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Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA,RQ-019,90,600100040003-1 moimetemeeI1TI ArL7 - SECURRY INFORMATION /7 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND :WORTS PROVISIONAL REPORT NO. 4 (CIA/RR FR.4) THE CAUSTIC SODA AND CHLORINE INDUSTRIES IN THE USSR 12 Decamber 1951 Thin document is a working paper, The data and conclu- sions contained herein do not necessarily represent the final position of ORR and should be regarded as provi- sional only and subject to revision* Additional data or comment which may be available to the user is solic- ited. Thiu report contain: information available to ORR as of 1 Septedber 1951* WARNIM THIS DOCUNEMTCONTARIS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, MITHIN THE MEANING -OF TITLE la, SECTIONS 793 AND 794 OF THE U.S. CODE, AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR REVELATION OF ITS CONTENTS TO OR RE,r, CEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW. DO ENT NO. ?LW* NOTH CLASS. 1 DECLASt-, CLASS. CHANG NEXT REVIEVV DATE: TS S ti ol/ AUTHA Help A) UATELAW ImlfREVIEWER. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIAIRDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Infordisi ? Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 coNFIDENTIAlk =A= This report is divided into two partss Part X, The Caustic Soda Industry in the USSR, and Part II, The Chlorine Industry in the 'USSR. Although these two Soviet industries are discussed sepa- rately, they are included in the same report for two reasons, First, the principal process used to produce caustic soda and chlorine is the seias namely, the electrolytic decomposition of a solution of common salt. In this process, caustic soda and chlorine are therefore coproducts and are produc simpl- taneously, Second, since the USSR has never published figures on chlorine production and since individual plant information is generally inadequate, the best approach to an estimate of the Soviet chlorine production is through those caustic soda statistics which have been published by the USSA. ENTIA Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ? 4 =ma PART X THE CAUSTIC SODA INDUSTRY IN THE USSR fags Summary . 0000 3. I. Introduction 2 1. Nature and Uses ? 0 ? 0 ???????? . 0 ? ? 0 ? ? . 2 2. History of the Industry ? ? ? ? 2 II. Operation ? OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO ? . . ? 0 ? ? ? 0 5 1. Technology a. Electrolytic Process ? . . 0 . . ? ??? 0?0 ? ? 5 b0 Lime.soda Process ? O ? OOOOO 0 . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 2. Input Requirements 6 a. Rai! Materials 6 b. Fuel and Paver 6 c.... Transport and Manpower 6 III. Avallabilities 4 0 0 O 00000000000 0 00 ? 0 6 ? 6 10 Domestic Production 0 . oo ....... . 00?40 ? ' 7 2. Ekternal Sources . . .. . .... ? . . . 0 ? . . ? . /0 Satellites ........... . ? . 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 b. Konmaloc Countries .??...?..,????? 11 3. , Stockpiles 12 40 Substitutes 12 XV. Requirements . 12 V. Capabilities, Vulnerabilities, and Intentions . 0 13 1. Capabilities 13 2. Vulnerabilities ? . ,.. ?000. 13 3. Intentions ?,.... 14 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Appendix A. Method of Estimating Caustic Soda Requirements in the USSR....?.. ?. ? 1. Soap . . . ? . ......... 0. . . . . . . . . . 2. Chemica1s15 .... ... . . . ........? . . . 3. Rayon . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ..... . 4.. . . . . . . . 5. Lye and Cleansers . . . . . a ?000es0000 e ? . 6. Textiles. . . . ....?... ........ 0 . . . 7. Pulp and Paper . a amaeoea? 00000.0 0E90 0 (10 Vegetable 011s . .,.. ..... . . ?000000 0 0 0 0 9. Reclaimed Rubber . . *000000?000000 G 0 10. Other? o ? o . . eeeom mo 0000eemos a e o Appendix B. Sources . .17 . 400? 004Q? ?0000? 0004, bE.2. 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 PART THE CHLORINE INDUSTRY IN THE USSR ary0 ?e? ?0000 Oe? WI 0 000?00 0 18 I. Introduction ? 000?0?00000000?0?0??00 18 1. Nature and Uses 18 2. Technology 0?00? OOOOOOO 0 ?00? 00?0 19 a. Brine Electrolysis Process O OOOO . 0 OOO . OO 0 19 b. Other Processes . . . . . OOOOOOOOOO ? 19 3. History of the Industry ' . . ?06.?00 00?00 20 Ix Input Requirements . . eo?emoecoom000meomo 24 a. Rau Materials 00?0000 , 0 0 000000000 24 b. Fuel and Power ?......?......? 25 c. Transport . 41)00000000M?00000000 0 25 d. Mant?wnr . 0.? ?..........?...? 25 Availabilities ?.....? 0 ? ?..? 25 1. Domestic Production w0000?000? 0 0 ? 25 2. External Sources . . 0 ? 0000? ?0?0?000?00 28 S-Brg-R-B-1T Approved For Release 1999/09702 :-CTA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 gam a. Satellites . ........ 000??? 28 b. Non=Bloc Countries . ......... . ? ? 400 29 3. Stockpiles 29 4. Substitutes 29 IV. Requirments 30 1. Dc tic . . ....... 0?0?094 30 2. &ports 006???00 33. V. Capabilities Vulnerabilities and Intentions 49.? 06 33. 1. Capabilities . .???.?????..?........ 31 2. Vulnerabilities ? 0.060?400??06000000.4 0 31 30 Inteati02180400090?????6?000000?00 32 Appendix A. Appendix Bo Method of Estbsating 1950 Chlorine Requirements in the USSR . Sources . . O69000?00?090400400 ?0?900???00 a7gra-a-z-z ? 0000 33 37 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 :? CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 4.1 CIAAR PART ZEILR.AXMO Jgalt.4212=LEULEME, ? Caustic 001a# ODO of the basic inorganic chemicals -espential in many in.. dustrial process:oasis believed tO be in abort cupply in the UBSRp and the use oramy !melon substitute would not greatly reduce Soviet requirements. Efforts probably are being -made to expand output within the Bice. Soviet production of caustic soda in 1951 is estimated at 325,000 ,metric tons, about two tinea the 1940 output of 1380000 .to 185,000 tons. PrOdUction bas not increaoed according to plan, however, as the Five Year Plan .goal for cauatic soda production in 1950 wa .390,000 tons. Output of the Satellite countries in 1951 is estimated at 3111;000 metric tons, giving a total Bloc production of 636,000 tons in contra/A to estimated US production for 1951 of 2.8 million metric tone. Although small quantitioa of caustic soda sre ported by the Satellite countriee from Western Europe, these amounts are not sufficient to alleviate the existing shortage of this chsmical it the Bloc. Despite the Shortage, however, the USSl Is believed to have aceismalated caustic soda stockpiles, the aizes of which are not known. In the,ovent of a major wait utilitation of these etoekpiles would be necessary to meet eapential military demands. Although the preeemt supply of cauctic soda might be sufficient to meet the requirements of limited military operation or of a major war of short duration, a major war of long duration wnuld demand construction of additional production facilities in order to maintain the output of commodities essential to the Nei effort. The Soviet caustic? soda industry apparently .is not vulnerable to oconomac warfarea but the bombing ,of a feu key inctallations probably would effectively restrict ctppLtoc 4,20UMW.PMW=0476(.0.1V Wad.2,13.06-.1113414. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 , Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ? . leeettga. f 1,, Uaej. Caustic sodas or eodium hydroxide (Na011)2 is a brittle white solid? extremely hygroscopic and readily soluble in water. A basic inorganic chemicale among the alkalis it is second in importance only to soda adh. Used In tonnage lots, it is essential in many industrial processes the nost ime portant of vihich is the manufecture of rayon and cellulose film and of other chemical products such as military explosive:3s synthetic phenols and plastics. Caustic soda also ie essential for petroleum refining; for treatment of textiles; for manufacture of vegetable oils, soape and cleaneeres and pulp and paper; and for tbe reclaiming of rubber. Production of caustic coda is based on two processes: (a) the electroe lytic decomposition of a solution of common salt in either diaphragm or mercury electrolytic cells and CO the causticization of soda ash with slaked limes usually called the lime-soda proceme The electrolytic process also producer chlorine and hydrogen; the lime-soda process does not. From the point of view of quantity produced$ the lime-soda proceoss formerly the more importants now has been displaced in most? countries by the electroeytic method because of a more rapid increase in the demand for chlorine than for caustic ooda. US produc- tion of electrolytic caustic soda exceeded output of the lime-soda type for the first time in about 1937; in 19e8s 67 percent of the total US output was pro- duced by the electrolytic process? 