. Military vehicles include tanks, armored cars, self-pro- pelled artillery, armored personnel carriers, and other transportation vehicles designed specially for cross- country or combat use. 1. GENERAL An evaluative summary of the production, assem- bly, import, and export of civilian and military vehi- cles, including domestic and international significance, use patterns, sources of raw and finished materials, un- usual characteristics of products or industrial and mar- keting practices, industrial organization, government policies, and factors affecting past and potential war- time conversion. Attention is given in free countries to the historical development of the industry, and in totalitarian countries to the planners' objectives for the industry. mriadashomiiimio Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VI ofimmainamioNi 2. CIVILIAN-TYPE VEHICLES a. DOMESTIC IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY A description of the relative importance of the industry as 1) a contributor to Gross National Product, 2) an employer of labor, 3) an absorber of new investment, and 4) an earner of, or drain on, foreign exchange. b. ECONOMICS OF TIIE INDUSTRY ? A discussion of 1) the sources of raw materials, components, and accessories, 2) significant production methods and capa- bilities, and 3) the internal and external competitive situation. The discussion includes an overall evalua- tion of equipment, the use of specialized machine tools, degree of automation, research activities, any signifi- cant geographic characteristics of the industry, and an explanation of government controls as they affect competition, costs and earning, and export or import of automotive products. C. USE, PRODUCTION, AND SUPPLY PATTERN ? A survey, with appropriate SECTION 32 coordination and cross-reference, of the role of civilian-type vehicles in the country's transportation of passengers and goods, indicating the adequacy of types and volume produced or imported in meeting demands under usual?and significant abnormal?conditions, the average age of vehicles and fluctuations thereof, the means devised to mobilize the vehicle fleet for military purposes, and past experience and plans for conversion to military production. Detailed statistics on production, im- ports, exports, scrapping, and the total vehicle regis- tration are given. d. PRINCIPAL PRODUCERS ? A survey, with exten- sive tabulated data, of each of the principal producers in terms of their plant facilities, categories and volume produced, and significant past history of the organiza- tion. Separate tables list 1) producers and assemblers of motor vehicles, and 2) producers of important com- ponents and accessories, giving location of head office and all significant plants, number of employees, rela- tive importance in the industry, sources of materials and power, and the volume by type of all vehicles pro- duced. The tables also include all available informa- tion on the potential capacity of each producing unit and any important factors limiting actual or potential output. 3. SPECIALIZED MILITARY VEIIICLES A survey, when appropriate for the country and with SECTION 81 coordination and cross-reference, of the production of specialized military vehicles in the terms of Subsection C, 2 above, as appropriately modified for these specialized end products. This includes, when available, statistics on any unissued specialized mili- tary vehicles moth-balled or stockpiled (i.e., vehicles not included in SECTION 81). D. Aircraft production See Subsection C. Discuss jet and conventional aircraft production separately. The following classification of aircraft type is used: Fighter Attack Bomber Helicopter Transport Trainer Liaison and Light Civilian Other Types a) Analyze current status of aircraft industry? final assembly, airframe, engine, and propeller plants? and compare present total production with that achieved in World War II. Indicate dependency on foreign design and patents. Show military reserves and present strength, or indicate by cross-reference that these data may be found in SECTION 83, Air Forces. b) Describe the dependence of the aircraft indus- try on foreign and domestic sources of raw materials, semi-manufactured products, and component parts. c) List the location and physical characteristics of major plants producing aircraft and principal com- ponents, indicating the quantity and nature of products. The above outline is for those countries which pro- duce aircraft or do extensive assembly. For countries not in either of these categories, discuss, if possible, the prospects of existing repair facilities or other installa- tions developing into aircraft production or assembly. If appropriate in this connection, mention in general terms the country's potential with respect to the quality of its labor force and managerial class, the investment climate, attitude or policy of government toward estab- lishment of an aircraft industry, conditions of auxiliary services needed by such an industry (transportation, fuel, and power), and availabilities of raw materials. For all countries for which data are available, give imports and exports of aircraft and parts, by unit and type (also,.if possible, by value). Cross-refer to CHAP- TER III, SECTION 37, and CHAPTER VIII, SECTION 83, for number and types of civilian and military planes, respectively, in the country. E. Shipbuilding 1. GENERAL A summary of the development of the industry, its general ,significance as an element of the economy and the type of shipbuilding traditionally emphasized. A somewhat brief discussion of a) background of in- dustry, b) treaty or other restrictions imposed, c) rank as a shipbuilding nation, total annual cost of ship re- pairs, effects of foreign competition, value and number of units imported or exported, d) location of major yards, and material supply problems as affected by geographic factors, e) position in the economy, contri- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 15 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 0.#11WWWWIINIMPAM NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 bution to Gross National Product, importance as an employer and sector for investment, total capital in- vestment, 1) pattern of ownership, g) government policy and control, including subsidies, and h) training and research. 2. PRODUCTION AND REPAIR ACTIVITY A summary of production of both naval and mer- chant ships (oceangoing, coastal, inland waterway) in- cluding current production, relation between planned and actual production, average time between keel laying and launching and between launching and com- missioning, amount or value of repair work by major yards and type of ship, evaluated maximum production capacity. Construction by yard for each type of ship for the most recent 5-year period and a meaningful pre- war period are tabulated. 3. ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND REQUIRE- MENTS A discussion, supported by statistics as appropriate, of consumption of materials, raw materials or com- ponent shortages and alleviation by import, significant past problems of procurement. Principal suppliers of major components (steel, marine diesels and turbines, armament, and navigation equipment) are located by map, with cross reference to Subsections 63, C, 64, B, and 64, G, as appropriate. A discussion of manpower employed in shipyards as a percent of total labor force and in terms of require- ments for current operation, the effect of nationality or racial problems and unionization on labor availability or productivity, wage structure, with table comparing wages of shipbuilding industry with other heavy industries. 4. SHIPYARD FACILITIES AND PRODUC- TION METHODS A summary of yards by categories with comments on production difficulties common to all yards, areal distribution of construction capacity with reference to location map, and details of shipyard facilities of major yards in tabulation or text as appropriate. If tabu- lated, principal yard features are: name and location, types of ships and other items produced, building ways or sites, drydocks, shops, number of employees, and other pertinent data under Remarks such as tie-in with component or materials manufacturing plants. A discussion of production methods, success of lead- ing producers, seasonal changes in production, and adaptability of industry and major yards to change to different types of ship construction. Cross-reference IO SECTION 35 and/or SUPPLEMENT I. 5. FUTURE PROSPECTS OF THE INDUSTRY General observations on future of the industry, its expansion potential, and probable production trends. PAGE 16 F. Explosives (industrial and military) This Subsection discusses industrial and military ex- . plosives, including rocket propellants, conforming as appropriate to the specifications for Subsection 64, C. The manufacture of explosives is treated as separate from the chemical industry only if it is actually so organized, and in general is considered as beginning at the point where ordinarily available commercial chem- icals begin to be differentiated into explosives or intermediates. Industrial and military explosives normally are treated separately, following, as appropriate for the country, an introductory summary of the development, characteristics, and economic or strategic significance of related industry. The discussion of industrial ex- plosives is largely in terms of normal supply and demand. In the more comprehensive discussion of military explosives the emphasis is on the adequacy of the country's supply of its peacetime armed forces requirements, and on the capabilities of the entire chemical industry for meeting the country's own mili- tary explosives requirements and probable obligations to others in time of war. The sources of explosives constituents as received by the explosives plants, and vulnerability of supply, including reliance on foreign sources for constituents or more primary raw materials, are discussed. Chemically related explosives are dis- cussed as a group as far as is consistent with the overall objective of providing detailed information on the wartime supply position of as many finished military explosives as possible. OPrincipal producers are listed in a table generally similar to that for Subsection 64, C, with inclusion under Remarks of information on the sources of each plant's principal materials and the destination to which its explosives are shipped for loading or storage. When the information will result in little, or no duplication, the table is separated into producers of industrial and military explosives. G. Arms and ammunition (including ex- plosive devices), fire-control equipment, and bomb sights This Subsection conforms as appropriate to the specifications for Subsection 64, C. Manufacture of the specialized items listed below is treated as a sepa- rate industry only if it is so organized .in a normal commercial sense. The emphasis is on the country's supply of its peace- time armed forces requirements, and on the capabilities of the country's entire industry for meeting the nation's own munitions requirements and probable obligations to others in time of war. The sources of principal com- ponents, and vulnerability of supply, including reliance on foreign sources for components or more primary raw materials, are factors considered in the objective of providing detailed information on the wartime supply position of munitions. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTEI? VI Manufacture and supply of civilian arms and ammu- nition are discussed only if they have special signifi- cance, but the capabilities of such producers are con- sidered in assessing the country's overall munitions potential. Principal munitions producers are listed in a table generally similar to that for 64, C. Following a general introductory summary, the dis- cussion is in terms of the following categories: 1. Weapons--Revolvers and other pistols; subliaachine guns, carbines, rifles, and shotguns; ground, AA, and air machine guns; rocket launchers and recoilless weapons; mortars; artillery of all types, including field, tank, anti- tank, AA, coastal, and naval. 2. Aiming and fire-control devices ? Both optical and electrical aiming and fire-control devices for the weapons listed above; bomb sights. 3. Ammunition ? Ammunition for the weapons listed above, including complete rounds and also all com- ponents. 4. Explosive devices ? Hand grenades; rifle grenades; land and sea mines; bombs; torpedoes; depth charges. 5. Missiles. H. Other military equipment and supplies This Subsection discusses military items in terms of the five categories below, conforming as appropriate to the specifications for Subsection 64, C. Manufac- ture of these items is treated as a separate industry only if it is so organized in a normal commercial sense. The emphasis is on the country's supply of its peace- time armed forces requirements, and on the capabilities of the country's entire industry for meeting the nation's own munitions requirements and probable obligations to others in time of war. The sources of principal com- ponents, and vulnerability of supply, including reliance on foreign sources for components or more primary raw materials, are factors considered in the objective of providing detailed information on the wartime supply position. Principal producers are listed in a table generally similar to that for 64, C. Following a general introductory summary, if ap- propriate, the following are discussed: 1. Chemical-, biological-, and radiological-warfare materiel. 2. Military engineering equipment (bridges, camouflage, infrared, topographical). 3. Instruments, gauges, and servo-motors of special mili- tary interest. 4. Quartermaster-type supplies including equipment neces- sary for POL distribution, personal military equipment and remount equipment. 5. Optical and photographic equipment of military value. I. Telecommunications equipment Telecommunications equipment includes all types utilizing electric or electronic, acoustic, or visual means for the transmission of signals, signs, or images of any kind. The telecommunications-equipment man- ufacturing industry includes all industrial facilities producing equipment?such as wire, radio, electronic, wilmompriitr? and other signal equipment or components?used for the transmission of aural, visual, or control signals. Following a general introductory statement, includ- ing strategic significance and relative importance in the economy, a discussion of each of the following four categories: 1. Wire equipment and related components (includes tele- phone; telegraph, landline and submarine; wire and cable) 2. Radio equipment and related components (includes com- municatiow, broadcast, television, tubes, batteries, etc.) 3. Electronics equipment and related components (includes radar, navigational aids, telemetering, guidance and con- trol, etc.) 4. Other signal equipment and related components (includes visual, aural, etc.) A discussion of each category includes a summary of its development, government policies and controls, international relationships and competitive situation, amount and quality of labor, present and potential military production, and dependence on imported com- ponents or materials. A tabulation of plants, showing location, ownership, size, and principal types and quantities of equipment produced. J. Chemical industries This Subsection covers heavy chemicals for indus- trial use, chemical fertilizers, and chemical plastics (Un- fabricated). 1. GENERAL 2. INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS The following list of chemicals, essentially raw mate- rials and intermediates for the chemical industry, serves as a guide for selecting those of importance in the area to be treated in this Subsection. Others not on the list are treated if their importance warrants. Sulfuric acid Alkali group (caustic soda, chlorine, soda ash, salt cake, bleach- ing powder, hydrochloric acid, fluorine, metallic sodium) Solvents, such as alcohols, acetone, etc. Synthetic ammonia and nitric acid Calcium carbide and industrial gases Dyes and pigments (coal tar and other organic dyes, chromates, red lead, lithopone, titanium dioxide) Other coal tar products (do not treat ammonium sulfate) Phosphorus and phosphates (except fertilizers) Bromides and tetraethyl lead Plastics raw materials (acetic acid, phenol, urea, formaldehyde, phtlialic and maleic anhydrides, butadiene, styrene, acryloni- trile, nylon salt, plasticizers and accelerators, purified cellu- lose, carbon black) 3. CHEMICALS USED IN AGRICULTURE a. FERTILIZERS (1) Nitrogenous (including ammonium sulfate from coke ovens) (2) Phosphatic (3) Potassic b. INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, ETC. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS 4. SYNTHETIC RUBBER AND FIBERS, AND PLASTICS a. SYNTHETIC RUBBER b. PLASTICS (POWDERS AND PELLETS FOR MOLDING, CASTING, AND LAMINATING; SHEETS, RODS, TUBES, AND FILM) C. SYNTHETIC FIBERS (MANUFACTURE OF RAYON, NYLON, ETC. FILAMENT AND STAPLE FIBER. No WEAV- ING) ? 5. PHARMACEUTICALS K. Agricultural processing industries The following major types of agricultural processing plants are to be considered: tobacco, meat packing, beverages, canneries, sugar mills and refineries, and oil processing plants. In certain areas other categories of installations are important and are given separate treatment. Commercial rice milling (milling for sale) in either rural or factory-type mills is treated here, where spe- cific information is given on location of individual plants, capacity, output, employment, and ownership. Among the dairy products, only dried and canned milk are discussed here. Detailed information is given on output of the industrialized sector of the animal slaughtering and meatpacking industry, including the number, location, size, and capacity of the industrial- ized plants. Detailed data are given here on oil mills, output of oils, and trade by country of origin and/or destination. If fish canning is an important manufacturing activity in the area, this Subsection includes a brief summary of the value of output, employment, and capital invest- ment, with cross-reference to SECTION 61, Subsection C. See also Subsection B, 1) for additional requirements. With respect to industries having strategic signifi- cance (normally fats and offs, meats, sugar, and flour), this Subsection lists in table form the information on the principal plants called for in Subsection B, 2. For principal plants of nonstrategic industries, normally described in a separate tabulation, only name, location size (preferably in terms of production or capacity), and age and/or degree of obsolescence are included; size and age (or degree of obsolescence) are normally indicated in a "Remarks" column. L. Fibers, fabrics, and rubber The following items are treated here: natural fibers and textiles (spinning and weaving stage); synthetic fibers (weaving stage only) ; natural rubber (processing stage) ; rubber products, both natural and synthetic, such as tires, shoes, etc.; paper and pulp; and leather. PAGE 18 JULY 1957 Treatment includes only factory consumption of raw cotton and wool (import data are briefly summarized, with cross-reference to SECTION 61). Supplies of raw fibers are also discussed in general terms here as a problem in textile production. Tanneries and leather products plants other than shoe factories are treated as one subtopic; data on tannery consumption of hides and skins are included. Shoes of all types are treated as a separate subtopic here. Production and consump- tion data for paper pulp are also covered. See also Subsection B, 1) for additional requirements. Treatment includes data on principal plants, as called for in *Subsection K. Mills making pulp usable for manufacture of explosives or rayon are indicated. M. Construction industries This Subsection treats major construction firms or industries interested and utilized in residential, com- mercial, industrial, and public works construction. Construction materials are treated in other Sections of CHAPTER VI and appropriate reference is made in this Subsection. See Subsection C. Discuss briefly and in general major categories of construction, number of major firms involved, and adequacy and availability of skilled and semi-skilled labor and equipment necessary for the industries con- cerned. Discuss growth of these industries, adequacy to meet present requirements and their ability to expand. Tabulate major construction firms, their location, types of construction each firm is interested in, and amount of skilled and semi-skilled labor employed. List outstanding and highly qualified personalities in the construction industry and note their special interests. N. Other industries This Subsection treats two types of industries not treated elsewhere. First, those industries that are important in the economy of the area are examined in detail according to requirements set up in B, 1); re- quirements for data on principal plants are those called for in Subsection K. Industries employing less than 5% of the manufacturing labor force are normally omitted. The second type of industries are those residual miscellaneous industries that are treated briefly to round out the overall analysis of the manufacturing sector of the economy. Fabricated plastics are covered here, if appropriate. Also furniture (treating lumber as part of raw materials consumption of the industry); Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VI soap and glycerine; paints, varnish, and lacquer. There are no special requirements for this discussion. 0. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby A. General inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 65. Trade and Finance Indicate the principal features of the country's do- mestic and foreign trade and the part it plays in the national economy. Discuss the country's currency and banking systems, and organization of public finances. Note significant changes in the country's balance of payments, especially during and since the war. Point out whether the country normally has an import or export surplus, and what is its debtor-creditor position (foreign. assets and liabilities). Discuss the country's position in international markets. Describe the gov- ernment's policy in the fields of domestic and foreign trade and finance. B. Business organization Discuss the juridical forms of business ownership. Indicate degree of interlocking financial relationship and dispersion of ownership. C. Domestic trade and finance 1. PATTERN OF DOMESTIC TRADE 1) Describe the place of wholesale and retail trade in the national economy, showing its contribution to GNP, number of persons employed as percent of total labor force, etc. 2) Describe briefly the structure of the trade chan- nels (wholesale and retail), with special emphasis upon trade practices, ownership (private, state, cooperative), nature and degree of specialization. 2. DOMESTIC FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR STRUCTURE Under each of the following principal topics include relevant statistical data as much as possible in tabular form. a. BANKING AND CURRENCY SYSTEM ? Describe the banking system indicating the kinds of banks and their role in financing private industry and trade, agri- culture and government. Describe briefly the central bank institution and discuss its role in the economy and government operations. Discuss flexibility of currency system and ability to meet changing economic require- ments. Describe briefly the currency system of the country indicating the kinds of currency used, the amounts outstanding, name of the issuing authority. Explain the degree to which the currency is tied to gold or to some other foreign currency, such as sterling or dollar. b. INSURANCE COMPANIES AND OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS (CREDIT UNIONS, ETC.) ? Describe briefly major features and operations. C. SECURITY MARKETS ? Describe briefly major features emphasizing role in providing and channeling investment funds. d. COMMODITY MARKETS ? List and briefly discuss the size, operations and government regulations re- lating to the major commodity markets. 3. GOVERNMENT FINANCE AND FISCAL POLICY Under each of the following principal topics include relevant statistical data as much as possible in tabular form. In all cases compare with prewar base year and indicate trends. a. PUBLIC EXPENDITURES (NATIONAL BUDGET) ? Analyze budgets to determine, where possible, the distribution of public expenditures on a functional as well as organizational basis with special emphasis on national defense and scientific development, and ade- quate attention to welfare and economic development. Indicate the size and function of local budgets. b. REVENUE ? Describe briefly the tax systems and other sources of revenue of both national and inter- mediate governments. Analyze adequacy to meet revenue requirements and social and political factors which condition revenue patterns. C. GOVERNMENT DEBT ? Indicate the Size Of gov- ernment debt, internal and foreign, and trace the trends during recent years. Discuss any particular problems that have arisen in connection with this debt, especially those involving servicing the foreign debt. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 19 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 "TITImumplio NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 d. GOVERNMENT MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICIES -7 Describe briefly the government's fiscal and monetary policies. Specifically, consider the effect on monetary availabilities and purchasing power (and through them on the levels of national income) of the following policies: Government surpluses and/or deficits Public revenue system Public expenditure pattern Management of the public debt Central bank policies, such as limitations on amount of issue, regulation of interest rates, reserve requirements, open market policies, etc. O. GOVERNMENT POLICIES TOWARD RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ? Examine government policies to- ward cartels, monopolies, other restrictive trade prac- tices, and toward cooperatives. D. International trade and finance Under each of the following principal topics include relevant statistical data as much as possible in tabular form. 1. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS POSITION a. OVERALL Discuss in overall terms the bal- ance of payments of the country indicating the net debit or credit position, the principal debit and credit items or groups of items and the principal debit and credit countries or monetary groupings. Indicate the extent to which commodity trade, other current accounts, and capital and monetary gold movements affect the bal- ance of payments. Where significant, analyze the triangular or multilateral aspects of the balance of pay- ments. Indicate changes in the pattern of the balance of payments during and since World War II. Draw up balance of payments statements for a typical prewar year and one or more postwar years according to the presentation adopted by the International Monetary Fund. b. CURRENT ACCOUNT (1) Commodity trade ? Show the relationship of the country's total foreign commodity trade to world trade and to its own national income. Describe the extent to which the country is dependent upon either imports or exports. Set forth the pattern of the cpun- try's foreign trade by commodity, by country of origin or destination, by quantity, value, and percentage distribution and variation. Indicate the more signifi- cant changes that have taken place in the preceding decade. Specify the countries and commodities upon which the foreign trade of the country is particularly dependent. Include a table of foreign trade showing by commodity, where data permit, the following: 1) volume, 2) value, 3) percentage distribution, and 4) country of origin and destination. If possible these should be given for different years in order to show fluctuation. These data should also be presented in graphic form when possible. PAGE 20 (2) Other current items ? Discuss the pattern of current accounts, analyzing the significance of the major invisible items, shipping, insurance, interest, tourism, noncompensated remittances, etc. C. CAPITAL AND GOLD MOVEMENTS ? If the move- ments of capital and monetary gold need analysis in greater detail than in Subsection D, 1, a, it should be presented here. 2. FOREIGN ASSETS AND LIABILITIES Discuss the country's position in recent years as an international debtor or creditor. Taking into con- sideration government and private investments, gold and foreign exchange holdings, etc., list the principal debtor or creditor countries, and indicate amounts out- standing. Analyze the nature and magnitude of any intergovernmental loans or grants. Indicate the amount of foreign investment within the country by industry group and by investing country. Indicate the amount of investment abroad by industry group and country of investment. Evaluate the role of foreign assets or debts as they would affect wartime and other extraordinary foreign expenditures. Describe changes in holdings of foreign exchange and gold during recent years and examine their effect upon foreign trade and international payments. Draw up a table of estimates of the country's private and government assets or investments in foreign coun- tries and of foreign countries' assets or investments in the subject country, showing gross values outstanding as of the end of recent fiscal or calendar years. Data are shown by classes of property, investment, or claim by foreign countries or areas in which country's assets or investments or its obligors are located, or which own or hold assets or investments in the country, or obliga- tions of the country. The country's estimated total net creditor or debtor position is given, as well as its net position with regard to particular classes of assets or with individual foreign countries or areas. The type of data and table intended can be judged by referring to the following: Debtor and Creditor Countries: 1938, 1944 by Cleona Lewis? published by the Brookings Institution, Washington, D. C., 1945. The 1938 estimates cover all countries of the world for which data were available, but list only long-term, not short-term, assets. U.S. Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, Census of American Owned Assets in Foreign Countries, 1947, Table I, p. 9, Table III, p. 17, and Table VI, p. 26. U.S. Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, Census of Foreign Owned Assets in the United States, G.P.O., 1945, Washington, D. C., Table IV, p. 18, Table V, p. 19, Table VII, p. 22. U.S. Department of Commerce, The Balance of Payments of the United States, 1949-1951, G.P.O., Washington, D. C., 1952, pp. 162-163, "Table 41?International investment position by type of investment and area, year ends, 1947-51." Where data are not available indicate by appropriate entry in the table. TT 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER VII SCIENTIFIC Section 70 Introduction Section 71 Electronics Section 72 Air, Ground, and Naval Weapons Section 73 Atomic Energy Section 74 Biological Warfare Section 75 Chemical Warfare Section 76 Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Medicine CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CII AP TEE V I 3. GOVERNMENT POLICIES, PRACTICES AND INSTITUTIONS RELATIVE TO INTER- NATIONAL TRADE AND 4INANCE Discuss the nature, extent, and effectiveness of gov- ernment controls on foreign exchange and foreign trade and their relationship to each other. Indicate to what extent these controls are permanent or of an emergency character. Discuss the purpose of such controls and the extent to which they modify the trade pattern. Discuss governmental policy, practices and institu- tions in respect to the following matters: a. COMMERCIAL POLICY AND STATE INTERVENTION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADING Tariffs, subsidies and incentives Quantitative restrictions State trading, bulk buying, bilateral agreements, etc. Relations with international trade organizations b. INTERNATIONAL FINANCE Foreign exchange rates?Indicate changes that have occurred in country's exchange rates during recent years; account for such changes by reference to inflationary policies, occupation by foreign powers, deliberate eco- nomic warfare, etc. Participation in international payments and clearance arrangements, e.g., IPU-- Relations with international financial institutions, e.g., IMF-- Controls and safeguards affecting international invest- ment- 4. FOREIGN TRADE ORGANIZATIONS Discuss briefly the nature of foreign trade organiza- tions, including cartels, which control the movement of goods. Indicate the extent to which such organiza- tions influence the volume and character of the foreign trade. E. Government wartime financing Discuss the manner in which the government financed its expenditures during the recent war, in financing its domestic and foreign procurement. Indicate major developments since the outbreak of World War II that affect its ability in this regard. F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 21 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 Chapter VII Scientific OUTLINE SECTION 70. INTRODUCTION A. Evaluation and development of the scientific effort 1. Present status and recent trends 2. Historical background B. Organization and functioning of the research program 1. General supervision and guidance 2. Government research organizations (except educational) 3. Research at educational institutions 4. Private and semiprivate research or- ganizations 5. Exchange of scientific and technical information C. Financing of scientific and technical activities D. Scientific and technical manpower 1. Education, training, and quality 2. Total numbers, distribution, and utili- zation 3. Social and economic position of scien- tists and engineers E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 71. ELECTRONICS A. General 1. Capabilities and trends 2. Background and organization B. Major research and development by field C. Significant research and development facilities D. Outstanding personalities E. Comments on principal sources SECTION 72. AIR, GROUND, AND NAVAL WEAPONS A. B. C. D. E. F. General Aircraft and aircraft armament Guided missiles Ground weapons and equipment Naval weapons Comments on principal sources SECTION 73. ATOMIC ENERGY A. General 1. Capabilities and trends 2. Background and organization 3. Financing 4. Manpower and training B. Major research and development C. Sources and production of basic materials D. Production of reactive materials E. Applications of nuclear energy F. Significant research, development, and production facilities Outstanding personalities Comments on principal sources G. H. A. B. C. D. E. SECTION 75. A. B. C, SECTION 74. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE D. E. General 1. Capabilities and trends 2. Policies 3. Background and organization Research, development, and field testing 1. Offensive 2. Defensive Significant research and development facilities Outstanding personalities Comments on principal sources CHEMICAL WARFARE General 1. Capabilities and trends 2. Policies 3. Background and organization Research, development, and field testing 1. Offensive 2. Defensive Significant research and development facilities and pilot plants Outstanding personalities Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 SECTION 76. PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND MEDICINE A. General B. through X. Subject sciences 1. General 2. Major research and development by field 3. Significant research and development facilities 4. Outstanding personalities Y. Comments on principal sources OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Certain aspects of CHAPTER VII coverage are related to other NIS Chapters. In general, CHAPTER VII covers scientific research and development of materiel through the prototype stage, whereas CHAPTER VI deals with materiel production, and CHAPTER VIII with military employment of materiel. CHAPTER IV (SOCIOLOGICAL) deals with the educational system as a whole and with the educational level of the population; CHAPTER VII with scientific education and educational institutions and societies insofar as they engage in scientific research. Manufacture of chemical warfare and biological warfare materiel is treated in CHAPTER VI and the quality, quantity and characteristics of this materiel, in CHAPTER VIII. Section 70. Introduction A. Evaluation and development of the scien- tific effort 1. PRESENT STATUS AND RECENT TRENDS This Subsection is essentially a selective and evalua- tive summary of SECTION 70 and, in a general sense, of CHAPTER VII; subjects discussed in detail later are treated very briefly here. The distinguishing features of the country's current scientific and technical activi- ties in terms of goals, scope, peculiar advantages or disadvantages, general level of attainment, and recent (not future) trends are pointed out. These features are appraised in terms of the country's needs, worldwide progress, and corresponding activities of comparable countries. Capabilities are indicated as static, rising, or falling. Any expansion plans are briefly outlined. The country's capabilities a,nd trends in the major fields of scientific and technical research and development are discussed. Fields of endeavor which are emphasized and those neglected are identified. The relative stress upon military versus civilian re- search and upon fundamental (pure) versus applied research, and any recent changes in emphasis, are discussed. Scientific and technical capabilities are PAGE 2 related to the country's military and economic potential. The attitudes of the government, industry, the general public, and major political and cultural groups toward science, are discussed, if significant. 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The development of the country's scientific and technical activities, especially 20th century develop- ments, are briefly outlined. Beginnings and growth of activity in the physical sciences and crafts, and a few outstanding persons, organizations, and events which shaped or altered scientific and technical development are described in general terms; no detailed scientific chronology or history of academic scholarship is pro- vided. Social, political, economic, geographic, and other factors are discussed only if they had a decisive effect upon scientific and technical development. B. Organization and functioning of the re- search program 1. GENERAL SUPERVISION AND GUIDANCE The character of scientific and technical organization and administration in terms of the degree of centralized Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER VII control and planning and the freedom of individuals and organizations in choosing and financing research projects is described. The main organizations (govern- ment or other) which plan, control, supervise, guide, coordinate, and/or finance the country's research and development are identified (by both English and native names) and their operations described. The relative importance of these bodies, their subordination, and the relationships between them are explained and illustrated with a chart or charts. Explanation is made of how the national research and development program is planned and how research projects originate and are supervised and sustained. 2. GOVERNMENT RESEARCH ORGANIZA- TIONS (EXCEPT EDUCATIONAL) The research organizations of the ministries and other major organizations concerned with various segments of government research and development are named and their importance and responsibilities briefly indicated. The armed forces are included but educa- tional institutions are not. The subordination of and relationships between the various research organiza- tions are explained. However, the personnel, facilities, or research programs of individual research laboratories and institutes are not discussed here; other Sections in CHAPTER VII furnish such information. 3. RESEARCH AT EDUCATIONAL INSTI- TUTIONS The type of research and development information provided above for government bodies is here covered for government and private educational institutions of major scientific or technical importance. Education is not discussed because it is treated below under Scientific and Technical Manpower. 4. PRIVATE AND SEMIPRIVATE RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS The type of information provided above for govern- ment bodies is here covered for the most important research organizations maintained by industry, con- tract research companies, cooperative associations, nonprofit foundations, joint government-private enter- prises, and private individuals. The relationships of these organizations with one another, the government, and educational institutions are covered, and foreign affiliations, if any, are indicated. 5. EXCHANGE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECH- NICAL INFORMATION The ease of and restrictions upon exchanging scien- tific and technical information within the country and with other nations, the availability of native and foreign literature, the adequacy of library and technical publication facilities, and international relations and foreign travel are discussed insofar as they concern science and engineering. The principal general science societies and academies not previously mentioned are described and the roles of these and other professional societies are explained. In general, the discussion does not cover societies concerned only with specific fields of science; these societies are covered in other Sections of CHAPTER VII., C. Financing of scientific and technical ac- tivities Adequacy and methods of financing are summarized. Funds available for scientific and technical education, research, and development from governmental, private, and foreign sources are discussed in detail. Distribu- tion of funds among various organizations and fields of specialization is indicated. Whenever possible, com- parable statistics for more than one year are presented to show trends as well as size of effort; if such data are not obtainable, other indications of the amount of money available are shown. D. Scientific and technical manpower 1. EDUCATION, TRAINING, AND QUALITY The qualitative strengths and weaknesses of scientific and technical manpower are discussed. The following are described and evaluated: scientific and technical education and training, especially at the postgraduate and specialist level; curricula and degrees, the adequacy of instructors and teaching facilities, recruitment and selection of students; entrance requirements for higher educational institutions and advanced vocational schools; and scholarships and financial assistance to students. (Education and manpower in general are not discussed here; they are covered in CHAPTER IV which may be referenced.) 2. TOTAL NUMBERS, DISTRIBUTION, AND UTILIZATION The discussion covers the total size and adequacy of scientific and technical manpower resources, their rate of growth (including graduations from higher educa- tional institutions), distribution among the various fields of science and technology, any major shortages or surpluses, and the efficiency of manpower utilization. 3. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC POSITION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS The relative attractiveness of careers in science and technology as compared with those in other professions is discussed in terms of salaries and other remunera- tions (e.g., fellowships), public and professional recogni- tion (including prizes and awards for outstanding achievement), degree of independence, ideological influences, undesirable responsibilities, etc. PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 siimimmionimmo NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the material in the Section. A. General To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not necessarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Section 71. Electronics 1. CAPABILITIES AND TRENDS The country's recent achievements, recent (not future) trends, strengths, and weaknesses in electronics research and development are evaluated briefly, and the phases emphasized and those neglected are indicated. Comparison is made with other appropriate countries. The following are discussed: the adequacy of facilities, personnel, funds, and industrial support; whether capabilities are static, rising, or falling; expansion plans, if any; current and potential capabili- ties related to national military and economic status; and any exceptional participation in international electronic organizations and activities. Details are reserved for later Subsections. 2. BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION A brief history of the country's achievements and early organizations in electronics research and develop- ment is given, followed by general evaluative descrip- tions of the functioning of the current institutions (government establishments and committees, industrial associations, universities, professional societies, etc.) which plan, guide, control, coordinate, and/or finance research and development in electronics. Organizations concerned with other technical adds in addition to electronics are discussed only insofar as they concern electronics; their other activities are described else- where in CHAPTER VII. B. Major research and development by field The normal headings within this Subsection are: 1. Radio and Television Communications; 2. Other Communications; 3. Navigation Aids; 4. Radar other than Navigation Aids; 5. Infrared Devices; 6. Under- water Acoustics; 7. Miscellaneous Special Devices (Computers, radiosondes, etc.); 8. Electronic Counter- measures; 9. Vacuum Tubes and Semiconductors; and 10. Other Electronic Components. (SECTION 76 is refer- enced for fundamental infrared arid acoustics research.) These topics are covered to the extent to which they are applicable to the subject country. If there is little PAGE 4 activity, any or all of these subheadings are discarded in favor of an explanatory introduction or a consoli- dated discussion. This Subsection provides the main detailed support for Subsection A, 1, and, therefore, describes and evalu- ates the amount, quality, and significance of research and development in each branch of electronics in terms of recent outstanding achievements, strengths and weaknesses, current projects and their status, and recent trends. Projects that have progressed beyond the prototype stage are omitted, other than citing these as recent achievements and making reference, where pertinent, to CHAPTER VIII. Key personnel and facilities may be mentioned, but details are reserved for Subsections C and D. C. Significant research and development facilities Each significant government and private (including industrial) research and/or development facility is described and evaluated, giving its name in English and the native language, its location (with geographic coordinates), the name of the director, the subordina- tion and variant names (if any) of the facility, and the names and locations of any major branches. For each organization, major achievements (if any), current activities, and the adequacy of personnel and equip- ment are mentioned, but discussions of specific re- search and development projects (given above under Subsection B) are avoided. D. Outstanding personalities The country's outstanding (not all known) electronics personnel are described briefly, giving for each (in the following order) full name, academic and/or military titles, field of specialization, an evaluation of pro- fessional stature, current or last reported professional position (with dates of employment where significant), any earlier outstanding positions, significant back- ground information, recent and current research, and year of birth. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER VII COPPPRommun E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the material in the Section. A. General To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not necessarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Section 72. Air, Ground, and Naval Weapons The country's current research and development capabilities in air, ground, and naval weapons (includ- ing guided missiles) are summarized. General back- ground factors (such as weaknesses and strengths, government policy, popular attitudes, etc.) which influence capabilities in these fields are mentioned but details are omitted; the main discussion of these factors appears in SECTION 70. B. Aircraft and aircraft armament C. Guided missiles D. Ground weapons and equipment E. Naval weapons The above four Subsections use the same general outline (which follows) except for the subheadings given below under 2. Major Research and Develop- ment by field. 1. GENERAL a. CAPABILITIES AND TRENDS ? The country's recent achievements, recent (not future) trends, strengths, and weaknesses in research and development in the subject field are evaluated briefly, and the phases emphasized and those neglected are indicated. Com- parison is made with other appropriate countries. The following are discussed: the adequacy of facilities, personnel, funds, and industrial support; whether capabilities are static, rising, or falling; expansion plans, if any; current and potential capabilities related to national military and economic status; and any exceptional participation in international military research and development organization and activities. Details are reserved for later Subsections. b. BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION ? A brief history of the country's achievements and early organizations in the subject research and development field is given, followed by general evaluative descrip- tions of the functioning of the current institutions (government establishments and committees, industrial associations, universities, professional societies, etc.) which plan, guide, control, coordinate, and/or finance research and development in the subject field. Organi- zations concerned with other technical fields in addition to the subject field are discussed only insofar as they concern air, ground, and naval weapon research and development; their other activities are described else- where in CHAPTER VII. 2. MAJOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BY FIELD Under B. Aircraft and Aircraft Armament, the usual subheadings are: a. Fundamental Aerodynamics; b. Airframes; c. Aircraft Propulsion; d. Aircraft Ordnance; and e. Other Aircraft Equipment. Under C. Guided Missiles, the subheadings are: a. Guidance and Control; b. Propulsion; c. Aerodynamics and Structure; and d. Warheads and Fuzing. Under D. Ground Weapons and Equipment, the subheadings are: a. Combat Vehicles; b. General Purpose Vehicles; c. Artillery (except antiaircraft); d. Antiaircraft Weapons and Fire Control Equipment; e. Infantry Weapons; f. Mines and Mine Clearance Equipment; g. Stream Crossing and Engineer Equipment; h. Special Arctic Equipment; and i. Other Ground Equipment. Under E. Naval Weapons, the subheadings are: a. Hull Design; b. Ship Propulsion; c. Underwater Ordnance (reference SECTION 71 for Underwater Acoustics); d. Surface Ordnance; and e. Other Naval Equipment. These topics are covered to the extent applicable to the subject country. If there is little activity, any or all of the subheadings are discarded in favor of an explanatory introduction or a consolidated discussion. Subsections B. 2, C. 2, D. 2, and E. 2 provide the main detailed support for the preceding general appraisals under Capabilities and Trends and, there- fore, describe and evaluate the amount, quality, and significance of research and development in each field and branch in terms of recent outstanding achieve- ments, strengths and weaknesses, current projects and their status, and recent trends. Projects that have progressed beyond the prototype or pilot plant stage are omitted, other than citing these as recent achieve- ments and making reference, where pertinent, to PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 CHAPTER VI and CHAPTER VIII. Key personnel and facilities are mentioned, but details are reserved for Subsections 3 and 4. 3. SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH AND DEVELOP- MENT FACILITIES Each significant government and private (including industrial) research and/or development facility is described and evaluated, giving its name in English and the native language, its location (with geographic coordinates), the name of the director, the subordina- tion and variant names (if any) of the facility, and the names and locations of any major branches. For each organization, major achievements (if any), current activities, and the adequacy of personnel and equip- ment are mentioned, but discussions of specific re- search and development projects (given above under Subsection 2) are avoided. 4. OUTSTANDING PERSONALITIES The country's outstanding (not all known) personnel in the subject field are described briefly, giving for each A. General (in the following order) full name, academic and/or military titles, field of specialization, an evaluation of professional stature, current or last reported professional position (with dates of employment where significant), any earlier outstanding positions, significant back- ground information, recent and current research, and year of birth. F. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the material in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection. targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not necessarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Section 73. Atomic Energy The use of nuclear energy and materials for generating power beyond the prototype stage, including the manufacturers and manufacture of nuclear reactors for power purposes, is covered in Chapter VI. 1. CAPABILITIES AND TRENDS The country's recent achievements, recent (not future) trends, strengths, and weaknesses in nuclear energy are evaluated briefly, and the phases emphasized and those neglected are indicated. Comparison is made with other appropriate countries. The following are discussed: the adequacy of facilities, personnel, funds, raw materials, and industrial support; whether capabilities are static, rising, or falling; expansion plans, if any; current and potential capabilities related to national military and economic status; and any exceptional participation in international nuclear energy organizations and activities. Details are reserved for later Subsections. 2. BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION A brief history of the .country's achievements and early organizations in nuclear energy is given, followed by general evaluative descriptions of the functioning of the current institutions (government establishments and committees, industrial associations, universities, PAGE 6 professional societies, etc.) which plan, guide, control, and/or coordinate nuclear energy activities. Organiza- tions concerned with other technical fields in addition to nuclear energy are discussed only insofar as they con- cern nuclear energy; their other activities are described elsewhere in CHAPTER VII. 3. FINANCING Funds available for the maintenance and expansion of nuclear energy research, development, production, and training from governmental, private (including industrial), and foreign sources are discussed, with the distribution of funds among various organizations and branches of specialization indicated. Whenever pos- sible, comparable statistics for more than one year are presented to show trends as well as size of effort; if such data are not obtainable, other indications of the amount of money available are noted. 4. MANPOWER AND TRAINING The quality, numbers, and adequacy of nuclear scientists, engineer, and technicians are appraised. The number, quality, and general content of govern- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 JULY 1959 CHAP ment and privately sponsored nuclear training programs are discussed and evaluated. B. Major research and development This Subsection is subdivided according to the major phases of the nation's research and development effort, the extent of subdivision being determined by the size and complexity of the nuclear energy program. If there is little activity, a consolidated discussion without subheadings is used. This Subsection provides main detailed support for Subsection A, 1, and, therefore, describes and evaluates the amount, quality, and significance of research and development in each phase of nuclear energy in terms of recent outstanding achievements, strengths and weak- nesses, current projects and their status, and recent trends. Key personnel and facilities may be mentioned, but details are reserved for Subsections F and G. The Physics Subsection of SECTION 76 is cross-referenced where appropriate. C. Sources and production of basic materials Availability of basic materials is discussed. Process- ing from raw material to end product for such essential materials as uranium, thorium, heavy water, beryllium, pure graphite, pure calcium, magnesium, lithium, etc., is briefly described and evaluated. Names and loca- tions of the most important mines and processing plants (existing or under construction) for producing basic materials are given. SECTION 63 is cross-referenced where appropriate. This Subsection provides main detailed support for Subsection A, 1, following, there- fore, the general pattern of Subsection B. D. Production of reactive materials The processes and equipment used for producing reactive materials on other than a laboratory scale are briefly described and evaluated, with estimates given of the quality and quantities of various materials produced and stockpiled. The names and locations of the most important facilities (existing or under con- struction) for producing such materials are given. This Subsection provides main detailed support for Subsection A, 1, following, therefore, the general pattern of Subsection B. E. Applications of nuclear energy A qualitative and quantitative estimate of the subject country's current capabilities for various nuclear : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 TER VII afilimindivaikun energy applications (apparent and/or announced) is provided. Weapons, power, isotopes for research and other uses, are covered. Names and locations of the most important facilities (existing or under construc- tion) concerned with nuclear applications are given. SECTION 62 is cross-referenced where appropriate. This Subsection provides main detailed support for Sub- section A, 1, following, therefore, the general pattern of Subsection B. F. Significant research, development, and production facilities Each significant government and private (including industrial) nuclear energy facility is described and evaluated, giving Its name in English and the native language, its location (with geographic coordinates), the name of the director, the subordination and variant names (if any) of the facility, and the names and loca- tions of any major branches. For each organization, major achievements (if any), current activities, and the adequacy of personnel and equipment are mentioned, but discussions of specific research, development, and production projects (given above under Subsections B through E) are avoided. G. Outstanding personalities The country's outstanding (not all known) nuclear energy personnel are described briefly, giving for each (in the following order) full name, academic and/or military titles, field of specialization, and evaluation of professional stature, current or last reported profes- sional position (with dates of employment w here significant), any earlier outstanding positions, signifi- cant background information, recent and current research, and year of birth. H. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the material in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not necessarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 auftimmisaw.. NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 Section 74. Biological Warfare Section 74 covers research and development (and pilot plant produc- tion), but regular production is covered in Section 64. A. General 1. CAPABILITIES AND TRENDS The country's recent achievements, recent (not future) trends, strengths, and weaknesses in BW are evaluated briefly, and the phases emphasized and those neglected are indicated. Comparison is made with other appropriate countries. The following are dis- cussed: the adequacy of BW research and development (including pilot plant) facilities and personnel; whether capabilities are static, rising, or falling; and expansion plans, if any. Details are reserved for later Sub- sections. 2. POLICIES The priority of the BW program and the general attitude of the government and people toward it is indicated. Government policy concerning the growth, promotion, and military application of BW is examined in terms of national objectives (offensive and/or de- fensive), and the allocation of funds, personnel, labora- tories, plants, and equipment. Cooperation with other countries in BW activities is discussed. 3. BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION A brief history of the country's achievements and early organizations for BW is given, followed by general evaluative descriptions of the functioning of the current institutions (government establishments and com- mittees, industrial associations, universities, etc.) which plan, guide, control, coordinate, and/or finance BW research activities. Organizations concerned with other technical fields in addition to BW are discussed only insofar as they concern BW research; their other activities are described elsewhere in CHAPTER VII. B. Research, development, and field testing This Subsection provides the main detailed support for Subsection A, 1, and, therefore, describes and evaluates the amount, quality, and significance of research, development, and field testing activities in BW. Topics in the following Subsections are covered to the extent that they are applicable to the subject country. If there are few such activities, any or all of the subheadings are discarded in favor of an explanatory introduction or a consolidated discussion. Key per- sonnel and facilities are mentioned, but details are reserved for Subsections C and D. PAGE 8 1. OFFENSIVE a. BW AGENT RESEARCH ? Research On new and improved BW agents is discussed and evaluated; those which have been or are being studied or tested are listed. (New agents are those not developed beyond the pilot plant stage.) b. BW AGENT DEVELOPMENT ? Pilot plant opera- tions and field testing of new and improved BW agents are evaluated. Processing methods, key intermediate products, and special materials and equipment, if any, are covered with respect to developmental work includ- ing pilot plants. C. DISSEMINATION OF BW AGENTS ? Research, development, and field testing of equipment and methods for the dissemination of. BW agents, e.g., portable sprayers, spray tanks, aerosol bombs, explosive devices, and special munitions, are described and evalu- ated. 2. DEFENSIVE Descriptions and evaluations are presented covering research, development, and field testing of materials, techniques, and equipment for defensive BW, e.g., detection materiel and techniques, protective clothing (impregnated fabrics and impermeable materials), adsorbents for the gas mask canister (charcoal, paper, asbestos, special chemicals), gas mask facepieces (design, materials), decontaminants (ointments, pow- ders), protective shelters (design, materials), prophy- lactics (immunization), and treatment of human, animal, and plant victims (antidotes, drugs, isolation, killing or destruction). Where appropriate, other sections of the NIS such as public health, manufactur- ing, and armed forces, are referenced. C. Significant research and development facilities Each known or suspected significant BW research and/or development facility, pilot plant, and testing station is described and evaluated, giving its name in English and the native language, its location (with geographic coordinates), the name of the director, the subordination and variant names (if any) of the facility. and the names and locations of any major branches, For each organization, major achievements (if any), current activities, and the adequacy of personnel and Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER VII imeiggffnlinamo equipment are mentioned, but discussions of specific research and development projects (given above under Subsection B) are avoided. D. Outstanding personalities The country's outstanding (not all known) BW personnel are described briefly, giving for each (in the following order) full name, academic and/or military titles, field of specialization, an evaluation of profes- sional stature, current or last reported professional position (with dates of employment where significant), any earlier outstanding positions, significant back- ground information, recent and current research, and year of birth. A. General E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the material in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not neces- sarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Section 75. Chemical Warfare Section 75 covers research and development (and pilot plant produc- tion), but regular production is covered in Section 64. 1. CAPABILITIES AND TRENDS The country's recent achievements, recent (not future) trends, strengths, and weaknesses in CW research and development are evaluated briefly, and the phases emphasized and those neglected are indi- cated. Comparison is made with other appropriate countries. The following are discussed: the adequacy of CW research and development (including pilot plant) facilities and personnel; whether capabilities are staltic, rising, or falling; and expansion plans, if any. Details are reserved for later Subsections. 2. POLICIES The priority of the CW program and the general attitude of the government and people toward it are indicated. Government policy concerning the growth, promotion, and military application of CW is examined in terms of national objectives (offensive and/or de- fensive), and allocations of funds, personnel, laborato- ries, and equipment. Cooperation with other countries in CW activities is discussed. 3. BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION A brief history of the country's achievements and early organizations for CW is given, followed by general evaluative descriptions of the functioning of the current institutions (government establishments and committees, industrial associations, universities, etc.) which plan, guide, control, coordinate, and/or finance CW research activities. Organizations concerned with other technical fields in addition to CW are dis- cussed only insofar as they concern CW research; their other activities are described elsewhere in CHAPTER VII. B. Research, development, and field testing This Subsection provides the main detailed support for Subsection A, 1, and, therefore, describes and evalu- ates the amount, quality, and significance of research, development, and field testing in CW. Topics in the following Subsections are covered to the extent that they are applicable to the subject country. If there is little CW activity, any or all of the subheadings may be discarded in favor of an explanatory introduction or a consolidated discussion. Key personnel and facilities may be mentioned, but details are reserved for Sub- sections C and D. 1. OFFENSIVE a. CW AGENT RESEARCH ? Research on new and improved CW agents is discussed and evaluated; those which have been or are being studied or tested are listed. (New agents are those not developed beyond the pilot plant stage.) b. CW AGENT DEVELOPMENT Pilot plant opera- tions and field testing of new and improved CW agents are discussed and evaluated, covering processing methods, key intermediate chemicals, and special materials and equipment, if any. C. DISSEMINATION OF CW AGENTS ? Description and evaluation is presented covering research, develop- ment, and field testing of new types of equipment and PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 1.1J.G.1111/1.1.1 methods for the dissemination of CW agents, e.g., thermal generators, portable sprayers, spray tanks, aerosol bombs, explosive devices, and special munitions. d. FLAME WARFARE ? Research, development, and field testing of flame warfare materials, incendiaries, and smokes are described, including fuels and prototype material used for dissemination. 2. DEFENSIVE Description and evaluation is presented covering research, development, and field testing of new and improved materials, techniques, and equipment for defensive CW, e.g., detection material and techniques, protective clothing (impregnated fabrics and imperme- able materials), adsorbents for the gas mask canister (charcoal, paper, asbestos, special chemicals), gas mask facepieces (design, materials), decontaminants (oint- ments, powders), protective shelters (design, materials), and therapeutic agents (antidotes). C. Significant research and development fa- cilities and pilot plants Each known or suspected significant CW research and/or development facility, pilot plant, and testing station is described and evaluated giving its name in English and the native language, its location (with geographic coordinates), the name of the director, the subordination and variant names (if any) of the facility, and the names and locations of any major branches. For each organization, major achievements (if any), current activities, and the adequacy of personnel and equipment are mentioned, but discussions of specific research and development projects (given above under Subsection B) are a:voided. D. Outstanding personalities The country's outstanding (not all known) CW personnel are described briefly, giving for each (in the following order) full name, academic and/or military titles, field of specialization, an evaluation of profes- sional stature, current or last reported professional position (with dates of employment where significant), any earlier outstanding positions, significant back- ground information, recent and current research, and year of birth. E. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the material in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not necessarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Section 76. Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Medicine A. General The country's current research and development capabilities in the physical and life sciences other than those fields covered in SECTIONS 71 through 75 are summarized. General background factors (such as weaknesses and strengths, government policy, popular attitudes, etc.) which influence capabilities in the subject sciences are mentioned, but details are omitted; the main discussion of these factors appears in SECTION 70. B. through X. Subject sciences These Subsections are normally entitled: B. Chem- istry and Metallurgy; C. Meteorology; D. Oceanog- raphy; E. Geological Sciences and Terrestrial Geo- physics; F. Physics, Allied Sciences, and Mathematics; and G. Medical, Veterinary, and Allied Sciences. These Subsections are, however, altered if some other breakdown provides a better coverage for a particular nation. For each subject science, the following outline is used: PAGE 10 1. GENERAL a. CAPABILITIES AND TRENDS ? The country's recent achievements, recent (not future) trends, strengths, and weaknesses in the subject science are evaluated briefly, and the fields emphasized and those neglected are indicated. Comparison is made with other appropriate countries. The following are dis- cussed: adequacy of facilities, personnel, funds, and industrial support; whether capabilities are static, rising, or falling; expansion plans, if any; current and potential capabilities related to national military and economic status; and any exceptional participation in international scientific and technical organizations and activities. Details are reserved for later Subsections. b. BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION ? A brief history of the country's achievements and early organi- zations in the subject science is given, followed by general evaluative descriptions of the functioning of the current institutions (government establishments and committees, industrial associations, universities, pro- Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1959 CHAPTER VII fessional societies, etc.) which plan, guide, control, coordinate, and/or finance research and development in the subject science. Organizations concerned with other sciences in addition to the subject science ? are discussed only insofar as they concern the subject science; their other activities are described elsewhere in CHAPTER VII. 2. MAJOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BY FIELD Each subject science is covered under appropriate subheadings, unless there is little activity in the country, in which case any or all of the subheadings are discarded in favor of an explanatory introduction or a consolidated discussion. Subsections B. 2., C. 2., D. 2., etc., provide the main detailed support for the preceding general appraisals under Capabilities and Trends and describe and evaluate the amount, quality, and significance of research and development in each field and branch in terms of recent outstanding achievements, strengths and weaknesses, current projects and their status, and recent trends. Projects that have progressed beyond the prototype or pilot plant stage are omitted, except for citing them as recent achievements and, if appropriate, referring to other portions of the NIS. Key personnel and facilities may be mentioned, but details are re- served for Subsections 3 and 4. 3. SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH AND DEVELOP- MENT FACILITIES Each significant government and private (including industrial) research and/or development facility is described, giving its name in English and the native language, its location (with geographic coordinates), the name of the director, the subordination and variant names (if any) of the facility, and the names and locations of any major branches. For each organiza- tion, a few major achievements (if any), current activities, and the adequacy of personnel and equip- ment are mentioned, but discussions of specific re- search and development projects (given above under Subsection 2) are avoided. 4. OUTSTANDING PERSONALITIES The country's outstanding (not all known) personnel in the subject science are described briefly, giving for each (in the following order) full name, academic and/or military titles, field of specialization, an evaluation of professional stature, current or last reported profes- sional position (with dates of employment where significant), any earlier outstanding positions, signifi- cant background information, recent and current research, and year of birth. Y. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be ac- corded the material in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient and unavailable and thereby provide collectors of information with collection targets. In this connection, the principal sources (not necessarily all sources) actually used are ordinarily listed. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 11 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER VIII ARMED FORCES Section 80 Introduction Section 81 Ground Forces Section 82 Naval Forces Section 83 Air Forces CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 Chapter MI-Armed Forces OUTLINE SECTION 80. INTRODUCTION A. General B. Structure of armed forces 1. Composition 2. Top control C. Size of armed forces D. Position of armed forces in the nation 1. Legal basis 2. Traditions 3. Political influence 4. Fiscal control E. Manpower 1. Available manpower for armed forces 2. Quality of manpower 3. Conscription SECTION 81. GROUND FORCES A. General B. Administrative organization 1. Army high command 2. Territorial organization 3. Arms and services C. Tactical organization 1. General 2. Higher headquarters 3. Staff organization 4. Combat and combat support units 5. Service units D. Strength and disposition 1. Strength 2. Disposition E. Strategy and defenses 1. Strategic problems and doctrines 2. Permanent fortifications F. Tactics 1. Basic tactical doctrines 2. Special operations G. Personnel 1. Ranks 2. Pay 3. Procurement and terms of service 4. Quality factors H. Reserve and mobilization system 1. Reserve system 2. Mobilization system 3. Mobilization potential I. Training 1. General 2. Preinduction 3. Individual 4. Unit, combined, and maneuvers 5. Reserve 6. Schools and installations J. Logistics 1. Classification of materiel 2. Procurement 3. Peacetime storage and issue 4. War supply and movement 5. Maintenance 6. Evacuation K. Materiel 1. Ordnance 2. Signal 3. Quartermaster 4. Engineer 5. Chemical 6. Medical L. Personalities 1. Biographical sketches 2. List of personalities M. Quasi-military and other ground forces N. Comments on principal sources SECTION 82. NAVAL FORCES A. General B. Organization 1. Naval high command 2. Naval districts (zones or activities) 3. Naval communications network 4. Forces afloat 5. Other naval organizations C. Strength and disposition 1. Ships 2. Personnel D. Policy and doctrine 1. Naval strategic concepts 2. Doctrine 3. Naval budget and appropriations 4. Construction and development pro- grams 5. Naval relationships with other coun- tries 6. National attitude toward the navy PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ?firmistorMPL0 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS E. Personnel 1. Corps and services 2. Rank and rates 3. Procurement 4. Conditions of service 5. Uniforms and insignia F. Reserve and mobilization system 1. Ships 2. Personnel 3. Merchant marine and other auxiliary forces 4. Adequacy of mobilization system G. Training 1. General 2. Facilities 3. Officer 4. Enlisted 5. Shipboard 6. Fleet and force 7. Reserve Fl. Logistics 1. Procurement 2. New construction, repair and mainte- nance 3. Centers of supply I. Ship design and characteristics 1. Design of ships 2. Strategic characteristics J. Materiel 1. General 2. Characteristics K. Personalities 1. Biographical sketches 2. Flag and ranking officers L. Comments on principal sources SECTION 83. AIR FORCES PAGE 2 A. Strategic significance 1. Air value of the area 2. International position of the air force 3. Role of air force in national politics B. Historical development C. Mission and doctrine 1. Mission JANUARY 1962 2. Development of doctrine 3. Doctrine of employment D. Organization 1, Position in government and defense structure 2. Air high command 3. Major commands/components 4. Composition of operational commands 5. Territorial organization E. Operational systems of major striking forces F. Personnel 1. Procurement 2. Conditions of service 3. Characteristics 4. Morale factors G. Training 1. General 2. Preparatory 3. Preoperational flying 4. Ground personnel 5. Schools for advanced military 6. Operational 7. Reserve 8. Foreign air programs H. Logistics 1. Supply 2. Maintenance 3. Relationship of requirements to pro- duction 4. Appraisal of the logistical system Reserve and mobilization 1. Reserve 2. Mobilization Air facilities 1. General 2. Historical development 3. Distribution 4. Projected development K. Means of identification 1. Aircraft markings 2. Unit identification 3. Uniforms and insignia 4. Rank 5. Awards and decorations L. Comments on principal sources I. J. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 milimaimmamm JULY 1958 Chapter VIII-Armed Forces OUTLINE SECTION 80. INTRODUCTION A. General B. Structure of armed forces 1. Composition 2. Top control C. Size of armed forces D. Position of armed forces in the nation 1. Legal basis 2. Traditions 3. Political influence 4. Fiscal control E. Manpower 1. Available manpower for armed forces 2. Quality of manpower 3. Conscription SECTION 81. GROUND FORCES A. General B. Administrative organization 1. Army high command 2. Territorial organization 3. Arms and services C. Tactical organization 1. General 2. Higher headquarters 3. Staff organization 4. Combat units 5. Service units D. Order of battle 1. Strength 2. Dispositions E. Strategy and defenses 1. Strategic problems and doctrines 2. Permanent fortifications F. Tactics 1. Basic tactical doctrines 2. Special operations G. Personnel 1. Ranks 2. Pay 3. Procurement and terms of service 4. Quality factors H. Reserve and mobilization system 1. Reserve system 2. Mobilization system 3. Mobilization potential I. Training 1. General 2. Preinduction 3. Individual 4. Unit, combined, and maneuvers 5. Reserve 6. Schools and installations J. Logistics 1. Classification of materiel 2. Procurement 3. Peacetime storage and issue 4. War supply and movement 5. Maintenance 6. Evacuation K. Materiel 1. Ordnance 2. Signal 3. Quartermaster 4. Engineer 5. Chemical 6. Medical L. Personalities 1. Biographical sketches 2. List of personalities M. Quasi-military and other ground forces N. Comments on principal sources SECTION 82. NAVAL FORCES A. General B. Organization 1. Naval high command 2. Naval districts (zones or activities) 3. Naval communications network 4. Forces afloat 5. Other naval organizations C. Strength and disposition 1. Ships 2. Personnel D. Policy and doctrine 1. Naval strategic concepts 2. Doctrine 3. Naval budget and appropriations 4. Construction and development pro- grams 5. Naval relationships with other coun- tries 6. National attitude toward the navy Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 OilIMPAPPRIMPED NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS E. Personnel 1. Corps and services 2. Rank and rates 3. Procurement 4. Conditions of service 5. Uniforms and insignia F. Reserve and mobilization system 1. Ships 2. Personnel 3. Merchant marine and other auxiliary forces 4. Adequacy of mobilization system G. Training 1. General 2. Facilities 3. Officer 4. Enlisted 5. Shipboard 6. Fleet and force 7. Reserve H. Logistics 1. Procurement 2. New construction, repair and :mainte- nance 3. Centers of supply Ship design and characteristics 1. Design of ships 2. Strategic characteristics Materiel 1. General 2. Characteristics Personalities 1. Biographical sketches 2. Flag and ranking officers Comments on principal sources J. K. L. SECTION 83. A. B. C. PAGE 2 AIR FORCES Strategic significance 1. Air value of the area 2. International position of the air force 3. Role of air force in national politics Historical development Mission and doctrine J. Mission JULY 1957 2. Development of doctrine 3. Doctrine of employment D. Organization 1. Position in government and defense structure 2. Air high command 3. Major commands/components 4. Composition of operational commands 5. Territorial organization E. Operational systems of major striking forces F. Personnel 1. Procurement 2. Conditions of service 3. Characteristics 4. Morale factors G. Training 1. General 2. Preparatory 3. Preoperational flying 4. Ground personnel 5. Schools for advanced military 6. Operational 7. Reserve 8. Foreign air programs H. Logistics 1. Supply 2. Maintenance 3. Relationship of requirements to pro- duction 4. Appraisal of the logistical system I. Reserve and mobilization 1. Reserve 2. Mobilization J. Air facilities 1. General 2. Historical development 3. Distribution 4. Projected development K. Means of identification 1. Aircraft markings 2. Unit identification 3. Uniforms and insignia 4. Rank 5. Awards and decorations L. Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VIII 000.11?11MITM! When there is a Naval Air Arm contribution, Section 83 is pre- sented as Part 1-Air Force; Part 2-Naval Air Arm; Part 3-Com- ments on Principal Sources (covering the entire Section and replacing Subsection L above). Following is the outline for Part 2-Naval Air Arm: A. Historical development B. Strategic significance 1. General 2. International position of naval. avia- tion 3. National stature of naval aviation C. Doctrine 1. Mission 2. Development 3. Strategic concepts D. Organization 1. Naval organization 2. Operational commands E. Operational procedures F. Personnel 1, Procurement 2. Morale G. Training 1. General 2. Preoperational flying 3. Ground personnel 4. Schools for advanced military A. General 5. Operational 6. Reserve 7. Foreign air programs H. Logistics 1. Supply 2. Maintenance 3. Foreign sources of supply 4. Appraisal of the logistical system I. Reserve and mobilization 1. Reserve 2. Mobilization J. Air facilities 1. General 2. Distribution K. Aircraft carriers L. Means of identification 1. Aircraft markings 2. Unit identification 3. Uniforms and insignia 4. Rank 5. Awards and decorations OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 80. Introduction Assess the armed forces in general terms, including their relative international position in terms of strength, and state of materiel and training. Continue with a discussion of trends, international commitments, gen- eral strategic plans, etc., making the General Subsec- tion a balanced synthesis of the General Subsections of SECTIONS 81, 82, and 83. Where considered significant in terms of resistance potential, indicate current atti- tudes toward compulsory military service and mobiliza- tion in times of national emergency. B. Structure of armed forces 1. COMPOSITION Indicate briefly the components of the armed forces with their correct nomenclature, including pertinent subordinations and any militarized police forces, etc. 2. TOP CONTROL Explain the overall political and military control of the forces, with a simple chart to appear on the bottom half of the first page. Both chart and text should show in their proper relationships: (a) the Chief of State, Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS with his proper military title (Supreme Commander, etc.) ; (b) any top policy-making body, such as a. National Security Council, with its composition and purpose indicated in the text; (c) the Cabinet members or other political echelons through whom the chain of command or administrative control passes; (d) coordinating bodies such as Joint Chiefs of Staff; (e) the highest purely military echelon for control of each component; and (f) on a level at the bottom, the components them- selves. Broken lines may be used to show administra- tive, as distinct from operational, control. In a separate paragraph, if pertinent, state how long the Present system has been valid and indicate the nature of the change from any recent previous organization. Indi- cate any important change in the top control structure to be effected in time of war. If the chart includes a Joint General Staff or other important agency which will not be described in detail under SECTIONS 81, 82, or 83, its composition and functions should also be described in a separate paragraph. Explain briefly the methods of coordinating the armed forces components and resolving differences among them. C. Size of armed forces Discuss the relationship of armed forces strength to total population, indicating significant trends in total armed forces strength and in the proportions among the components. Insert a table showing the total personnel strength and that of each component, with appropriate footnotes to account for changes in nomenclature or subordination, for various dates. As a minimum, the following should be included: 1913, World War I peak. (if country was a belligerent), a typical year in the 1920's, the prewar normal (usually 1 July 1937), World War II peak, 1 January of each postwar year, quarterly for the past three or four quarters, and the cut-off date. D. Position of armed forces in the nation 1. LEGAL BASIS Cite the legal basis (provision of Constitution, basic military law, etc.) for the existence, character, top control, and overall structure of the armed forces. include dates of pertinent legislation and any signifi- cant historical development of the legal status of the military establishment or its components. 2. TRADITIONS Indicate briefly the warlike, pacifist, militarist, apathetic, or other character of the traditions and proclivities of the nation. Cite past wars (victories and defeats) which have contributed to the present attitude of the people toward war and military or naval affairs. Indicate the prestige, or lack thereof, of the armed forces and their components and the existence of any militarist or warlike section of the population. Mention past and present foreign influences, if perti- nent. PAGE 4 JULY 1957 3. POLITICAL INFLUENCE Discuss the political forces or groups within the country which effectively control the armed forces. Indicate whether the country is ruled by a military dictator or a dictatorial minority or whether constitu- tional guarantees prevent the misuse of military power. Discuss any influence of the military on political affairs. Indicate any factionalism, favoritism, or polit- ical intrigue within the military. Indicate the loyalty of the armed . forces (officers and enlisted personnel) to the regime and any measures taken to insure such loyalty (political commissars, appointment of trusted commanders). Discuss infiltration of subversive in- fluences. 4. FISCAL CONTROL Describe in a short paragraph the manner in which funds are allocated to the armed forces and who con- trols the pursestrings. Give, in tabular form, actual or estimated budgetary figures, broken down by main components, for several recent, wartime, and prewar fiscal years, indicating the proportion of the total budget allotted to military purposes and any concealed items. (Figures should be given in dollars, with foot- notes or a separate column indicating the rate or rates of exchange used.) Discuss briefly trends in the budget and its adequacy. E. Manpower 1. AVAILABLE MANPOWER FOR ARMED FORCES Give statistics on the total number of males by five-year age groups from 15 to 49 as of the first day of the year of publication or a more recent date if im- portant changes have occurred. Indicate how many of the total in each group are regarded as fit for mili- tary service. If pertinent, show the depletion of fit manpower by war casualties. Give the size of the annual class reaching military age and the average number of men actually inducted annually. 2. QUALITY OF MANPOWER Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the man- power from the military point of view, including such factors as physique, intelligence, education, amena- bility to hardship, aptitude for the use and care of modern equipment, response to discipline, attitude toward military service, and general morale and loyalty factors. If pertinent, indicate the composition of the military manpower by race, religion, or other cate- gories and the varying suitability of different elements in the population to military service. Differentiate between the manpower as a whole and that section of it which is drawn upon for the armed forces. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A00030003p0p1-_4___ JANUARY 1.962 CHAPTER VIII _ 3. CONSCRIPTION a. LEGAL BASIS ? State how long compulsory military service has been on the statute books and to what extent it has been and is now universally, equi- tably, and efficiently enforced. Cite the basic military service law and executory regulations now in effect and include popular acceptance thereof or resistance thereto. Give the total period of military liability and the prescribed period of service for each component of the armed forces or category of personnel. Indicate what proportion of each of the main components of the armed forces is obtained by voluntary recruitment. If pertinent, mention any prospects of future change in the system. b. GENERAL SYSTEM ? State what agency or agencies administer the conscription system and how it is organized territorially. Indicate the method of designating age classes (i.e., by year of birth or by year of normal induction). Give the age, time of year, and procedure for each step in the operation of the system (initial registration for military service, initial medical A. General examination and classification, selection of men for callup, consideration of applications for deferment, allocation to main components, actual callup, actual reporting for duty). If appropriate, indicate what minority groups (political or religious) are discrimi- nated against during selection for callup. C. STANDARDS OF FITNESS AND DEFERMENT ? In- dicate in general terms the standards of physical fitness applied. List the fitness categories. Cite any actual figures on fitness or acceptance rates which may be available. Indicate the rules applied in granting de- ferments or exemptions for occupational, educational, or hardship reasons and the number of men affected. d. PRESENT STATUS ? Indicate what age class Or classes are at present performing compulsory military service and the dates or prospective dates or schedules of callup and discharge of these and adjacent classes. Give the size of each class affected. Estimate the current composition of the armed forces by age classes or age groups. Section 81. Ground Forces In the form of a brief, overall appraisal of the ground forces as a fighting machine, cite several of the most salient points of strength and weakness as to personnel, materiel, organization, and efficiency which will be more fully developed in subsequent Subsections. Give any indications from past development and perform- ance which will provide the necessary historical per- spective, and indicate briefly the long-range and short- range trends. Mention significant foreign influences, and relate the whole discussion to the strategic position, problems, and capacities of the country. B. Administrative organization 1. ARMY HIGH COMMAND a. STRUCTURE ? Explain briefly the overall organ- ization of the army, including the main subdivisions of the War Ministry and the chain of command to the territorial headquarters and field forces. Insert one or more charts showing all known or significant, high command agencies in their proper relationships; pay careful attention to exact nomenclature. State what changes in the high command structure are contem- plated in case of war. b. FUNCTIONS ? Describe in some detail the in- ternal organization and functioning of each main bureau and staff division shown in the above charts, using appropriate subheadings. 2. TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION Describe the division of the country into military districts, regions, corps areas, etc. Explain the func- tions of such subdivisions (recruitment, local defense, training, replacement, administration, tactical com- mand). List them, showing their headquarters loca- tions and any subareas. Include an outline map showing their boundaries and headquarters (or show them on the appropriate map under Subsection D below and refer to it). 3. ARMS AND SERVICES Explain the concepts and nomenclature used in dividing army personnel and troop units into branches of service. Do not include "services" which are purely high command agencies. List the arms and services which are represented by actual troop units or by dis- tinctive insignia, giving in parentheses their designa- tions in the language of the country. C. Tactical organization 1. GENERAL Describe briefly the overall organization of the army into tactical commands and basic tactical units, indi- cating any contemplated differences between peace and war. PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 2. HIGHER HEADQUARTERS Give the actual organization (peace and war) of the higher tactical echelons above division. For each such echelon explain the nomenclature and state the type of operational mission or administrative function for which it is designed. Indicate what units are usually subordinate to it. 3. STAFF ORGANIZATION Give available data, with a chart if appropriate, on the organization and functioning of field staffs. 4. COMBAT AND COMBAT SUPPORT UNITS Describe, under appropriate subheadings and with accompanying charts, the detailed organization, in- cluding known or estimated TOE strengths and allot- ments of weapons and vehicles, of the various types of divisions and smaller independent combat units. Describe the organization, equipment, and capabil- ities of type units that provide support to combat units such as psychological warfare units. The de- scription of each unit should be carried down to the smallest elements (rifle squad, tank platoon, etc.). Indicate the tactical mission and roles of each unit described. Explain carefully any differences in nomen- clature from U.S. usage. 5. SERVICE UNITS Describe briefly the organization of engineer, signal, supply, and other service units, including one or more charts if needed. D. Strength and disposition This Subsection provides a generalized appraisal of the strength and disposition of the major ground forces units as well as a presentation of strength trends over a number of years. For countries which are regularly covered in the ORDER OF BATTLE SUMMARY, state approximately as follows: "De- tailed current identifications and locations of units of the (Subject) ground forces are contained in the latest issue of the Order of Battle Summary of Foreign Ground Forces published by the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Department of the Army. Administrative areas and typical major dispositions of the (Subject) ground forces are shown on an appro- priate map. 1. STRENGTH a. PERSONNEL ? Give an evaluative discussion of personnel strength by major components, branch of service, officers and enlisted men, cadres and con- scripts, age classes, auxiliaries, colonials, racial and linguistic elements. b. UNITS ? Provide an evaluative discussion of current number of armies, corps, divisions (by type), and individual smaller combat units (by type), c. ARMAMENT ? Discuss current holdings and authorized strength in each category of major arma- ment. PAGE 6 d. TRENDS ? Discuss trends in ground forces strength for recent years; support by selected rep- resentative statistics on personnel strength, units, and major weapons (with country of origin in paren- theses) . 2. DISPOSITION Describe in general terms the disposition of forces at home and abroad, with strength figures by major area, and indicate any significant concentrations. E. Strategy and defenses 1. STRATEGIC PROBLEMS AND DOC- TRINES Without going into a detailed strategic analysis, indicate briefly the strategic military problems of the nation in the light of position, terrain, economic, political, and other pertinent factors. Discuss the manner in which the leaders of the nation, and spe- cifically the military planners, appear to contemplate meeting these problems. Show how the present organ- ization and disposition of forces and the mobilization plans fit in with these strategic problems and plans. Summarize the concepts of "Principles of War" and the established strategic doctrines of the country, in- cluding any pertinent reference to military literature, historical background, past campaigns, and foreign influences. 2. PERMANENT FORTIFICATIONS a. GENERAL SYSTEM ? Describe the overall plan of permanent fortifications as it fits into the strategic concept. Indicate any lessons from the past, current trends, or future plans. b. LAND FORTIFICATIONS ? Describe in detail, with subheadings if necessary, the location, purpose, charac- teristics, and manning of each frontier or internal forti- fied area, fortified line, or fortress town. Insert a map if appropriate, using standard or special symbols. C. COASTAL DEFENSES ? Describe in detail, with subheadings if necessary, the location, purpose, charac- teristics, and manning of coastal fortified areas, harbor defenses, minefields, warning systems, and static coastal batteries. Include data on map of land fortifications on the appropriate map in D., or insert a separate map if necessary. F. Tactics 1. BASIC TACTICAL DOCTRINES Discuss the basic tactical doctrines for the ground arms, such as attack, defense, reconnaissance, with- drawal, artillery support, use of cavalry and tanks, use of field fortifications and obstacles, and close combat. Point out any differences in concept or emphasis from U.S. doctrine. Cite the manuals in which such doc- trines are formulated, with brief quotations if pertinent. Explain the tactics and techniques down to an appro- priate level (depending on the size of the army). Dis- cuss current trends in tactical doctrine and technique. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER VIII miliPMPLIIRT,?? 3. CONSCRIPTION a. LEGAL BASIS ? State how long compulsory military service has been on the statute books and to what extent it has been and is now universally, equi- tably, and efficiently enforced. Cite the basic military service law and executory regulations now in effect and include popular acceptance thereof or resistance thereto. Give the total period of military liability and the prescribed period of service for each component of the armed forces or category of personnel. Indicate what proportion of each of the main components of the armed forces is obtained by voluntary recruitment. If pertinent, mention any prospects of future change in the system. b. GENERAL SYSTEM ? State what agency or agencies administer the conscription system and how it is organized territorially. Indicate the method of designating age classes (i.e., by year of birth or by year of normal induction). Give the age, time of year, and procedure for each step in the operation of the system (initial registration for military service, initial medical A. General examination and classification, selection of men for callup, consideration of applications for deferment, allocation to main components, actual callup, actual reporting for duty). If appropriate, indicate what minority groups (political or religious) are disci imi- nated against during selection for callup. C. STANDARDS OF FITNESS AND DEFERMENT ? In- dicate in general terms the standards of physical fitness applied. List the fitness categories. Cite any actual figures on fitness or acceptance rates which may be available. Indicate the rules applied in granting de- ferments or exemptions ?for occupational, educational, or hardship reasons and the number of men affected. d. PRESENT STATUS ? Indicate what age class or classes are at present performing compulsory military service and the dates or prospective dates or schedules of callup and discharge of these and adjacent classes. Give the size of each class affected. Estimate the current composition of the armed forces by age classes or age groups. Section 81. Ground Forces In the form of a brief, overall appraisal of the ground forces as a fighting machine, cite several of the most salient points of strength and weakness as to personnel, materiel, organization, and efficiency which will be more fully developed in subsequent Subsections. Give any indications from past development and perform- ance which will provide the necessary historical per- spective, and indicate briefly the long-range and short- range trends. Mention significant foreign influences, and relate the whole discussion to the strategic position, problems, and capacities of the country. B. Administrative organization 1. ARMY HIGH COMMAND a. STRUCTURE ? Explain briefly the overall organ- ization of the army, including the main subdivisions of the War Ministry and the chain of command to the territorial headquarters and field forces. Insert one or more charts showing all known or significant. high command agencies in their proper relationships; pay careful attention to exact nomenclature. State what changes in the high command structure are contem- plated in case of war. b. FUNCTIONS ? Describe in some detail the in- ternal organization and functioning of each main bureau and staff division shown in the above charts, using appropriate subheadings. eliariatimamilearraim 2. TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION Describe the division of the country into military districts, regions, corps areas, etc. Explain the func- tions of such subdivisions (recruitment, local defense, training, replacement, administration, tactical com- mand). List them, showing their headquarters loca- tions and any subareas. Include an outline map showing their boundaries and headquarters (or show them on the Order of Battle map under Subsection D below and refer to it). 3. ARMS AND SERVICES Explain the concepts and nomenclature used in dividing army personnel and troop units into branches of service. Do not include "services" which are purely high command agencies. List the arms and services which are represented by actual troop units or by dis- tinctive insignia, giving in parentheses their designa- tions in the language of the country. C. Tactical organization 1. GENERAL Describe briefly the overall organization of the army into tactical commands and basic tactical units, indi- cating any contemplated differences between peace and war. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1959 2. HIGHER HEADQUARTERS Give the actual organization (peace and war) of the higher tactical echelons above division. For each such echelon explain the nomenclature and state the type of operational mission or administrative function for which it is designed. Indicate what units are usually subordinate to it. 3. STAFF ORGANIZATION Give available data, with a chart if appropriate, on the organization and functioning of field staffs. 4. COMBAT UNITS Describe, under appropriate subheadings and with accompanying charts, the detailed organization, in- cluding known or estimated T/O strengths and allot- ments of weapons and vehicles, of the various types of divisions and smaller independent combat units. The description of each unit should be carried down to the smallest elements (rifle squad, tank platoon, etc.). Indicate the tactical mission and roles of each unit described. Explain carefully any differences in nomem- clature from U.S. usage. 5. SERVICE UNITS Describe briefly the organization of engineer, signal, supply, and other service units, including one or more charts if needed. D. Order of battle For countries which are regularly covered in the Order of Battle Summary, state approximately as follows: "For detailed identifications and locations of units of the (Subject) ground forces, see the latest issues of the quarterly Order of Battle Summary, Foreign Ground Forces, published by the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Headquarters, Depart- ment of the Army. Current major dispositions as of (cut-off date) are shown on the map(s) in FIGURE(S) 81?." 