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' ' e 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01114A000200010008-1 '\ \ ...u.,., 44, 011r) 4111104 CITIES AN D Tow s N , This document contains information affecting the national defense of the Unite Stato within . the meanink-of she Espionage Act, 50 U.S.C., 31 and 32, as amended. Its tra, Iision or the revelation Of its contents in anj, manner to an Junauthorited Person is prohibited ,j, law. ' , ; Approved For Release 2003/05/14 CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 i \ 80. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES, CHAPTER VIII SUBJECT MATTER Cover Page List of Effective Pages and Table of Contents, Chapter VIII (inside front cover) Text and Figures Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figure . Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figures Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figure Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figure Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) ? Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) ? Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) ? Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) ? Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figures Figure (insert, reverse blank) Text and Figures _ Figure (insert, reverse blank) Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figures Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text and Figure Figures (inserts, reverse sides blank) Text Figure (insert, reverse blank) Text (reverse blank) Table of Contents continued, and Imprint (inside back cover, reverse blank) . . . . . CHANGE IN EFFECT PAGE NUMBERS Original unnumbered Original unnumbered Original pp. VIII-1 to VIII-24 Original Figures VIII-30 and VIII-33 Original pp. VIII-25 and VIII-26 Original Figures VIII-34 and VIII-36 Original pp. VIII-27 and VIII-28 Original Figures VIII-37 and VIII-38 Original pp. VIII-29 and VIII-30 Original Figure VIII-41 and VIII-43 Original pp. VIII-31 and VIII-32 Original Figures VIII-44, VIII-46 and VIII-47 Original pp. VIII-33 and VIII-34 Original Figures VIII-48, VIII-49 and VIII-51 Original pp. VIII-35 and VIII-36 Original Figures VIII-52 and VIII-53 Original pp. VIII-37 and VIII-38 Original Figures VIII-54 to VIII-56 Original pp. VIII-39 and VIII-40 Original Figures VIII-57 to VIII-60 Original pp. VIII-41 and VIII-42 Original Figures VIII-61 to VIII-63 Original pp. VIII-43 and VIII-44 Original Figures VIII-64 to VIII-66 Original pp. VIII-45 to VIII-52 Original Figure VIII-75 Original pp. VIII-53 to VIII-66 Original Figure VIII-98 Original pp. VIII-67 and VIII-68 Original Figures VIII-99 to VIII-101 Original pp. VIII-69 and VIII-70 Original Figures VIII-102 to VIII-104 Original pp. VIII-71 and VIII-72 Original Figures VIII-105 to VIII-108 Original pp. VIII-73 to VIII-76 Original Figures VIII-109, VIII-113 and VIII-114 Original pp. VIII-77 and VIII-78 Original Figures VIII-116 to VIII-118 Original pp. VIII-79 to VIII-120 Original Figure VIII-119 Original p. VIII-121 Original unnumbered TABLE OF CONTENTS Note: This chapter is based on material available in Washington, D. C., on 12 February 1948. Page Page GENERAL DESCRIPTION VIII- 1 (1) Physical characteristics VIII - 8 A. Introduction VIII - 1 (2) Street plan VIII - 11 (1) Evaluation of source information VIII- 1 (3) Differentiated sections VIII - 13 (2) Area subdivision VIII - 1 (4) Hospitals and health VIII - 13 (3) Terrain VIII - 1 (5) Utilities VIII- 14 B. Pattern and urbanization VIII- 2 (6) Buildings of possible military use ? VIII - 15 C. Degree of urbanization VIII- 2 (7) Analysis of residential areas . . . VIII - 15 D. Functions of cities and towns VIII- 8 (8) War damage and reconstruction ? VIII - 18 E. General characteristics VIII - 8 (Table of Contents, continued inside back cover) Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Chapter VIII CITIES AND TOWNS Prepared under supervision of Military Intelligence Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, by Engineer Research Section, Army Map Service 80. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A. Introduction (1) Evaluation of source information The basic source material for the present chapter is a series of German Military Geographies published in 1940 and 1941. It has not been possible thoroughly to correct or verify this material, in which many inaccuracies have been discovered. Captured German documents and aerial photographs, designed to supplement the Military Geog- raphies, have been of value for this purpose. Some in- formation has been provided by observers from the United States or other countries, but movements of foreign ob- servers within the USSR have been restricted. Postwar USSR reports have been modified or used with restraint, as they are often exaggerated, vague, or misleading, make use of percentages based on an unknown index figure, or Fail to distinguish plans from accomplished facts. De- scriptions of individual urban areas in this Chapter in- clude certain generalized data which are more analyti- cally considered under topics such as Ports in Chapter VI, Railroads in Chapter VII, and Electric Power in Chapter IX. (2) Area subdivision This chapter considers 53 major, and 211 minor cities and towns in European USSR, a total of 264.* It includes those cities and towns in areas annexed since the war and formerly part of Finland, East Prussia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Rumania, as well as those in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It does not include the European Caucasus. In this Topic, the area has been arbitrarily di- vided into two zones, the dividing line being the line of farthest German penetration (FIGURE VIII-119). The extent of structural damage in urban areas and rural com- munities of the western (occupied) zone was so extensive and so complete that any consideration of these communi- ties based on their prewar plans, conditions, and facilities must be largely conjectural. There is considerable evi- dence that full advantage is being taken of the opportunity to replan urban areas in order to eliminate prewar con- ditions which caused internal congestion. Even the rela- tively modern city of Stalingrad is being replanned along t An index accompanying the cities and towns map, FIGURE VIII-119, gives alphabetical list of cities and towns discussed, with alternate names. Original Page VIII-1 more efficient lines and on a grander scale (FIGURE VIII- 40) . In spite of the fact that Leningrad 37* and Moscow 107 were close to the front lines and suffered extensive damage (especially heavy in Leningrad) , these major urban areas are not included in the western occupied zone. In both these cities plans for the war-damaged areas in- clude the opening of major arteries and the elimination of points of congestion. Considerable changes and re- visions of the available information regarding these cities are to be expected in the near future. The movement eastward and the consequent expansion of eastern cities was so rapid in the war years that the available information was quickly outdated and now, therefore, frequently is incomplete. (3) Terrain European USSR is generally low-lying and relatively level or rolling hill country. From west to east, the land rises gradually in a series of terraces, each ending in a bluff, or steep escarpment, which may be over 100 meters (300 feet) high. Along the foot of each bluff flows one of the major rivers so important to the area. Deviations from this formation occur in the tundra region of the far north, in the mountains of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, of Murmanskaya Oblast', and in the southwest, where the USSR has expanded into the Carpathians. With the exception of Moscow, Leningrad, the Black Sea ports, and the cities in western postwar additions to the USSR, the major cities are located at strategic cross- ings of the major rivers, each with its nucleus erected on a prominent point of the bluff which dominates the cross- ing. Kiev 171, Gor'kiy 58, Stalingrad 197, and Kalinin 74 are typical examples. At Stalingrad a series of urban industrial areas extends along the Volga River bluff a distance of some 50 kilometers (31 miles). The left bank is low and the river bottom is shelving and shallow (FIG- URE . Another feature commonly found in urban areas are the gullies which cut through these rivers bluffs Their abrupt banks and meandering courses present a geological obstacle to lines of communications, which tend to paral- lel the bluffs and rivers. At Stalingrad, one of the largest gullies, north of the tractor plant, divides the city into separate units (FIGURE VIII-2). Such gullies played a prominent part in the defense of this city. Another, at * Identification number on FIGURE VIII-119. Major cities are indicated by italicized numbers in the text and underlined num- bers on the map: minor cities by numbers in parentheses in both. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Page VIII-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 JANIS 40 FIGURE VIII-1. The Volga at Stalingrad. 2 October 1942, 1335 hours. FIGURE VIII-2. Stalingrad. Arroyo north of Dzerzhinskiy tractor plant. 2 October 1942. 1335 hours. Gor'kiy, was used to carry a major street from the Oka river bridge to the old city on the top of the bluff (FIGURE VIII-97). B. Pattern and urbanization Until the revolution in 1917, European Russia had a pre- dominantly agricultural economy. Internal communica- tions were poor and inadequate. Much of the freight was carried on river barges and steamers. Consequently, Cielifidegaisio cities of any size or importance were usually located on one of the many inland waterways, such as the Dnepr, Don, and Volga and their major tributaries. One exception to this pattern was the string of urban centers located on the main highway between Moscow and the Polish border. These communities (other than Smolensk, on the Dnepr river) depend on overland transportation and are cut off on both the north and south by practically impassable country known as Poles'ye (Pripet Marshes) (Chapter II) . Between 1917 and 1940 many of these older communities were expanded through intensive industrialization, and communications were improved by a considerable increase in the number of railroads. Highways appear to have been poorly developed and, except in metropolitan Lenin- grad and Moscow, to have contributed little to industrial- ization. Cities such as Odessa 238, Sevastopol' 246, and others along the Black Sea, and those such as Murmansk 3, with its satellites on the White Sea (Beloye More) , have been developed into major seaports independently of the inland waterway system (Chapter VII, 73) . The areas recently incorporated in the USSR generally follow a different pattern of urbanization. Most of their major urban centers such as Riga 86 and Kalingrad (Konigsberg) (263) are seaports. C. Degree of urbanization General population and urban population statistics show that USSR prewar industrialization changed the economy of the area from a rural to an industrial one (TABLE This is reflected by the large percentage increase in most of the important urban areas listed in TABLE VIII-2. The effect of the war upon the urban areas is difficult to ascertain at this time (TABLE VIII-2).' Considerable transfers of populations have been made and are being made. Large industrial populations were evacuated with their tools and equipment to the Ural regions and to Siberia. Reports indicate considerable re- building and reindustrialization of the destroyed cities and towns. There are also indications that the original popu- lations of the area taken over by the USSR have been moved from their homes, and that these areas have been repopulated by imported Russian families. One major population transfer, made for reasons of national security, was the evacuation to western Siberia and USSR middle Asia of the German population of the German Volga ASSR, whose influence in the urban areas and rural districts in and around the cities of Engel's, Marks (Marksshtadt), and Kuybyshev is reflected in Ger- man residential construction characteristics and plan- ning. * TABLE VIII-1, with its accompanying diagram, FIGURE VIII-3, indicates the postwar urban and rural populations in the revised political units according to information as of 10 November 1947. The estimated percentages of urban populations and rural densi- ties are based on the 1939 Census Statistics adjusted to revisions of political subdivisions and indicated population shifts in the referent report. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010608-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 CITIES AND TOWNS Page VIII-3 LEGEND POPULATION MAP OF EUROPEAN U.S.S.R. (AND POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS?CORRECTED TO 10 NOVEMBER 1947). Percent of urban population Percent of rural population and density ?. No information available \ for urban-rural analysis ..rx I ? 0 to 4.9 ( i X C.---- 0.5 to 9.9 10.0 to 19.9 \ 4 1 20.0 to 29.9 P Z 30.0 to 39.9 z 40.0 to 49.9 cr 1 --I 50.0 to 99.9 Z over 100 ) \s. 1 7 7 ./ i (Persons per square kilometer) Numbers refer to list of Political Areas in Table VIII-1 - U. S. S. R. ( IN 4 Tz- , 4:11 ASIA RUMANIA NCTE: Information was available only for urban percentages and rural densi- ties for all of White Russian SSR (81) and Ukrainian .SR (82) indicated by: Original CAUCASUS FIGURE VIII-3. Population map of European USSR. Corrected to 10 November 1947. Information based on 1946 estimates compared with 1939 census Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 ..Csoa6slientia+n4 Page VIII-4 Approved For Release 20.M/1410: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 65Tif TABLE VIII - 1 COMPARATIVE POPULATION STATISTICS OF ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS, EUROPEAN USSR (1946 estimate) Name Map identification FIGURE VIII-3 Estimated area Estimated population Estimated urban population Adjusted rural density Persons per Estimated gross density Persons per 1,000 sq. km. 1,000's Percent sq. km. sq. km. 1. Major Political Areas ** USSR " Total 21,863.3 191,600.0 15.7 USSR * European (except Caucasus and Urals) 4,571.0 129,400.0 27.3 RSFSR European (except Caucasus and Urals) (R) 3,385.8 73,000.0 32.0 14.3 19.4 Karelo-Finnish SSR (Karelo-Finskaya) 77 178.2 600.0 32.0 2.3 3.4 Estonia * 78 45.0 1,000.0 22.0 Latvia * 79 63.7 1,800.0 28.2 Lithuania * 80 80.8 2,600.0 32.2 White Russian SSR * (B) 81 207.0 7,200.0 19.7 26.4 34.8 Ukrainian SSR * (U) 82 576.5 40,500.0 36.7 44.4 70.3 Moldavian SSR 83 34.0 2,700.0 79.0 2. Oblast or ASSR * * Arkhangelkaya Oblast' (R) 3 594.1 1,200.0 36.3 1.3 20.0 Astrakhanskaya Oblast' (R) 55 92.2 600.0 45.0 3.6 6.5 Baranovichskaya Oblast' (B) 39 13.7 600.0 43.8 Bobruyskaya Oblast' (B) 37 17.6 700.0 39.8 Brestskaya Oblast' (B) 42 13.5 500.0 37.0 Bryanskaya Oblast' (R) 33 34.7 1,800.0 19.9 42.2 53.4 Chernigovskaya Oblast' (U) 49 31.6 1,600.0 50.6 Chernovitskaya Oblast' (U) 72 8.3 900.0 108.4 Chuvash ASSR (R) 21 18.4 1,200.0 13.6 59.0 65.2 Dnepropetroskaya Oblast' (U) 60 32.6 2,100.0 64.4 Drogobychskaya Oblast' (U) 75 10.4 1,200.0 115.4 Gomel'skaya Oblast' (B) 35 15.8 700.0 44.3 Gor'kovskaya Oblast' (R) 19 75.3 3,600.0 41.2 28.2 47.8 Grodnenskaya Oblast' (B) 40 13.0 800.0 61.5 Ivanovskaya Oblast' (R) 17 24.6 1,300.0 54.0 24.3 52.8 Izmail'skaya Oblast' (U) 68 12.4 700.0 56.4 Kaliningradskaya Oblast' (R) 41 88.0 500.0 85.0 0.85 5.7 Kalininskaya Oblast' (R) 9 66.0 2,300.0 21.8 27.3 34.8 Kaluzhskaya Oblast' (R) 32 -29.8 900.0 25.1 23.3 31.2 Kamenets-Podol'skaya Oblast' (U) 70 20.7 1,700.0 82.1 Khar'kovskaya Oblast' (U) 59 31.1 2,300.0 74.0 Khersonskaya Oblast' (U) 63 27.5 600,0 21.8 Kirovogradskaya Oblast' (U) 65 24.8 1,200.0 48.4 Kirovskaya Oblast' (R) 6 121.5 2,400.0 20.0 15.7 19.8 Kiyevskaya Oblast' (U) 48 41.2 3,400.0 82.52 Komi ASSR (R) 2 404.6 600.0 49.0 0.8 1.5 Kostromskaya Oblast' (R) 7 58.0 1,200.0 33.2 13.8 20.8 * Detailed urban percentages and rural densities based on the 1939 census were not available for compilation; therefore, it has been impossible to make any postwar estimates, other than for the SSR as a whole. ** Political subdivisions according to information available 10 November 1947. (R)=RSFSR; (B)=White Rus- sian SSR; (U) =Ukrainian SSR. CONVERSION FACTOR: 1 square kilometer equals 0.3861 square mile. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Con roved For Release 2003/0506161M9Pr769h16-44A000200010008-1 i9,4000#''546.444vr.