2. AlgtarListrja.ftllemitrz? .Development of the caustic meda industre in the USSR pro oded slowly. Output fell sharply during and after the Revolution, dropping from a reported 53p000 metric tons in 1913 to 36,000 tonsein 1924-25.2eb The First Five Year Plan (1928-32) apparently placed little emphasis on expansion of the industry, and production in 1932 probably did not exceed 55s000 tons. The Second Five Tear Plan (1933-37) provided for the construction of seven caustic soda plants. The annual planned roduction :sale for this period have been reported 'by 25X1X7 * Footnote references in arabic numerals refer to sources listed in Appendix B. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S.E.onnnritai Planned Soviet Production of Caustid Soda 1933e37 01111i...111M14?11'llidattgIUMITSMSLIDEPOCAGFAZIkil Is= rQ 1933 58,500 1934 63,500 1935 699000 1936 830000 1937 1269000 It is not known whether or not the seven new plants were installed during this period; however, the 1936 output ie estimated at 112s000 metric to7s9 and production in 1937 is estimated at about 118 000 tones only 80000 tons short of the Plan goals 25X1X7 The Third Five Year Plan (1938-42) called for a 50-percdnt increase in the production of caustic sodas which Was stated to be one of the most de- ficient chemical products." This planned increase established the 1942 Plan goal at about 1779000 metric tone. A Soviet chemical industry periodical in 1947 reported that autput in 1940 was 2.6 times greater than output in 1913 lh consequently' production in 1940 may have been about 1389000 metric tons. On the other hand, another source stated that in the Fourth rive Year Plan (1946-50) "It is proposed to increase the production of caustic soda 2.1 timee over the prewar level," W It appears from this information, that /940 production wao about 1859000 metric tons instead of 138,000 metric tons since the planned goal for caustic soda production -in the Fourth Five Year Plan (1946...5o)was 390,000 tons. The Plans for 1941 and 1942 were not fulfilleds the German invasion in 1941 causing the evacuation and destruction of the lime-soda plants at Lisichanek and Slavyansk and the electrolytic plants at Stalinogorsks Yoacou9 Tatbav, Leningrads and Deketovka. The cessation of operations at these plants is reports& to have resulted in a 70,-percent decrease in caustic soda production, which wauld , have amounted to a less of from about 96,500 to 1309000 metric tons, leaving only about 419500 to 55,000 tons available to the Soviets in early 1942. 2/ The otatus of the industry during the war is obscure; but Lend Lae shipments of nearly 1009000 short tons of caustic soda to the USSR from 1942 to 1945 attest to the shortage of this harslet chemical. .1/ The extent to which the Soviets were able to remove and re-install caustic soda equipment in plant farther east, as well as the rem/to achieved in empanding facilities and in- creasing production in existing plants, is unknown. Assuming that production In 1942 was between 419500 and 55s000 metric tones it appears, from evidence - 3 Approved For Release 199919.9102.EVA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 contained in the Fourth Five Year Plan (1946.50), that considerable effort vas directed toward rehabilitation of the industry from 3.942 to 1945. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1946-50) visualized a production of 3900000 metric tonsof cauetic soda in 1950 and stated that "factories for the production of caustic soda 4th a capacity of 278,000 tons are to be put into operation.' It can be deduced from this statement that production at the end of 1945 was at the rate of 1120000 tons a year, or about 62.81 percent of the 1940 output. Since 1945, percentage increases over each previous year os production have been reported, indicating that output in 1950 VUB 277,000 metric tons, a figure 1/30000 tons short of the planned goal. The Soviet production or caustic soda since prerevolutionary times is. estimated as follows: Estimated Soviet Production of Caustic Soda 19130 1924-25, 1932, 1936.50 OD..ftw'ms?????? 1913 1924.25 1932 1936 1937 193$ 1939 1940 1941 53,000 369coo 55,0130 1120000- 1180000 1260000 1320000 138,000 to 1850000 1000000 to 1200000 s . ' ...2101s1A9mm. 1942 41,500 to 55000 2943 N.A. 3.944 N.A. 1945 1120000 1946 122,000 jki 1947 15200002f 1948 1900000 ji 1949 241*000 a/ 1950 277,000 4,/ jil Published percentage increases over the previous yeares output are 9 percent for 19460 25 percent for 1948, 27 pare cent for 1949, and 15 percent for 1950. 2/ No figure for 1947 re pub1ished0 although the State P1anning Ccomisaion reported the quarterly production indez aa being 121i 1230, and 126 (the oorresponding quarter of the previous year equals 100) in th first, second!, and third quarters of 1947, respeCtively.W No figures are available for the fourth quarter. It is therefore estimated that the 1947 increase over 1946 was abolit 25 percent inetead of the Plan goal of 36 perm:n-602V ? -? 4 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 IL 922K1ti2R- 10 219111212gZo a. ladataa. A saturated solution of common salt (aodium chloride) is heated, treated with soda ash, caustic soda, and sometimes barium chloride, to re- move impurities =oh as calcium, magnesium and sulphate compounds. The purified solution after neutralization with hydrochloric acid, id- reheated and fed to specially designed electrolytic cells. In these cello the salt solution la decomposed .by electric current to form a solution of cauetic soda, chlorine gas and hydrogen gas being formed simultaneously as coproductso Two general type of cells, the mercury cathode_ and the diaphragm, are-the only cauntic soda cells of camerae' importance at the preaent time. Mercury cells are more expencive to operate. because of the high initial ine vestment in mercury and because of the higher voltage required. They have, however, the advantage of producing, directly from the cell, a concentratea solution of caustic soda of high purity. Diaphragm cells produce a rather impure 10- to 12-percent solution of caustic soda, which must beaconcentrated and purified before shipment. b;) A 20iTercent solution of soda ash (sodium carbonate) is treated with slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) at about 850C to produce an ageeous solu- tion of caustic oda (sodium hydroxide) and a precipitate of calcium carbonate. The insoluble calcium carbonate is removed, and the aolution of caustic soda is purified and concentrated. The caustic soda produced by the electrolytic diaphragm cell and be the lime-eoda process is in too diluted a form for shipment. It ucually is concentrated to approximately 50-percent NACU (sodium hydromide) in multieffect evaporators. Many plante also produce solid ftsed and fleke forms, end recently the use of a 73-percent solution in the US hes been increasing. Shipment to large consumers usually is in the liquid form in tank cars at a concentration of either 50 or 73 percent. Less water is chipped with the higher concentrated solutlen, but certain disadvantages arise. The 73epercent caustic sodae for example, solidifies at about 1449F, Whereas 50-pereent caustic soda remains - liquid above 519F. Moreover, although the 50-percent solution can be Shipped in iron tank cars, for 73epercent solution a nickel lining or special plastic lining must be used. Tank care for either concentration must be fitted with steam coils to allow remelting of solidified caustic sodae - 5 - Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approverl For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Caustic soda generally is sold on the basis of its sodium oxIde (Na20) content. Seventy-sixepercent Na2O (98.06-percent Na011) ie considered to be commercial caustic soda, and prices aro quoted per pound or per kilopem of 76-percent Na200 20 11210.,3317=1. 2471X142.44.4* The manufacture of 177,000 metric tons- of electro. de caustic soda in 1950 in the USSR required 285,000 metric tons of salt and 4500 metric tons of soda ash (58epercent Na20). In producing 1002000 tons of ceostic poia by the lime-soda process the industry consumed 150,000-mctric tone of coda ash and 8,250 tons of lime (90-percent CaO), Salt and lime are found it bundance in many localities in the USSR,. and sufficient eupplies are available for =- pension of the industry. Any increase in capacity of the lime-soda proceeep however, will require a correspondirg increase in production of m.o.