1. STRENGTH a. PERSONNEL ? Give any available statistics or estimates breaking down the total personnel strength of the ground forces functionally (major components, branches of service, officers and enlisted men, cadres and conscripts, age classes, auxiliaries, colonials, racial or linguistic elements). Figures should be current as of the cut-off date. b. UNITS ? Give in tabular form the current number of armies, corps, divisions (by type), and inde- pendent smaller combat units (by type). C. ARMAMENT ? Give in tabular form estirnates of the total number of each type of tank, artillery piece, and mortar prescribed under Tables of Equipment and, in a parallel column, the total number in possession of PAGE 6 the country. For each type, indicate in parentheses the country of origin. 2. DISPOSITIONS Describe briefly the general disposition of forces at home and abroad, with strength figures by major area, and indicate any significant concentrations. E. Strategy and defenses 1. STRATEGIC PROBLEMS AND DOC- TRINES Without going into a detailed strategic analysis, indicate briefly the strategic military problems of the nation in the light of position, terrain, economic, political, and other pertinent factors. Discuss the manner in which the leaders of the nation, and spe- cifically the military planners, appear to contemplate meeting these problems. Show how the present organ- ization and disposition of forces and the mobilization plans fit in with these strategic problems and plans. Summarize the concepts of "Principles of War" and the established strategic doctrines of the country, in- cluding any pertinent reference to military literature, historical background, past campaigns, and foreign influences. 2. PERMANENT FORTIFICATIONS a. GENERAL SYSTEM ? Describe the overall plan of permanent fortifications as it fits into the strategic concept. Indicate any lessons from the past, current trends, or future plans. b. LAND FORTIFICATIONS ? Describe in detail, with subheadings if necessary, the location, purpose, charac- teristics, and manning of each frontier or internal forti- fied area, fortified line, or fortress town. Insert a map if appropriate, using standard of special symbols. C. COASTAL DEFENSES Describe in detail, with subheadings if necessary, the location, purpose, charac- teristics, and manning of coastal fortified areas, harbor defenses, minefields, warning systems, and static coastal batteries. Include data on map of land fortifications, or insert a separate map if necessary. F. Tactics 1. BASIC TACTICAL DOCTRINES Discuss the basic tactical doctrines for the ground arms, such as attack, defense, reconnaissance, with- drawal, artillery support, use of cavalry and tanks, use of field fortifications and obstacles, and close combat. Point out any differences in concept or emphasis from U.S. doctrine. Cite the manuals in which such doc- trines are formulated, with brief quotations if pertinent. Explain the tactics and technique down to an appro- priate level (depending on the size of the army). Dis- cuss current trends in tactical doctrine and technique. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VIII 3. CONSCRIPTION a. LEGAL BASIS ? State how long compulsory military service has been on the statute books and to what extent it has been and is now universally, equi- tably, and efficiently enforced. Cite the basic military service law and executory regulations now in effect and include popular acceptance thereof or resistance thereto. Give the total period of military liability and the prescribed period of service for each component of the armed forces or category of personnel. Indicate what proportion of each of the main components of the armed forces is obtained by voluntary recruitment. If pertinent, mention any prospects of future change in the system. b. GENERAL SYSTEM ? State what agency or agencies administer the conscription system and how it is organized territorially. Indicate the method of designating age classes (i.e., by year of birth or by year of normal induction). Give the age, time of year, and procedure for each step in the operation of the system (initial registration for military service, initial medical A. General examination and classification, selection of men for callup, consideration of applications for deferment, allocation to main components, actual callup, actual reporting for duty). If appropriate, indicate what minority groups (political or religious) are discrimi- nated against during selection for callup. C. STANDARDS OF FITNESS AND DEFERMENT ? In- dicate in general terms the standards of physical fitness applied. List the fitness categories. Cite any actual figures on fitness or acceptance rates which may be available. Indicate the rules applied in granting de- ferments or exemptions for occupational, educational, or hardship reasons and the number of men affected. d. PRESENT STATUS ? Indicate what age class Or classes are at present performing compulsory military service and the dates or prospective dates or schedules of callup and discharge of these and adjacent classes. Give the size of each class affected. Estimate the current composition of the armed forces by age classes or age groups. Section 81. Ground Forces In the form of a brief, overall appraisal of the ground forces as a fighting machine, cite several of the most salient points of strength and weakness as to personnel, materiel, organization, and efficiency which will be more fully developed in subsequent Subsections. Give any indications from past development and perform- ance which will provide the necessary historical per- spective, and indicate briefly the long-range and short- range trends. Mention significant foreign influences, and relate the whole discussion to the strategic position, problems, and capacities of the country. B. Administrative organization 1. ARMY HIGH COMMAND a. STRUCTURE ? Explain briefly the overall organ- ization of the army, including the main subdivisions of the War Ministry and the chain of command to the territorial headquarters and field forces. Insert one or more charts showing all known or significant high command agencies in their proper relationships; pay careful attention to exact nomenclature. State what changes in the high command structure are contem- plated in case of war. b. FUNCTIONS ? Describe in some detail the in- ternal organization and functioning of each main bureau and staff division shown in the above charts, using appropriate subheadings. 2. TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION Describe the division of the country into military districts, regions, corps areas, etc. Explain the func- tions of such subdivisions (recruitment, local defense, training, replacement, administration, tactical com- mand). List them, showing their headquarters loca- tions and any subareas. Include an outline map showing their boundaries and headquarters (or show them on the Order of Battle map under Subsection D below and refer to it). 3. ARMS AND SERVICES Explain the concepts and nomenclature used in dividing army personnel and troop units into branches of service. Do not include "services" which are purely high command agencies. List the arms and services which are represented by actual troop units or by dis- tinctive insignia, giving in parentheses their designa- tions in the language of the country. C. Tactical organization 1. GENERAL Describe briefly the overall organization of the army into tactical commands and basic tactical units, indi- cating any contemplated differences between peace and war. PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 im=iimmomme NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 2. HIGHER HEADQUARTERS Give the actual organization (peace and war) of the higher tactical echelons above division. For each such echelon explain the nomenclature and state the type of operational mission or administrative function for which it is designed. Indicate what units are usually subordinate to it. 3. STAFF ORGANIZATION Give available data, with a chart if appropriate, on the organization and functioning of field staffs. 4. COMBAT UNITS Describe, under appropriate subheadings and with accompanying charts, the detailed organization, in- cluding known or estimated T/0 strengths and allot- ments of weapons and vehicles, of the various types of divisions and smaller independent combat units. The description of each unit should be carried down to the smallest elements (rifle squad, . tank platoon, etc.). Indicate the tactical mission and roles of each unit described. Explain carefully any differences in nomem- clature from U.S. usage. 5. SERVICE UNITS Describe briefly the organization of engineer, signal, supply, and other service units, including one or more charts if needed. D. Order of battle 1. STRENGTH a. PERSONNEL ? Give any available statistics or estimates breaking down the total personnel strength of the ground forces functionally (major components, branches of service, officers and enlisted men, cadres and conscripts, age classes, auxiliaries, colonials, racial or linguistic elements). Figures .should be current as of the cut-off date. b. UNITS ? Give in tabular form the current number of armies, corps, divisions (by type), and inde- pendent smaller combat units (by type). C. ARMAMENT ? Give in tabular form estimates of the total number of each type of tank, artillery piece, and mortar prescribed under Tables of Equipment and, in a parallel column, the total number in possession of the country. For each type, indicate in parentheses the country of origin. 2. DISPOSITIONS a. GENERAL ? Describe briefly the general dis- position of forces at home and abroad, witb strength figures by major area, and indicate any significant concentrations. b. DETAILED ? For countries which are regularly covered in the Order of Battle Summary, state approxi- mately as follows: "For detailed identifications and PAGE 6 locations of units of the Blank ground forces see the latest issues of the quarterly Order of Battle Summary of Foreign Ground Forces, published by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, Department of the Army. Current major dispositions as of (cut-off date) are shown on the map(s) in FiGunn(s) 81?." For all ? other countries, give a complete Order of Battle. E. Strategy and defenses 1. STRATEGIC PROBLEMS AND DOC- TRINES Without going into a detailed strategic analysis, indicate briefly the strategic military problems of the nation in the light of position, terrain, economic, political, and other pertinent factors. Discuss the manner in which the leaders of the nation, and spe- cifically the military planners, appear to contemplate meeting these problems. Show how the present organ- ization and disposition of forces and the mobilization plans fit in with these strategic problems and plans. Summarize the concepts of "Principles of War" and the established strategic doctrines of the country, in- cluding any pertinent reference to military literature, historical background, past campaigns, and foreign influences. 2. PERMANENT FORTIFICATIONS a. GENERAL SYSTEM ? Describe the overall plan of permanent fortifications as it fits into the strategic concept. Indicate any lessons from the past, current trends, or future plans. b. LAND FORTIFICATIONS ? Describe in detail, with subheadings if necessary, the location, purpose, charac- teristics, and manning of each frontier or internal forti- fied area, fortified line, or fortress town. Insert a map if appropriate, using standard of special symbols. C. COASTAL DEFENSES ? Describe in detail, with subheadings if necessary, the location, purpose, charac- teristics, and manning of coastal fortified areas, harbor defenses, minefields, warning systems, and static coastal batteries. Include data on map of land fortifications, or insert a separate map if necessary. F. Tactics 1. BASIC TACTICAL DOCTRINES Discuss the basic tactical doctrines for the ground arms, such as attack, defense, reconnaissance, with- drawal, artillery support, use of cavalry and tanks, use of field fortifications and obstacles, and close combat. Point .out any differences in concept or emphasis from U.S. doctrine. Cite the manuals in which such doc- trines are formulatedovith brief quotations if pertinent. Explain the tactics and technique down to an appro- priate level (depending on the size of the army). Dis- cuss current trends in tactical doctrine and technique. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER VIII 2. SPECIAL OPERATIONS Discuss tactical doctrines for special operations such as night fighting, street fighting, winter and arctic warfare, mountain warfare, jungle warfare, desert operations, airborne operations, amphibious operations, and infiltration and partisan methods. Relate the dis- cussion to the existing or contemplated special forms of tactical organization. G. Personnel 1. RANKS Describe the rank structure of the army, indicating any differences from United States practice in the nomenclature, status, and functions of the various gen- eral officer, officer, and enlisted ranks. Distinguish between any noncommissioned ranks held by conscripts and those held by career or long-service personnel. Explain any special categories such as warrant officers or military "officials." Indicate the use, if any, of alternate designations of rank for personnel in various branches of service ("gunners" for artillery privates, etc.). Insert a table showing for each rank, starting with the highest, the designation in the language of the country, the literal translation, and the nearest U.S. equivalent. 2. PAY Describe briefly the system of pay and allowances for the different categories of military personnel, point- ing out the differences from U.S. standards both as to the general level (in light of living costs) and as to relative rates for the upper and lower ranks. Insert a fourth column in the table of ranks (referred to above) giving the basic annual rate of pay in dollars, with a footnote to indicate the rate of exchange used. 3. PROCUREMENT AND TERMS OF SERVICE Describe, under suitable subheadings, the methods of procurement and the terms of service for officers (active and reserve), noncommissioned officers, privates, and any other categories. For privates, refer to the conscription system described in SECTION 80, E, 3, and describe the additional procedures for voluntary recruit- ment and reenlistment in the army. For each category, indicate the machinery in the high command and throughout the army for control of personnel (assign- ment, transfer, efficiency reports, promotion, leave and furlough, hospitalization, discharge). 4. QUALITY FACTORS Without unduly duplicating the general discussion of national manpower as a whole contained in SECTION 80, E, 2, describe the effectiveness of personnel actually serving in the ground forces, emphasizing points of strength and weakness. Include a discussion of morale, discipline, esprit do corps, any traditional rivalries be- tween units or ethnic groups, etc. Indicate specifically the quality of military leadership from the highest to the lowest level. H. Reserve and mobilization system 1. RESERVE SYSTEM Give the categories and exact nomenclature of all reserve organizations and reserve groupings, with the functions of each. Explain the system of classification and record-keeping for reserve personnel (officer and enlisted) and the manner in which they are recalled to service for refresher training. Estimate the total num- ber of trained reserves by age groups and other cate- gories and the total additional number of untrained reserves. 2. MOBILIZATION SYSTEM Describe the system for callup of reserves, readying of existing units for combat, and activation of new units under general mobilization. Indicate what will be the limiting factors in mobilization for the foreseeable future, such as trained personnel, cadres, or reserves of arms and equipment. 3. MOBILIZATION POTENTIAL In light of the discussion under Subsections 1 and 2 above, estimate the actual mobilization potential of the ground forces for M plus 30, M plus 180, and other appropriate periods, showing in parallel columns the number of personnel and of divisions and other major units for each such period. I. Training 1. GENERAL Characterize the quality and effectiveness of the overall training system, emphasizing its strengths and weaknesses and current trends. Indicate the influence and effectiveness of any foreign military missions. 2. PREINDUCTION Describe the system of preinduction training or mili- tary education, including any government-sponsored or private organizations for encouraging youths to take an interest in military affairs and any program of physical conditioning in the schools under army sponsorship. Indicate trends. 3. INDIVIDUAL Describe the schedules and methods for basic, ad- vanced, and specialized individual training of enlisted personnel in the principal branches. Describe the organization and functioning of training units, training centers, or similar installations. Explain briefly the replacement training system in time of war. In sepa- rate paragraphs, describe the training schedules and methods for NCO and officer candidates and the school- ing given officers as their careers progress. Indicate any practice of sending military students abroad. PAGE 7 Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : NIS STANDAR CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 D INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 4. UNIT, COMBINED, AND MANEUVERS Describe the methods of unit training in the various branches, the methods of combined training (infantry- artillery or other combat teams), and the schedule, scope, and character of maneuvers. 5. RESERVE Indicate the schedule and character of refresher training for reservists. Describe the training system for reserve officers (ROTC type, etc.). 6. SCHOOLS AND INSTALLATIONS a. SYSTEM ? Describe the general plan, control, and efficiency of the army school system and of any other training installations. b. LOCATION LIST ? List all army schools and other training installations, showing the exact name (English translation followed by vernacular designation in paren- theses), location, character, capacity, etc., of each. The list should be arranged according to level. J. Logistics 1. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIEL Indicate the manner in which equipment and sup- plies are grouped into classes for logistic purposes. 2. PROCUREMENT Describe the machinery for the planning and control of procurement of the various classes of materiel, in- cluding design, placement of orders, acceptance, and testing. Show the role played by any other govern- ment agencies (Ministry of Supply, etc.) and indicate to what extent equipment is produced domestically by private industry or government arsenals and to what extent it is imported. 3. PEACETIME STORAGE AND ISSUE a. SYSTEM Explain the system of storage and issue for various classes of materiel in the zone of the interior. b. INSTALLATIONS ? List all known depots and other storage installations for materiel, giving pertinent facts regarding each. Insert a map if warranted. 4. WAR SUPPLY AND MOVEMENT Explain the machinery for requisition and supply of various classes of materiel in time of war, using charts if necessary. Characterize the efficiency of the supply system. Give any available data on unit movement requirements and unit resupply requirements under varying conditions. 5. MAINTENANCE Describe the system for maintenance and repair of equipment in the field in peace and in war. Charac- terize the efficiency. PAGE 8 6. EVACUATION Explain briefly the system for evacuation of equip- ment and of personnel, including the handling of cap- tured materiel and of prisoners of war. K. Materiel 1. ORDNANCE For each category of ordnance equipment, arranged under subheadings appropriate to the country, include both a discussion and a table of characteristics. The discussion should in each case describe the general situation of the army with regard to the quality and quantity of the category of materiel in question; review the indications of the presence, recent acquisition, or contemplated development or purchase of various spe- cific items; evaluate each of the more important items believed to be on hand; and indicate the probable future trend. The table of characteristics should be so designed as to provide, in compact form, the most pertinent comparative data for judging the effective- ness of each item listed. (The table of characteristics may be omitted and any pertinent data incorporated in the text if the subject or the amount of material available does not lend itself to tabular presentation.) 2. SIGNAL a. GENERAL Characterize the general situation of the army with regard to quality and quantity of signal equipment. b. ET CETERA ? For each category of signal equip- ment, arranged under subheadings appropriate to the. country, give a discussion and, if appropriate, a table of characteristics as indicated under Ordnance above. 3. QUARTERMASTER a. UNIFORMS ? Describe briefly the principal types of uniforms as to general appearance, color, material, manner of wearing, headdress, footgear, etc. Include illustrations. b. INSIGNIA ? Describe briefly the principal in- signia of rank, branch of service, and specialty. Illustrate. C. DECORATIONS ? List the principal decorations, indicating the method of awarding them and the man- ner of wearing. Include illustrations if appropriate. d. INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT ? Describe briefly the principal typos of individual equipment other than uniforms and insignia. C. ORGANIZATIONAL EQUIPMENT ? Describe briefly other types of quartermaster equipment, arranged under appropriate subheadings. 4. ENGINEER a. GENERAL -- Characterize the general situation of the army with regard to quality and quantity of engineer materiel. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 JULY 1957 CHAPT b. ET CETERA ? For each major category of engi- neer equipment, arranged under subheadings appro- priate to the country, give a discussion and, if appro- priate, a table of characteristics as indicated under Ordnance above. 5. CHEMICAL a. GENERAL ? Characterize the general situation of the army with regard to quality and quantity of chemical materiel. b. ET CETERA ? For each major category of chem- ical materiel, arranged under subheadings appropriate to the country, give a discussion and, if appropriate, a table of characteristics as indicated under Ordnance above. 6. MEDICAL Characterize the general situation of the army with regard to quality and quantity of medical equipment, facilities, and supplies. Using appropriate subhead- ings, describe the principal specific categories or items. Emphasize aspects having a bearing on the combat effectiveness of the army under varying conditions. L. Personalities 1. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES Give brief sketches of the outstanding personalities in the army and other ground force organizations, each one to include full name, date of birth, rank, present position, past career, and special aptitudes, attitudes, or traits of character. : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ER VIII ailmummunummi 2. LIST OF PERSONALITIES List all important military personalities (including those covered under 1 above), in alphabetical order, for each of the higher ranks, giving for each individual the full name (with surname in capital letters), age, rank, and present position. M. Quasi-military and other ground forces Describe, under suitable subheadings, all ground- force organizations other than the army which have a military or quasi-military mission connected with national, local, internal, frontier, or colonial security. For each such organization indicate its full name, char- acter, mission, top control, high command, relationship with the army in peace and war, administrative or other subdivisions, source and terms of service of per- sonnel, and general disposition. Also include a brief discussion or characterization of its armament, mobility, training, tactics, and logistics. N. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Section 82. Naval Forces A. General Briefly present an appraisal of the naval forces and their combat potential, emphasizing the salient points of strength and weakness as to organization, personnel, materiel, and policy which will be more fully detailed in subsequent Subsections. Include features of past' development and historical background only as they relate to, or indicate trends in, policy. Comment briefly on ship and personnel strength for significant dates, as appropriate. Mention foreign influence in- cluding that of foreign navies on organization, strategy, and other matters as appropriate. Discuss and corre- late the naval problems of the country with its strategic Position, economic status, political conditions, etc. B. Organization 1. NAVAL HIGH COMMAND a. STRUCTURE ? Indicate the position and rela- tionship of the navy with the national defense estab- lishment, making appropriate reference to Subsection 80, A. State briefly the overall command and adminis- tration of the navy, including the main subdivisions of the Navy Department, or Admiralty, and the chain of command to naval shore establishments and forces afloat. Insert one or more organization chart(s) de- picting the proper position of the naval bureaus, agen- cies, and other authorities. Exact nomenclature is desired on diagrams with proper explanation in terms of U.S. equivalents (when possible) in the text. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 9 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 b. FUNCTIONS ? Describe as necessary and in detail the more important departmental and staff com- ponents of the naval establishment. 2. NAVAL DISTRICTS (ZONES OR ACTIVI- TIES) Locate the limits, and describe the command and administration of naval areas, or activities. Empha- size points of relationship with command, administra- tive, technical, and financial authorities in the Navy Department, and, if applicable, with other service or civilian authorities. 3. NAVAL COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK Describe the naval communications organization and show naval communications facilities on map or chart. Discuss briefly the dependence on, or use by the navy of, communications facilities not controlled by the navy. 4. FORCES AFLOAT Describe the tactical and administrative organiza- tion of the forces afloat to include shipboard organiza- tion. Discuss relationship with naval headquarters, other commands, and shore support activities. 