--? Ai3p TABLE VIII - 1 (Continued) Page VIII-5 Name Map identification FIGURE VIII-31 Estimated area 1,000 sq. mi. Estimated population 1,000's Estimated urban population Percent Adjusted rural density Persons per sq. kin. Estimated gross density Persons per sq. km. Krymskaya Oblast' (R)** 62 259.0 1,100.0 52.0 2.04 42.5 Kurskaya Oblast' (R) 51 50.8 2,900.0 8.2 51.8 57.0 Kuybyshevskaya Oblast' (R) 24 53.9 1,800.0 36.6 21.2 33.4 Leningradskaya Oblast' (R) 4 85.2 4,700.0 70.8 16.1 55.2 L'voyskaya Oblast' (U) 76 1.1 1,400.0 126.1 Mari ASSR (R) 20 23.1 600.0 13.6 22.6 26.0 Minskaya Oblast' (B) 36 20.7 700.0 33.8 Mogilevskaya Oblast' (B) 34 20.7 900.0 43.5 Molodechnenskaya Oblast' (B) 38 14.8 500.0 33.8 Mordovian ASSR (R) 27 26.2 1,200.0 0.7 42.4 45.8 Moskovskaya Oblast' (R) 16 51.5 9,900.0 72.0 53.6 192.3 Murmanskaya Oblast' (R) 1 149.7 300.0 85.0 0.3 2.0 Nikolayevskaya Oblast' (U) 64 19.4 600.0 30.9 Novgorodskaya Oblast' (R) 10 53.6 900.0 4.1 16.1 16.8 Odesskaya Oblast' (U) 67 28.0 1,700.0 60.7 Orlovskaya Oblast' (RI 31 31.6 1,400.0 20.0 35.4 44.3 Penzenskaya Oblast' (It 1 26 43.2 1,400.0 16.0 27.3 32.4 Pinskaya Oblast' (B1 44 16.3 500.0 30.7 Polesskaya Oblast' (B) 46 21.8 500.0 22.9 Polotskaya Oblast' (B) 13 17.9 500.0 27.9 Poltavskaya Oblast' (U) 66 43.2 2,000.0 58.5 Pskovskaya Oblast' (R) 11 31.6 900.0 43.5 16.1 28.5 Rostovskaya Oblast' (R) 56 104.4 2,600.0 35.0 16.2 24.9 Rovenskaya Oblast' (U) 45 20.7 1,200.0 57.9 Ryazanskaya Oblast' (R( 29 43.8 1,700.0 9.7 33.2 39.1 Saratovskaya Oblast' (R) 53 102.3 2,600.0 36.4 16.1 25.4 Smolenskaya Oblast' (R) 15 48.9 2,000.0 16.5 34.2 40,8 Stalingradskaya Oblast' (R) 54 127.1 1,700.0 25.1 10.3 13.3 Stalinskaya Oblast' (1.1i 58 26.4 3,000.0 113.6 Stanislavskaya Oblast' (U) 73 14.0 1,400.0 100.0 Sumskaya Oblast' (U) 50 24.4 1,700.0 69.6 Tambovskaya Oblast' (R) 28 34.2 1,400.0 14.6 30.0 40.9 Tatar ASSR (R) 23 67.6 3,000.0 21.3 35.0 44.4 Ternopol'skaya Oblast' (U) 71 13.7 1,400.0 102.2 TuFskaya Oblast' (R1 30 24.1 1,200.0 35.0 32.5 49.8 Udmurt ASSR (R) 22 42.2 1,200.0 26.6 20.9 28.4 Ul'yanovskaya Oblast' (R) 25 37.3 1,200.0 33.3 21.5 32.2 Velikolukskaya Oblast' (R) 12 44.8 1,600.0 22.4 27.3 35.7 Vinnitskaya Oblast' (U) 69 27.5 2,300.0 83.6 Vitebskaya Oblast' (B) 14 19.7 600.0 13.4 Vladimirskaya Oblast' (R) 18 26.7 1,400.0 48.2 27.2 52.4 Vologodskaya Oblast' (R) 5 147.4 1,700.0 17.8 9.6 11.5 Volynskaya Oblast' (U) 43 20.0 1,200.0 60.0 Voronezhskaya Oblast' (R) 52 68.4 3,600.0 18.8 14.8 52.6 Voroshilovgradskaya Oblast' (U) 57 26.7 1,800.0 67.4 Yaroslavskaya Oblast' (R) 8 36.8 1,400.0 35.4 24.6 38.0 Zakarpatskaya Oblast' (U) 74 12.9 900.0 69.8 Zaporozhskaya Oblast' (U) 61 26.9 1,500.0 55.8 Zhitomirskaya Oblast' (U) 47 30.2 1,700.0 56.3 ** Political subdivisions according to information available 10 November 1947. (R) =RSFSR; (B)=White Rus- sian SSR; (U)=Ukrainian SSR. CONVERSION FACTOR: 1 square kilometer equals 0.3861 square mile. Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 gpficigatigl Page VIII-6 Approved For Release 20911(W1i6 CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII-2 COMPARATIVE POPULATION STATISTICS OF MOST IMPORTANT CITIES, Index of Change 1926=100 EUROPEAN Rank in USSR in respect to size 1939 USSR Estimated population Date City or town FIGURE VIII-119 Reference no. Census data January 1939 December 1926 Persons Arkhangel'sk 9 76,774 281,091 366.1** 23 280,000 1941 Astrakhan' 259 184,301 253,655 127.6 28 Bezhitsa (W) (147) 36,040 82,331 228.0 109 Bobruysk (W) (152) 51,296 84,107 164.0 105 Dec. Brest (W) 164 54,200 (1937) (P) 50,000 1940 Bryansk (W) (146) 45,962 87,473 190.3 101 Cheboksary (55) 12,000 (1932) Chernigov (W) (162) 35,234 67,356 191.2 136 Chernovtsy (W) 223 112,000 (1937) (R) Dneprodzerzhinsk (W) (211) 34,150 147,829 432.9** 56 Dnepropetrovsk (W) 210 236,717 500,662 211.5 11 600,000 1946 Dzerzhinsk (61) 8,910 103,415 1,160.0** 79 Engel's 193 34,345 73,279 213.4 125 Gomel' (W) (148) 86,409 144,169 166.8 58 Gor'kiy 58 222,356 644,116 289.7 6 900,000 1946 Gorlovka (W) (202) 108,690 Ivanovo (62) 111,460 285,069 255.8 22 Izhevsk (53) 63,221 175,740 278.0 44 Kalinin (W) 74 108,413 216,131 199.4 35 216,000 1941 Kaliningrad (W) (263) 315,651 (1933) 368,433 (G) Kaunas (W) (91) 154,000 (B) Kazan' 127 179,023 401,665 224.4 16 Kerch (W) (249) 35,690 104,471 292.7 78 Khar'kov (W) 208 417,342 833,432 199.7 4 835,000 1941 Kherson (W) (241) 58,801 97,186 165.3 87 Kiev (W) 171 513,637 846,293 164.8 3 650,000 1946 Kirov 52 62,097 143,181 230.6 59 Kirovograd (W) (213) 66,467 100,331 150.9 82 Kishinev (W) (233) 114,896 (R) 130,000 1946 Klaipeda (W) 260 38,500 (1937) (G) Kolomna 113 30,767 75,139 244.2 123 Kostroma 63 73,732 121,205 164.4 70 Kramatorsk (W) 203 12,348 93,350 756.0** 93 Krivoy Rog (W) (242) 38,228 197,621 517.0** 41 Kronshtadt 32 60,000 Kursk 177 82,440 119,972 145.5 71 Kuybyshev 130 175,636 390,267 222.2 17 600,000 1946 Leningrad 37 1,690,065 3,191,304 188.9 2 2,800,000 1946 Liepaja (W) 90 57,000 (1935) (B) Lipetsk 141 21,439 66,625 310.8** 140 L'vov (W) 227 317,800 (1937) (P) Makeyevka (W) (253) 79,421 240,145 302.4** 31 Mariupol' (W) (251) 63,920 222,427 348.0** 34 Michurinsk (139) 49,853 70,202 140.8 132 Minsk (W) 155 131,803 238,772 181.2 32 103,000 (Postwar) Mogilev (W) (151) 50,222 99,440 198.0 83 Molotovsk 10 10,000 1945 Moskva (W) 107 2,029,425 4,137,018 203.9 1 4,500,000 1946 Motyr' (W) (153) 12,000 (1932) Murmansk 3 8,777 117,054 1,333.6** 72 100,000 1945 Nikolayev (W) 240 104,909 167,108 159.3 49 Noginsk 115 38,494 81,024 210.5 113 Odessa (W) 238 420,862 604,223 143.6 7 Orekhovo-Zuyevo (116) 62,841 99,329 158.1 84 Orel (W) 145 75,968 110,567 145.5 74 Penza 136 91,924 157,145 171.0 52 Polotsk (W) (98) 25,830 (1928) Poltava (W) (209) 91,984 130,305 141.7 65 Proskurov (W) (220) 28,250 (1932) Pskov (W) (81) 17,054 60,111 325.5** 154 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original owetyropernme.4?,Approved For Release 2003/05/WIRAMTM1A4A000200010008-1 TABLE VII-2 (Con(hme(I) Page VIII-7 City or town FIGURE VIII-119 Reference no. December 1926 Census data , Rank in USSR in January 1939 Index of Changelrespect to Estimated population Persons Date 1926 100 size 1939 Riga (W) 86 385,063 (1935) (B) liZogachev (W) (150) 11,750 (1932) Rostov-na-Donu (W) 256 308,103 510,253 165.6 10 (W) (176) 10,200 (1932) Rzhev (W) 1781 32,810 54,081 164.8 164 Saransk (123) 21,460 (1932) tratov 192 219,547 375,860 171.2 18 Serpukhov (W) (109) 47,361 91,678 193.6 97 Sevastopol' (WI 246 74,551 111,946 150.2 73 Shakhty (W) k258) 41,043 155,081 377.9** 54 Shcherbakov (Rybinsk) 46 55,546 139,011 250.3 62 Simferopol' (W) 245 82,213 142,687 173.6 60 Slavyansk (W) (205) 28,771 75,542 262.6 120 Smolensk (W) 103 78,520 156,677 199.5 53 Stalingrad (W) 197 151,490 445,476 294.1 13 Over Jan. 300,000 1947 Stalin? (W) 252 174,230 462,395 265.4 12 Stalinogorsk (W) 117 76,207 118 Stanislav (W) 226 63,500 (1937) (P) 60,000 Dec. 1940 Sumy (W) (175) 44,213 63,883 144.5 147 :Svoboda (W) (Liski) (182) 16,320 (1932) Syktyvkar (151 No definite data is available, but is over 10,000 1941 Taganrog (W) 254 86,444 188,803 218.4 43 Tallinn (WI 27 138,000 (1934) 146,000 (B) (105.81 Tambov 138 72,256 121,285 167.9 69 Ternopol' (WI (222) 40,000 (1937 (P) 33,000 Dec. 1940 Tula (WI 110 155,005 272,403 175.7 26 LITyanovsk (125) 70,130 102,106 145.6 81 Valuyki (WI (179) 11,000 (1932) Vil'nyus 92 209,500 (B) (p1 215,000 (after 1940) Vinnitsa (W) (217) 57,990 92,868 161.9 94 Vitebsk (W) (101) 98,857 167,424 169.4 48 Vladimir (65) 39,654 66,761 168.4 139 Vologda 47 57,976 95,194 164.2 90 Voronezh (WI (181) 121,612 326,836 268.7 19 Voroshilovgrad (W) 201 71,765 213,007 296.8 36 Vyborg (W) 24 30,000 (B ) 1941*** Yaroslavl' 70 114,277 298,065 260.8 20 300,000 1936 Yoshkar-Ola (54) 8,200 (1932) 9,400 (114.6) Zaporozh'ye (W) 250 55,744 289,188 518.8** 21 Zhitomir (W) (170) 76,678 95,090 124.0 91 (W) Occupied, destroyed, or badly damaged during war. (B) Former Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, or Finnish territory. (0) Former German East Prussia. (P) Former Polish territory. (R) Former Rumanian territory. ** "Boom" cities which had increased in populations over 300% between the years 1926 and 1939. Of the 48 cities in this cate- gory for the entire USSR, 26 are located within this area. (See note at end of TABLE.) Those not listed above are: 1939 % Increase 1939 % Increase Chapayevsk 57,995 428 Mytishchi (W?) 60,111 353 Konstantinovka (W) 95,087 376 Nikopol' W1 57,841 407 Krasnyy Luch (WI 50,829 409 Yenakiyevo Kuntsevo (W?) 60,963 610 (Ordzhonikidze) (W) 88,246 363 Babushkin Perovo 77,727 326 (Losinoostrovsk) (W?) 70,480 451 Podol'sk 72,422 366 Lyublino 64,332 767 Kadiyevka Melitopol' (W) 75,735 300 (Sergo) (W) 68,360 396 Voroshilovsk (W) 54,794 342 ***Entire Finnish population was evacuated 1944 when USSR Original took over Karelian Isthmus. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Page VIII-8 Approved For Release 209M1io CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII -3 TREND FROM AGRICULTURAL TO INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT IN USSR Occupational groups 1930 Percentage of 1930 1939 Percentage of 1939 Net change in percent 1930-1939 1,000's 1,000's 1. Total employed personnel 14,531.0 100.0 28,539.0 100.0 2. Agricultural and related occupations 2,208.0 15.2 3,935.0 13.8 -1.4 3. Handicrafts and shop industry 290.0 2.0 400.0 1.4 -0.6 4. Construction 1,623.0 11.2 1,963.0 6.9 -4.3 5. Manufacturing and mining 4,264.0 29.3 9,135.0 32.0 +2.7 6. Transport and trade 2,595.0 17.8 5,857.0 20.5 +2.7 7. Total of items 4 through 6 8,482.0 58.3 16,955.0 59.4 +1.1 8. Total, all employed labor except agricultural 12,323.0 84.8 24,604.0 86.2 +1.4 (Item 1 minus 2) The prewar change in employment from an agricul- tural to an industrial economy is indicated in TABLE VIII-3 and in Molotov's "Report on the Third Five-Year Plan" (TABLE VIII-4). Rapid industrialization created a serious overcrowding problem prior to the German invasion. The extensive destruction and the inability to rebuild at once the im- mense number of dwelling units required, mean that a large percentage of urban areas considered in this chapter are greatly overpopulated, and that dwelling space is at a premium. Especially is this true of Leningrad and Moscow, both of which suffered considerable damage. TABLE VIII --4 PREWAR POPULATION TREND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Group* 1928* 1937* Net change in percent 1937-1928 Percent Percent 1. Workers and employees 17 35 +18 2. Collective farmers and 3 55 +52 handicraftsmen organ- ized in producers' co- operatives 3. Individual peasants and 73 6 -67 handicraftsmen not organized in producers' cooperatives 4. Capitalist elements (pri- 5 0 -5 vate traders and ku- . laks) 5. Miscellaneous (students, 2 4 +2 the armed forces, pen- sioners, etc.) 100 100 * Molotov's "Report on Third Five-Year Plan" D. Functions of cities and towns Historically, the USSR is relatively modern. Most of the major urban areas are of recent development as com- pared with cities such as Rome or Paris in the western countries of Europe. Moscow was only a small village in 1156, when it was first fortified by a wooden palisade and towers; Leningrad was not founded until the 17th cen- tury. Cities such as Gor'kiy (Nizhniy Novgorod) still have a kremlin (kremr), or citadel, as a nucleus. In Moscow this ancient fortress, which was the original walled com- munity, is better known as the Kremlin and is the seat of the Soviet government. The industrialization of major cities and towns in the USSR has affected their planning. Most of them are surrounded by industrial communities centering on a large plant. This situation is illustrated in the suburbs of Mos- cow, Gor'kiy, Kuybyshev, and Leningrad. In the case of Stalingrad (Tsaritsyn) , industries and satellite industries were added up and down the right bank of the Volga until the city reached a length of some 50 kilometers (31 miles) . Industries thereby obtained not only good waterway access, but in addition the service provided by an excellent belt-line system. The effect of the war upon cities and towns has been catastrophic in the areas which were occupied by the Ger- mans. This chapter is, correspondingly, divided into two parts: Occupied Area and Unoccupied Area (Topics 81 and 82) . Many of the cities, by reason of their location on high river banks (usually the right) , command im- portant river crossings. The Russians, therefore, made a maximum effort to hold these cities, even though they thus became major battlegrounds, with extensive destruc- tion. The cities of Smolensk, Kiev, and Khar'kov were badly damaged before the Germans occupied them. Al- though the Germans, during their occupation, under- took some restoration of important facilities, such as bridges, they put into effect a systematized plan of total destruction when they finally abandoned an urban area. For example, Smolensk had only 40 buildings standing when the Soviet Army finally recaptured the city. This makes difficult an evaluation of any urban area of prewar USSR in the occupied zone. Reports indicate that con- siderable thought is being given to systematic replanning of these urban areas. These proposed changes will, if carried out, modify to a greater or less degree the city plans as now known, as regards both the street patterns and the ease and rapidity of through traffic movement. Prewar bottlenecks will more than likely be eliminated; permanent bridges will be stronger and have greater ca- pacities; it is believed that street construction will be more permanent than that existing before the war. E. General characteristics (1) Physical characteristics Up to the time of the revolution of 1917, cities were generally spread out, and the majority of buildings were one or two stories high. Only the centers of the older and western town, which reflected some influence from the West, had the built-up look so familiar in cities like Paris or Berlin. Leningrad is outstanding in this respect. With the exception of the areas rebuilt or developed during the prewar Soviet regime, most urban communities in- clude large areas of rectangular blocks, consisting of small detached wooden buildings with fenced gardens or yards (FIGURES VIII-9 to VIII-17) . In spite of overcrowding, this results both in a relatively low density of population, Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confi Approved For Release 2003/05/14 : CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 CITIES AND TOWNS and also low percentages of continuous land occupied by structures. In the western areas annexed since the war's conclusion, the cities and towns have the greater compact- ness generally found in western Europe. A comparison of the percentages of the city districts alloted to various uses in Soviet and American cities re- spectively shows that a bigger share is reserved for in- dustry and for parks in the former than in the latter, and relatively less land is allotted to residential and street use. The figures given in the following tabulation for Moscow and Vladimir are fairly typical. Vladimir is a provincial city with a planned population of 110,000. The park territory includes neither green spaces inside the super- block, nor the forest belt surrounding Moscow. Region I. RSFSR 2. Leningrad- skaya Oblast' (occupied area within prewar boundary) 3. Kaliningrad- skaya Oblast' (occupied area within prewar boundary) 4. Moskovskaya Oblast' (occu- pied area only) 5. Smolenskaya Oblast' Original LAND USE Residential Parks and cemeteries Industry Public buildings (schools, hospitals, stores, etc.) Railroads and warehouses Streets and squares Water Total Page VIII-9 Moscow VLADIMIR 24% 28% 24% 22% 12% 24% 12% 9% 6% 70% 9% 7% 1% 100% 100 Practically all urban communities, even those on the coasts, are located on waterways, which are frequently navigable. Many are located on bluffs at the confluence of two rivers, which have consequently developed a charac- teristic triangular shape (TABLE VIII-5) . TABLE VIII-5 PARTIAL DIGEST OF WAR DAMAGE AND RECONSTRUCTION IN OCCUPIED AREA City or town Over 500 towns and factory settle- ments totally de- stroyed; 1,200 partially de- stroyed. Over 6,- 000,000 buildings lost. In Novgorod al- most 100% of residences were destroyed. 11 hospitals, 4 col- leges, 5 workers' clubs, 2 theaters, a museum, and the water-supply system destroyed. In Rzhev, 1,000 homes restored by April 1944. 12 towns, 8 factory settlements, and 10 district cen- ters completely ci e s troyed. In Smolensk, 40 buildings were le f t standing when recaptured. 89.8% (650,000 sq. m.) of living units destroyed. Power plant de- stroyed; also 40,- 000 trees. Residential Population of 25,- 000,000 without shelter. In 9 re- gions (1943) 326,- 461 home units rebuilt, 60,411 in towns. By 1944, 13,000 units restored. 