& ash. b. 0:aj...AgleFost. The production of caustic soda by the electrolytic proceee requiece large amounte of electricity. Soviet produation of 177,000 mstric tons in 1950 consumed about 515 million kilowatt-houre of electricity. On the other hando, only 2 million kilowatt-hours were used in the production of 1004)00 tons of caustic soda be the lime.soda process. Further increa000 in electric payer capacity will be necessary if electrolytic caustic node capacity is to be nificantly expanded. The industryoe fuel requirements have-not yet been calculated, Sue,' calculations depend on a determinatiozt of the of power supplied by hydroelectric and thermal plants. . . 04 SZ2Eri.2.r.L2Zit V,2,112,Ke No effort ha u been made to determine transport and manpower require. manta for the Soviet eaustic soda industry. As in all chaeicel plants, howevee, manpower requirements are comparatively small.- A limited number of skilled workers and technical .pereonnel are required for this industry... It is believed that they are available in the USSR. ?Aeagek2=11.2,11.4 Soviet Bloc production of caustic soda in 1951. is estimated at 636000 metric tons. (renge, frac 6000000 to 7500000 tone). This outputt, plus upknaRn quaatitios of imports and stock, constitutes the total supply available to .the Mee in . 1951. In contrast; US production of cauetic seda far 1951 is estimatsd at &ID-2+1K Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ? ApprovedfFor Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 approximately 2.8 million metric tons. 1.asistAl&e.I.I.t&A1.911. 'Soviet production of caustic soda is estimated as follows: Estimated Soviet Produotion of Caustic Soda /950-5/ Probable Range of Inn 12..mftstiss Lag.2,301-Qtti A 1950 2779000 250,000 to 325,000 1951 325,000 300,000 to 400,000 Information on the individual caustic soda plants in the USSR is not adequate to determine accurately the production of each region. Rased on avail- able information,? however, the estimated production of caustic soda by regions in the USSR during 1950 was approximatelY as follows; Estimated Soviet Production of Caustic Soda by Regions 1950 Northwest Wept South Southeast Transcaucasus .Volga Central industrial Urals West Siberia ESSakhstan East Siberia Soviet Far Ea:A &ma= 23,200 o, sl000 o 139400 45,000 470700 64,000- 1,350 0 2,500 o TWO LamLet...WA 29 5' 16 17 23 1 0 1 0 Total 2714452 2g2 . 7 . ,?HP1H2EHE'i Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 54111414?iE4. The lecationa.and estimated capacitios of the caustic soda plants in the USSR are as follows: Eatimated Cap,,cities of Cauatie Soda Planta in the USSR 2951 ifinfmAtaissierantaatn il ?gutiaagba Lisichanak Slavyanak Gorlovka .12,/ 22DItaLbtiagaat Kineahma Y.WALIZi23 Berezniki ElmtalWalrgago Iadk.nrIZAta Arkhangelsk Enao Kailas Leningrad Pitkyaranta 1234ei 92 Rubezhneye Slavyanak Donsoda Slavsoda Atz ? Chemical Plant Dmitri Soda Plant 402000 to.502000 25,000 to 35,000 220e0 252000 to 350000 Solombalski Cellulose Cobbine 5,600 Paper and Cellulose Plant 4,000 Cellulose Cor*ine 52600 Okhtinski Chemical Combine 62200 Cellulope Plant 12800 Rubezhansky Chemical Combine Krasny Khimlk or Slavseda 5,600 52700 T sItga20 Sumgait Y.A. 70400 Yerevan Synthetic Rubber Plant Kirov 62000 - Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Estimated Capacities of Caustic Soda Plants in the USSR 2.951 (Continued) Malorroassmatemp.atall-,..asumacamwenourenatausraeramignmasa. tilltommtimmosmeneeparatan:14294.tautamerftwomaesuomme.low "ales _Its jas Chapayevsk Beketovka ,,.......1,111719 TOIL( Chemical Plant No, 102 Chemical Plant No. 91 11,000 34,000 lontra_Xndudenl_Bestgo Dzerzhinak Chemical Plant Kalinin 6,100 Dzerzhinsk Chemical Plant Zavod 3tr0,7 10,000 Dzerzhinsk Chemical Plant Zavod Stroy 89400 Moscow Chemical Plant Ugreahakiy 6,100 Stalinogorsk Chemical CoMbine Stalin 6,700 Tambov Pomder Factory Krasny Oktyabr 10,000 agelendsta Berezniici EfilaSiberlan Zsagla Tomsk Chemical Combine Voroshilov Chemical Warfare Plant Princess Gagarin 34,000 19350 -31?-.L.1.4Laa?Rgagn Usolys Chemical Plant No 9? 29500 ....011.1C?104,1.11. 11.12.11116.}...COMILMTOPOWIAffird,1%...1.1., - 40 Thelollowing plants have bean reported as being planned, under construction, or In operation but production has not been confirmed for any:. Volkbnyv, Leningrad Oblast, Nortgwest Region; Sumgait, Azerbaijan SSR0 Tranacaucasup Region; Sterlitamak9 Bashkir ASSR, Urals Region; Kulunda Altai Krai9 West Siberian Region; Aralsk? Kyil- Orda Oblast, Kazakh. SSR, Central Asla; KararBogaz-Gol, Turkmen Sa40 Central Asia; Balkhash, Karaganda Oblast, Kazakh SSR, Central Asia.: A plant at Ivanove? Ivanovo Oblast, Central Industrial Region, reportedly Is producing caustic soda, soap, and other products. 12/ b.:. Them may be ?a nuMber of such Small -plants in the USSR, but,unloss this nudber .tleWG large, mhich avidenne does not indicator their contribution to total cavntic .soda production mould not be significant. O., The total capacity of the electrolytic prodoss plants listed (continued on next page) - 9 - Approved For Release 1990/CregkkgA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SeEeCeRen Since all plants aro believed to be operating at. neer-capacity 1evele0.prod1e- tion erstieteted for 1950 also indicate capacity estimates. The lack of idle . capacity, homeer, will prevent the USSR fran achieving eignificant expansion of output in the event of a general war in 1951. The USSR never has published statiaties concerning the dietributicn. of caustic eoda production between the ling.-coda and the electrolytic processes, and the available infcaumtion coneerniza inavidual plant is not sufficient to nake reliable estimates of the quantity of caustic soda produced bec each .process. Aneanalysis of the data available concerning those plants believed to be emplgr-- ing the limeeeoda process, hemmer, Inmost-es a probable Soviet autpub of 1000000 metric tons in. 1950 by this procoso. In that event the probable 1950 output by the electrolytic process woad be about 17/0000 tons, or 66 percent of total caustic soda production. Caustic coda is believed to be in dhort supply it the Soviet Union', Despite the lack of information regarding eorvatruction of mit prorlection facil- ities, efforts probably are being made to expand output. A eoda nah plant re- portedly was under conetruction in 1948 at Sterlitmak in the Urels0 and Soviet press articlee have ?tate thatthie will ta the lergtot-soda cceobine in Europe. Undoubtedly this plant will have caustic soda production facilitiee? but no formation has been received to indicate that production has beoun. ? It is not -possible to increase production capacity for caustic.sodalve the divereion of plants from other usece because of the epee/al/zed nature of the equipment required. The only other product manufactured with thio type of equipment is caustic potash, _Which is produced in such omen volume that it would not be practical to divert caustic potadh producing facilities to the production of caustic soda. 2. Edguejggsw. The production of caustic soda in the Satenitee in 1951 is ectimoted MA follows CFLgli?yaa..cOWO..41aUaW.OVV..P........r..~.II,PIIDWXRMCP?va?GPIOVrTrirZr.r0ricCaeae4.~WFOr4Z. palLiMilanciitilVit.sight?IUMHIWPWAS"..^M...-aRtrair.,,,AVEMYININVIKOUMn.........YUKIDVAIP1, ? e, (continued). le 178,050 metric tons a year, a figure closely agree:121g with the estimate of 177,000 to of Caustic ooda prodUced by thisTrooere daring 1950. Current plant 1nformation0 however, is inadequate, and there is no- aeouranee that this liet See- eludes all electrolytic process plants or that eatimates of capacitioe are aecurata. -10- Approved For Release 1994i 16A-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SsEsessisze.T Estimated Satellite Production of Caustic Soda 1951 . . 