5. OTHER NAVAL ORGANIZATIONS Describe other naval or quasi-naval organizations not covered elsewhere such as coast artillery, coast watchers, coast guard, naval infantry, marine corps, naval defense corps, and amphibious organizations. Show the relationship with naval authorities or activi- ties. If such organizations are not under naval juris- diction, or if they are more properly included in other NIS Sections, make appropriate reference. Subhead- ings (5, a, b, c, etc.) may be added according to requirements. C. Strength and disposition 1. SHIPS Describe briefly the current dispositions of ships citing reasons therefor; indicate the proportion of active ships to those laid up, or in reserve. Augment the general remarks by a tabular summary of names, types, and status of combatant and auxiliary naval vessels. 2. PERSONNEL Describe the general disposition of naval personnel showing the proportion ashore and afloat. When possible augment by tabular summary with a break- down of strength by rank and rate. D. Policy and doctrine 1. NAVAL STRATEGIC CONCEPTS Discuss the basic political, economic, and military factors which influence naval thinking and strategic concepts. Examine and present the problems con- fronting the naval staff and administrative authorities PAGE 10 in the execution of naval plans and policy. Indicate the capabilities of the navy to accomplish the mission and objectives with available forces, and bring out any other pertinent factors which relate to the subject. 2. DOCTRINE Summarize the established naval doctrine of the country with reference as necessary to historical back- ground, influence of foreign elements, past war ex- perience, etc. 3. NAVAL BUDGET AND APPROPRIATIONS Comment on the adequacy of the navy appropria- tions to maintain, operate, train, and develop the navy. 4. CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Discuss the naval building program and moderniza- tion of naval ships with pertinent remarks concerning the estimated dates of completion of such programs. Cite any economic, fiscal, or political factors which affect the program, especially those which might cause abandonment or suspension of construction. Describe generally developments of naval facilities, and equip- ment. Research and other activities should be in- cluded only to the extent that they do not encroach on CHAPTER VII. 5. NAVAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES Discuss naval alliances, agreements, and other fac- tors affecting international naval relationships, particu- larly emphasizing the influence of such relationships on policy and planning. Discuss fear of or hostility to other national navies with the effect on naval planning. 6. NATIONAL ATTITUDE TOWARD THE NAVY Describe the national attitude toward the navy, par- ticularly by organized political parties or groups, and indicate, if appropriate, the extent of influence that the navy has with the current regime. E. Personnel 1. CORPS AND SERVICES Explain the concepts and nomenclature used in dividing naval personnel into branches? with the re- sponsibilities, duties, and limitations of authority of each branch. 2. RANK AND RATES Explain the rank and rate structure, and show the nearest equivalent in the U.S. Navy, with appropriate comments of differences that exist. Discuss the com- mand or administrative authority of each rank, and describe any limits of rank of various branches (Ex- ample: In the Dutch navy the highest rank of medical officers is captain). 0?11.1.11.11.11: Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 JULY 1957 CHAPT 3. PROCUREMENT Describe in summary form the procurement of officer, volunteer, and conacript personnel. Give qualifica- tions required for officer candidates. If specialist per- sonnel are obtained by special arrangements, so note, or describe. 4. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE a. OFFICERS ? Describe the conditions of service of officers, including promotion and retirement systems. Generally indicate whether service conditions affect morale, lower standards, etc. I). ENLISTED ? Describe the conditions of service of enlisted personnel (volunteer or career), including advancement in rate, and pension plans, and indicate whether the service conditions are conducive to good morale. C. CONSCRIPT ? Describe the conditions of service of enlisted personnel (conscript). 5. UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA Present, preferably by illustrations, the uniforms and insignia of officers and enlisted personnel, with further descriptions in the text if required. F. Reserve and mobilization system 1. SHIPS Discuss the recommissioning of ships, inactive or reserve for combat or other war duties with appropriate remarks concerning material condition and other fac- tors which will affect the rate of activation. 2. PERSONNEL Discuss the naval reserve organization, and the sys- tem and schedule of mobilization of reserve and auxil- iary personnel. Estimate the total number of reserves by age groups, with appropriate remarks on the effec- tiveness of the personnel. 3. MERCHANT MARINE AND OTHER AUX- ILIARY FORCES Summarize augmentation of the navy in war by the merchant marine, fishing industry, and other existing marine activities with reference to other NIS Sections as appropriate. 4. ADEQUACY OF MOBILIZATION SYSTEM Comment on the adequacy of effectiveness of the mobilization system. G. Training 1. GENERAL Discuss the quality and effectiveness of the overall training system of officers and men, emphasizing the strength or weakness of training procedures in theory Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 and practice. Indicate the influence of foreign naval missions on training. 2. FACILITIES . List and locate, preferably in tabular form, all estab- lishments devoted to training of naval personnel, to- gether with a brief description of the curriculum. 3. OFFICER a. BASIC ? Describe the basic training of officers. b. ADVANCED ? Describe the advanced training of officers. e. SPECIALIST Describe the specialist training of officers. 4. ENLISTED a. BASIC ? Describe the basic indoctrination of enlisted men. b. SPECIALIST ? Describe the specialist training of enlisted men. 5. SHIPBOARD Discuss practical and theoretical training on ship- board (except when a ship is moored school ship utilized for space accommodation). 6. FLEET AND FORCE Give the scope and schedule of fleet and force train- ing, together with pertinent observations on effective- ness. 7. RESERVE Discuss the adequacy, extent, and methods employed in training reserve personnel. H. Logistics 1. PROCUREMENT Describe the system of procurement and supply of naval materiel. Show the role played by joint defense activities and other government agencies (Ministry of Supply, etc.) Indicate the dependence on foreign sources for weapons and other materiel, and mention the country of origin of such imports. 2. NEW CONSTRUCTION, REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE Describe the policy in effect for the construction of naval vessels, and for their repair and maintenance noting the dependence on foreign yards, if applicable. Also show the division of work between naval yards and private yards with remarks concerning efficiency and capabilities. Make reference as applicable to other Sections of the NIS (Shipbuilding, etc.). PAGE 11 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 3.. CENTERS OF SUPPLY List all known depots and other storage installations for materiel, giving pertinent facts regarding each. Insert a map if warranted. I. Ship design and characteristics it. DESIGN OF SHIPS Discuss naval ship design in relationship to strategic and tactical requirements. Make appropriate com- ments regarding adequacy or inadequacy of design and construction for operations or employment in certain areas (North Atlantic, Arctic, Tropical, etc.). 2. STRATEGIC CHARACTERISTICS Present in tabular form the strategic characteristics of both combat and auxiliary vessels. J. Materiel 1. GENERAL Discuss service materiel qualitatively, emphasizing the important characteristics of ordnance, torpedoes, electronics, etc., and explain abbreviations and/or sym- bols that are not self-explanatory in the tabular sum- maries. Show dependence on foreign sources for procurement of materiel or components when appli- cable. Include any aspects which might affect naval operations. Refer to CHAPTER VII for developmental programs of materiel. 2. CHARACTERISTICS a. GUNS AND AMMUNITION ? Tabular summary of characteristics of guns and ammunition. b. TORPEDOES ? Tabular summary of character- istics of torpedoes. C. MINES Tabular summary of characteristics of mines. d. ANTISUBMARINE WEAPONS ? Tabular summary of characteristics of ASW weapons. e. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ? Tabular summary of characteristics of electronic equipment. f. COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT ? Tabular Sum- mary of characteristics of communication equipment. K. Personalities 1. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES Biographical data on selected flag officers or senior officers of importance. 2. FLAG AND RANKING OFFICERS List of all flag and senior officers of importance with command at time of preparation. L.. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used arc indicated. Section 83. Air Forces (When there is a Naval Air Arm contribution, Section 83 is pre- sented as Part 1?Air Force; Part 2?Naval Air Arm; and Part 3? Comments on Principal Sources, which covers the entire Section and replaces Subsection L.) A. Strategic significance 1. AIR VALUE OF THE AREA Assess the significance of the area in terms of those relatively permanent factors that affect its ability to support air operations. Among such relatively perma- nent factors, consider the following: strategic location, air facilities in being, manpower, technological develop- ment, logistic resources (to include transportation, air- craft industry, petroleum, ports), and political stability. Relevant factors should be noted and briefly character- ized rather than described in detail. PAGE 12 2. INTERNATIONAL POSITION OF THE AIR FORCE a. INFLUENCE OR DEPENDENCE ON OTHER AIR FORCES ? Note briefly any influence or dependence on other air forces by the air force of the area; point out any major foreign influence that has affected the air force and may still be present. b. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ? Cite those in- ternational agreements or international organizations to which the area may be a party that affect its employ- ment of air power and note briefly its obligations in each case. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VIII 610.1111WNTIAL C. INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF THE AIR FORCE ? Eval- uate briefly the role played by the air force in its general geographic region and/or on the world ?scene, noting its relative position vis-a-vis other air forces as appropriate. This evaluation should be made from a historical point of view, pointing up the significance of the air force in its region and/or in the world during the last five years. 3. ROLE OF AIR FORCE IN NATIONAL POL- ITICS Comment briefly on the domestic position of the air force in the area, particularly on its influence or de- pendence on domestic political developments. Men- tion any significant subversive influences. B. Historical development Narrate the history of the air force, relating it to the growth of the national air power. Describe the origin and development of the air force, giving data on per- sonnel and aircraft strengths at selected intervals. Include a discussion of the importance of military air- craft and weapons development. Describe trends of governmental appropriations and favor, noting particu- larly the relationship of the air force to other armed services. Assess the air force's role in military history in general and evaluate its actual performance and ac- complishments in combat (e.g., World War II). Make reference to important historical events or figures that shaped the growth of the air force and show, if pertinent, how original or significant contributions made by the country to general aeronautics have influenced the development of its air force. This Section should pre- sent an integrated historical analysis of the air force and should stress those factors that are most essential to an understanding of its contemporary position and role. C. Mission and doctrine 1. MISSION State the mission of the air force as conceived by the nation. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE Discuss the basic political, economic, geographic and military factors which influenced the development of concepts for the military strategy involved in the em- ployment of air forces. Point out the principal sources of the major ideas reflected in the doctrine of the air force and note the degree of acceptance of the doctrine by the other military services and the national govern- ment, particularly in the last five years. 3. DOCTRINE OF EMPLOYMENT a. TACTICAL ? Describe the official doctrine per- taining to the employment of aircraft and equipment in independent operations in support of ground and naval forces. b. STRATEGIC ? Describe the official doctrine per- taining to the employment of aircraft and equipment in the accomplishment of the strategic mission. C. AIR DEFENSE Describe the official doctrine pertaining to the employment of the elements of the air defense system (AC&W, aircraft, ground to air weap- ons) in the accomplishment of the air defense mission. D. Organization 1. POSITION IN GOVERNMENT AND DE- FENSE STRUCTURE Describe the position of the air force within the gov- ernment, noting its place within the appropriate min- istry and its relationship to the other military services. Mention any provisions for top-level interservice coordination. Outline the top-level command chan- nel, indicating any differences between wartime and peacetime command lines; comment on military- civilian relationships. Include organization charts. 2. AIR HIGH COMMAND a. GENERAL ? Describe briefly the organizational concepts underlying the organization of the air force, such as clear separation between operational and ad- ministrative functions, and/or utilization of the com- mand and staff system, explaining carefully the basic administrative terms employed by the air force (e.g., air staff, operational control). Comment on the rela- tive stability or instability of the air force organization. b. TOP-LEVEL ORGANIZATION ? Describe, illustrat- ing with organization charts, the top-level organization of the air force, distinguishing among commands, serv- ices, and staff organizations where feasible. Under an appropriate subheading, describe in detail the functions and responsibilities of the headquarters staff organiza- tion or its equivalent. In all cases use exact nomen- clature; where English equivalents are used, give the foreign term in parentheses the first time reference is made. 3. MAJOR COMMANDS/COMPONENTS Describe the functions, responsibilities, and organiza- tional structure (both headquarters and field) of each of the principal commands and services of the air force. These should include such organizations as the tactical air command, strategic air command, air defense com- mand, anti-aircraft command, and air transport com- mand, training command, and supply services. These commands and services should be described under sep- arate subheadings and the text should be supplemented by organizational charts. 4. COMPOSITION OF OPERATIONAL COM- MANDS Describe in detail the structure and composition of all !operational echelons, such as: air force ? wing ? group ? squadron. Include summarized tables of organization in narrative or chart form as appropriate. PAGE 13 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 4rtimeimignim. NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS 5. TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION Describe the geographical zones, such as area com- mands or air regions, into which the country is divided for air force administrative and operational purposes and list their headquarters locations. Explain the functions of these zones (e.g., recruitment, air defense, training). Provide an outline map unless the bound- aries coincide with major political subdivisions. E. Operational systems of major striking forces Describe the operational systems of the major strik- ing forces of the air force, making reference to organiza- tion charts provided in Subsection D insofar as possible. Include such forces as the tactical air organization or their equivalents and describe their operational systems under separate subheadings. The description should indicate how they actually function; this can he done by describing the normal sequence of events affecting the operation of the organizations and the relation of the organizations to other command elements. De- scription of combat tactics may be included if appro- priate and if the importance of the air force warrants. F. Personnel 1. PROCUREMENT Describe the method of recruitment, pointing out voluntary and/or compulsory features. Describe pro- cedures for selection of air force personnel, including candidates for officer or specialized NCO training, from the national manpower pool. 2. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE Describe in such detail as necessary policies and pro- cedures relating to food, clothing, housing, leave, health and welfare facilities; recreation, sports, and other non-duty activities; nature of rank and grade structure, promotion system, terms of service for volun- teers, conscripts and career officers, and criteria for retirement; pay rates, allowances, incentive bonuses, and retirement, disability, and survivor's benefits, other fringe benefits; incentives for career development, re- enlistment, awards for outstanding or prolonged effec- tive service, special accomplishments, or heroism. 3. CHARACTERISTICS Describe the basic characteristics of personnel that may affect the stability or possible expansion of the air force, including such factors as: regionalism and ethnic groups, literacy and mechanical aptitudes, physical vigor, class distinctions, and loyalty to the regime. 4. MORALE FACTORS Assess the morale of air force personnel, explaining instances where the level of morale varies radically in different groups on the basis of rank, assignment, loca- tion of duty or other conditions. Compare standard PAGE 14 JULY 1957 of air force morale with the morale of members of other services and with that of the civilian population where applicable, including effect of civilian morale on air force personnel in instances where living standards and political structures may influence the effectiveness of the air force. Review the morale situation during the past five years. G. Training 1. GENERAL Describe very briefly the training system as a whole, naming the principal schools or types of schools; use a flow chart to illustrate their interrelation and to show the normal progression of students. Assess the general adequacy of the training system. 2. PREPARATORY Assess the military significance of the pre-military aviation training received in public and private schools, aero clubs, and para-military organizations. (Cross- reference to SECTION 37.) 3. PREOPERATIONAL FLYING R. PILOTS ? Describe the schools for pilot train- ing, including entrance requirements, length of course, flying arid ground curricula, facilities and equipment. Point out areas of major emphasis. Note whether the schools have met operational requirements, giving out- put data for significant periods. b. OTHER AIRCREW ? Follow guide under 3? a above, insofar as applicable. 4. GROUND PERSONNEL Describe schools for ground personnel, including entrance requirements, length of course, curricula, facilities, and equipment. Describe any other train:ing programs, such as apprenticing or on-the-job training. Note whether the ground training system has met oper- ational requirements, giving output data for significant periods. 5. SCHOOLS FOR ADVANCED MILITARY Describe the entrance requirements, curricula, dura- tion, facilities and equipment, and annual output of the schools which provide advanced military education for selected personnel. 6. OPERATIONAL Describe the operational training, the system and its control, indicating the provisions for particular types of training as well as participation in maneuvers and joint exercises. 7. RESERVE Describe training system for reserve force. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VIII milinummigimm 8. FOREIGN AIR PROGRAMS Describe the nature and scope of training given to, or received from, other countries. H. Logistics 1. SUPPLY a. CONTROL AND PLANNING ? Describe the meth- ods by which the overall supply program is established and the controls exercised by higher headquarters. b. SYSTEM IN OPERATION Describe the proced- ures and channels for procurement, requisition, distri- bution, and storage of supplies. (Use flow charts to illustrate.) C. BASIC REQUIREMENTS AND HIGHER HEADQUAR- TERS REQUIREMENTS (1) Tables of equipment ? Present in table form if possible, in such detail as importance of the air force warrants, the non-expendable items of supply required by basic components; include aircraft, motor vehicles, starter carts, tractors, ordnance, and the like. (2) Expendable supplies ? Present in table form if possible, in such detail a's importance Of the air force warrants, the requirements for such expendable items of supply as aviation fuel in tons or gallons per aircraft per mission; motor fuel in gallons per mile per vehicle; rations in pounds per man per day; munitions in pounds of ammunition and bombs per aircraft per mission. 2. MAINTENANCE a. CONTROL AND PLANNING ? Describe the meth- ods of control and planning for maintenance of aircraft and associated equipment, including such means of control as log books, technical orders, publications, control inspections. b. SYSTEM IN OPERATION ? Describe the proced- ures employed at all echelons, including inspection cycles and types of maintenance performed at each organizational level. (Illustrate with flow chart.) C. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON MAINTENANCE ? Dis- cuss effects of extreme ranges of temperatures, humid- ity, winds, and other natural phenomena as appropriate on aircraft maintenance. 3. RELATIONSHIP OF REQUIREMENTS TO PRODUCTION Discuss the ability of the country to provide for its aviation needs, particularly in the fields of aircraft and engines, aviation fuel, and aviation electronics, from its own resources. Identify the principal foreign sources of supply and note the degree of dependence upon such SOUTCes. 4. APPRAISAL OF TIIE LOGISTICAL SYSTEM ft. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SUPPLY SYSTEM ? Dis- cuss the basic strengths and weaknesses of the system, assessing its general effectiveness, and noting such factors as its flexibility, expandibility and efficiency. b. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM ? See Guide for.4, a above. I. Reserve and mobilization 1. RESERVE a. RESERVE CATEGORIES ? Note the various cate- gories and give exact nomenclature of all reserve organ- izations and reserve groupings with functions of each. b. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ? Outline the system of classification and record-keeping for reserve per- sonnel (officer and airmen). C. RECALL PROCEDURE ? Outline the manner ill which reserves are recalled to service for refresher training. d. SIGNIFICANT PAST TRENDS ? Review briefly the growth or decline of reserve strengths in the past five years, noting reasons for any significant changes. 2. MOBILIZATION a. PERSONNEL ? Outline the mobilization proced- ures, including the schedule for calling up various cate- gories of reserves and other personnel. Note whether reservists and others are called up as individuals or as members of designated units. Describe plans for formation of new units and the integration of the re- serve and mobilized personnel with the regular forces. Include description of plans for mobilization of civil air personnel as such. (Finn, long-range plans for mobilization in terms of total number of units expected to be activated may also be included.) Describe briefly procedures followed in World War II or other recent conflict if appropriate. b. EQUIPMENT ? Describe existing plans for aug- menting air force materiel by removing equipment from storage and commandeering civilian resources, such as civil aircraft and civil air facilities. Describe briefly procedures followed in World War II or other recent conflicts if appropriate. J. Air facilities 1. GENERAL Summarize the air facility system for the NIS Area, in quantitative and qualitative terms. Give an ap- praisal of the system's capability to support air oper- ations. Indicate the potential for expansion of the system. Discuss generally the characteristics, i.e., runways, parking and dispersal areas, radio aids, light- ing, repair and maintenance facilities, fuel, refuelling equipment and storage facilities, housing accommoda- Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 15 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ainownrompto NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS tions and transportation for logistical support. Refer to the pertinent volume of "Airfields and Seaplane Sta- tions of the World" published by D/I USAF--ONI for current status and evaluated data. 2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Summarize development of the air facility system up to present time, including consideration of such factors as temporary foreign military development of facilities during World War II, peculiar transport as- pects of area, influences of topography and climatology on construction, domination of military as contrasted with civil air considerations, special international air route significance. Discussion should cover develop- ment of runways, parking and dispersal areas, radio aids, lighting, repair and maintenance facilities, etc., and should include information on the development of air facility construction techniques. Characteristics of typical air facilities may be illustrated by suitable photographs or diagrams. 