779,000 square miles destroyed. B y August 1943, 264,- 000 restored. Industrial 31,850 plants, fac- tories etc., ( em- ploying 4,000,000 workers) de- stroyed, including 37 iron and steel works, 62 blast furnaces, 2 1 3 open-hearth fur- naces, 248 rolling mills, 4,700 cok- ing ovens, 12 non- ferrous plants. By March 1943, 12,- 870 out of 900 726 living quar- plants destroyed ters for popula- (96.6%). tion of 34,314 re- stored. Electric power Hospitals and schools 61 major and 6,000 hospitals, many smaller 33,000 clinics, plants, capac- 84,000 schools, ity 5,000,000 a n d 43,000 kw. and 12,000 public librar- buildings de- ies damaged stroyed. or destroyed. Taken to Ger- many: 14,000 steam boilers, 1,400 turbines, 11,600 electric generators. All destroyed. Rural communities (In 9 regions only 70,000 vil- lages, 98,000 col- lectivized farms, 1,876 state farms de- stroyed. In 1943, 266,060 r ur al homes rebuilt. In Novgorod dis- By 1944, 1,000 col- tricts, 75 out lectivized farm of 76 schools units restored. destroyed. In oblast, 534 schools re- stored through 1944. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 By March 1945, 40,000 collective farmers' homes restored or re- built; reported- ly "Not too good." A 1 s o 4,000 out of 10,- 000 poultry sec- tions of collec- tivized farms were restored by October 1943. 2,230 villages with 47,246 collective farmers' homes and 46,000 farm buildings de- stroyed. 2,000 villages with 220,000 collec- tive farmers' homes and 28,- 500 farm build- ings destroyed. By Aug. 1945, 75,000 farm cot- tages with 23,- 000 public and farm buildings restored. Page VIII-10 Approved For Release 20512n1t CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Region 6. Mogilevskaya Oblast' 7. Tul'skaya Oblast' 8. Orlovskaya Oblast' (19 districts) 9. Kurskaya Oblast' 10. Sumskaya Oblast' 11. Kiyevskaya Oblast' City or town TABLE VIII-5 (Continued) 1 Residential Industrial Electric power 1 Hospitals and schools Rural communities 12. Khar'kovskaya Oblast' 13. Zhitomirskaya Oblast' 14. Voronezhskaya Oblast' 15. Poltavskaya Oblast' 16. Staliningrad- skaya Oblast' Confidential In oblast 583 state, 316 R.R., 284 mu- nicipal buildings, with 493 trad- ing establish- ments destroyed. In Kursk, by June 1944, 600 apart- ments and 22 dwellings re- stored; streets paved and 20,000 new trees plant- ed. In Kiev, 2,600 houses (500,000 sq. m.) destroyed. All power plants destroyed; also 9 4 0 municipal and state build- ings (over 1,000,- 000 sq. m.), all public utilities, with 5 to 7 km. of streets. In Khar'kov, 90% residences de- stroyed. By 1946, 75% restored. In Voronezh, 80% to 90% destroyed. In 1944, 7,676 houses, as well as 2 power plants restored. In Stalingrad: 125 k m . streetcar lines, 300 km. water mains, all paved streets, 14 parks, 3 theaters and so on, de- stroyed. 129,000 private houses destroyed. 130,000 (including auxiliary farm buildings) d e- stroyed. 94,000 houses and auxiliary farms and buildings. In Stalingrad: 40,- 000 (4,000,000 sq. m.) destroyed. 10,000 dwellings restored by 1944. 317 buildings de- In Bryansk by stroyed. December 1944, 5,000 kw. restored. 127 out of 143 de- stroyed food in- dustries restored by October 1943. InStalingrad: 176,000 sq. m. re- stored by June 1945. 8 hospitals and 72 schools re- stored in Be- levskiy Ra- yon. By Jan. 1945 in Voronezh, 29 hospitals and 75 educational institut ions restored. In Stalingrad, all hospitals (4,500 beds) destroyed as well as 102 schools. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 2 , 1 0 0 collective farms with 40,- 000 buildings destroyed. In the Belevskiy Rayon, by July 1945, 3,000 houses and 300 farm buildings restored. 58,866 farm build- ings destroyed. 5 , 0 0 0 collective farms with 80,- 000 buildings destroyed. 90 villages, 9,000 collective farms, with 35,- 4 6 0 farmers' houses de- stroyed. o V e r 1,000,000 trees (chiefly fruit) de- stroyed. 20,000 collective farm buildings destroyed. 108,000 collectiv- ized farm buildings a n d houses de- stroyed; 45,000 restored in 1944. Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/NESIAAPTS-M4A000200010008-1 Page VIII-11 Region 17. Rostovskaya Oblast' 18. Dnepropetrov- skaya Oblast' 19. Stalinskaya Oblast' 1 City or town 'FABLE VIII-5 (Continued) Residential In Rostov-na- In Rostov-na- Donu: The pro- Donu: 1,000,000 tecting belt of sq. m. damaged orchards a n d 700,000 sq. woods complete- destroyed. ly destroyed. In Dnepropetrovsk 57,000 units dam- 4,843 units dam- aged or de- aged o r de- stroyed. stroyed. 20,000 sq. in. restored by April 1944. 20. Krymskaya In Sevastopol' by Oblast' (pre- 1947, 3,206 houses war ASSR.) (170,000 sq. m.) restored with 2 power plants and a marine plant. 8,412 houses de- stroyed. 21. Belorusskaya 26 cities and towns By Aug. 1945, 200,- SSR. (2,160,000 popu- 000 sq. in re- lation) destroyed. stored. Industrial In Rostov-na- Donu: 105 indus- tries restored in 1 year. Entire salt industry d est royed. By Nov. 1944, 400,000 sq. in. salt beds and 11/2 km. rail- road spurs re- stored. Electric power Hospitals and schools 1 , 6 1 5 medical and 442 edu- cational insti- tutions re- stored by No- vember 1944. Rural communities 33,000 auxiliary farm buildings destroyed. 400,000 rural buildings d e - stroyed; by Aug. 1945, 150,- 000 restored. Note: The above information is largely abstracted from Voronin's book, "Rebuilding the Liberated Areas of the Soviet Union" (Hutchinson & Co. Ltd. London no date) and is intended to give a general estimate of the extent of the war damage suffered by the areas which were occupied by the Germans. (2) Street plan The typical street plan consists of a square or rectangu- lar gridiron. Segments of gridirons occasionally have been imposed on a radial-circumferential pattern of major streets, as in Moscow. The small town of Talovaya (40"45'E, 51'22'N) , illustrates modern planning and think- ing based on such a pattern, which makes use of a semi- circular gridiron (FIGURE VIII-20) . Notwithstanding con- siderable modernization in most cities and towns, espe- cially in the residential areas, dirt roads are still the rule outside of the larger cities. A wide public, or open, strip between garden fences exists, and the traveled path wanders as the condition of the surfacing dictates (FIGURE VIII-4). In some cases the better main streets are paved with cobblestones. Where modernization has been under- taken the main streets are well paved and generally wide. Drastic measures have often been taken to complete street-widening and straightening programs. This is most evident in Moscow (PLAN 29). Many of the smaller towns and communities are bi- sected by rivers or smaller streams. Frequently, the old winding streets and inadequate bridges form bottlenecks Original FIGURE VIII-4. Village in White Russian SSR. Wide dirt street between buildings. to highway communications (TABLE VIII-6) . In the villages, a rutted dirt road, often stretching many kilometers, may form the only local line of communica- tion (FIGURE VIII-4). Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-12 Approved For Release 209i/I9E1id CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Regular gridiron TABLE VIII -6 ANALYSIS OF SMALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES Typical Plans and Characteristics (2-km. grid) TOWNS - COMPACT PLANS Irregular gridiron Triangular Krasno grad, 35?25'E, 49?23'N (1,749 buildings) with suburb of Peschanka (1,098 buildings). 1. Shape and Physical Characteristics Square, rectangular and elliptical. 3 or more sq. km. in area. Generally located on a level site, often elevated on the level plain above an adjacent river. Railroad alinements bypass areas generally outside urban built-up area. 2. Streets Blocks: 150 by 260 meters Streets: Vary in width; many still have dirt surfacing. There is some use of cobble stones. Few are paved. 3. Buildings In center of town: some pretentious build- ings with churches as prominent land- marks. Residential areas: Types E, F, and H (on outskirts) . (FIGURES VIII-13, VIII-14, and VIII-16) Railroad station, if any, likely to be promi- nent. Confidential Vol'noye, 35?16'E, 48?44'N (722 buildings) (on Samara River) with suburb of Svobodnoye (173 buildings) . Shape dependent upon terrain which affects regularity of gridiron and shapes and sizes of blocks. Railroad alinements bypass areas generally outside urban built-up area. Streets: Vary in width; many still have dirt surfacing. There is some use of cobblestones. Few are paved. In center of town: some pretentious build- ings with churches as prominent land- marks. Residential areas: Types G with E, F, and H (on outskirts) . (FiGuREs VIII-13 to VIII-16) Railroad station, if any, likely to be promi- nent. Irregular rectangular TOWNS - OPEN PLANS Dvurechnaya, 37?41'E, 49?51'N (633 buildings) (at confluence of Dvurech- naya and Oskol rivers) . Generally located on a bluff at the conflu- ence of two rivers. 2 or more sq. km. in area. Irregular triangular shape, con- nected with opposite bank by bridges. Interconnecting streets join bridges and roads radiating from point of confluence. In center of town: especially at main street intersections and market square, some pretentious buildings with churches as prominent landmarks. Residential areas: Type C at center with Type F. Types H and I on outskirts. (FIGURES VIII-11, VIII-14, VIII-16, VIII-17) Irregular radial 4.5 41,1HF1 " II Y\ pui2 .2O7 V., nioBlia I, 2204 'ISHKOVKA Tishkovka, 30?57'E, 48?29'N (2,204 buildings) with suburb of Antonovka. 1. Shape and Physical Characteristics. Agricultural community on a rectangular site which is generally sunk below the surrounding terrain. Level, with a stream or river running through its center. The land is relatively level. 2. Streets The street pattern is somewhat irregular, although street intersections are usually at right angles. However, through routes are poor and many bottlenecks exist. 3. Buildings A market square is often found in the cen- ter, dominated by a church. M. Ichnaya, 32?24'E, 40?51'N (2,910 buildings) with Type I (FIGURE VIII-17) villages on radial roads. Agricultural community on a circular or el- liptical site which is generally sunk below the surrounding terrain level. Its shape is determined by the local ground profile. The radial streets extend from a focal mar- ket place dominated by a church. Some circumferential streets complete the pat- tern. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05Q-frielPAIBP79144A000200010008-1 Regular pattern TABLE VIII -6 (Continued) VILLAGES Irregular Single street Page V111-13 Bra ginovka, 36?21E, 48'29'N (315 buildings) with Bogdano-Verbskiy (132 buildings) and Landman (64 buildings) P. Sofiyevka, 34?53'E, 48?03'N 1210 buildings) with Mar'yanovka (SEP. I. Shape and Physical Characteristics Rectangular (approx.) 1 to 6 sq. km. in area. Sinuous, following a gully's meanderings, Located on a level or slightly sloping site with side settlements in branching gullies. to one side of a main road. Streams flow through the centers of the various parallel rows of cottages and houses. 2. Streets 3. Buildings Rows of individual, detached, wooden, 1- story buildings equally spaced with pitched roofs. Thatched, tiled, and metal roofing materials. Ridges perpendicular to streets. Usually log construction. Very poor streets; little more than dirt tracks on either side of a stream, but which may stretch for 20 to 25 km. through a number of adjacent settle- ments. Rows of individual detached, wooden, 1- story buildings equally spaced with pitched roofs. Thatched, tiled, and metal roofing materials. Ridges perpendicular to streets. Usually log construction. Note: These urban areas are not located on base map, FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 square kilometer equals 0.3861 square mile. 1 meter equals 3.28 feet. I kilometer equals 0.6214 mile. (3) Differentiated sections Urban areas in European USSR can generally be broken down into differentiated sections based on industry and trade. There are no indications of segregation based on racial or religious differences; especially has this been true since the revolution, when many of these barriers dis- appeared. In the western areas taken over since the war, Finnish, Lithuanian, Estonian, Latvian, Polish, Ru- manian, and other racial groups have impressed their characteristics on the urban areas. The policy of shifting populations, however, which appears to be the practice of the USSR administration, has operated to reduce the concentration of racial groups. One of the most visible traces of former inhabitants is to be seen in the bulbous domes of the Greek Orthodox churches, which stand out as prominent landmarks and can be seen for long dis- tances over the level plains of the steppes (FIGURES VIII-5 and VIII-6). (4) Hospitals and health (a) Hospitals in cities and towns.?Reports for 1941 show there were 491,543 hospital beds in the cities of the USSR. The number of beds per 1,000 population in cities Original Toinakovka, 34'19'E, 48?06'N Includes Smalenka and Mikhaylovka. This is the most common pattern, consisting of 2 parallel rows of dwellings with their individual enclosed gardens or plots of land. Straight on level ground. Sinuous in gullies. Three types: a. Dirt road with houses relatively close together. b. Wide common ground sometimes with 1 or 2 tracks. c. Common ground with stream or small river flowing through the center. Usually 2 parallel rows of equally spaced de- tached buildings, 1 story high with pitched roofs. Wooden, often log, con- struction with thatched, tiled, or metal roof. Ridges perpendicular to street. FIGURE VIII-5. Typical small town with church, looking eastward. Location, 11 km. east of Nikolayev. 13 March 1944. rose from 3.9 in 1913 to 8.2 in 1941. The medical equip- ment in all hospitals is regarded as poor. The number of out-patient clinics grew from 2,337 in 1913 to 24,792 in 1941; the tendency is to further develop these facilities. There is still a lack of doctors, but latest reports indicate that medical schools are crowded. (b) Health conditions in cities and towns.?The most common diseases are malaria, tuberculosis, and dysentery. There is a large malarious area in the European USSR. Approved For Release 2003/05/14 : CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-14 Approved For Release 20941ia CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential FIGURE VIII-6. Near Yaroslavl'. Bulbous cupolas of a typical church. Sand-fly fever is encountered only in Krymskaya Oblast' (Crimean Oblast) . Tuberculosis is common among ci- vilians in all urban areas. Much progress has been made in retarding the more common diseases. The number of reported venereal patients is still very high by percentage of population. (c) Rural conditions.?There were about 169,888 hospital beds in the rural communities in 1941. The num- ber of beds per 1,000 population rose from 0.44 in 1913 to 1.47 in 1941. In the latter year there were 13,512 rural medical centers. The technical equipment in the hos- pitals is classed as poor. Bacillary dysentery and common diarrheas are widespread in the rural districts. (5) Utilities (a) Sanitation and sewerage 1. CITIES AND TOWNS.?The construction of sewerage systems has been very slow, even in the larger cities. As late as 1930 there were only 42 cities with disposal systems; by 1938 there were 107 cities with about 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) of sewer mains. Thus, only about 6% of the cities of 50,000 pdpulation and over had disposal sys- tems. The large industrial plants and communities have provided their own systems. Little information is avail- able as to waste and trash collection and disposal. There is a planned system of garbage collection in the city of Leningrad (FIGURE VII-90). 2. RURAL.?The only rural communities that have sewerage systems are those near the large industrial Confidential plants. The small villages have no collection or disposal systems. Waste and trash collection and disposal in small communities are still primitive. (b) Water supply 1. CITIES AND TOWNS.?In 1936, 35.2% of the total water supply of the USSR was obtained from rivers; 20.7% from springs; 13.3% from artesian wells; and 30.8% from all other sources. There were 278 city water systems in 1924; by 1938, there were 411 urban areas providing water service with 14,000 kilometers (8,700 miles) of water mains. Some of these were primitive, using hollowed tree trunks (FIGURE VIII-7) . The 24-hour consumption per capita was 55.2 liters (14.6 gal.) in 1924 and 51.3 liters (15.5 gal.) in 1926. FIGURE VIII-7. Drilling wooden pipes for water supply systems. Before 1934. 2. RURAL.?The very few rural water systems always were poor. Villages obtain their water in most cases from dug wells, the majority of which are of wooden construc- tion and poor design. The building of concrete wells has been encouraged around Moscow 107 and Pskov (81) (FIG- URE VIII-8). FIGURE VIII-8. Typical village water supply pump. Before 1940. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/WRAA%Mait4A000200010008-1 Page VIII-15 (e) Other utilities 1. CITIES AND TOWNS--Electric light and power for domestic use are limited, due to the conservation for in- dustry. Only the communities that have their own gen- erating equipment have domestic service to any extent. Natural gas and manufactured gas are available in most of the larger towns for domestic as well as industrial use. A network of natural-gas pipe lines is under development. 