4t.4 ? a A. East Germany 150,000 Poland 60,000 Czechoslovakia 55,000 Rumania 23,000 Chinas,/ 14,000 Hungary 9,000 Total 2214221 01111.1.01CPX.CmiAROZaratavie.a46.n.V.717MiliftigriNI., aS Including only Manohuria and the territory north of the Yellow River but excluding the Shantung peninstla areao 1). baigp,..cmaidos There is no information on Soviet imparts of caustic soda from rot Bloc sourcoe. East Germany, Csechodlovakia, and China, however, receive audh imports, principally from Western EUrope, and some of these supplies possibly are transshipped to the USSR. The amount of -Bloc imports from nons@loe sources, however, is unknowns Large but undetermined aupplien of caustic soda ars assilable in those Western Eurppean countries which might be invaded by the USSR, Chiefly West Germany, France, the UK, Italy? and Boagtom. It is not believed that Western ean countries have controlled experts of caustic soda to the Soviet Blo0.. The US, however, has placed caustic soda (in package of over 50 pounds net) on its Positive list, and this action has prevented direct Shipments of significant quantities of caustic soda to the USSR from the VS. Were this restriction not in force. the USSR could at least partiaIly satisfy its caustic soda requirements with US imports and there- by release -engineering skills and equipment-manufacturing facilities for tho deVelopmont of other industries. S-E-C-4US-Esri Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 2122W122- Both working inv ntorleaand strategic reserves of cauctioasoda aro, . maintained in the Scvlet Union. Although believed to be sizable,. the aracunt of these stocks is unknown* 40' St.A_Dst.ttligli. 4oda ash and caustic potash can be sUbstituted in same applidations of caustic soda, butt in practice, use of these substitutee would not sign17 ficantly reduce the requirements for caustic sodca, Seda.ash cannot be used . 'when a strong alkali of cauaticizing action is required, and cauptie potash cannot be substituted in large volune? because it iB produeedin muen smaller quantities than caustic soda. TUrthermore? substitution of esuatic'potash for eauatic soda would not be practical? -since both products re protuced in the-same type of plant. IV,- 1112a-1.' 2111? Domestic industry censumes virtually the entire output of cauetie soda in the USSR. Small exports are made to Communist China and Bulgaria,- but the. tight Supply situation in the Soviet Bloc prevente'tho use a caustic - soda in waging economic warfare or in securing exsential importa. ? No study hae been made of military consumption? 'but it 'appears that, in th event of a general -wary the .USSR would face a serious caustic Soda ahortage even if civilian consumption were cut to a miniMum. Domestic Consumption in 1950 is eitimated-as follows, the ioap dhemialg and rayon industriee being the chief users* firg7.C-R-Eq, Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Estimated Soviet Domestic Consumption of Caustic Soda IV 1950 Consumption ilialLig-222Alt 52,000 44,000 35,000 23,000 14,000 ? 14,000 11:350 4,500 110800 67,350 br2Satigstakta 19 16 13 8 5 5 4 2 4 24 Soap ? Chemicals Rayon Petroleum Refining Lys and Cleansers Textiles Pulp and Paper Reolaimed Rubber Vegetable 011s Metallurgy, Bleaching, Dyes, Drugs, Food, and Others :Total 32;Ls2g9 24212 a, The methods used in arriving at these estimates are presented in Appendix A. v.2sipALL.71 1. azttilAtim. - Caustic soda reportedly is in *hart supply in the Soviet Bloc at the present time, and, in the event of a majorwar, utilization of the stockpiles would be neCeasary to meet essential military demands. While the supply of this basic chemical might be sufficient to meet 'the requirements of a limited campaign or of 4 major war of short duration, however, a major war of long duration would demand construction of additional production facilities in order to maintain the output of commodities essential to the War effort. 20 A111211=1,210 The Bloc imports small quantities of caustic soda fro m non-Bloo countries, but for all practical purposes this Soviet industry in self-eufficient and not vulnerable to economic warfare. The control* which are now exercised by the US over export of this commodity.? however, prevent the USSR from diverting at least mama of the induatryos resources to production of other commodities. - Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-E-C-11.EmT No study has been made regarding the vulnerability of caustic soda producing installations to strategic boMbing? but the bombing of a few such key installations, :as those at Lisichansk? Slavanak, and Dereznikl in the USSR and Schkopau and Ritterfeld in East Germany, would effectively restrict supplies. A further restriction of caustic soda supplies would result from the bombing of important dhemical producing centers such as Dzerihinsk and Stalinogorsk in the USSR, where caustic soda plants probably would be "bonus" targets. Since the size of the Soviet caustic soda stockpiles is not known, it is impossible to state how soon the disruption of output would affect the Soviet economy. 3- kalina4liy Accurate knowledge of actual and potential supplies of caustic soda would not be an indication of Soviet intentions. Unless detailed information regarding allocations of this chemical to Soviet consumers were available, it is doubtful Whether any conclusions concerning. Soviet Intentions could be drawn from a study of the caustic soda industry alone. - 14 - S-?4-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ' Approved. For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ? APPEND:a A )20102.9LI:aptATAT.G.ZUS ir -EStimates of domestic consumption of caustic soda in the USSR in 1950p presented on page 33, were made in the following manners 1. A.M. The 1950 Plan goal for soap production in the Soviet Union ealloi for nn output of 870p000 metric tons. Assuming fulfillment of thig the tmount of caustic soda required WM about 520000 metric tons. 2. ZIS4257a0 -Caustic soda enters into tho mandfacture of ouch a great variety of chemicals that it is impossible to .estimate roquiTements directly frcat chemicals Production. Therefore-, the problem must be approaChed by. zila -in- direct and inferior method. In the US the consumption of caustic coda in the manufacture of chemicals from 1935 to 1939 averaged about 16 percent of the total output of caustic soda in those years. le Assuming that a similar percentage of the Soviet production.of caustic soda in 1950 vas con? sumed In the manufacture of chemicals, the quantity required waa about 44000 motric tons. 3- IbiLen Production of rayon filament yarn and staple in the USSR in 1950'is estimated- at 77 million poundsp or 40 million pounds of filament and 37 million pounds of staple. The quantity of caustic socla required 1,7 nbout 35400 metric tons. 4. kalsgpmal1944nep The 1950 output of crude oil in the USSR 5_0 estimnted at tabolit 37 million metric tonsc, The quantity of caustic soda roquimil for reln,ng this output probably was about 239000 metric tons. 50 kiLatid-,?91154a2M. Since no figures on Sotiet production of lye and cleansers am avallable,1 tha indirect method employed in estimating the reTo.lireconts of ths acimicza. industry it bs used in estimating. egustic scids nonsunrition In thT. US the connumptins of cau0J..,, pc.da In the manufaoturo of .171 rad cle!tnters Prom 1935 ' Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Seg-C-R-E.T to 1939 averaged about 5 percent of total caustic soda production. Id If the same percentage is applied to Soviet production in 19500 the amount of caustic soda used in the manufacture of lye and cleanaers waa about 14,000 metric tons. 6. &Daus. The treatAent of textiles required about 5 percent of total US pro.. duction of caustic soda from 1935 to 1939. 12, Assuming that the Soviet textile industry required a (similar percentage, the industryls caustic soda consumption in 1950 is .estimated at 140000 metric tons. 7. agaeende.ranez. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1946..50). referred to the-paper industry am follous: "The rehabilitation of the industry Shall be completed 1y.1948 and its further development underteken, so that by 1950 the output of paper exe ceeds the prewer level by 65 percent* provision being made for a far greater proportionate increase in the output of highegrade bleadhed:paper." On the basis of this information it is eatimated.that the 1950 production goal wets 1.34 million metric tone of papers but actual production is believed to have been about 1.19 million tons., In 1940 the US produced 7.3 million tons of paper and coneumed 710000 tons ofcaueticesoda in the manufacture of pulp and paper. 22/ Since Soviet paper production in 1950 wee 16 percent of US production in 19400 Soviet Caustic soda requirement in 1950 are estimated at 16 percent of US requirements in 1940s or 110350 metric tone. 80 IRSItg12.911,80 The 1950 goal for vegetable oil production eat 00000 metric tone, but actdal output is estimated at about 9000000 tons. Caustic mode, require- ments for thin production are estimated at about 110800 metric tons. 9. PjelgksLaatsz. Cauatic &oda reqoirements for the estimated Soviet output of opproxie mately 45,000 metric tons of reclaimed raber in 1950 aro estimeted at about 4000 Metric tons. 10. 