3. DISTRIBUTION Discuss the distribution pattern of the NIS Area, identifying major airfield complexes and their impor- tance in the overall airfield picture. Draw attention to areas where for significant reasons air facilities are inadequate or do not exist. Include general discussion of potential airfield development, including considera- tion of former airfield sites, logistics, and requirements for such additional facilities. Show the name and loca- tion of air facilities on a location map, using standard symbols for all airfields and seaplane stations. 4. PROJECTED DEVELOPMENT In those NIS Areas where airfield construction has been definitely programmed, a description of the pro- jected development program should be furnished. (No attempt should be made to forecast estimated future developments in this Subsection.) K. Means of identification 1. AIRCRAFT MARKINGS Describe the markings used by the air force to iden- tify aircraft nationality, such as roundels and fin flashes, and illustrate them. The illustrative sketch may consist of the markings only, provided that the PAGE 16 JULY 1957 text gives their location on the aircraft. Describe other markings on aircraft (excluding unit insignia) and ex- plain their significance--e.g., painting of all trainer types a certain color, or the use of camouflage. 2. UNIT IDENTIFICATION Describe the system used by the air forces to identify units and indicate where unit identifications appear on aircraft and on uniforms. Note any differences be- tween peacetime and wartime practices--e.g., use of codes in wartime. If unit insignia other than number or letter combinations are used, furnish sketches of those of the principal units. 3. UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA Describe and illustrate by sketches the principal types of officer and airmen uniforms, noting color, gen- eral styling, and kind of material used. Describe and illustrate branch or category insignia and their use, including in particular air crew insignia. 4. RANK List each rank in the air force, starting with the highest, giving its exact designation in the language of the country, the literal translation, and nearest USAF equivalent. Explain any unusual or special categories. Illustrate the rank insignia and indicate in the text where rank insignia appear on the uniform, referencing as applicable the sketches of uniforms provided for Subsection K, 3. 5. AWARDS AND DECORATIONS Illustrate and describe the significance of the princi- pal air force awards and decorations. L. Comments on principal sources This Subsection serves the following purposes: To provide an evaluation of the principal source material used in preparing the Section and thereby inform the user of the general credibility to be accorded the intelligence contained in the Section. To indicate those aspects of the subject about which information is deficient or unavailable and thereby provide general guidance for collection effort. In this connection, only the principal sources actually used are indicated. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER IX MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL Section 90 General Section 91 Selected Maps, Charts, and Plans Section 92 Indexes of Mapping Data and Coverage CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 CHAPTER VIII 461111?11111MAIMID PART 2-NAVAL AIR ARM PART 2, SECTION 83, is suggested for use by the analysts when writing on those countries which have naval air arms, and is to be included only where ap- propriate. The development of this Part should in- clude pertinent treatment of the air force as necessary to cover any role or capability in support of naval operations. Reference should be made to the Air Force (redesignated PART 1, in such cases), and SEC- TION 82, Naval Forces, wherever practicable to avoid unnecessary duplication. A. Historical development Narrate the history of naval aviation, relating it to the growth of aviation and sea power in the nation. Describe the origin and development of naval aviation, giving data on personnel and aircraft strengths at se- lected intervals. Include a discussion of the develop- ment of naval aircraft and related weapons. Assess naval aviation's role in military history in general and evaluate its actual performance and accomplishments in combat. Make reference to important historical events or personalities that shaped the growth of naval aviation and show, if pertinent, how original or sig- nificant contributions made by the country to world aeronautics have influenced its development. This Subsection should present an integrated historical analysis of naval aviation and should stress those fac- tors that are most essential to an understanding of its relationship to naval and air warfare. B. Strategic significance 1. GENERAL Discuss significant factors of the Area that influenced the development of naval aviation. 2. INTERNATIONAL POSITION OF NAVAL AVIATION a. INFLUENCE OR DEPENDENCE ON OTHER AIR FORCES ? Note briefly any influence or dependence on other air forces, and point out any relationship with other nations that has affected or is affecting naval aviation. b. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ? Cite those in- ternational agreements or international organizations to which the Area may be a party that affect its employ- ment of naval air power and note briefly its obligations in each case. C. INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF NAVAL AVIATION ? Evaluate briefly the role played by naval aviation in its general geographic region and/or on the world scene, noting its relative position vis-a-vis other naval air forces as appropriate. 3. NATIONAL STATURE OF NAVAL AVIA- TION Comment briefly on the relative importance of naval aviation to the navy, the air force, the army and to the nation, particularly in relation to budgetary considera- tions and political influence. C. Doctrine 1. MISSION State the mission of naval aviation. 2. DEVELOPMENT Summarize and analyze the basic factors that in- fluenced the development of present concepts for the military strategy involved in the employment of naval aviation. 3. STRATEGIC CONCEPTS Discuss the official doctrine pertaining to strategic and tactical employment of naval aircraft and equip- ment to support the mission, and relate this doctrine to the employment of other forms of military power and the overall strategy of the nation. D. Organization (Refer to SECTION 82 for high level organization and command.) 1. NAVAL ORGANIZATION a. ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPTS ? Discuss briefly the organizational concepts underlying the structure of naval aviation and its relationship to the naval organization. b. NAVAL AVIATION STRUCTURE ? Describe, illus- trating with charts, the organization of naval aviation, including such reference to higher organization as necessary. Set forth the command and administrative responsibilities and any peculiarities of the organization that are necessary to provide for cooperation with other forces. 2. OPERATIONAL COMMANDS Describe in detail the structure and composition of all naval aviation operational organizations and their relationship to higher command ashore and afloat. Include summarized tables of organization in narrative or chart form as appropriate. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 melingiuninumpo NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS E. Operational procedures Describe briefly the standard operating procedures and combat tactics of naval air forces in such naval roles as: fast carrier striking forces; attack of naval targets; anti-submarine or hunter/killer operations; aerial minelaying; amphibious operations; escort of convoy; patrol and reconnaissance; and protection of surface fleets against air attack. F. Personnel I. PROCUREMENT Refer to SECTION 82 but point out any major differ- ences of standard for procurement that differ from those proscribed for naval line personnel. 2. MORALE Assess the morale of naval aviation personnel, par- ticularly as compared with other naval personnel and with air force personnel. G. Training 1. GENERAL Describe briefly the training system as a whole, in- cluding the naval line indoctrination; name the princi- pal schools or types of schools; use a flow chart to illus- trate their interrelation and to show the normal pro- gression. Assess the general adequacy of the training system. NOTE Follow the outline for PART 1 for the remainder of this Subsection but omit Subsection G, 2 (prepara- tory training). H. Logistics 1. SUPPLY Point out wherein the aviation supply system differs from the naval line system; if applicable, show the de- pendence or reliance on the air force procurement system. PAGE 18 2. MAINTENANCE JULY 1957 Follow the outline for Part 1 but omit Subsection H, 1, c, with reference to PART 1, 3. FOREIGN SOURCES OF SUPPLY Identify the principal foreign sources of supply and note the degree of dependence upon such sources. 4. APPRAISAL OF THE LOGISTICAL SYSTEM Follow guide for PART 1. I. Reserve and mobilization Same as PART 1. J. Air facilities 1. GENERAL Same as PART 1. 2. DISTRIBUTION Same as PART 1 (Subsection J, 3, Distribution). Include reference to projected development as con- tained in PART 1, Subsection J, 4. K. Aircraft carriers Describe briefly the existing aircraft carriers by class (CVA, CVL, CVS); and appraise their suitability for support of the assigned mission. Include projected building or modernization programs. If significant, include information on seaplane tenders. L. Means of identification Same as PART 1 except uniforms and insignia; rank and awards and decorations may be omitted if covered in SECTION 82. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER VIII miiinwommor PART 2-NAVAL AIR ARM PART 2, SECTION 83, is suggested for use by the analysts when writing on those countries which have naval air arms, and is to be included only where ap- propriate. The development of this Part should in- clude pertinent treatment of the air force as necessary to cover any role or capability in support of naval operations. Reference should be made to the Air Force (redesignated PART 1, in such cases), and SEC- TION 82, Naval Forces, wherever practicable to avoid unnecessary duplication. A. Historical development Narrate the history of naval aviation, relating it to the growth of aviation and sea power in the nation. Describe the origin and development of naval aviation, giving data on personnel and aircraft strengths at se- lected intervals. Include a discussion of the develop-. ment of naval aircraft and related weapons. Assess naval aviation's role in military history in general and evaluate its actual performance and accomplishments in combat. Make reference to important historical events or personalities that shaped the growth of naval aviation and show, if pertinent, how original or sig- nificant contributions made by the country to world aeronautics have influenced its development. This Subsection should present an integrated historical analysis of naval aviation and should stress those fac- tors that are most essential to an understanding of its relationship to naval and air warfare. B. Strategic significance 1. GENERAL Discuss significant factors of the Area that influenced the development of naval aviation. 2. INTERNATIONAL POSITION OF NAVAL AVIATION a. INFLUENCE OR DEPENDENCE ON OTHER AIR FORCES ? Note briefly any influence or dependence on other air forces, and point out any relationship with other nations that has affected or is affecting naval aviation. b. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS Cite those in- ternational agreements or international organizations to which the Area may be a party that affect its employ- ment of naval air power and note briefly its obligations in each case. C. INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF NAVAL AVIATION ? Evaluate briefly the role played by naval aviation in its general geographic region and/or on the world scene, noting its relative position vis-a-vis other naval air forces as appropriate. 3. NATIONAL STATURE OF NAVAL AVIA- TION Comment briefly on the relative importance of naval aviation to the navy, the air force, the army and to the nation, particularly in relation to budgetary considera- tions and political influence. C. Doctrine 1. MISSION State the mission of naval aviation. 2. DEVELOPMENT Summarize and analyze the basic factors that in- fluenced the development of present concepts for the military strategy involved in the employment of naval aviation. 3. STRATEGIC CONCEPTS Discuss the official doctrine pertaining to strategic and tactical employment of naval aircraft and equip- ment to support the mission, and relate this doctrine to the employment of other forms of military power and the overall strategy of the nation. D. Organization (Refer to SECTION 82 for high level organization and command.) 1. NAVAL ORGANIZATION a. ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPTS ? Discuss briefly the organizational concepts underlying the structure of naval aviation and its relationship to the naval organization. b. NAVAL AVIATION STRUCTURE ? Describe, illus- trating with charts, the organization of naval aviation, including such reference to higher organization as necessary. Set forth the command and administrative responsibilities and any peculiarities of the organization that are necessary to provide for cooperation with other forces. 2. OPERATIONAL COMMANDS Describe in detail the structure and composition of all naval aviation operational organizations and their relationship to higher command ashore and afloat. Include summarized tables of organization in narrative or chart form as appropriate. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 17 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 whionwitgiffP NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS E. Operational procedures Describe briefly the standard operating procedures and combat tactics of naval air forces in such naval roles as: fast carrier striking forces; attack of naval targets; anti-submarine or hunter/killer operations; aerial minelaying; amphibious operations; escort of convoy; patrol and reconnaissance; and protection of surface fleets against air attack. F. Personnel I. PROCUREMENT Refer to SECTION 82 but point out any major differ- ences of standard for procurement that differ from those prescribed for naval line personnel. 2. MORALE Assess the morale of naval aviation personnel, par- ticularly as compared with other naval personnel and with air force personnel. G. Training I. GE NERAL Describe briefly the training system as a whole, in- cluding the naval line indoctrination; name the princi- pal schools or types of schools; use a flow chart to illus- trate their interrelation and to show the normal pro- gression. Assess the general adequacy of the training system. NOTE Follow the outline for PART 1 for the remainder of this Subsection but omit Subsection G, 2 (prepara- tory training). H. Logistics 1. SUPPLY Point out wherein the aviation supply system differs from the naval line system; if applicable, show the de- pendence or reliance on the air force procurement system. PAGE 18 2. MAINTENANCE JULY 1957 Follow the outline for Part 1 but omit Subsection II, 1, C, with reference to PART 1. 3. FOREIGN SOURCES OF SUPPLY Identify the principal foreign sources of supply and note the degree of dependence upon such sources. 4. APPRAISAL OF THE LOGISTICAL SYSTEM Follow guide for PART 1. I. Reserve and mobilization Same as PART 1. J. Air facilities 1. GENERAL Same as PART 1. 2. DISTRIBUTION Same as PART 1 (Subsection J, 3, Include reference to projected development as con- tained in PART 1, Subsection J, 4. Distribution). K. Aircraft carriers Describe briefly the existing aircraft carriers by class (CVA, CVL, CVS); and appraise their suitability for support of the assigned mission. Include projected building or modernization programs. If significant, include information on seaplane tenders. L. Means of identification Same as PART 1 except uniforms and insignia; rank and awards and decorations may be omitted if covered ill SECTION 82. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 sienp JULY 1957 Chapter IX - Map and Chart Appraisal OUTLINE SECTION 90. GENERAL A. Development and extent of mapping, charting, and related activities 1. Mapping and charting 2. Surveys 3. Aerial photography B. Major deficiencies in mapping and chart- ing 1. Published maps and charts 2. Mapping and charting data Programs under way or projected C. SECTION A. B. 91. SELECTED MAPS, CIIARTS, AND PLANS General Physical maps, navigation charts, and maps and plans of urban areas 1. General 2. Topographic maps 3. Specialized physical maps 4. Terrain-evaluation maps 5. Air and air-facility charts 6. Sailing, general, and coast charts 7. Coastal oceanographic charts 8. Climatic maps 9. Maps and plans of urban areas C. Transportation and communication maps and charts 1. General 2. Railroad maps 3. Road maps 4. Inland-waterway maps and charts 5. Port and harbor charts and plans 6. Air-transport maps 7. Telecommunication and postal maps 8. Pipeline maps D. Sociological, political, and economic maps 1. General 2. Sociological maps 3. Political maps 4. Economic maps E. Special armed-forces maps and charts 1. General 2. Ground-forces maps 3. Naval-forces maps and charts 4. Air-forces maps and charts F. Terrain models SECTION 92. INDEXES OF MAPPING DATA AND COV- ERAGE Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 ouniumminum NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. 11111S outline for NIS CHAPTER IX is designed to provide a basis for the discussion of mapping, charting, surveying, and aerial-photography programs and the appraisal of all types of maps, charts, and terrain models that are available for any NIS Area. Many of the NIS Areas have no adequate mapping and charting programs or are not satisfactorily covered by maps and charts of various types. For this reason, it is desirable that the outline be kept flexible enough to be adapted to any unusual situation that authors of CHAPTER IX may encounter. Every heading in the outline, however, must be considered by the authors and be retained without revision unless changes are first approved by the Chapter Coordinator. The examples given below illustrate the type of changes in the outline that are legitimate: 1) for some areas Sub- section 91, C, 8, Pipeline Maps, is not applicable, and JULY 1957 the heading will be omitted; and 2) for areas without a coastline the heading 91, B, 6, Sailing, General, and Coast Charts, is not pertinent and will be deleted. Maps prepared for other NIS Chapters will be in- cluded in the recommendations and appraisals in CHAPTER IX, SECTION 91, only if the Sections for which the maps were prepared have been published. Historical maps will not be recommended or evalu- ated unless they contribute in some important manner to an understanding of the current situation. For example, a map of 1850 international boundaries will be discussed only if current territorial claims are based on 1850 boundaries. Approved BGN spellings will be used for all place names in CHAPTER IX except those that appear in the titles of maps, books, or other publications cited. Preface to Chapter IX The preface of CHAPTER IX is a short Guide to Users prepared by the Chapter Coordinator. In the Guide, the Coordinator wilL note: The structure of CHAPTER IX?its division into 1) a general analysis of the mapping situation of the NIS Area, 2) recommendations and appraisals of the best maps avail- able for specific uses, and 3) indexes of mapping data and map and chart coverage. PAGE 2 That only the best maps pertaining to each topic have been included. That the omission of a topic usually covered by maps indi- cates that maps on this topic are either unsatisfactory or not available. The research cutoff date for each major topic in CHAPTER IX. Terms having special significance or meaning as used in Chapter IX. Other information needed for an understanding of the specific CHAPTER IX under consideration. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAP TE.1"1 IX Section 90. General A. Development and extent of mapping, charting, and related activities Describe the development and extent of the mapping and charting of the NIS Area and the surveys and aerial photography that supply basic mapping and charting data. 1. MAPPING AND CHARTING Give briefly the history and current status of map- ping and charting within the NIS Area and note the contributions of other countries to the mapping pro- gram. 2. SURVEYS Discuss the geodetic, hydrographic, and oceano- graphic surveys of the NIS Area that have resulted in basic mapping and charting data. Since these sur- veys aro not covered elsewhere in CHAPTER IX, it may be necessary to consider some of them in greater detail than other topics in SECTION 90. Geodetic surveys, in particular, are basic for estimating the reliability of many maps mentioned in CHA.PTER IX. 3. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Describe the aerial photography for the NIS Area and indicate the availability of the photography and the completeness of areal coverage. B. Major deficiencies in mapping and chart- ing Discuss deficiencies in the mapping and charting situation on the basis of mapping data and of published maps and charts. 1. PUBLISHED MAPS AND CHARTS Note inadequacies in published maps and charts for each category of maps in SECTION 91. 2. MAPPING AND CHARTING DATA Note especially inadequacies in 1) geodetic, hydro- graphic, and oceanographic surveys, and 2) aerial photography. C. Programs under way or projected Describe briefly the mapping and charting programs being undertaken or planned for each category of maps and charts. Designate the deficiencies noted in Sub- section 90, B that will be eliminated or reduced. Section 91. Selected Maps, Charts, and Plans SECTION 91 will include recommendations of the best maps, charts, and plans for each subject mentioned in the outline. Justify all recommendations on the basis of accuracy, adequacy of detail and presentation, utility, and availability. When appropriate, include comparisons of items based on adequacy of subject and areal coverage, emphasizing major limitations or deficiencies. Obsolete or other unselected maps may be mentioned under any topic if the contributing agency considers it necessary to warn users against specific widely used or apparently unauthoritative maps. The recommendations will be followed by citations and descriptions and appraisals of individual items. Each contributing agency will number consecutively, beginning with number 1, all items referred to in its contribution. The citation will include: Exact title of map or map series underlined (with English translation in paren- theses without underlining if title is in foreign language) or supplied title in brackets without underlining; numerical scale (and vertical exaggeration, when appro- priate); authority, preceded by nationality in brackets if non-U.S.; date; language, if not English; graticule (and projection and/or grid); library call number and/or distribution number of producing agency. Security classification and control. The description and appraisal will be in telegraphic English and will consist of three parts under the following headings: 1) Coverage, giving areal coverage and the identification of sheets, if applicable; 2) Charac- teristics, including data shown, source material, and method of preparation; and 3) Evaluation, in terms of accuracy and value for specific purposes. If a map citation does not fit the standard pattern, the contributor may consult the Coordinator as to the form to be used or may follow the pattern set for a similar citation in a recently completed CHAPTER IX. PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS Jur,v 1957 The Coordinator may also be consulted concerning the content of the description and appraisal. Each terrain model (plastic, plaster, or rubber) is given an item number. Citations will be identical to those for maps, except for the inclusion of a vertical exaggeration immediately following the horizontal scale. Include a list of foreign-language authorities men- tioned in S:ECTION 91 and their English translations. A. General The Coordinator will prepare a brief introduction to the Section as a whole. B. Physical maps, navigation charts, and maps and plans of urban areas 1. GENERAL Make a general statement on the adequacy of con- tent and completeness of areal coverage of physical maps, navigation charts, and maps and plans of selected urban areas. 2. TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Recommend and appraise the best topographic maps available in selected scale ranges and the best English- language map series obtainable in quantity in each scale range. 3. SPECIALIZED PHYSICAL MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps or charts for geology, landforms, drainage characteristics, water resources (including water-supply facilities), soil, nat- ural vegetation, state of the ground, and geophysical phenomena. 4. TERRAIN-EVALUATION MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps for cross- country movement, suitability for construction (air- fields, roads, and underground installations), and other military purposes such as concealment, cover, airborne, operations, amphibious operations (Including landing beaches). 5. AIR AND AIR-FACILITY CHARTS Recommend and appraise the best charts for air navigation; the most useful charts for plotting and planning purposes; and the best charts showing air distances, air targets, and the locations and details of aerodromes, airports, and seaplane bases and adjacent facilities. 6. SAILING, GENERAL, AND COAST CHARTS Recommend and appraise the best hydrographic charts in the following categories: 1) sailing--for fixing the mariner's position when approaching the coast from the open sea or for sailing between distant ports PAGE 4 on the same coast; 2) general?for coastwise naviga- tion outside the outlying reefs and shoals; and 3) coast--for inshore navigation, entering bays and harbors, and navigating large inland waterways. Appraisals may be in tabular form. Recommend and appraise also the best interpretive hydrographic charts. 7. COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHIC CHARTS Recommend and appraise the best available coastal oceanographic charts that show depth and relief of ocean floor, currents, sea and swell, temperature, dis- tribution and movement, of sea ice, salinity, density, bottom sediment, transparency and color, acoustics, marine biology, diving and submerged operating con- ditions for submarines, and tidal characteristics and ranges. Deep-sea charts, such as those included in the NIS on Ocean Areas will be recommended and ap- praised in CHAPTER IX only if they show coastal oceanographic information. 