2. RURAL.?There are only a few villages that have electric facilities. Some large farms have generating plants of their own for the operation of farm machines and, to a limited extent, for domestic use. Natural gas and bottled, liquid, and vapor gases are available to some villages. (6) Buildings of possible military use Practically every urban area of any importance possess- es at least one or more areas allocated to military and governmental use. These have been indicated as far as possible on the accompanying city plans. Generally the most important buildings in a town belong to the govern- ment. On the older railroad lines, the railroad station is a most prominent structure (FIGURE VIII-14). Com- mercial buildings, as found in American cities, exist only in a few of the most important urban areas such as Mos- cow 107, Leningrad 37, and Khar'kov 208. (7) Analysis of residential areas Certain basic residential patterns were typical through- out the prewar area of the USSR (FiGuREs VIII-9 through VIII-17, a series of aerial stereographs). For purposes of identification in the text and tables, these patterns are referred to as Type A, Type B, and so on to Type I. (a) Type A (FIGURE VIII-9).--In the centers of the major cities, such as Leningrad, Moscow, and Odessa, there has been considerable Western renaissance influence. The city blocks are generally rectangular. The buildings, forming a continuous structure along the building lines, have a uniform cornice height with pitched roofs (FIGURE VIII-93). Small square or rectangular courts provide light and air within the blocks. The buildings are sub- stantial and somewhat monumental in character. In areas of Type A in Leningrad, about 70";, to 80% of the space within the building lines is covered by structures. The sturdy construction survived serious damage in spite of the continual shelling which the center of this city received during the siege. FIGURE VIII-9. Leningrad. Left (south) bank of Bol'shaya Neva. 24 June 1942, 0850 hours. Original (b) Type B (FIGURE VIII-10).--This is similar to Type A, but the blocks are more open in character. There are breaks between adjacent structures, and the light courts are larger, often open on one side. As in Type A, there is uniformity of cornice height and pitched roofs. Between 50";. and 70% of the area within the building lines is oc- cupied by buildings. FIGURE VIII-10. Leningrad. Right (north) bank of Borshaya Neva. 24 June 1942, 0850 hours. (c) Type C (FIGURE VIII-11) .?The post-revolution change from a rural to an industrial economy with its con- sequent population movement to and expansion of urban areas resulted in considerable residential construction and reconstruction. The simplest form consists of grouped arrangements of rectangular multidwelling units within the confines of the normal block. (In FIGURE VIII-11, a prewar Type B area has units of this type, occupying half of the bottom block and the middle of the center block.) FIGURE VIII-11. Leningrad. Section from center of Ostrov Vasil'yevskiy (island). 24 June 1942, 0850 hours. (d) Type D (FIGURE VIII-12).?Examples of modern trends in residential planning in which an entire neighbor- hood is developed or replanned as a unit are common in most of the major urban areas of the USSR, especially in Leningrad and Moscow (FIGURE VIII-82). These consist of arrangements of multistoried apartment houses (FIG- URE VIII-18) in which the usual gridiron pattern of minor streets between major streets is discarded. A partial de- velopment of such a unit is illustrated. In FIGURE VIII-84, a number of these areas can be seen. The triangular for- mation in the right center is one of the largest. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-16 Approved For Release 205,2n115 CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential high right bank which is found along most of the major river valleys. This is a characteristic water-front con- dition in most USSR river cities and towns (FIGURE VIII- 29) (f) Type F (FIGURE VIII-14).?Typical residential blocks have closely spaced detached houses lining the long sides of the blocks (with sometimes one or two on the short sides) . Each house has a narrow walled or fenced garden. The gabled roofs are set almost invariably at right angles to the streets, giving a distinctive pattern from the air. This view also shows a characteristic small in- dustrial plant, a pretentious railroad station, and a narrow bridge over a typical gully. FIGURE VIII-12. Lenin graa. In southeastern part on left bank of the Neva. 9 September 1942, 1010 hours. FIGURE VIII-13. Shcherbakov (Rybinsk). Harbor area. Right bank of Volga (bottom) . 2 September 1942, 1019 hours. (e) TypeE (FIGURE VIII-13) .?In the central portions of the smaller cities and towns, where the Western influ- ence is not so noticeable, the gridiron patterns generally consist of rectangular blocks. However, the terrain some- times determines a more irregular pattern. The deep gullies often existing in urban areas may affect quite con- siderably both the gridiron pattern and the shape of the individual blocks. In the business section, large build- ings stand out quite prominently. Residences are usually detached. The buildings have pitched roofs and are built fairly close together. FIGURE VIII-13, also illustrates the FIGURE VIII-14. Shcherbakov (Rybinsk). Railroad station area. 2 September 1942, 1019 hours. Confidential FIGURE VIII-15. Shcherbakov (Rybinsk). Suburb on left bank of Volga. 2 September 1942, 1019 hours. (g) Type G (nauRE VIII-15).?On the outskirts of most cities and towns and in the larger villages, the houses are smaller and poorer, are spaced further apart, and have larger gardens. Normally, the blocks are divided into two parts with no houses facing the short sides of the blocks. In this example, the streets are somewhat irregular in pattern. It also illustrates a community on a low, gradu- ally shelving left bank, typical of the major rivers in Eu- ropean USSR. The picture was taken directly opposite the point illustrated in FIGURE VIII-13. FIGURE VIII-16. Kazan'. Near motion picture plant in northwestern part of the city. 18 September 1942, 0715 hours. (h) Type H (FIGURE VIII-16).?In the older com- munities, especially in the eastern and southeastern por- tions of European RSFSR, and Ukrainian SSR, the average residence consists of a small wooden house identical with its neighbors, each with the same sized plot of land set in rows on opposite sides of each block. Sometimes the Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14 ? C1A-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 CITILS AND TOWNS Page VIII-17 FIGURE VIII-17. Typical one-street village near Leningrad. 30 May 1042. 0942 hours. streets are relatively narrow (compare Type G, preceding) , or they may be quite wide as illustrated. Only 50'; to (i0' ; of the gross area has been used here for residential purposes, and only a relatively small percent actually has been built upon. In comparison, samples of Types C and I) are shown in the upper left corner. (i) Typed (FIGURE VIII-17) --One of the most charac- teristic residential patterns, which appears to be prevalent over the entire Russian portion of the USSR (excluding annexed areas), are the villages which are strung out along a road or trail, possibly on opposite sides of a small stream or gully (FiouRE VIII-19). Occasionally these may be found at intersections and crossroads. FIGURE VIII-20 illustrates how this typical pattern is symbolized on Rus- sian maps by a black line, representing a row of small de- tached houses with a hachure indicating the individual _ 00 41 q / ?1, I,AneReamAposcHiics lotenou :Aqe,i(aainp?Sio(a)\, \ 4,r7::,;..7.1-r? 1 , , '''' \--.- .4... 4_ ? FIGURE Type D superblock residential unit. Before 1940. FIGURE Small village east of Vil'nyus Irregular pattern common in the Baltic States. NY,40CtOot N0 20 1$ "44,1110 .( 80 3 Y 4alasCT..0 1. .;1;)2 163.2 Y ox anf 2 I/ Y4T T n. Hoewia MM 30 Y-4acT TT /59 0 Y4TCTON No 23 ' 2$ Y 41.6T-o-H No 3. , Y4 ACTON Ni2 (3-21 4.0$4?Tc444?.; 41 No 16 NO 29 4 peemoropc TS I. boraToip TS, Aiaa3.3 (Collective Farm) sac Hflbeat NH 901., 14,644,4aepn u 2.1-4 Be7Fs>e0 Original FIGURE {Ail BAR He 11 11(Talovaya) Frp, .6enea011M4 6841441440$ ? ? VIII-20. Talovaya and. neighboring rural settlements, including collective farms. 1941. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-18 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 JANIS 40 Confidential FIGURE VIII-21. Village near Virnyus. Wooden buildings with hipped thatched roofs. Prewar. FIGURE VIII-22. Lower Volga. House of sun-dried brick or pounded earth. A Kalmuk home. FIGURE VIII-24. Kherson (foreground). Looking east-southeastward across the Dnepr. 12 January 1944. gardens in the rear. In general these small houses are wooden (FIGURE VIII-21), but other construction such as sun-dried brick or pounded earth (FIGURE VIII-22) may be found. Thatched roofs are common (FIGURE VIII-23) ; tile and sheet metal also may be found (FIGURE VIII-24 and TABLE VIII-6). (8) War damage and reconstruction The total extent of the war damage is difficult to com- pile, due to lack of complete information, but is known to have been very severe in the occupied areas. Only one electric powerhouse is reported to have survived; most bridges were destroyed; factories were in ruins; residen- tial areas were burned out. An indication of the extent of the damage is presented in TABLE VIII-5; this information has been compiled from many diverse sources and is not in any sense complete enough for adequate evaluation. It has also been difficult to compile complete statistics on reconstruction plans or their progress. Reports in- Confidential FIGURE VIII-23. Typical village on the steppes. Wooden cottages with thatched roofs. Before 1940. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/tifiRAMR5Mt4A000200010008-1 dicate that even during the darkest days of the invasion, Soviet officials were working on plans for rebuilding their cities and towns, including the rebuilding and replan- ning of residential areas and the undertaking of street- widening projects with realinements to remove bottlenecks. En intercommunications, the railroads are being restored and imposing stations are proposed, if not already under construction, in many urban communities (FIGURE VIII- 25) . FIGURE VIII-25. Kiev (top) and Kursk (below). Proposed new railroad stations. Illustrate trends in major landmarks within urban areas. It appears that much of the prewar building construc- tion, especially reinforced concrete, has proved somewhat faulty. The concrete has had a tendency to spall. How effectively this tendency to poor workmanship has been controlled in this immense program of reconstruction and restoration is not known. Observers have already com- mented adversely on the quality of the repairs to the Dneprostroy dam, where failure would be a serious matter. F. Major urban areas In this study 53 major cities are discussed and tabulated in detail. These include six of the seven largest urban communities in the entire USSR, Moscow 107, Leningrad 37, Kiev 171, Khar'kov 208, Gor'kiy 58, and Odessa 238. These cities are identified by an underlined index number on FIGURE VIII-119 and by italicized number in the text. Thirty of these cities are included in Topic 81, which covers the areas occupied by the Germans between 1941 and 1945. The remaining 23 cities lie east of the line of farthest German penetration and are discussed in Topic 82. They include the two USSR cities with populations over 1,000,- 000, Moscow 107 and Leningrad 37. G. Minor urban areas In addition to the 53 major cities, 211 smaller cities and towns are discussed in a condensed analysis in TABLE VIII-14, making a total of 264 urban communities con- sidered. Three-fifths of the total number lie in the oc- cupied zones and the remainder in the unoccupied zones. Original Page VIII-19 On FIGURE VIII-119, these minor communities are identi- fied by an index number in parentheses, for example Azov (255). References to these minor towns in the text will include index numbers. H. Analysis of small towns, villages, and farms (7) General discussion In European USSR (particularly south of the 65th parallel) , the smaller urban units conform to a fairly standard pattern. The more densely populated the re- gion, the closer the units. In fact, in the Ukrainian SSR many of these communities are so interconnected that it Is difficult to determine the lines of separation between adjacent villages and towns. The main difference between towns and villages is not area size. The average small town is smaller than the larger villages. This is due to differences in the basic pattern of the two types of community. The village con- sists of widely and evenly spaced detached houses, each with its individual garden or farm area. In the towns, the houses are built much closer together; the garden plots are much smaller; and the population densities are con- siderably greater. Isolated farmsteads, so common in the United States and in Western Europe, were almost completely lacking in prewar USSR. However, they are found in the recently annexed western areas. TABLE VIII-6 gives a comparative analysis of the smaller urban units illustrated by typical examples extracted from the USSR 1 :100,000 series maps. TABLE VIII-7 gives a comparative analysis of densities based on the numbers of buildings located within an urban area or village. TABLE VIII - 7 COMPARATIVE BUILDING DENSITIES IN SMALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES Type of plan Community Area Buildings Buildings Sq. km. Per sq. km. Compact towns a. Regular gridiron b. Irregular Krasnograd** Vol'noye** 3.5 3.25 1,749 722 499 222 gridiron Svobodnoye** 0.5 173 346 c. Triangular Dvurechnaya** 3.5 633 181 Open-plan towns a. Irregular Tishkovka** 7.6 2,204 290 rectangular Peschanka** 7.0 1,098 114 (suburb of Krasnograd) b. Irregular radial M. Ichnya* 7.0 2,910 414 Villages a. Regular Braginovka* 2.3 315 137 pattern Landman* 1.3 64 49 Bogdano-Verbskiy* 1.6 132 83 b. Irregular Sofiyevka* 10.0 210 21 C. Single Vasil'yevskiy** 0.5 58 119 street*** Kolkhoz 1.3 130 100 Zheleznodorozhnik** Uchastok No. 14** 0.5 55 110 * Located on inserts in TABLE VIII-6. ** Located on FIGURE VIII-20. *** Buildings spaced approximately 25 buildings per kilometer, or on 40-meter spacing, in each row. For rows on both sides of a village street, these numbers are doubled. CONVERSION FACTOR: 1 square kilometer equals 0.3861 square mile. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-20 Approved For Release 293A31/41g/14b: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential (2) Regional characteristics Although many urban characteristics are common over most of European USSR, certain variations are caused by geographical, ethnographical, or climatic conditions pe- culiar to a particular area. These modify in varying degree the information contained in TABLE VIII-6. (a) North and northeast (above the 65th parallel).? With the exception of the boom towns (for instance, Mur- mansk 3) most communities are small and are confined to clearings in the forest, often on the banks of navigable waterways or lakes. Except in the far north or tundra areas, they are closely surrounded by evergreen forests. Most of the villages are dependent upon fishing for their existence. (b) Karelo-Finnish (Karelo-Finskaya) SSR.?The prevailing neatness and cleanliness of the Finnish race is reflected in the areas taken over by the USSR which were formerly part of Finland. This refers especially to the Karelian Isthmus directly northwest of Leningrad. In the residential areas, the wooden houses tend to be more elaborate and better constructed than the Slavic types. (c) Baltic Lands (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, with Kaliningradskaya Oblast' ).?The characteristics of this area are middle or western European and Scandina- vian, rather than Russian as found in prewar USSR areas. There is considerable use of masonry, especially brick, in the towns, and to some extent in the rural areas, with the exception of Lithuania where the Russian type pre- dominates. The regimented rows of rural buildings, so common to the USSR as a whole, are replaced by rambling villages and individual homesteads similar to eastern United States rural districts. The change from this dis- tinctive Balt farmland type to the Slavic type occurs where the rolling Baltic Sea coastal hills level off into the relatively flat central European plain found in southern Lithuania and in the White Russian SSR. (d) White Russian SSR (5).?Due to the considerable area of marshland there are relatively few, but often large, communities in the northern portions, especially in the Pripyat' river basin, while the southern portion along the Ukrainian SSR border is relatively densely populated. Most of the residential buildings are of wooden construc- tion with thatched hipped roofs; some have gabled ends or hipped roofs with gabled peaks. (e) Ukrainian SSR (6).?The great density of popu- lation in the Ukraine is reflected in the proximity to each other of urban areas, especially of villages. Very often a string of villages and small towns will follow a minor river valley for 20 to 25 kilometers (12.4 to 15.5 miles) with- out interruption. The majority of the smaller communi- ties are the open type, although the older portions of cities and towns are compact. The recent expansions outside of the major urban areas tend to be regular in pattern. (f) Black Sea Coast and Krymskaya Oblast'.?The coastal strip between Rumania and the Krymskaya Oblast' (Crimean Oblast) is rocky and the urban and village communities do not follow the typical patterns. Land travel has been hampered by the many lakes and major river estuaries; most communities are therefore situated on a waterway or on the coast. The Krymskaya Oblast' is quite mountainous and urban areas huddle in the valleys (FIGURE VIII-28). The influence of the Mediterranean countries is quite evident. Many villas (FIGURE VIII-26) line the Black Sea, and this entire section has been turned into a major recreation area for the whole of the USSR Confidential FIGURE VIII-26. Yalta. A recreation section in the Crimean Riviera. Prewar. FIGURE VIII-27. Yalta. A health resort. Before March 1945. (FIGURE VIII-27) . There is little rural population, the cities and towns holding a high percentage of the total, especially in the Krymskaya Oblast'. Considerable use of masonry with stucco finish is found, and the northern, relatively steep-pitched roofs are replaced with low-pitched Spanish tile roofs (FIGURE VIII-28) . The wooden fences are replaced by stone walls and many of the towns possess an oriental or Turkish cast in their design and ornamenta- tion. FIGURE VIII-28. Yalta. Looking northwestward. Prewar. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/WAIAMPTW4A000200010008-1 (g) Southeast steppes.?The lands between the lower Don and Volga rivers, known as the dry steppes, have relatively sparse rural populations as compared with the areas west of the lower Don valley. Villages are small and far apart and towns are usually compact gridirons, almost invariably located on a major river. The small residences, because of lack of wood, are built of sun-dried brick or pounded earth (FIGURE VIII-22). (It) Former German Volga. ASSR.?Although the large German population was deported to the east after the onset of the German invasion, their influence remains in the many towns and villages in the lower Volga basin. The residential unit consists of a western European court- yard with outbuildings enclosed within a wooden palisade. The living quarters are generally well-built, of neat ap- pearance, and with many adaptations of German ideas to Russian methods and construction materials. Many have clay tile roofs with hipped gable peaks and brick chimneys (not common in Russian buildings) . A usual variation is the generally steeper pitch to the roofs, com- mon in Germany. The better residences may have masonry walls with wooden gable ends. Many of the German-type residences have two stories, while the typical Russian or Slav residence is a single-story rectangular building. The prewar German trend to groups of multi- family apartments is reflected in the residential grouped buildings in the cities, such as Engel's and Marks, for which the German colonists were responsible. I. Soviet policies in recent urban residential de- velopments in all cities the basic unit of planning is the "super- block," organized as a neighborhood unit. A group of superblocks, surrounded by major traffic arteries, com- pose a residential section. The size of the superblock varies from 15 to 25 acres with elevator apartments, to between 30 and 37 acres with wooden two-story houses. The population density is about 80 persons per acre; with taller apartment houses, 120 to 160 persons; and 200 per acre in the central districts of the biggest cities. The percentage relationship of floor space to acreage varies between 60 and 120, and that of ground coverage by build- ings between 16 and 35. In addition to the dwellings the superblock contains nurseries for children of two months to three years of age, and kindergartens for those of four to seven. These are always in one or two-story buildings; so also is the community center, called "the club," which contains at least, one hall and several rooms for study and discussion groups, and for the work of the tenants' council and tenants' court. Because of the pressure of housing needs, and the short- age of labor and materials, the erection of these auxiliary buildings was very often delayed and rooms were tempo- rarily adapted for these purposes. However, the super- block is always planned as a complete unit and one by one the nurseries and kindergartens are built in the places provided for them, though often with changes in design. Earlier planning of monotonously placed rows of houses made more unsightly by unused space filled with hanging laundry, garbage dumps, etc., was changed with popular approval to call for less uniform placement of buildings around the periphery. Currently plans are providing for a more flexible treatment, in order to integrate the buildings of the block with the contours and streets of the entire residential district. Original Page VIII-21 Whatever the treatment of the dwelling houses, the children's institutions are always carefully orientated, with the playgrounds well protected from the street. The balance of the land is given over to service yards, play- fields, and greens for recreation. Schools are usually not included in the superblock. The school with 22 class- rooms, adopted as the standard type since 1935, serves a population of about 4,000; this is not so far in excess of the population of the average superblock as to exclude integration. However, schools and stores in general have been related not to the individual superblock but to the residential district as a whole. Public ownership of land and urban houses has facili- tated Soviet rehabilitation of the old city blocks. The best buildings are conserved and improved; the poorer ones torn down and replaced by new ones. 81. OCCUPIED AREA A. Introduction (1) General discussion The area included under this topic lies west of the line of farthest German penetration, which is shown on FIGURE VIII-119. In some cases this line passes through an urban area, as in Sestroretsk (25) , Novgorod (80). and Voronezh (181). Where the status of a major urban area was questionable, an arbitrary decision was made. Kalinin 74 and Stalingrad 197 are considered here; Lenin- grad 37, Moscow 107, and Tula 110, however, despite their extensive war damage, are discussed under Unoccupied Area (Topic 82). (2) Extent of area of occupation The area of occupation lies west of a line which parallels the present boundary between Finland and the Karelo- Finnish SSR from a point west of Kandalaksha (7) , south- ward to the head of Lake Onega (Onezhskoye Ozero) . At the foot of the lake, the Finnish army reached a line which parallels southward some 10 to 20 kilometers (6.2 to 12.4 miles) the present SSR frontier westward to Lake Ladoga (Ladozhskoye Ozero). North of Leningrad 37, the Finnish line was anchored to Sestroretsk (25) , across the Karelian Isthmus some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) north of the center of Leningrad. During the siege of Leningrad the Germans failed to capture Oraniyenbaum (33) , a vital bridgehead from which the Soviet forces launched the attack that finally broke the encirclement. However, Petrodvorets (34) was captured, and the German lines followed a curve south of Leningrad within 5 kilometers (3 miles) of the city's southwest corner, passing between Leningrad and the cities of Pushkin (35) and Kolpino (38). In their first advance, the Germans reached the Neva river outlet from Lake Ladoga (Ladozhskoye Ozero) , capturing Petrokre- post' (Shlisselburg) (shown on enlarged insert of Lenin- gradskaya Oblast', FIGURE VIII-119), and Tikhvin (40). Here the battle line for a while formed a salient and then followed an alinement southwest to Novgorod (80). From Novgorod to Stalingrad 197 on the Volga river, the aline- ment passes through Ostashkov (79) and Kalinin 74 to a point on the Moscow - Volga Canal (Kanal im. Moskvy) reaching Khimki some 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the Kremlin in Moscow (PLAN 1). From here, in a Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-22 Approved For Release 20901N1id CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential salient westward and southwestward, the line passed a few kilometers west of Serpukhov (109) and Tula //O. In their last major attack in the Moscow area, the Ger- mans pushed a salient northeastward, with the Soviet forces holding Tula as an anchor, and captured Stalino- gorsk 117. South of Stalinogorsk, the Germans captured Yefremov (142) and Yelets (143) ; fought in the streets of Voronezh (181) , captured Svoboda (182) and Yevstra- tovskiy (184) , but were held to the line of the Don river as far as its final bend southward due west of Stalingrad 197. Here General von Paulus' Sixth Army pushed across the narrow 50-kilometer (31-mile) steppe between the Don and Volga rivers to lay siege to and fight in the city of Stalingrad. South of the city, German patrols reached isolated points along the 45th degree of longitude. (3) Postwar status of urban areas Postwar information concerning urban areas in the occupied area is limited. Some information has become available regarding reconstruction plans which may or may not be followed. In many instances, industrial plants may not have their prewar equipment returned if it was evacuated eastward. What was left of any value by the retreating Soviet forces was either taken westward by the Germans or destroyed during their final retreat. A gen- eral modernization of the entire area is, therefore, to be expected. How efficient this reconstruction and rehabili- tation will be is questionable. Considerable use of rein- forced concrete is to be expected, although reports of pre- war construction in this material indicate that the Rus- sians are not very efficient in its use. Available city and town plans and captured German aerial photographs do not indicate how revisions of street lay-outs will be made. Certain fundamental functions such as river crossings and railroad alinements will not be changed very extensively; however, main streets prob- ably will be widened, and prewar bottlenecks eliminated. It can also be assumed that any prewar information re- garding bridges can be merely comparative, as practically every major street or railroad bridge in the occupied area was destroyed. (4) Major urban areas The area overrun by the Germans was the most popu- lated part of European USSR; 30 of the 53 major urban communities fall within this area. Of these communities, all the large cities of the Ukrainian SSR, Kiev 171 (the capital) , Khar'kov 208, Odessa 238 (the most important seaport on the Black Sea) , and Dnepropetrovsk 210, as well as those located in the buffer fringe of SSR states, are included. Each of the 30 major urban units is discussed in Topic 81, B, in order of its importance as determined by prewar population statistics. In the discussion of individual cities, reference to spe- cific points is frequently followed by a number in pa- rentheses. Such numbers are used to mark locations on the appropriate city map and are described in the list of identified points. (5) Minor towns Less detailed information on a total of 129 urban areas in the occupied area has been tabulated in TABLE VIII-13. In general, prewar USSR towns follow fairly consistent gridiron plans, and the residential areas follow one or more of the basic patterns (FIGuREs VIII-9 to VIII-17 in- clusive) . In most instances, suburbs follow one or more of the typical village patterns (TABLE VIII-6) . Types of construction are discussed in Topic 80, H. Confidential In the Ukrainian SSR the prewar heavy urban popu- lation is reflected in the proximity of urban areas. The same condition existed in the portions of the White Rus- sian SSR south of the Pripet Marshes. The area south of Leningrad was also heavily populated, but only in a rela- tively limited arc. On the steppes, in the southeast, urban areas are generally restricted to the main river valleys and concentrated in groups, as at Stalingrad. (6) Villages and farms The villages of the occupied area follow the general patterns outlined and illustrated in TABLE VIII-6, and, in the majority of cases, are of Type I (FIGURE . In some localities, these small communities were wiped out; in others they survived. Buildings are usually construct- ed of wood and a high percentage have thatched roofs. Usually, each residence has a small fenced-in plot of land. In Tsarist days, the remaining land was divided by earthen walls into narrow strips for cultivation. With the en- forcement of the collective farm program and the com- munal use of mechanized agricultural equipment, the strips have disappeared and most villages are within easy reach of a state tractor station or pool, from which mech- anized agricultural machinery is loaned to the various villages and farmers. This change in agricultural econ- omy is reflected in the large tractor plants which have been developed in strategic cities and, during the war, provided much of the USSR mechanized war materiel. B. Major cities and towns (1) Kiev (Kiyev, or Kiew)(50?26'N, 30'31'E). Kiyevskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Population: estimated at 850,000 in 1941 and 650,000 in 1946. (FIGURES VIII-30 and VIII- 119, 171) (a) Importance.?Kiev, the capital of Ukrainian SSR and of Kiyevskaya Oblast', is the largest commercial center of the Ukraine; the naval base of the Dnepr river fleet; a major railroad junction; and an important intersection of highways. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city lies in hilly terrain on the right bank of the Dnepr river, the latter being about 600 meters (1,970 feet) wide. The bank is 100 meters (328 feet) high in places, and is cut by deep gullies (FIGURE VIII-29) . Kiev is divided into three sec- tions: the old central section on the plateau, with a modern quarter; the Leninskiy Rayon (formerly Pechersk) in the southeast on the hills dominating the city, with citadel and fortifications; and the Petrovskiy Rayon, the business section, situated north of the central section and along the river. Suburbs are northwest, west, and southwest of the city proper. Landmarks included many cathedrals, churches, and monasteries, the famous cave monastery (Pecherskaya Lavra) , an observatory, and a bell tower 90 meters (295 feet) high. (c) Transportation.?Kiev is a major railroad junc- tion. Before 1941, there were four railroad and highway bridges (9, 20, 21, 22)* and a steamer ferry. All bridges were destroyed, but it is reported that the main railroad bridge, of wood construction and double-track, was re- stored to operation in September 1947. In addition to the main railroad station there are seven other stations, six freight stations, and two military freight stations. A new railroad station (FIGURE VIII-25) has been proposed. * Numbers in parentheses refer to location on respective city plans. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14 ? 0A-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential LITIES AND TOWNS Page VIII-23 *trvolippr. FIGURE VIII-29. Kiev. View northward to main city on bluffs, right bank of the Dnepr. Low flat lands opposite. Prewar. The city is an important junction of highways to various points. The main traffic artery within the city, Khresh- chatyk (Vorovskogo) Street, is in a gorge. The main bottlenecks were in the central part of the city and in the Leninskiy Rayon with numerous twisting streets. Re- ports indicate that in replanning these cities, many of the prewar bottlenecks will be eliminated. Kiev has three airfields with permanent facilities of which one (33) , for both military and civilian use, is unimproved, and is practically useless in rainy weather. There are towers for practice parachute jumping. The city has a street railway with three barns. A sub- way is planned with lines intersecting at the center of the city and connecting outlying sections, including the part on the left bank of the Dnepr river. (d) industry and commerce.