921D, The remaining 670350 metric tons of caustic soda probably were consumed In metallurgy; bleaching; the nanufacture of dyeaa drugs, and foods; and other minor 1111084, A small part of this quantity may have been exported to China and Bulgaria, but the USSR imports caustic soda from Po/and, Bumaniaa'and Ceochoe slovakia ani possibly was a net importer in 1950. - 16 E-C-R-54 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 25X1X7 25X1A2g Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-&C.a-E4T APPENDIX B MEM 1. CIA working paper, 20301,1,e_404,144.241,prille JAAlict_WA., 1948. 2. INA.; FD B &aviary No. 4, auga.,16twarduzALLsz? 17 Oct 1947. 3, 4. 11-. Denisov, Coamissar of the Chemical Industry of the Soviet Union, ARCC Bulletin No. 690, May 1948. . 6. D.avda, 18 Mar 1946. 7. FB Summary No. 40 sst. 8. Report on War Aid Fbruiahed by the US to the USSR0 Dept. of State, 2eW1945* 9, az. 211.; State Desp. 12400 Moscow, 27 Apr 1950; State Desp. 143, Moscow, 20 Jan 19481 Monthly EconaLc Report, Jan 1950. 10.ggeadjUse. eg,..ALciagrfp the USSR, jat.; ilarealys No. 89, .15 Apr 1947; USSR Information Bulletin 0.20 Aug 19470 U. kiLeAllUg 902. 25X1A6a12. WDGS Report No. R-135..51. PIA 581829, 26 Jan 1951.' ' 13. 14. 9.122gal /5, zimuutemo, Jun 1950. 16. 912/46-91A1742WabEigaa.,?&81D-Mingt 17. Dia, VoL 51, No. 8, p. 115, 1944. 18. ma.; Consus of Forest Products, Dept of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1940. Approved For Release 190/000.27C1A-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 CIA/RR FB-4 gr-B4A7E-21 PART II IIIQ1PUSL1L1U? Summary. Chlorine, one of the basic inorganic chomicals eesential In the produc- tion of many iodispeneable commodities, is believed to be in short supply in the So let Bloc although all plants are apparently producing at near maximum capacity. Prob;bly because of requirements of Western oountries for pressure containers In whicif,ehlorine must be shipped, Western export controls on chlorine haveenot been necessary, and no chlorine is known to be imported by the Bloc. The only known. exports of the Bloc are ee-11 quantities from the USSR to Finland, probably for use in th bleaching of wood pulp to be de- livered to the USO Production of chlorine in the uspa ineast from about 8,CCO metric tone in 1917 to an estimated 220, 04 to 250,000 metric tons in 1951, equivalent to about 12 resat of US 1950 production. Output in the Satellit untries In 1951 is estAnated t 220,000 metric tous? giving a 1951 total chlorine-output An the Sit B1 .c of from 440,000 to 00,000 metric tons. In the event f a major ear in the near future, construction r.f additiopal production faciliti 0 probably would be necessary to sure enough chlorine else- sential to the war effort. The chlorine iodumtry of the Soviet Bloc. is not vulnerable to economic warfare, but the bombing of a limited number of ths Bice& chlorine-producing plants and/or their power installations probably woUld ef- fectively restrict production. nALICtIZI Ig IRIEW19-1192. 1, BeturtoenCjeeet? Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas with a disagreeable odor and is ex- tremely poisonous when inhaled in large amounts. A basic inorganic chemical, it is used in tonnage lots for a great :variety of industrial purposes, In its el ental state, chlorine is used in bleaching operations and in the prevention Approved For For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-E-Cen-E-T of dizease the sterilisation of unter supplies and wag e wastes. By far the great r part of the chlorine produced, however, is used in the manufacture f eh lea end-producto and chemical intermediatee? the int sdiates ing fUrther prooessed into a wide range of and products. Some of the any out- atanding chemical products derived from ehlorine aro tetraethyl lead, synthetic rubber, pleptics? synthetic fibers ethylene glycol (antifreeze), picric acid, chemical]. warfare agents and screening lass, synthetic glycerine, metal de- greasers, solvents, dry cleaners insecticides and fungicid s iciness, sDG- cial paints, adhesives, bleaching powder, aniline, phenol, chiorinat rubber and aluminum chloride. TociApipgy. Chlorine is produced oommercially by several processee? the ost im- portant being the brine electrolysis process, which consists of the electro- lytic decomposition of a solution of coo0?11 salt in an electrolytic cell.; Other methods of chlorine production include (a) electrolysis of fused chlorid s of sodium, potassium, and magnesium, producing as coproducts etallie sodium, potassium and magnesium, respectively, and CO the nitrosyl chloride process, Chlorine Ilso may be produced by the oxidation of hydrochloric acid with man- ganese dioxide or by, air in the presence of a suitabi catalyst.. This latter methOd, however, is now outdated. ao itek2eK122101I21RefE2i2REs The brine electrelysis process supplies by far the great r part of chlorine in the USSR and elsewhere in the world and, in additi n, producee ciustic soda and hydrogen as coproducts. A purifie* saturated solution of common salt le heated and fed to the lectrolytic coils, which, by an of electrie current, decompoee the solution into chlorin , caustic soda, drogen. The hot chlorine gas, as it evolves from. the anodes of these cells, contains considerable water vapor, which is partially r oved by cooling and id then cw,pletely removed by scrubbing with concantrat sulphuric acid in a packed stoneware tower. b. 1.009r....12-MV212R. In the metallic sodium, potassium, snd magnesium processes, elec- trolytic decomposition of the fused chloride yi lds chlorine as a coproduct in addition to the respective metal. The chlorine -produced by electrelysis of fused chlorides is dry and quite pure, In the nitrosyl chloride process, chlorine and sodiun nitrate are produced by treating salt with nitric acid, This procees has the economic ad, vantage, peculiar cnly to the US, of producing sedium nitrate rather than caustic soda as a poproduct of chlorine, No plants of this typo are known to he installed in the USSR. - 19 -, Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 The anhydrous Chlorine gas produce% by any of these processes is either piped to adjacent installations for the manufacture of chlorinat products or livened by compression and cooling. Liquid chlorine is shipped toeomall consumers in steelpreesure cylinders (84 pule at wor) of 10, 15, 25, 100, and 150 pounds 'capacity each. Consumers of larger quantities sometimes receive cylinders of 29000 pounds capacity on ultiple-unit flatcars. In the US the major part of the chlorin produced is shipped in high-pressure, single-lit tank cars of 15, 30, and 55 to,s capacity each. Information =methods of chipping liquid chlorine in the USSR is scant, but it is knoen that shipments are made in cylinders 1-ton containers, and tank cars. It Is believed that most of the chlorine peelduc in the Soviet Union is not liquefied but is piped as a g to adSacent instal- lations for conversion to the desired product. 