8. CLIMATIC MAPS Recommend and appraise the best available maps showing climatic classifications; distribution of cli- matic elements; extremes of climatic elements and their frequency; dates a killing frosts, freezing, and thawing; paths of storms; growing season; and human heat stress. Include maps of flying weather; instru- ment, closed, and contact conditions; and other combi- nations of elements such as those necessary for low- level visual bombing, incendiary bombing, and chemi- cal, biological, and radiological warfare. 9. MAPS AND PLANS OF URBAN AREAS Make a general statement on the availability of maps and plans of selected urban areas. Annotated aerial photomosaics, tourist maps, zoning maps, and local transport maps will not be discussed unless they provide the only coverage or supplementary coverage for one or more of the urban areas. Recommend and appraise the best maps and plans available for the "principal urban areas" designated in NIS CHAPTER II and for other urban areas. The selected urban areas to be discussed in CHAPTER IX will be agreed upon by the Chapter Coordinator and the contributor during the early stages of Chapter preparation. Appraisals may be presented in tabular form. C. Transportation and communication maps and charts 1. GENERAL Make a general statement on the adequacy of con- tent and the completeness of areal coverage of maps and charts for the various aspects of transportation and communication. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 CHAPTER IX 2. RAILROAD MAPS Recommend and appraise the maps, including topo- graphic map series, that show most completely and accurately the existing railroad lines, and the best special railroad maps showing gage, number of tracks, electrification, capacity, traffic (volume and length of haul), railroad administrative districts and centers, yards, repair shops, bridges, tunnels, and other instal- lations. 3. ROAD MAPS Recommend and appraise the maps, including topo- graphic map series, that show most completely and accurately the existing roads, and the best special road maps showing jurisdictional classification, type of surface, width, condition, capacity, and amount of traffic. 4. INLAND-WATERWAY MAPS AND CHARTS Recommend and appraise the best maps and charts of rivers, canals, lakes, and inland-waterway harbors. Place special emphasis on navigability, dockage, clear- ance, and sedimentation. Also include maps dealing with channel depths, currents, heads of navigation, seasons of navigation, and traffic. 5. PORT AND HARBOR CHARTS AND PLANS Recommend and appraise the best charts and plans showing details of ports and harbors, and charts and plans showing ports in terms of importance, physical situations, types, facilities, and capacities. Include coverage for principal and secondary ports selected for CHAPTER III. Appraisals may be presented in tabular form. 6. AIR-TRANSPORT MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps of com- mercial air routes and air traffic. 7. TELECOMMUNICATION AND POSTAL MAPS Recommend and appraise the best special maps and topographic map series showing telegraph and tele- phone nets and stations; radio broadcasting stations, networks,, microwave nets, and distribution of receiving sets; and postal routes and post offices. 8. PIPELINE MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps, including topographic map series, that show pipelines. D. Sociological, political, and economic maps 1. GENERAL Make a general statement on the adequacy of con- tent and completeness of areal coverage of maps for the various topics included in Subsection 91, D. 2. SOCIOLOGICAL MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps showing 1) the distribution and density of population; 2) the composition and characteristics of population accord- ing to race, nationality, language, and religion; and 3) health, including incidence of disease, birth and death rates, and health facilities. 3. POLITICAL MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps of inter- national boundaries, territorial waters, major and minor civil-division boundaries, political problems (in- cluding disputed areas), relative strength of political parties, election districts, and results of elections. 4. ECONOMIC MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps on the following subjects: 1) agriculture, fishing, and for- estry?agricultural regions, land use, production, soil productivity, distribution of crops and livestock, fish- eries, and forests and forest products; 2) fuels and power?solid fuels (nature, extent, and locations of deposits; ownership, locations, and production of indi- vidual mines), petroleum (producing areas, refineries, and consuming centers), natural gas, and electric power; 3) minerals and metals?iron ore (nature, extent, and locations of deposits; ownership and loca- tions of mines; production by regions, fields, and/or mines); nonferrous ores, metals, and alloys; nonme- tallic minerals; and construction materials (exclusive of materials covered elsewhere in this Subsection); 4) manufacturing and construction?industrial machinery, vehicles, aircraft production, shipbuilding, explosives, chemical, agricultural-processing, and other industries; and 5) commerce and trade?flow of commerce, cen- ters of trade, and exports and imports. E. Special armed-forces maps and charts 1. GENERAL Make a general statement concerning the types of armed-forces maps available, and compare the various types as to adequacy. Include only maps pertaining to the armed forces of the NIS Area. 2. GROUND-FORCES MAPS Recommend and appraise the best maps showing size, composition, disposition, and territorial organiza- tion a ground forces; permanent fortifications (land and coastal defenses); and depots and other storage installations for materiel. 3. NAVAL-FORCES MAPS AND CHARTS Recommend and appraise the best maps and charts that show naval districts, zones, or activities; strength PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JULY 1957 40.1 and disposition of ships and personnel; and depots and other storage installations for materiel. 4. AIR FORCES MAPS AND CHARTS Recommend and appraise the best maps and charts that show air commands and units; disposition of per- sonnel units and equipment; and locations of staff and command schools. Air-facility charts are recom- mended under Subsection B, 5. F. Terrain models Recommend and appraise the best terrain models (plastic, plaster, or rubber) that cover the NIS Area or any part of it. Section 92. Indexes of Mapping Data and Coverage SECTION 92 should include the graphics prepared to illustrate SECTIONS 90 and 91, with a short introduction concerning their use. Graphics may be prepared to illustrate the following: 1. Extent, density, and type of available and existing control. 2. Extent and type of aerial-photography coverage. PAGE 6 3. Projected coverage of significant mapping programs. 4. Topographic map series at selected scales; if practicable, include sheet lines. 5. Aeronautical chart coverage. 6. Hydrographic chart coverage. 7. Urban area coverage. 8. Area and subject coverage of maps on other topics when advisable. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS CHAPTER IX MAP AND CHART APPRAISAL Section 90 Topographic maps and terrain models Specialized physical maps Terrain-evaluation maps Section 91 Aeronautical and air-information charts Air-target charts Air-transport maps Climatic maps Section 92 Nautical charts Port maps and plans Oceanographic charts Section 93 Railroad maps Road maps Inland-waterway maps and charts Telecommunication maps Urban-area maps and plans Section 94 Sociological maps Political maps Economic maps Postal maps General reference maps and atlases CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 sfirmamaieriNam JANUARY 1962 SECTION 90 A. B. C. D. Chapter IX - Map and Chart Appraisal General Topographic maps and terrain models Specialized physical maps Terrain-evaluation maps SECTION 91 A. B. C. D. E. General Aeronautical and air-information charts Air-target charts Air-transport maps Climatic maps SECTION 92 A. General B. Nautical charts OUTLINE C. Port maps and plans D. Oceanographic charts SECTION 93 A. B. C. D. E. F. General Railroad maps Road maps Inland-waterway maps and charts Telecommunication maps Urban-area maps and plans SECTION 94 A. B. C. D. E. F. General Sociological maps Political maps Economic maps Postal maps General reference maps and atlases OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Editorial Instructions are followed in detail. The outline for NIS CHAPTER IX is designed to provide a basis for 1) an analysis of the mapping and charting situation in an NIS Area, 2) the selection and appraisal of the best available maps and charts for that Area, 3) an indication of the deficiencies in the map and chart coverage, and 4) the discussion of the principal mapping and charting programs under- way. Many NIS Areas are not satisfactorily covered by maps and charts of various types or have no ade- quate mapping and charting programs. For this Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 _Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS JANUARY 1962 reason, it' is desirable that the CHAPTER IX be kept flexible enough to be adapted to any unusual situation that authors may encounter. Every heading in the outline, however, must be considered by the authors and retained without revision unless 1) no maps or charts are selected for that topic or 2) the subject heading does not pertain to the NIS Area. In the event that further modification of the outline or change in presentation of Chapter content is considered advis- able for a particular NIS Area, the proposed modifi- cation will not be made without prior approval of the CHAPTER IX Coordinator. The distinction between the five Sections of CHAPTER IX, as indicated in the outline, is in the subject cover- age of the maps and charts discussed. The presenta- tion of information in each Section follows a uniform pattern. PREFACE?The preface to each Section is a short "Guide to Users" which includes: An explanation of the composition of the Section. Criteria governing the selection of the maps and charts. A general statement concerning the availability of the selected maps and charts, including a list of abbreviations used in the Section for the various map and chart reposi- tories. A glossary of terms having special significance or meaning as used in CHAPTER IX and appearing in the Section. The research cutoff date for each major topic. Other information needed for an understanding of the specific Section under consideration. GENERAL SUBSECTION?Each Section has a "Gen- eral" Subsection that contains 1) a brief discussion of the current mapping and charting situation for the types of maps and charts included in the Section and 2) identification of the principal agencies responsible for and producing these types of maps and charts of the NIS Area. TOPICAL SUBSECTION s?Each Section includes topical Subsections, with the following subheadings: selected maps and charts; deficiencies; and programs. Selected maps and charts?Include recommendations of the best maps and charts under each subject heading given in the outline. Limit the selection of maps or charts for a specific topic to those originally designed to depict that topic unless other available coverage furnishes better information for the subject under con- sideration. Justify all recommendations on the basis of accuracy, currency, adequacy of detail and pres- entation, utility, and availability. If particularly significant in the evaluation of the maps and charts, PAGE 2 include brief statements concerning the quality and adequacy of the geodetic control and survey data on which the maps and charts are based. When appro- priate, include comparisons of items based on adequacy of subject and areal coverage. Obsolete or other un- selected maps may be mentioned under any topic if the contributing agency considers it necessary to warn users against specific widely used or apparently un- authoritative maps. Follow the recommendations with individual item appraisals, each of which includes a citation, coverage statement, characteristics, and evaluation. The cita- tion contains the title of the map or chart; scale; author- ity; date; language; grid, projection, and graticule in- formation; availability; and security classification and control. The remainder of the item writeup is in telegraphic style and consists of three parts under the following headings: Coverage, giving areal coverage and the identification of sheets (if applicable); Char- acteristics, including the physical characteristics of the map or chart, data shown, source material, and method of preparation (if pertinent); and Evaluation, in terms of accuracy, currency, and value for specific purposes. Deficiencies--Discuss under each major subject head- ing the deficiencies and limitations in the mapping or charting for that subject. Note weaknesses in avail- able materials as well as the lack of areal and subject coverage for all or parts of the NIS Area. Programs?Describe briefly under each major sub- ject heading the significant mapping and charting programs underway. LIST OF FOREIGN-LANGUAGE AUTHORITIES?Include in each Section a list of the foreign-language authori- ties mentioned and give the English translation for each. GRAPHICS?Include graphics to illustrate coverage of the following types of maps and charts, if appro- priate: Topographic map series, within selected scale ranges Geologic maps Soil maps Aeronautical and air-information charts Air-target charts Nautical charts Urban-area maps and plans PLACE NAMES?Use approved Board on Geographic Names (BGN) spellings for all place names in CHAPTER IX except those that appear differently in the titles of maps, books, or other publications cited. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 iij Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 A. General CHAPTER IX Section 90 B. Topographic maps and terrain models Recommend and appraise the best topographic map series in each of three scale ranges?large (1:75,000 and larger), medium (larger than 1:000,000 but smaller than 1:75,000), and small (1:600,000 and smaller). Indicate also, within each scale range, the best English- language topographic series obtainable in quantity and the best terrain models. Note deficiencies and signifi- cant programs. C. Specialized physical maps Recommend and appraise the best maps showing landforms and hypsography (including maps of terrain types, physiographic or terrain regions, slope, relative relief, etc., but excluding topographic maps and terrain A. General models), geology and rock types, natural construction materials, soils, natural vegetation, drainage character- istics, surface- and ground-water resources, state of the ground, and special physical phenomena (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and permafrost). Note defi- ciencies and significant programs. D. Terrain-evaluation maps Recommend and appraise the best interpretive maps that illustrate the suitability of the terrain for - various military uses. Include maps pertaining to cross-country movement; suitability for construction of airfields, roads, and underground installations; con- cealment and cover; airborne operations; and amphib- ious operations. Include also maps showing a com- bination of various aspects of terrain evaluation, such as military-geology maps or terrain-appreciation maps. Note deficiencies and significant programs. Section 91 B. Aeronautical and air-information charts Recommend and appraise the best charts pertaining to air navigation; navigational plotting and planning; and air information (advisory routes, reporting points, control areas, radio facilities, approach and landing procedures, details of aerodromes, etc.). Recommend also the best charts for general planning and reference purposes. Note deficiencies and significant programs. C. Air-target charts Recommend and appraise the best air-target charts for mission planning, visual and radar approach to target areas, target analysis, and target recognition. Note deficiencies and significant programs. D. Air-transport maps Recommend and appraise the best maps showing commercial air routes, distances, and traffic. Note deficiencies and significant programs. E. Climatic maps Recommend and appraise the best maps showing means and extremes of climatic elements, their fre- quency and distribution; paths of storms and their frequencies; dates of killing frost, freezing, and thaw- ing; human heat stress; and climatic regions, if based on meaningful climatic classifications. Include also maps of combinations of climatic elements relating to problems of military and civil operations. Note de- ficiencies and significant programs. PAGE 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS Section 92 A. General B. Nautical charts Recommend and appraise the best standard navi- gation charts in the following categories: 1) sailing? for Sailing between distant coastwise ports or for fixing the mariner's position when the coast is approached from the open sea; 2) general?for coastwise navigation outside the offlying reefs and shoals; 3) coast?for inshore navigation, entering bays and harbors, and navigating large inland waterways; and 4) port and harbor?for anchoring. Specify the coverage available for the ports selected for NIS CHAPTER III. Recom- mend also the best combat (naval gunfire support) charts and the best charts for specialized navigation purposes (such as echo sounding, loran, Dacca, and consol) and for locating navigational dangers, war- created, hazards, etc. Note deficiencies and significant programs. A. General JANUARY 1962 C. Port maps and plans Recommend and appraise the best maps and plans showing ports in terms of importance, physical situa- tion, type, facilities, and capacities, Note deficiencies and significant programs. D. Oceanographic charts Recommend and appraise the best charts that show depth and relief of the ocean floor, tidal characteristics and ranges, currents, sea and swell, temperature, dis- tribution and movement of sea ice, salinity, density, buoyancy, bottom sediments, transparency and color, acoustics, marine biology, diving and submerged con- ditions for submarines, human survival in water, and earthquake epicenters, volcanic activity, and tsunamis. Note deficiencies and significant programs. Section 93 B. Railroad maps Recommend and appraise the transportation maps that best show the existing railroad lines and give the most reliable information on gage, number of tracks, extent of electrification, status (existing, abandoned, destroyed, or under construction), capacity and amount of traffic, railroad administrative districts and centers, and location of stations, bridges, tunnels, yards, round- houses, and repair shops. Note deficiencies and sig- nificant programs. C. Road maps Recommend and appraise the transportation maps that provide the best information on road surface, classification, width, condition, capacity, amount of traffic, status, jurisdictional classification, route num- bers, and the location, type, and construction material of bridges and tunnels. Note deficiencies and sig- nificant programs. D. Inland-waterway maps and charts Recommend and appraise the inland-waterway maps and charts that best delineate navigable inland water- ways (rivers, canals, lakes, arid inland harbors) and PAGE 4 give the most reliable information on channel widths and depths, currents, heads of navigation, aids and obstructions to navigation, seasons of navigation, and traffic. Selection of the navigable inland waterways is to be correlated with NIS CHAPTER III. Coordina- tion will also be made with Subsection 92, B, for cona- nuity of coverage. Note deficiencies and significant programs. E. Telecommunication maps Recommend and appraise the best maps showing domestic and international telecommunication facili- ties (landlines and submarine cables, radio-communi- cation facilities, local and long-distance exchanges, and related installations) and broadcast facilities (AM, FM, TV, and wired nets). Note deficiencies and significant programs. F. Urban-area maps and plans Recommend and appraise the best maps and plans available for the "principal urban areas" designated in NIS CHAPTER II and for any additional urban areas agreed upon by the CHAPTER IX Coordinator and the contributor during the planning phase for the Section. Note deficiencies and significant pro- grams. Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JANUARY 1962 CHAPTER IX 6.1!rnituannift Section 94 A. General B. Sociological maps Recommend and appraise the best maps showing the distribution, density, and rate of growth of popu- lation; the composition and characteristics of popula- tion according to race, nationality, language, religion, occupation, education, age, and sex; and health, in- cluding incidence of diseases and locations of health and medical facilities. Note deficiencies and signifi- cant programs. C. Political maps Recommend and appraise the best maps of inter- national boundaries, limits of territorial waters, major and minor administrative divisions, political problems (including dissident groups and disputed areas), strength of political parties, and election districts. Note deficiencies and significant programs. D. Economic maps Recommend and appraise the best maps on the following subjects: 1) agriculture, fishing, and for- estry?agricultural regions, land use, soil productivity, and production and distribution of crops and livestock; fisheries and fishing areas; and forestry and forest products; 2) fuels and power?solid fuels (nature, ex- tent, and location of deposits; ownership, location, and production of mines; and production by regions or fields), petroleum and natural gas (exploration, producing areas, refineries, pipelines, and consuming centers), and electric power (generation, transmission, and consumption); 3) minerals and metals--iron and nonferrous ores, metals, and nonmetallic minerals (de- posits; ownership, location, and production of mines; and production by regions or fields); 4) manufacturing and construction?industrial machinery, motor ve- hicles, aircraft, electrical and electronic products, scientific and precision instruments and parts, ship- building, explosives, arms and ammunition, missiles and rockets, chemicals, consumer goods, fabricated or processed construction materials, and other industries; and 5) commerce and trade?flow of commerce (by commodity, volume, and method of transport), centers of trade, and exports and imports. Note deficiencies and significant programs. E. Postal maps Recommend and appraise the best maps showing postal routes and post offices. Note deficiencies and significant programs. F. General reference maps and atlases Recommend and appraise the best maps of the NIS Area for general reference purposes. Limit the selec- tion to small- or medium-scale maps that include data on a variety of subjects and that cover the NIS Area in its entirety, or in major part, on a single sheet; exclude maps bound in a publication. Recommend also the best general atlases of the NIS Area (if any) that contain maps on a variety of subjects. Omit atlases that pertain to a single topic (climate, oceano- graphy, etc.); maps from these special-subject atlases are included elsewhere in the Chapter under the proper subject heading. Note deficiencies and significant programs. PAGE 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21: CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS SUPPLEMENT I PORTS AND NAVAL FACILITIES Section 1 Introduction Section 2 Principal Ports Section 3 Secondary Ports Section 4 Minor Ports Section 5 Naval Facilities Section 6 Shipyards CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Basic Intelligence Washington, D. C. EA ',E.'s, 1 Ifil, Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 JULY 1957 Supplement I SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Ports and Naval Facilities OUTLINE A. List of ports, naval facilities, and ship- yards B. Classification of ports, naval facilities, and shipyards C. Berth-classification standards 1. Anchorage berths 2. Fixed berths a. Commercial wharves and fixed moor- ings b. Naval wharves and fixed moorings D. Estimated military port capacity E. Port administration F. Explanatory notes 1. Units of measure 2. Railroad gage 3. Port plans 4. Cross-reference 5. Glossary SECTION 2. PRINCIPAL PORTS A?X. Name of port 1. Introduction 2. Harbor 3. Landing facilities 4. Storage facilities 5. Clearance facilities 6. Supplies and utilities 7. Trade of port 8. Port operations 9. Port administration 10. Estimated military port capacity 11. Naval facilities 12. Shipyards 13. Port development Y. Comments on principal sources SECTION 3. SECONDARY PORTS (Including comments on principal sources) SECTION 4. MINOR PORTS (Including comments on principal sources) SECTION 5. NAVAL FACILITIES A. B. C. Coastal naval facilities Inland naval facilities Comments on principal sources SECTION 6. SHIPYARDS Coastal shipyards 1. Category I and II shipyards 2. Category III shipyards Inland shipyards 1. Category I and II shipyards 2. Category III shipyards Comments on principal sources Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 PAGE 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/21 : CIA-RDP79-01055A000300030001-4 siimmoutamPL NIS STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS OUTLINE GUIDE The following outline guide indicates substance and general arrange- ment. In preparation and typing of manuscript, Standard Edi- torial Instructions are followed in detail. Section 1. Introduction A. List of ports, naval facilities, and ship- yards List all ports alphabetically, indicating name, coordi- nates, and classification. List all naval facilities alphabetically, indicating name, coordinates, and type. Separate coastal and inland facilities by means of shoulder heads. Alphabetical list of category I and II shipyards (with coordinates). Separate coastal and inland yards by shoulder heads. Alphabetical list of locations (with coordinates) having facilities with capabilities less than those of category II shipyards but engaged in or capable of ship construction and/or ship repair. Separate coastal and inland locations by shoulder head. B. Classification of ports, naval facilities, and shipyards Give criteria used in classifying ports into principal, secondary, and minor. State basis on which naval facilities have been classified. Give standards used in grouping shipyards, both on basis of ship-repair and shipbuilding capability, into category I, II, and III. C. Berth-classification standards 1. ANCHORAGE BERTHS Whenever possible or appropriat