--Prewar Kiev was an im- portant shoe-manufacturing center. Shops were being reconstructed and new ones being built in December 1946. .3ugar refineries produced more than 248,000 tons of sugar annually, but were probably all destroyed. A report of July 1946 states that 17 refineries were rebuilt and four more will be repaired by 1949. The Sukhomlina shipyard (6) built river vessels. Plants for forging machine parts included the Leninskaya Kuz- nitsa, with 4,000 workers; the Gor'kiy, for automatic tools; Bol'shevik (28), for airplane motors and parts, presses, and sugar-factory and oil-well apparatus, using 15,000 tons of pig iron annually. Reconstruction and building of new shops for the latter were completed by November 1946. Original A motorcycle factory was reequipped and was produc- ing motors with the trademark Kievlyanin by November 1946. Armaments plants included an arsenal for rifles and munitions, two gun factories, five munitions factories, and three tank factories. Other industries included a newspaper printing plant; the Ukrkabel' cable plant; the Artema for machines; an assembly plant with 3,000 workers with an output of 12 to 15 airplanes daily; a rayon factory, the thread to be woven elsewhere; a tobacco factory with little automatic machinery, claiming a daily output of 8 million cigarettes (June 1947) ; and others producing machine tools, labora- tory equipment, farm machinery, railroad cars, motors, leather, and woodworking. Storage space included seven munitions storage places with munitions dumps (2) ; two storage installations for petroleum and gasoline; an elevator with 20,000 metric tons (22,000 short tons) capacity; and a cold-storage plant (24) with 1,000 metric tons (1,102 short tons) capacity. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?There were numerous barracks (1), 11 hotels, numerous schools (30, 31, 32) , scientific institutes (27), galleries, museums, two military summer camps (10) , and an artillery firing range. There were at least three hospitals, including a military hospital (41), the university clinic, and a veterans' home. Infor- mation as to the present status of storage and billeting quarters is lacking, but it may be assumed that a consider- able number of these facilities were wrecked and that some have been restored to operation. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-24 Approved For Release 205INN1t CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential (f) Utilities.?All the power plants and public utilities in Kiev were reported destroyed. Before the war, the utilities included a state regional electric power plant with a capacity of 25,000 kilowatts employing 1,000 workers; a main city power plant with 40,000 kilowatts; a regional plant with 5,000 kilowatts; the Lukoyanovskaya plant with 8,000 kilowatts; and TETs (heat and power) plant of the Southwestern Railroad with 80,000 kilo- watts and 1,000 workers. In 1939, it was reported that 60 blocks of flats and four public baths were to be added to the municipal central heating system. Information regarding restoration of power plants is lacking, but natural-gas pipe lines from the Galician oil fields and Poltava (209) were said to be in opera- tion in July 1947, and another line is reported being laid between Kiev and Odessa. (g) Communications.?Kiev is on the main tele- phone-telegraph network. In 1945 a new automatic tele- phone exchange for 50,000 telephones was constructed. Facilities included post, telephone, and telegraph offices; a radio-telegraph station for interstate and intrastate communications; two military radio stations (18, 50) ; and ground and weather radio stations. There are a total of 22 radio stations in Kiev including 2 broadcast- ing stations; eight are for official use only. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?The entire downtown section and all the power plants and public utilities were reported destroyed. The destruction in- cluded over 3,000 dwellings and public buildings and 5 to 7 kilometers (3 to 4.3 miles) of streets. According to rebuiMng plans, many of the prewar bottlenecks will be eliminated. It is proposed that the city have an average maximum density of 22,200 to 29,600 persons per square kilometer (900 to 1,200 persons per acre) . (2) Khar'kov (Charkow) (49?59'N, 36?17'E). Khar'- kovskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Population: 833,400 in January 1939; estimated at 950,000 in 1946. (FIGuREs VIII- 33 and VIII-119, 208) (a) Importance.?Khar'kov, the oblast capital and administrative center of the Donets Basin, is the largest economic center in Ukrainian SSR, and before the war was being dec7eloped into one of the major industrial centers of the entire USSR. It is an important railroad center and highway intersection. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city, lying at the confluence of the Khar'kov and Lopan' rivers, has an area of 56 square kilometers (22 square miles). The old central section was surrounded before the war by modern workers' housing settlements. Khar'kov suffered heavily from war damage. (c) Transportation.?Khar'kov has two large railroad terminals (9, 19), as well as five other stations (13 to 17), and is on lines connecting both the central Russian in- dustrial area with the Chernozem (black earth) region and the Black Sea, and also the Donets Basin with White Russian SSR and the Baltic ports. Highways intersect from Belgorod (178) , Volchansk, Chuguyev (207) , Zmiyev, Merefa, Poltava (209) , and Bo- godukhov. Five of these highways pass through the old central part of the city, with numerous sharp turns caus- ing congestion of traffic. Before the invasion a certain amount of replanning, including straightening and widen- ing of main streets, had been started. (FIGURES VIII-31 and VIII-32). Five major airfields with permanent facilities and three minor fields operate in Khar'kov and vicinity. One of the Confidential FIGURE VIII-31. Khar'kov. Cobblestone paving of Dzerzhinskiy Square in front of Gospromyshelennost' (State Industry) Building. FIGURE VIII-32. Khar'kov. Plan of Dzerzhinskiy Square. One of the replanning schemes, covering 150,000 square meters (37 acres) , which was nearing completion, or was completed, at the time of the city's capture. Although damaged, these buildings survived destruction and have been repaired. This is a prominent aerial landmark. airfields (12) is on the Moscow ? Baku ? Teheran airline route. (d) Industry and commerce.?Bef ore the war, Khar'- kov was being developed into one of the USSR's major industrial centers and produced 50e/ of the industrial output of the Ukrainian SSR. In the course of the war the Germans destroyed 80% of the factories. Thirteen of the 50 coal mines have been restored. The Russians claim a prewar output of 1,000 tons daily. Plants de- stroyed and now again in operation include the Ordzhoni- kidze tractor plant; the Stalin tractor plant in partial oper- ation with only four shops repaired; the Gidroprivod and Elektrostanok machine tool factories; the Serp i Molot factory for farm machinery, motorcycles, and machine guns; and a camera works which may be equipped with superior German machines to produce cameras. Postwar factories produce household articles, sewing machines, bicycles, cars, and rifles. Prewar factories included the Khapeze-Komintern loco- motive works; the Molotov tool and machine-tool plant; Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 30 K (PTV CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL toraya Dotnitsa Kokhristerskoya Sloboda Novoya Dornho Ii ir,N7 ??????, 5ir?sH', ? r. d Lelut?tc, CONFIDENTIAL ?/..__Asir9yed For Release 20 I IV- A Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 IDENTIFIED POINTS to V VS Mane 1. Barracks 27, Polytechnic Institute 2. Munitions dumps 28. -Bolshevik- inachtnery plant ''Stalin'' power plant 29. Aircraft factory 4. Waterworks (3 plants) 30. 'Kamen.- Military School S. Harbor 31. Artillery school S. "Sukhornlin" shipyard 32. Infantry sehool 7. Ship repari yard 33. Military and civilian airfield 8. Dnepr Fleet naval base 34. I oconot lye and railroad car repair shop 9. Railroad bridge 35. Main railroad station 10. Military division summer camp 36. Powerplant at the Yugo-Zapadnaya 11. Railroad car factory (Southwestein) Railroad 12. Meal processing plants (2 plants) 37. Electromotor factory 13. Station for armored trains 38. Freight station. Kiev I. 14. Darnitsa armament plant 39. Oil mill (vegelable oil) 15. Electric machme and apparatus factoiy 40. District power plant 16. Darnitsa station 41.litaty hospital 17. Military loading ramp (Darnitsa station) -Krasnoye Znamya" Armaments plant 18. Military radio dation 43. Military freight station 19. Sawmills (two plants) 44. Military loading platforms 20. Railroad bridge (to Dainitsa) It. Military loading platforms 21. Highway bridge 46. Transformer station for southern city area 22. Highway bridge 47. Railroad station. Kiev II 23. Ferry crossing (steamer) 44. Frerght station. Kiev II 24. Cold storage plant 49. Waterworks (see also No. 4) 25. District power plant 50. Military radio station 26. Radio apparatus factory 51. Brickyard 52. Transformer station for Leninskly Rayon .008 TOME, 25 K M. Rubezhnoyo Koloniyo Svyatolhino Aleloandro,koyo tOlakaoedcieeknl' blob oda Zaboykov'ye (Zobaylo,yo) r A' pprovitd For elease 2003/ 5/14 : OlA-RD1:179-01144A000200010008-1 TO VASIL KOV Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-011f1401?0###.8A , A N JANIS 40 CONFI DENTIAL v " \ \ \ ? - ? ? \ '?'!? ? /1 6 ? ? ? / 41?/' ? t 0 n 5) _El _ C> o 0 I] E--* CIO L.7 D LJ-.J t LJ fl r\.' col .c--3 o = \ .---'11"--1 ../\.) _ f?J-10 1-1 =3 ri ri ? - 7 .------- -1-'; c?''' rE----470r L.. d [-_-] 0 7::?:',?::.'.?' 1 D -11.---- -30 v -.11 - - .3 1\--------- ,.1 riu[11) ,-..)11,:1-- -I i1 1 t. 'Hs 2 -I Inn- ,., ,,- lk?_... H; ' '_?,....1.-? -_ v \ \ \ t 5 , Approve.d.Enchelease-2003105144-:-GIA-RDF'79-01144A0002000t000 6 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Wee te,65 Ur ban areas Industrial areas IARK(YV r.1 .Kii.\R.RoVE.VI:\ OBLAST 110.r1 grrge rolroad, singlr rod, 91911919 11r oad gage railroad. daubir track etcl ? lin -- Through streets 0 1 dentif ied print Fr:C9.9.1 Par Ds or rrar cation 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Meters M7 71 MIL 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Feet CONFIDENTIAL Reialiraebit,,n r Reliability Manually Inadequate source information partially reconciled with aerial photography about 1842: town glare ten annin9 and reconslructron unavailable largely destroyed: IDENTIFIED POINTS Bkrarnian Peoples Central Committee DR Machwery plant E6 3 trade onion building, DR OfarrIptive regain shrPs D7 5 City soviet (council) 6 Post office I Hospital 8. City telephone errhange Main railroad station IS Leather factory 11. Brickyard 12 Airfield 135 DI. C2. E5 PD 13 North Don railroad station 19 South railroad station D3 15 t Larovy Lay 7 railroad station 16. 'Novaya Bavanya7 railroad station 17 t Balashoyskiy7 railroad station IA. Pace track NI II. "Salyelino7 radroad station PI 20 Hiologrcal institute f3 21. Central market C3 22. Stadium B4 73 Agriculture research institute F5 24. "134er000nsk67 square C3 cy Destroyed 0 0 Approved For Release 2003/05/1 Ei=07,-.,77!,==HA- CIA-RDP79-01144A0002000 0008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 CITIES AND TOWNS the Khele plant for electric motors; the Svet Shakhturs plant for machines; and the Stalin Elektromekhaniches- kiy motor works. There were also plants for building railroad cars, agricultural machinery, business machines, and lathes. Five plants produced airplanes; three, tanks and tractors; and two, chemicals. Other plants manu- factured textiles, leather, wood products, paper, soap, to- bacco, and meat products. The city was an agricultural center for cattle, horses, and grain (21). Storage facilities were provided for ordnance, chemicals, and munitions. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Billeting possibilities in- cluded barracks, hotels, scientific institutes (20, 23) , and university buildings. Many of these structures, includ- ing the university, were destroyed. Postwar information indicates that early in 1947 the city had 23 functioning hospitals and 38 dispensaries. There was a sanatorium and a rest home for railroad employees. ) Utilities.?Three large power plants with a total capacity of 119,000 kilowatts, all interconnected, were known to have been restored prior to March 1947. The municipal central heating plant was being expanded in 1939. (g) Communications.?Khar'kov is on the main tele- phone-telegraph network and has three amplifier stations the area. A new automatic telephone exchange for 0,000 subscribers was constructed in 1945; and a large long-distance telephone exchange (8) was in service in May 1946. There was a post office (6) and 16 radio sta- tions including an interstate and an intrastate radio- telegraph station, and two broadcasting stations. ( h) War damage and reconstruction.?In 1944, Khar'- kov was 90'/; destroyed, including 80',; of the factories and 60( ; of the dwellings; but by October 1946, approximately 75': of the city had been rebuilt. (3) Odessa (4628'N, 30 '45'E). Odesskaya Oblast'. Population: 604,200 in 1939; estimated at 604,000 in 1941. WI(ITRES VIII-34 and VIII-119, 238) (a) Importance.?Odessa, the capital of Odesskaya Oblast', is the third largest city in Ukrainian SSR, the sixth in European USSR, and seventh in the whole USSR. lIt is the most important port on the Black Sea and is a water-rail transshipment point for various items, prin- cipally grain. It was a minor prewar military and naval base. (h) Physical characteristics.?Odessa is about 48 square kilometers (19 square miles) in area. The mini- mum elevation is on the coast at sea level, although the cliffs in that vicinity rise as high as 52 meters (170 feet) . Toward the west, elevation generally increases to about 40 meters (130 feet). The maximum elevation in the city proper is 43 meters (140 feet) , but there are some points of 40 to 60 meters (130 to 195 feet) elevation to the south. The main built-up area is situated on a bluff on the southwest side of Odesskiy Zaliv overlooking the harbor area. A less densely built area lies between the main rail- road station, on the south, and the cliffs along the sea. Suburbs include Peresyp', which stretches along the bay north of the main harbor; Slobodka Romanovka (Slobodka Chervona) , to the northwest; and Vorontsovka and Moldo- vanka, to the southwest. (c) Transportation 1. EXTERNAL.?Rail connections include a double- track line running north-northwest and two single-track lines, southwest and north-northeast. Three additional Original Page VIII-25 single-track lines run west, north, and east from Peresyp'. There are three passenger stations (6, 36, 46) and three freight stations (13, 35, 37). The classification yard, west of the Odessa Zastava Pervaya freight station (35) , was reported in good condition in 1944. More than 39 kilometers of the main east-northeast highway was paved in 1941; the remainder probably had a dirt surface. At that time, plans called for paving of the entire length as a "new strategic motor road to Niko- layev", with connections to Kherson. The paved road was to have been 12 meters (40 feet) wide. A highway from Odessa to Moscow, 7 meters (23 feet) in width was under construction before the summer of 1946 and was to have been completed by spring, 1947. Materials were imported from Rumania and Czechoslo- vakia. A minor road to the southwest, probably with dirt sur- face, was described as a good motor road in 1941. Another minor road, also probably dirt surface, leads westward. Sea access to the port of Odessa is difficult in rough weather. Tidal fluctuation is about 1 meter (3.3 feet). Ice thickness usually varies from 5 to 10 centimeters (2 to 4 inches) ; the record thickness, 25 centimeters (10 inches) , occurred in 1937. The ice breaker "Torus" is available at Constanta, Rumania. A total of 263 oceangoing vessels docked at Odessa in 1933. The port handled 3,313,000 registered tons in that year, including 669,000 tons of overseas shipping. The prewar port included 5 piers with wharves and 51 berths. In 1944, as many as 15 liberty ships of 7.3 to 8.2 meters draft (24 to 27 feet) could be berthed or anchored at one time. The port could then accommodate vessels of up to 10,000 tons and had a monthly capacity of 9,040 metric tons. There were 9 commercial and 4 petroleum tanker berths available. Reopening of regular ship service between Odessa and Izmail was planned in 1945. The five docks and facilities had been largely repaired by September 1946, although the northern port area was still being cleared. By April 1947, between 15 and 20 cranes, many of American manu- facture, were in operation in the harbor. Odessa has 4 airfields, 2 seaplane bases and 3 landing fields, the latter without permanent facilities. One of the latter is suitable for heavy bombers. 