3. Liasaa_shubs4pszgaze. The USSR has never published statistics concerning the production of chlorine. A few scattered facts revealed by theSoviets from time to time, however, give a general idea of the develo ant of the chlorine i ustry in the USSR. Accerding to a Soviet ch-eical industry periodical of 1949, there were only two Chlorine manufacturing plants in the USSR in 19/7; end a iber of new plants for the electrochemical preparation of chlorine and ?emetic s a were esteblished in 1930, 'an original Soviet chlorine cell being dowel? p. about that time. 1/0* The production from the two plants in 1917 peobably did not exceed 8,000 metric tons per year. Apparently there Walg little developm t in the Soviet chlorine indusetry until 1930, its backwardn es during the 1917-- 30 peri ing shown by the relative sive of the US chlorine indite:try, In the US in 1917, for ee ple, 31 plants were producing at an annual rate of eleaut 180,000 etric tons; in 1930, 38 plants ware producing approximately 330,000 metric tons per year. 2/ Detailed information on the Soviet chlorine industry from 1930 to 1940 is lacking. Estimates of output, based upon a knowledge of the eauetic soda, caustic potash, magnesium, and sodium induetries during this period, are as follows: Pounds per square inch, gauge pressure. Footnot references in arable numerals refer to sources listed in Appendix B. - 20 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-E-C-a-Ep4 Estimated Soviet Annual Production of Chlorine 1931-40 1931-33 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 atrig.,22,g2 10,000 to 20,000 20,000 to 30,000 30,000 to 45,000 45,000 to 55,000 55,000 to 75,000 75,000 to 95,000 90,000 to 100,000 100,000 to 110,000 An interesting :check an the above estimates was provided by a US graphite .manufacturer who calculated chlorine p. uction from shipments of graphite. anodes from his company to the USSR during the period from 1934 to 1946. Graphite anodes are consumed in the process of producing chlorine, and this source states that during this period his company was the sole source of anodes purchased outside the USSR and that Soviet domestic production of anodes was not substantial. His figures for the average annual Soviet production of chlorine are as follows ys Estimated Soviet Average Annual Production of Chlorine 1934,39 and 1942-46 -------- Ion Ai kgrkd LY-TMg9-4LWLPZ2431,9t 1934,36 53,000 1935-37 S9,000 1936-38 123,000 1937-39 104,000 1942-44 138,000 1943-45 157,000 1944-46 159,000 a. Probably short tons. 7 21 - A-E-C-E-Eri. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SegegefieEeT The figures do not include chlorine production from magndsium and sodium plants. Nevertheless for the prewar years they are reasonably ac- curate, if somewhat high, end serve as a good cheek on the chlorine production estimatea in this report. For the period from 1942 to 1946 the figures of the above source are based on the assumption that all of the anod s shipped to the USSR during those years were consumed, but this is not necessarily true. Thews figures are believed to be too high, particularly since it is unlikely that production increased during the war years with the destruction of the plants . at Leningrad, Neicow? Pitkyaranta, Slavyanak, Beketovka, Stalinogorsk, Tambov, and Zaporoshye. Production during the VUT years is unknown and almost inpoasible to eatimate because of such unknown factors as the capacity of the detroyed plants, the removal and reinstallation of equipment, and the increaae of pro- ducing in existing plants. Production estimates for 1945 of 112,000 metric tons of caustic soda (about 82,000 electrolytic and 30,0100 lime-soda), of about 5,000 tons of magnesium, and of about 3,000 tons of metallic sodium in- dicate that the output of chlorine in 1945 was from 90,000 to 100?Ces tons. The 1950 Soviet output of chlorins produced fro electrolytic caustic soda plants is estimated at about 157,000 metric tons (as compared with an electrolytic caustic soda production of about 177,000 tons). In addition, about 43,000 tone of chlorine wore produced by the titanic sodium plants at Beresniki, Chirchik, and Dserahinak; by the magnesium plants at Solikamak and Zaporoshye; by the caustic potash .plant at Rubeshnoye; and by the lead-sodium alloy plant at Dsershinsk.? Thus it is estimated that the total Soviet output of chlorine in 1950 was about 200,000 metric tons, or between 190?000 and 220,000 tons. The 1951 production is estimated at from 220,000 to 250,000 tons, although this estimate does not take into account any conetruction of new chlorine plants on which there is little information. Summarising, the production of chlorine in the USSR in 1917 and since 1930 is estimated as follows, using t'S production data during certain years for comparison pinwales: - 22 - a7z7a-a-x-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Estimated Soviet Production of Chlorine As Compared with US Production 1917,-193041 Tear Soviet Production jmetrio 2921. US Production 1800000 330,000 Soviet Production ae Fbrcent of US production .96.0 4 2 1917 1930 8,000 8,000 1931-33 10,000 to 20,000 1934 200000 to 30,000 1935 30,000 to 450000 1936 45,000 to 55,000 1937 55,000 to 750000 1938 75,000 to 95,000 1939 900000 to 1000000 1940 1000000 to 110,000 6000000 1941414 N0A0 1945 900000 to 100,000 1946 100,000 to 110,000 1947 110,000 to 120,000 1948 1200000 to 1500000 1949 150,000 to 190,000 1950 1900000 to 220,000 1,7000000 ' 12 1951 220,000 to 250,000 The relatively undeveloped state of the Soviet chlorine industry as of 1947 was disclosed in a Soviet article enUtled "PINAAems of the Chlorine Industry in the Fourth Five Tear .an,'1 hi which stated aa follows: Nis believe that in the next few yearn it will be possible to carry out in good time the recommendations made by our specialists a long time ago to have in the Soviet Union several installations based on the Mrcury method.." . 23 . Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 , Approved For Release 1999/09/02.: CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SeEe0-ReZeT Ihus it ie apparent that in 1947 the USSR had no installations for production of chlorine by the mercury method of electrolysis. It is reported, however, that a mercury cell plant, allegedly-built with dismentled German equipment, was put into operation at aserzhinsk about May 1949. g/ Other information confirm o this report and further states that, at the end of 19480 dbaut 120 dismantled Carman mercury *ells were eent from Dzerzhinsk to Moscow and that:, a feweeeks later, about 100 more were sent from Dzershinsk to the eastern part of the USSR? 6/ Therefore, at least tuee more mercury cell plants may be in operation in the USSR. The Soviet article quoted above also revealed that the outstanding weakneeses of the Soviet chlorine industry in 1947 were lack of skill in operation and meintenamce of plants, shortege of graphite anodes and Shipping containers, poor quality of asbestos paper ueed in diaphragm cells; and insufficient production of liquid chlorine? In addition, the aeticle implied that expansion of the chlorine industry was limited by th availability of electric power as well as by the lack of demand for chlorine, indicating that the Soviet organic chemical industry was not well-developed? These and other comments in this article are proof of the backward etate' of the Soviet ehlorine industry in 19470 ImeLavarmlonta. a, Raw Materials. Salt ie the palm:met-raw material required for the production of chlorine and is found in abundance in many localities in the USSR, Sufficient supplies are available for expension of the chlorine tadustrye The amount of each principel raw material required for the manufaoture of approximately 200,000 metric tons of chlorine during 1950 was about as fellows: Salt (Sodium Chloride) 4/ Soda Ash (for Brine Purification) Sulphuric Acid (660130) Metric Tont 370,000 40400 3.8000 a. A relatively small quAntity of potasalum chloride mas undoubtedly sUbstituted for some of the sodium chloride in order to produce caustic potaah rather than caustic soda- e 24 e SA.4 -RpEeT Approved For Release 19997139/02-:-CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SeEeCeReEeT ow we Am eel wva be Mei/ and lyeeer, Ineotricity is the principal Romer required for the production of chlorine? Because of the large quantities of electeicity required, any significant increase in chlorine production must be accompanied by a coeresponding increase in electric power supply. About 650 million kilowattehours of electricity were required in 1950 for the manufacture of approximately 2000000 metric tons of ehlorine, In order to calcu/ate fuel raquiremente0 a detailed study to determine how much of the electric weer is supplied by hydroelectric plenty aed houemuch by therm/ power plante uould be necoaserye o0 - No effort has been nsde to date to determine transport reqeirements tor thie industry, As stated previously., chlorine must be Shipped imepressure container? (tank *ore, leton coetainers on multiple-unit flatcars, or cylindere of varying capacities), Soviet transport requirementa for the Chlorine induetry probably are smalls in it is believed that nose .of. the chlorine produced is net liquefied but is piped as a gaa to adjacent installations for coneersion to other chemieel producte, de Es:?pter, . No effort has been mad e to elate to determine neepouer requirements or supplies for the Soviet chlorine induntrye As in all chemical p1ants0 however, !ampouler requirements ere comparatively mane A limited number of. skilled workera and technical perscene10 believed to be available, ere required. for thie industry, III. Availebklitieqp 10 Daneltic "...reduction.. As previously stated, Soviet estimated chlorine production ranged from 1:903000 to 220g000 metric tons in 1950 and gram 220,000 to 250,000 metric tons in 19510 WIth Satellite production estimated at 220,000 metric tone for 1951, tho total supply of chlorine amenable to the Bloo Roe 1951 is estimated at fram 4400000 to 4700000 metric tons. It is bele rod that ti e suppZy does not at preeent fully cover needa. e 25 - SeEeCeReBeZ Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 I Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Although available information on the individual Soviet chlorine plants is inadequate, their location and capacities are estimated as follows: Location and Estimated Capacities of Soviet Chlorine Plante Location Northweet Arkhangelek EhISO Kotlas Leningrad' Pitkyaranta South Plant Metric Tone per Year Csacity Solombalski Cellulose Combine Paper and Cellulose Plant Cellulose Combine Okhtinski Chemical Combine Celluloee Plant 5,000 3,500 50000 5A500 1,600 Rubezhnoye Rubezhaneky Chemical Combine 5?000 Slavyansk Krasny Khimik or Slavsoda 5,000 Plant ZaporoZhyto Magnesium Plant 14,000 Tranecaucaeus. Sumgait .N.A0 60600 Yerevan Kirov Synthetic Rubber Plant 5,,400 y2kal Chapayevek Chemical Plant No. 102 9,800 Beketovka Chemical Plant No 91 300000 , 26 S-E-C-R-K-T Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 199246202-MA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 location and Estimated Capacities of Soviet Chlorine Plants (Continued) 4.161X011616. Location Central Industrial Dzerzhinsk Dzorzhinek MOsoow Stalinogorsk Tambov Urals Berezniki ?? Solikamak West Siberla Temsk Kazakhstan Chirchik Plant /Istria Tons per Year .10410.0.0...111.5.? Kalinin Plant (Krebe Cell Installation) Plant Noo 96 (Stray) Vorce Cell Installation Mercury Cell Installation Lead.sodium Alloy Cell Installation . Sodium Cell Installation Ugreshskiy Chemical Plant Stalin Chemical Combine Krasny Oktygbr Powder Factory 'Veroshilov Chemical Combine --Siemene.Billiter Plant Sodium Plant Carnallite-Magnesium Plant 9.2219.M 5,400 9,000 71,500 6,500 1,500 50400 6,000 9,000 30,000 . 3,000 140000 Princess Oagarin Chemical Warfare 1,200? Plant Stalin Electrochemical Combine 10500 (Sodium Plant) East Si ria Usolye Chemieal Plant Noo 97 '292ao TOtal 98 492 W 17-ErrEfkae checks closely with the statistioally derived 1950 production figure of from 190,000 to 2200000 tons, As etated previously0 however, the plant information is inadequate, and there is no assurance that the above lint includes all of the plants or that the capacities listed aro accurate. - 27 - S -T Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-B-CRA-T Estimated Soviet chlorins capacity by region is given in the following tablet Estimated OISMAMINOtt Soviet Chlorine Capacity by Region ntity Northwest 2oa600 West South 24,000 Southeast Transcauoasus 12,000 Volga 39,800 Central Industrial 50,300 Urals 47,000 West Oiboria 1,200 Kazakhstan 1,500 East Siberia 2,200 Soviet Far East 0 Total 12.8A...00 il Sum total of estimated plant capacities. Percent of Total 10. 0 12 0 6 20 25 24 1 1 1 100 2d Ext nal Sources,, Satel4tello It is estimated that chlorine will ba produced in the Satellite eountries in the following quantities during 1951: .28. Approved For.Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-E-C-&-E41 e.g. Wm +1m 'Am mrn mM Ccumtrv Metrp Tens. Best Germany 1562000 Czechoslovalda 400000 Poland 8s000 Rumania 6,000 Hungary 52000 Bulgaria 0 Manchuria 1,000 North China 4013oo Teta b, Non-Bloc Countrles, Controls on exports of chlorine from Western countries have not boon necesnery, probably because it is not feasible for these countries to ship ohlorine in view of Western requirements for the preesure containers in which chlorin? must be transported? This would explain largely whys deapite the short aupply within the Soviet Bloc, no chlorine is known to be imported There are %totem export controls, howovers on chlorine-derived products *doh are important militarily to the Soviet Blocs sereh aa chlorates, perchloratess phenols, chlorbonsenes, anilines aluminum? chlorides ailiconos, and freone, Accurate knowledge of the chlorins auppliea available in European countrlea Which Bdght be occupied by tho USSR is not available since this would be based largely on a study of the chlo du rine instry 511 Western Europe Which has not yet boon completed. Reliever', large quantities are known to be available in West Germany, Franco,' England, Italys Belgium, and other European countries? 3. .....gaStstmiles? Because of the large requirements for high-pressure tank storage facilitios? it can be-assumed that there aro ILO reaerves of chlorine in the Soviet Blocs with the exception of a relatively small quantity in the industrial pipeline* 4. Substitutes, There are no economical substitutes for chlorine in its principal app time, e. 29 - Approved For Release 1999/U9702 7C1A-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 I170 19 Domestic. Little information is available concerning the distribUtion of chlorine among consuming industries in the USSR. Since about one.shalf of the chlorine produced goes into the manufacture of chemical intermediates and products about utlich no quantitative information is available regarding Soviet production, it is impossible to arrive at an accurate consumption pattern? With a few exceptions0 it has been necessary to make some broad assumptions in order to estimate the distribution of Chlorine among Soviet chemical industries for 19500 This distribution is given in the following table, the methods used to calculate this distribution being described in Appendix A: Estinmted Chlorine Consumption by Induatry in the ussa 1950 aspil.1192.1t1010.11.1"..114..2011....tisalpmnsceelsr?allonIMAMPIMNOMIrnevatIelatealleprOglaptIgalpfternin~....???miteasiSN, Quantity PA W.1 2m). ..........--lM ........... Percent of MTotal ?Rifaw...16.9MEISPIDUSW,SAII04111. Organic Chemicals 100,000 511, 0 Bleaching Compound 200011V 10,0 ? Pulp and Paper Textiles and Cellulose 22,000 10,000 11.0 500 Sanitation 7,000 305 Bromine 50000 205 Aluminum Chloride 5'000 205 Synthetic Hydrochloric Acid 2,0000 2,0 Miscellaneous 29,000 4405 Total .ELso La/ 100.0 The above table includes all Soviet chlorine requirements9 Information is lacking on which to estimate civilian needs as opposed to militarye In the event of a general war, however, the USSR undoubtedly will suffer a considerable shortage of chlorine? Chlorine now allocated ? for bleaching and for the manufacture of non:cadential products would be .30. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SeEee-ReBeT diverted 'to the manufacture of explosives (picric acid), chemical warfare agents, screening smokes, and other military uses. 2? INFiee) Small quanttties of chlorine are believed to have been exported during 1950 to Finland, Bulgaria, and Hungary. In 1948 and in tho first halt of 1949 the USSR reportedly eepeeted 583 awl 790 metric tons of chlorine, respectively, to Finland. No data on exports are avellable for the speond half of 1949 or for 1950. The purpose of these shiestente of chlorine to Finland ie thought to be for the bleaching of wood pulp for -delivery to the USSR. Quantities of chlorine exported to Tungary and Bulgaria aro not known but are believed to be eaall. Requirements for hienepronsure storage tank facilities and the limited supply or chlerire in the USSR eakeit very unlikely that chloriee would heueed by the Soviete either for economic warfare purposes or even for export treeecure eseential imports. VQ E1241talottleese Irgnerabilitiesa and Intentions. aaabilities. The supply of chlorine available to Soviet Bloc- countriete during 1951 will amount to on emtimated 440,000 to 470&000 metric toner,. or only about 26 to 28 percent of the 1950 production in the US. Chlorine is believed to be in short supply in the Soviet Bloc at the present time, and2 in the event of t major war, civilian and nonoesential industrial 11446 vould ha me to be elieetnated in order to meet military requirements. While the supply of this basic chemical might be eufacient to moot the requirements of a limited caepaign or of a major war of ;Short duration, it is believed .that a major war of long duration ueuld require construction of additional production facilitioe in order to avoid limitation of production tangential to the military effort. 2. Vtamerabilities ?eiwiramwaro.,"MaiMaaavear..? An chlorine ie not imported into the Scviet Bloc, restriction of supplies throuel the use of economic; warfare is not possible. Eepension in the USSR of thie industey is being retarded, ho'', by the Weetern enbargo on exports of ehlorineeprodueing equipment. S-FeCeR-E-T MO RIM ./10 OM ago re. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ' ' Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 S-B.C.R.E.T No studies have been made regarding the vulnerability of the chlorinoproducing installatione to -strategic bombings but it is believed that the bombing of a limited number of important installations arid/or of their power plants would effectively restrict production of chlorine? Thin would have an almost immediate effect on chlorine aupplies, since it is not practically possible for the Soviet Bloc to maintain stockpiles of chlorine or of all chlorine-derived ohemicale essential for military use? 30 Intentions* UMINGIMMLIMILOONOWISH It is unlikely that any conclusions regarding Soviet intentions could be drawn front the operation of the chlorine industry unless detailed information regarding allocations of chlorine to Soviet consumers were available? - 32 . S.E.C.R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ' Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 1?atmiHE APPENDIX A METHOD OF IISTIMAila2125.9.__RAUZMO IN TOK.USM The estimated 1950 chlorine consumption by industry in the USSR as given in a table on page 30 is repeated as follows: Estitated Chlorine Consumption by Industry in the USSR 1950 ? Quantity .ft.t112.3.%121 ARAft :rat' 1, Emmt....aUsts1, Organic Chemicals 100,000 50.0 Bleaching Ccmpound 20,000 1000 Pulp and Paper 22,000 2100 Textiles and Cellulose ' 10,000 5.0 Sanitation Bromine 7,000 5,000 3.5 2.5 Aluminum Chloride 5,000 2.5 Synthetic Hydrochloric Acid 2,000 1.0 Miscellaneous 29,000 14.5 Total MEP ? The following method wee used to reach an estimate for each induotry. .11re-gbilgrega,. The organic chemicals industry in the USSR is the largest eenelemar of chlorine. The principal ehlorine-derived organic chemicals are an fellows a. Ethylene glycol, the principal antifreeze motor coolant. b. Carbon tetrachloride, a solvent and the raw material used for DDT and Freon. e. Chlorinated benzenes, used as intermediates for dyes, synthetic phenol, medic1eel80'14gh-preesure lubricants* moth replalants, ete. .33 C., Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SeE-0-ReEeT d. Dichlorethane, trichlorethane, trichloroethylenes tretrachloroethylenes perchloroethylene? haxechlorethanee solvents for motel degreasing vegetable oil extractions etc, e. Ethyl chloride, ueed in the Immeufacture of tetreetbyl lead, f. Vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride; which are monomers for production of plastics and synthetic rubber, go Many other chevicals, dyes, chemical warfare agents, sareeningt smokees plastics, etc, ? At present an accurate calculation of the chlorine tha manufacture of the above producta in the USSR is impossible, The following statement mads in a Soviet chemical industry periodica/0 however, shade some light on this sdbject end allows an approximate-estima . to bo mode of the quantity of chlorine going into the manufacture of organic chemical*: "The purrent Five Tear Plan calls for the use of h5 to 50 porcent of the total our of chlorine by the organic synthesis industry," . Therefore, &wourniug that 50 percent of the Soviet chlorine pr duction during 1950 was consumed in the manufacture of organic chomicels? the qeantity allocated for this purpose would have been approxtmatnly 10(4000 metric tone, 2, Bleachiev eqmateele In the US in 19489 ?appro:dziatoly 28,500 metric tons of chlorine, dr about 2 percent of total outputs were consumed in the meaufacture of codium hypo,chlorite and bleaching pouliar, Of It ie believed that the - percentage of chlorine Deed to -produce ble'aching carepeunds in the USSR probably is considerably higher than the percentage used foe thio pur*me in the US, principally booeueo of the lack of adeqeate Soviet facilitieo for producing liqeid chlorine and else because of the Shortage of liquid ch/orine transportation facilities', It in probable that tho 1950 Soviet consumption of chlorine for the purposes amounted to about 10 percent of Soviet total produc:tion? or about 20,000 metric tone. 30 POI-10 eset_ About 1501000 short tons? or 136000 me-ric on o, Io'in wze consumed in the US during 19h0 in the manufattaro of pulp and parer, 9 Approved For Release 199 -34e 0 ktiA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 ? Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 SereCeReMeT In Part I-of this report (The Caustic Soda Industry in the USSR) it was estimated that the 1950 production of pulp and paper in the USSR was about 16 percent of the 1940 production in the US, About 22,003 tons of chlorine, or Shout 11 percent of the estimated total production, therefore, was consumed by the USSR during 1950 for the manufacture of pulp and paper. It, a..k..21tha...11stiaseuud eta.. _Levu In the US in 1937, about 5 percent of the total chlorine production was consumed by tbe textile industriesory Assuming that the textile and cellulose enterprises in the USSR du. ng 1950 consumed 5 percent of the total production, the quantity allocated for these purposes was about 10,000 tons. 5. Sanitation. In the US in 1946, about 48,000 metric tons of chlorine were consumed in the sterilization of water supplies and &wag e wastes. 2/ This repreeented about 3.5 percent of the total production. Assuming that Soviet consumption of chlorine during 1950 for sanitation purposes amounted to 3.5 percent of production, the quantity consumed for the purposes was about 7,000 tone. 6. Broraince In the US in 19481 about 32,000 metric tons of chlorine wore consumed in the manufacture of bromine. 12/ This amounted to about 205 percent of total output. Assuming the same percentage for the USSR, the quantity of chlorine consumed for the manufacture of broeine during 1950 wee about 5,000 tens. 7. Aluminamt Chloride. In the US in 1944, approximately 32,800, metric tone of chlorine IMO coneumed in the manufacture of aluminum chloride, which is used principally as a catalyst for petroleum refining.;1/ Crede oil 'output in the USSR during 1950 wee estimated at about 37, million metric tons, which was about 15 percent of the US 1944 output of approxlMately 240 million metric e 35 - SeEee-R-E-T Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 . SeE.0-R.E-T tons. Aesuming, therefore, that the production of aluminum chloride in the USSR during 1950 wee about 15 percent of the US 19414 production, the consumption of chlorine for this purpose in the Soviet Union during 1950 was about 5,000 tens, or about 2,5 percent of the estimated total chlorine production. 80 ..E......ja-e2StheticlehlocAairld0 In the US in 19480 approximately 9,500 metric tone of chlorine were consumed in the manufacture of synthetic hydrochloric acid* :42/ This repreeented about 0,7 percent of the betel production. Azsum ng that Soviet consumption ,of chlorine for the manufacture of synthetic hydrochloric acid during 1950 amounted to 1 percent of total production, the quantity coneumed for this purpose was about 2,000 metric tone. 90 Miscellaneous. The remaining 1405 percent of 1950 production, or 29,000 metric tone, probably Wee the recovery of metals from their ores, in the detinning and dosincing of scrap metals, in the manufacture of metallic and other inorganic chlorides, in chlorinated rubber, military poieon gazes, and screenieg ioke, and in numerous other uses. Small but undetermined quantities are believed to have been exported to Finland, Hungary, and Bulgaria. . 36 .0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1 CONFIDE UAL ?ruc.V?" APFENDIXB 'SOURCES 25X1A2g L0 A digest from lZhurnal Prikladnoy Ehimii," Vol. xra, 2. The Chlor-Alkali Industry in :the United Stateet bY R. L. Murran, 25X1A2g h. 50 11M0S Intelligence Rpt., RZ7182-50, 10 February 1950, CIA 446321. 60 WDOS,Intelligence Rpt., RT-126-50? 214 March 1950, CIA 451023, 25X1A2g 5 October 1948, Future Development of Oe 9,rg._..RPtImq,14F. IplaatED Ehimicheakaya Pro1yiaiTnnost176; 12;1:04767 80 The ChlorwAlkali InAmyLln tho United States) by R. Lo Murray-, October 1949. 9. Materials Handbook 211121101, War,Froduction Board. 10. The Chlor-Alkali Induetrxjn the United State urtassit7M97---w-- by R, L. Murray$ 11. Chlorine and Alkali Diviaion, ,11a.r Production Board. MUM, - 37 fvommodilialiliglia."11.1"1""""*. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01093A000100040003-1