2. INTERNAL.?The main section is divided into fairly regular rectangular blocks, divided by the north - south and east - west streets. The principal north - south street leads from the main railroad station (46) and crosses the principal east - west street, which runs from the cliffs on the Black Sea to the western outskirts. Blocks average 150 meters (492 feet) on a side. Streets near the center of the city are mostly cobblestoned. In the out- skirts, the blocks are generally rectangular, though ir- regular in arrangement; the streets are dirt-surfaced and very dusty in dry weather. A system of streetcar lines, including seven routes radiat- ing to the suburbs, was in operation in September 1946. (d) Industry and commerce.?There is no mining in the vicinity. Steel and metal products were among the most important prewar industries, which included the Dzerzhinskiy rolling mill, the Lenin machine tool shops, the Vanvarskoye Vostaniye railroad car shops, the Kras- naya Gvardiya Zavod plant (electric cranes) , and the 16 Parts'-yezda plant (radial drills). An automobile as- sembly plant was being built in the Peresyp' area in April 1947, at which time some walls were still under construc- tion, although the plant had already turned out about 4,000 cars. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Page VIII-26 JANIS 40 Confidential A floating dock (16) and shipyard (17) were destroyed during the war. The Kreking Zavod oil-cracking plant on Shkodova Hill was built in 1936 and 1937 with equipment from the United States. Put out of operation by war damage, it was not operating in March 1947, although expected to resume production that spring. It then consisted of five small units with an estimated capacity for less than 5,000 barrels of crude oil daily. However, additional units were probably to be added. Chemical plants included a superphosphate plant, which was damaged during the war and subsequently restored. In addition to identified industries (4, 5, 7, 11, 38), there were plants producing munitions, chemicals, and linoleum, the locations of which are not known. Odessa is commercially important as the main trans- shipment point on the Black Sea between the USSR and the Mediterranean Sea lanes. Its imports include scrap iron, machines, tools, chemicals, coal, calico, tea, fruit, cotton, and other goods; exports include grain, petroleum, lumber, building materials, spirits, sugar, wool, fish, and cottonseed. Prewar wheat-storage facilities, mostly at the port, in- cluded 67 warehouses with a total capacity of 93,550 tons, two mechanized silo-type warehouses with a capacity of 13,000 tons, and a grain elevator (25) . Two oil-storage tanks and pumps in the vicinity of the oil basin and pier had been destroyed by November 1944. Two oil-storage areas in Peresyp', (8) and (14) , were served by railroad spurs. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Billeting possibilities in- clude various identified structures (1, 2, 3,40, 41, 42, 45) , the Vorontsov Palace, Shevchenko Park with its former fortress, five libraries, hotels, and numerous museums. The city had five hospitals in 1941 (30, 31, 32, 33, 39) . Beds in maternity hospitals had declined from a prewar total of 600 to 75 by May 1944, but had increased to 225 by March 1945. The 72 prewar nurseries were all de- stroyed, but 23 had been reconstructed by March 1945. None of the 66 prewar industrial first-aid centers were functioning at the end of the German occupation, but 31 were operating by March 1945. (f) Utilities.?The city waterworks (9) draws water from White Lake (Ozero Beloye) , at a point 40 to 45 kilo- meters (25 to 28 miles) west of the city. A reservoir is located on the western shore of the lake. With the ex- ception of the oil basin (12), all docks are supplied with water from artesian wells. All piers are also provided with water pumped from the Dnepr river. Good water was available at the Intourist Hotel in September 1946. The power plant (10), with a capacity of 35,000 to 50,000 kilowatts, was providing power for only a few hours daily in April 1947, and complete failures were frequent. There are also two thermal plants with long-distance connec- tions. The current is probably alternating, 3-phase, 50- cycle, and 120/220/380 volts. The gas works (15) is to be supplemented by a 50-centi- meter (20-inch) natural-gas pipe line from Kiev, according to plans existing in April 1947. (g) Communications.?Odessa is on the main tele- phone and telegraph network, with lines north to Kolo- sovka, east-northeast to Nikolayev, north to Pervomaysk, and north-northwest to Razdel'naya, and has an auto- matic exchange for 1,500 telephones. The combined post and telegraph office (29) is connected by a one-strand underwater cable to Kilyos, in European Turkey. In addition to a broadcasting station, (the city has a coastal radio station, a mobile army station, a commercial airport station, and two intrastate radio-telegraph sta- tions, which with others total 14 radio stations. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?Most war damage around the port area had been repaired by Sep- tember 1946, although some gutted buildings remained. The heaviest damage occurred in the southwest area, especially near the intersection of the Bessarabia road and railroad. (4) Rostov-na-Donu (Rostov-on-Don) (47?13'N, 39?42'E). Rostovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 510,300 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-36 and VIII-119, 256) (a) Importance.?Rostov-na-Donu, a river port and commercial center, is also the capital of the Rostovskaya Oblast'. It is not under the jurisdiction of the oblast, but directly subordinate to the republic government. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city, with an area of 142 square kilometers (55 square miles), is situated on the banks of the Don river about 40 kilometers (25 miles) above the Sea of Azov. The Temernik river flows from the north into the Don river in the southwestern section of the city. Elevations range from 20 meters (65 feet) in the south to 90 meters (295 feet) in the northeastern sector. (c) Transportation.?Two railroad lines serve the city; one runs northeast to Novocherkassk and the other, the Severo ? Kavkaskaya Railroad, crosses the Don and Temernik rivers and connects with Bataysk and Tagan- rog. Four railroad bridges, two of which are steel, span the Don and Temernik rivers. The main railroad station, which had a classification yard, was damaged in 1942. Highways in the area are extremely poor. Three main roads extend northeast, south, and west from the city. Bottlenecks are formed in and near the city by highway bridges (35, 37, and 39) over the Don and Temernik rivers and by sharp street turns. The harbor, which accommodates both ocean and river shipping, is icebound for an average of 107 days, from the middle of December to the end of March. The water depth fluctuates considerably and is especially affected by wind direction. The harbor had moorings for 64 ships. Estimated prewar capacity of the port was 1,000 tons monthly. As of January 1944, the estimated monthly discharge capacity was 1,000 to 2,000 tons with a possible increase to 10,000 tons within six months. The port is served by 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) of railroad tracks. There were repair facilities (36) , especially for small vessels. The port was seriously damaged by enemy action and occupation, but the portions most seriously damaged are reported to have been repaired. River boats with cargoes of grain, coal, and timber travel up the Don river to Kalach and up the Donets river to Voronezh. Rostov-na-Donu is served by four airfields: one, a mili- tary and commercial airfield 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) northwest of the city; another (40) in the eastern suburb of Nakhichevan'; the third (5), a large field equipped with repair shops, located on the northern edge of the city; and the fourth, a landing field, southwest of the city. In- information regarding their present status is unavailable. (d) Industry and commerce.?The city had numerous industries in both heavy and consumer products. Among the heavy industries were shipyards, railroad-car works (25,000 workers) and car-repair shops (60,000 workers), and plants for the manufacture of munitions, machinery, chemicals, cement, lime, and zinc dye. Consumer prod- ucts included hinges, shoes, textiles, leather goods, fur- niture, radios, paper, soap, foodstuffs (canned goods, spirits, canned fish, flour), and tobacco products. Confidential Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 9[11[104#111[19[NOMIIMM Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 34 ODESSA CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL AtKA Wrii1016141[1 .315/ To riOTOVSK P0 KM Nei 6v) TO OVID) OPP, ? IS KM.SO4) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ OMM \ \ ? \ \ \ \ ? 41., \ \ \ \ TO er,nor?nrrom SO KM OIMA.4SSA 16`28'N, 5tr4)E ODESSKAYA OBLAST' 500 0 500 1000 Meters ?f 1 I r 1 1000 0 1000 2000 3000 Fe et CONFIDENTIAL Remalghty rrmod. Basic minf matmn dated 1941 reconciled with aerial pholmr raptly dated May 1941 [retails el W3r damage during the final German ono, 131.11111111311, Flown Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 # . ?,,,i1 ,,, 4,1 : i * x rt F. a - _ 1,?'-'??:,... 4 440 r.. A 4 ?4 . I/ 4-a? 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N.,r.r.,ive , . 1'' '''' '' 'VW- :',O47:!' : .? .',..k4:..;;; /1?..; . . r , WC' ? ? 4:.?: ', :.,''''' .ih.? .. .- - ?.:' - : ..;'';'. .?'-!'. . -.4: .. ?, -'?:,, ,:i" -,-; ,=> '''';,: ? ,,,,- 4,...10..,: .1.K ? & ,:. 101 - :: ..:'?.":" ,_ . , .:,,,1 ?vr ,,,, , ,. .,.,,, , ' a '.' -- ?,/ -.. - Ir. ,,,,*,- 1, g. ? g.:..o.g..,..?.0..p 3 t? .?...: 4!?.; .. ,,,? -*WV, ' 3.11.::?.. ,,?; .k . . r r ,-,, kst,,,... .? ? -, * " .-) . -, ,? :!E!.tti,. - "N..- '4' ??,,g? .,... W.; , ? ".0 .., ...., . . ? ,,, " ..t... .:,k: - ' ?., .?... . . ,?.,-, " ''-. . ,. r t ;:-.F,?. f ' Sk ' ? :;.:.{0/? 4. '' '''//ti: ' ::' ' . 't* 0,,,,.'.. ...',P , , ' -,..m -:,. .- ? ?-., ? ,., - ' ' - - , ? ' '" / - ::4'''?-"''g.i4 ''. - ? -, .? ' . .??,, .? ,. ,..5,? ? ,...: A mq ,??e?? 141,,, , .?? ?*?. :?., ? ,. , -,.- ...?. .,, ..., , ,?1?,! ., ?:?..?, ,,, ,11,,,,, ? ? .,. ... 4,v /i, . ? ? ..,...c. , , . ,,,h . . ... , ?. 4.,4. ... ... triD,,,;i4.,,0??? ,,,,, 14 .,.., - ^ , ;., - / 4a ? ? , ' NO. - - '-'?? - ,.. e vni, - ? 4 -). '''' m l'i 4,.rr? . , 4, t', ? - , ,,:?',.; ...,,, Vt3 .gtg''' ? ? .0' ?Ifi' ?4 .4; .. ? It. A . , ,,N ... ? ? ..,-i.. ,., , - op:, ,11.),,?. - ,?,:0??... , w?.,?,-.:,.:-.. ios, . ? ? ? r,, , .. - .... .' ' ' \ , I va, 4 ' ' ? ? V .?4, . ? ? :4 4 x ..,? >----- ,,,,,-- Parks or recreation streets - 0 Woods ..? , '----. ?A''' ' ./.;,,,,yii'xir-?, Destroyed areas (1944) ''t:;?J.?...,;?.-;?i Streets , -? _.... x .-xr / ,,,,,ow''? x? ., - , / '----?, ' -- -- \ CEIN ET?1, Unimproved or destroyed streets Railroad, broad gage; Identified points 0 rri _____-- , ______--------- . -.--?--'-'-'-'-'-- 1 / , ?? x A ,....0A 5. 0 "/ / 1 Single track_ -1-r--i- Double track Height in Meters ANO\:KA l'. ROM V , ( --/11 x ..., IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Government buildings 24. Platanovskiy Mole 2. High schools, institutes and universities 25. Grain elevator 3. Theaters 26. Old Quarantine Mole 2 C---- -1- - 1 - - i 0 ,,,7 \\ \ , \ - - '- ? ) '-'?!/ / I ----7-----------, , i/ , ', - -`1 l'\`_;?'4?--v -"?1 )., \,?\,-(a.'-'7J7,- ----..:=.,--*- ! 4. Tanneries 27. Port Captain's Headquarters 5. Slaughter house and stockyard 28. Customhouse 6. Odessa Peresyp'R.R. Station 29. Post and Telegraph Office \ \ - . , ' ' i -,,,, j __?_____y!._ i i - --? - I .? . - 1 \ 7. Leather plants 30. University Hospital (and Clinic) 8. Oil Storage 31. Old City Hospital 9. Waterworks 32. Mental Hospital 10. Electric power plant 33. New City Hospital 11. Flour mill 34. Streetcar barns 12. Oil Basin 35. Zastava R.R. freight station 13. Bakhmach R.R. Station 36. Zastava R.R. passenger station 14. Oil storage 37. Freight R.R. station 15. Gasworks 38. Oil pressing plant 16. Floating dock slip 39. Red Cross Hospital 17. Ship yard 40. House of Correction 18. Potapovskiy and Androsovskiy 4L Cadet Corps (school) 19. Pratique Basin 42. Artillery School 20. Navy Mole 43. Nursery Garden 21. Cabotage (coal and costal shipping) Basin 44. Botanical Garden 22. New Mole 45. 23. New Basin 46. Main R.R. Station , _ --' ,,,,,:, __,..- ,,,.-/ _..-- _,...- ___..- _ - ,- ___-. _ -- _ _ _ _ - 2' , , , -- - --"-/ __ , - ; \ \ \ I \ r r . . \ --- 1--i I I 1 i \ \ I r 1 I . I I _i_. I ___ 1 i ??? I-- Illikr -r. -L/ A---1- ?'? / (., '? ' ---/ ' i 7 -2- %V , , , ,,, / , ..-- / KRIVAYA E / C_____ Annrnwarl FrIr Palaaca 9nnling/1 A ? rIA-PriP7Q-n1 1 A.A.Annn9nnni nnng_i Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 .R.(...?)S1'0V-N.A.H.D(.??)Nrt.?7 (ROSTOV-ON-DON) T,?;?9"'-.12'E R'..?0S'ITYVSK A.-VA ()RI.,AS11" K dompte rs 0 1 11=11111 1 Mile CONFIDENTIAL !tenability generally fair. Incomplete tunic information parhally reconciled with aerial photography of about 1942 rolormatron on extent of war darnape Incomplete and details on post war plarnann not known ? .1/1 OoO 1 !? A , ?- '1\ )1 IL II 1- ' 1 Li 0 ro1J21,,,ery pvt? \,Ternernik JT a/ 11 11- \ , 1 _IC; 8clyov Os1 22 OZE1.1() TSYGAN.HOYE( TO BAT..;1,511. 10 1,01\ To BATA V.SN loom TA? Parks (largely V.721 destroyed) 4- Pasture Cemetery E 11'1 Meadow Brushwood LiS1 F1T. Marsh FEE'..11 Reeds River / Diana Brook Bridge Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010ffi3'r RE VIII -36 ROSTOV-NA-DONU CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL 0 IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Rest Homes 2. Transport Engineers Institute 3. Financial Institute 4. "Rostov" aircraft factory 5. "Rostov IV" airfieki with repair shops 6. "Rostsel'mash" agricultural machinery factory 7. Farm machinery plant with 8,000 kilowatt power plant B. Market 9. Stadium 10. "Nakhichevan- railroad station It. Stockyards arid slaughterhouse 12. Power plant 13. Race track 14. Stadium 15. Stadium 16. "First of May" square 17. Hospital 18. Market 19. Hospital 20. Cement mixers plant 21. Metalware factory 22. Stadium 23. Hay market 24. Market 25. Municipal hospital with university clinics 26. Old market 27. Main railroad station 28. Railroad shops 29. "Rabochnaya" square 30. Stadium 31. "Kamyshevakha" ravine 32. Gas works 33. Cement and tile plant 34. Sawmill 35. Ponton 36. Shipyards 37. Ponton highway bridge (10 ton capacity) (destroyed during war) 38. Farm machinery plant 39. Wooden highway bridge (10 ton capacity)(destroyed during war) 40. "Nakhichevan'" airfield 41. Railroad through truss lift bridge (temporary war replacement east of main bridge) Numbers Not Circled 1 Hotel 5 Technical School 2 Club 6 Museum 3 Movie 7 Theater 4 High School 8 Monument ? 0 ? , ' j -t1 1r,_C-ii----1, ' mai:3 I ,DON Vi9 Ennio ILJUDIEJOD--\\\\\ _ - iv Landing _ iad station Don Nakhichevan ' Landing _ - ? -railroad station ? OSTROV ZELENY - . Street car line Hotel ? ? Trolley busses Club Identified point ? Movie = Through street ? High school Urban areas a Technical school Industrial areas ? Museum Steamboat Theater _ _ routes . Monument Destroyed areas . Anchorage I I Broad gage railroad, single track double track Ill Combined streetcar and trolley busses TO EIPTAYSK 0KM. Annroved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 665.555 6.48 Confidential' Approved For Release 2003/05&11:Egli$ARPRIM4A000200010008-1 War damage to industry was severe, but it is reported that before January 1944 over 100 industrial plants had been reconstructed within a year. Although complete information regarding reconstruction is not available, recent data on a few of the plants have been obtained. The Molotov Combine, a very large plant producing farm machinery of all types, is located on the west side of the Novocherkassk ? Rostov railroad line, about 16 kilometers (10 miles) east-northeast of Rostov (1944). Another farm machinery plant, the Rostel'mash, produces a re- ported 12,000 combines annually, as well as other types of agricultural machinery. Destroyed during the Ger- man occupation, the plant was in the process of recon- struction in 1946. An aircraft factory, No. 168, located I kilometer (0.6 mile) northeast of Rostov and employing 1,500 workmen, produced approximately 70 single-engine, two-seater training planes monthly in 1946. The Mek- hanicheskiy Zavod, a factory for army boats, employs 350 workers. This plant, which is located in the western section of the city, has been supplied with dismantled German machinery (1946). There were two state farms in the vicinity of Rostov- na-Donu. The area was noted for the breeding of merino sheep and for fruit growing. The wide belt of orchards and woods, which protected the city from the dry steppe winds, was destroyed. By the spring of 1944, 140,000 trees had reportedly been planted to replace those de- stroyed. In 1935 there were over 100 warehouses, with a capacity of 12,000 metric tons and a floor space of 96,000 square meters (1,033,000 square feet), of which 70' ; was for grain. Five of these warehouses were of reinforced-concrete con- struction, with an area of 4,558 square meters (49,000 square feet) each and were located on the left bank of the Don near the inner basin. They were serviced by three traveling tower grain loaders, one floating elevator, one 45-metric-ton crane, and one 13.5-metric-ton crane. There were also five vegetable storehouses and one cold- storage plant. (e) Billeting.?Billeting facilities included hotels, military schools, and barracks. Many of these buildings were undoubtedly destroyed or damaged during the war. (f) Utilities.?By the end of 1943, 150 kilometers (93 miles) of sewers and 250 kilometers (155 miles) of water FIGURE VIII-35. Rostov-na-Donu. Experimental work on steam heating the city. The first steam heating conduits in the USSR are being laid directly in the ground insulated only by a cheap straw casing. They have acetylene welded joints. Before 1934. Original Page VIII-27 main are reported to have been rebuilt. Before the war the city had a municipal power plant (12) which has since been restored, and seven other plants, most of which were for industrial purposes. Central steam heating was in- troduced in 1934 (FIGURE VIII-35). The city was supplied with oil from the Armavir ? Trudovaya pipe line. (g) Communications.?Communication facilities in- cluded a post office, a radio-telegraph station, a broad- casting station and 10 other radio stations. In 1944, a 35,000-telephone system was repaired. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?The city suf- fered war damage or destruction to the extent of 1,700,000 square meters (18,300,000 square feet). Plans for recon- struction included new street routings and the addition of squares and park. The central area was to be on a larger scale and to have a number of squares. (5) Dnepropetrovsk (formerly Yekaterinoslav) (48 27'N, 35 03'E). Dnepropetrovskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Population: 500,700 in 1939; estimated at 600,000 in 1946. (FIGURES VIII-37 and VIII-119, 210) (a) Importance.?Dnepropetrovsk, the oblast capital, is the largest lumber center in Ukrainian SSR. It is near the Donets coal basin, in the vicinity of salt mines and iron and manganese-ore deposits. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is situated on the southwest bank of the Dnepr river in the steppe region. The industrial town of Nizhne-Dneprovsk is across the river; northeast of the city are two workers' settlements, Podgorodnoye and Kulebovka. (c) Transportation.?Railroads connect with Kras- noarmeyskoye and the Donets coal basin, with Novomos- kovsk, and with Kherson (241). There are several rail- road stations (3, 6, 48, 49, 53), and a classification yard. Two bridges cross the Dnepr river; one a railroad bridge (72), the other a combined two-level railroad and high- way bridge (71) . Highways run to Khar'kov 208, Nikopol' (243) , Zaporozh'ye 250, and Krivoy Rog (242). Other transportation facilities include a harbor and basin (1) ; a landing for ships of the State Upper Dnepr Steamship Company (2) ; and 5 landing fields of which 3 have per- manent facilities. (d) Industry and commerce.?Of prime importance are the metallurgical plants (58, 60, 61, 65, 66, 67). Of the total prewar production in the USSR of cast iron, steel, and rolled products 33 was produced in Dnepropetrovsk. Among new or reconstructed plants in operation since 1944 are the Karl Liebknekht (Trubostal) steel mill (66) in Nizhne-Dneprovsk; Promparazov locomotive repair plant; Kalinin coke-chemical plant, with 2,500 square meters (26,900 square feet) of living space for workers; and a foundry shop. A large truck factory was started; production was planned for 30,000 vehicles, but had not started at the beginning of 1947. An automobile factory may be in production. Other plants operating before the war, about which information regarding their present status is lacking, include the "Lenin" rolling mill (10) ; a gunpowder and explosive factory; chemical warfare agent plants; the Petrovskiy metal works (with at least two blast furnaces) employing 35,000 workers in three shifts in 1937; Khatayevich plant for smelting equipment; Karl Marks steel rolling mill (65) ; Spartak spade (rolling) plant; Komintern and Dzerzhinskiy metallurgical plants; Molotov paving materials works; railroad car shop; loco- motive repair shops; and a shipyard. Other industries were leather, fur, furniture, woodworking, paper food- stuffs and beverages. Steel pipes were produced for gas conduits in the Lenin prisoner-of-war camp. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-28 Approved For Release 200j3(9 46CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Commercially, Dnepropetrovsk. is the largest lumber center in the Ukrainian SSR, and is an important grain and coal center. There were facilities for fuel storage (79). (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Barracks (4, 75 to 78) , schools, scientific institutes, and hotels provided billeting facilities. The city had several hospitals and sanatoria, but information regarding their present status is lacking. (f) Utilities.?There was a waterworks (20) . A steam power plant (16) with a capacity of 30,000 kilowatts is reported. (g) Communications.?Facilities included post (21) , telephone, and telegraph offices, a radio-telegraph station, and a broadcasting station. In 1944, a new automatic telephone exchange for 3,000 subscribers was made avail- able, and a new, powerful broadcasting station was built. Four other radio stations are in operation. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?Over 4,800 residences and many industrial plants were destroyed, but by April 1944, 20,000 square meters (23,920 square yards) had been reconstructed. (6) Stalino (Hughesovka, Yuzovka, or Yuzovo) (47?58'N, 37?48'E). Stalinskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Popula- tion: 462,400 in January 1939; estimated at 462,000 in 1941. (FIGURES VIII-38 and VIII-119, 252) (a) Importance.?Stalino, the capital of Stalinskaya Oblast', is located in rich coal and iron ore fields. Its industries are chiefly consumers of these minerals. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located in the western part of the Donets Basin on the unnavigable Kal'mius river. It occupies about 40 square kilometers (15 square miles) at a fairly uniform elevation of 110 meters (361 feet) . Public gardens and boulevards cover an area of 6.5 square kilometers (2.5 square miles) . (c) Transportation.?Single-track rail lines extend in four directions. Highways are numerous; excluding branches formed outside the city, there are at least seven exit roads. The city has an airfield capable of operational use by heavy bombers. In 1939 the city streetcar line totaled 42 kilometers (26 miles). (d) Industry and commerce.?Substantial deposits of coal and iron ore are found in the vicinity. The Lidi- yevka Donbass mines Nos. 2-7 use mining machines. Monthly productivity per machine was about 4,207 tons in 1940 or earlier, was below this figure in February 1947, but had been increased to 5,890 tons by March 1947. The principal industries, (including metallurgical and chemical works) are consumers of coal and iron ore. A structure with numerous smokestacks, which stood in the western part of the city in July 1944, is believed to be the Stalin metal works. Metal-fabrication industries include a gun factory, a tractor combine, and a machinery plant. There are two munitions factories. Chemical in- stallations include a nitrogen plant, a powder and explo- sives plant, and one plant the specific products of which are not known. Light industries include production of shoes and other leather goods, woodworking, and meat processing. An underground dynamite storage facility is located about 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) northeast of the city and 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) west of the main highway. It for- merly supplied all coal mines in the region. In July 1944, the only surface structures were a small secret police (MVD) barracks and watchtowers on each street corner. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Information on these fa- cilities is lacking. However, it is known that residential Confidential structures provided 930,000 square meters (10 million square feet) of floor space in 1939. (f) Utilities.?In 1939 the city had a water supply system comprising 64 kilometers (40 miles) of water mains, and a sewerage system totaling 35.5 kilometers (22 miles) of pipes. A steam power plant with an installed capacity of 22,000 kilowatts is reported restored. (g) Communications.?Stalino is on the telephone- telegraph network and reportedly has lines north to Avde- yevka Pervaya, northeast to Parokachka, and south to Rutchenkovo. An automatic telephone exchange was un- der construction in 1945. Radio facilities include a broad- casting station, two intrastate radio-telegraph stations, and a commercial airport radio station. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?Postwar infor- mation is generally lacking. (7) Stalingrad (formerly Tsaritsyn) (43'40'N, 44 30'E). Stalingradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 500,000 in 1941; over 300,000 in January 1947; 600,000 (planned). (FIGURES VIII-41 and VIII-119, 197) (a) Importance.?Stalingrad was founded in 1615 and began to grow after 1862. Although it is the oblast capital, the municipality itself is not under the jurisdiction of the oblast but of the RSFSR. It is a river port, the greatest lumber-trading center in the Volga area, and an important manufacturing center. (b) Physical characteristics.?Stalingrad stretches for 50 kilometers (31 miles) along the right bank of the Volga, averages 5 kilometers in maximum width, and is built partly on bluffs which line the bank. Gullies cut the area. (c) Transportation.?There are railroad connections with Likhaya, the Donets Basin, Sarepta, Povorino, and with the Caucasus by ferry across the Volga river to a railroad line. No main highways run through Stalingrad, but roads intersect from Krasnoarmeyskoye and Kach- alinskaya. Before the war there were steamer landing places on the right bank of the Volga river and at least one airfield. Now there are 8 airfields, 3 of them with perma- nent facilities. Rebuilding plans call for rail lines within the city to run in cuttings below the street level. There were 120 kilometers (74.5 miles) of street railway tracks destroyed, but these are being replaced by a high-speed electric train system with local bus line feeders. Within the city, the replanned streets will follow natural contours rather than the prewar gridiron pattern. Three main road arteries connect subdevelopments over a distance of 50 kilometers (31 miles). The rectangular open space on the embank- ment at the city's center will be connected to the old city square by a broad avenue and will become the new civic center. Main streets are to be 30 meters (98.4 feet) wide and paved with concrete or asphalt. The lower arterial road connects the center of the city with the big Stalin- grad Park and with the industrial section; this road is closest to the river. The central arterial road connects the residential areas with the center of the city. The upper arterial road, running along the western outskirts, is the main motor road for heavy traffic. (d) Industry and commerce.?Prewar Stalingrad was an important industrial center. Most of the industrial capacity was destroyed during the fighting, but reports indicate that considerable reconstruction has been done and in some cases new factories are being built. The Krasny Oktyabr' metallurgical plant (3) had a built-up area in November 1941 of approximately 243,000 square meters (2,614,680 square feet) . By November 1944, Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1FIGURE VIII - 37 DNEPROPETROVSK CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL lit141111111 0 I ' RI 1180188KKMMK111 -r TO NOVOMOSKOVSX. MNIIMIIMVIIIM17,111TINM11101.11111t11111111111-11, ??? 1?-? - , ? ir /ittatRUNFPR6VSK - - ------- . 0/7.1---'/1.--.,, sis. - /7 /, - ? ?.? - -,p, --....Y ,c.,---..---.,-2 0 ,?--,...,,,,---...,:, c.----..._ it, -.*r ? , -,. N\ , .,-,--,-= ..., ?..., h? ? .1/ t,e - -- , -',V._ . 1 0 . ri -1111.:10, rI Approved For Release 200 kl5/14 : CIA-RDP79-01144A000 001 008-1 ERS-AMS 6-48 Approved For Release 2003/05114: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 DNEPROPETROVSK 2:0 KAK\ ORISNINO 80 KIK DNEPROPETROVSK MP PAP LOOM., ISO KM ANDREPEWK ? VS KM 4/a , 11 L11_ --3 1;1 1ZSGO C Utitc3,0 11 1 a-1,g No information available Anthracite mine No information available z ?oviopoe PIO R R Airfield Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/alriESIAXRPT8M4A000200010008-1 Page VIII-29 the plant had eight open-hearth furnaces operating. Al- though destroyed by the Germans, it is gradually being re- stored. The 1946 goal was reached and the quota of smelt- ing furnaces was exceeded by 8,600 tons of steel. Open- hearth furnaces, each of 100-ton capacity, began operating in 1946, and other sections had begun operating by Janu- ary 1947. The Dzerzhinskiy tractor plant (1) produced 5,000 trac- tors annually; in 1930 there were 5,000 workers. The Sta- lingrad tractor plant, with slow rehabilitation, had pro- duced 8,000 tractors by the end of January 1947. In Feb- ruary and March production was below quota. There were long delays in receiving equipment. On 20 April 1947, the 10,000th tractor was completed. This plant, with 12,000 employees, is claimed to produce 35 tractors per day, 75'/ of prewar production. In June 1947, the plant appeared to be modern and well-equipped. Chemical combine No. 91, at Otradnoye on the right bank of the Volga, 16 kilometers (10 miles) south-south- west of Stalingrad, had a built-up area of about 37,500 square meters (403,500 square feet) in December 1941. A shipyard (6) , in operation since 1931, by the end of 1941 produced 120 vessels including large diesel-powered refrigerator ships and welded oil barges. In spite of dam- age from bombing, the shipyard remained in operation during the war repairing tanks and river craft and making steel turrets. About July 1947, a 3,000-ton river boat was launched. Planned capacity will exceed prewar level seven times by 1950. The Krasnaya Barrikada (2), one of two gun factories, was restored in 1944. Motor vehicles were produced in the Gor'kiy works. There were a large oil refinery and fuel-oil storage installations (4). New shoe factories were being built in December 1946. Other industries included soap, leather, lumber, furniture, brick, and flour. There were two munitions works, a chemical warfare agent plant, and two tank and combat-car plants. There are deposits of fire-resistant clay and quartz sand near the city. Commercially, Stalingrad has been the lumber center of the Volga area. Prewar storage facilities included an artillery arsenal. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Hotels, military schools, and scientific institutes would provide potential billeting facilities. There were several hospitals. (f) Utilities.?During the fighting in Stalingrad, 300 kilometers (186 miles) of water mains were destroyed. Power plants were destroyed; but some have been re- stored. The main power plant, located near Beketovka Station, operated by coal, has been reported restored to a capacity of 150,000 kilowatts. There is a municipal power station with a capacity of 30,000 kilowatts (1943) ; two other industrial power plants totaling 74,000 kilowatts have probably been restored. It is planned to use available natural gas along the Volga river for central heating plants or stations. Gas will be supplemented by coal and oil, if necessary. Excess heat from industrial plants will also be utilized. (g) Communications.?Before the war there were post and telegraph offices, a radio broadcasting station. Postwar information shows that there is a new automatic exchange for 1,000 telephones and three additional radio stations. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?During the battle of Stalingrad, in 1942-1943, the city was almost en- tirely destroyed. However, plans have been formulated for rebuilding, and reconstruction has already been un- Original FIGURE Stalingrad. Postwar reconstruction. War damage at end of siege (top) ; restored buildings and streets, with small busses again in oper- ation (below) . 1943 and 1946. FIGURE Stalingrad. Model of proposed replanned civic center, looking eastward. 1946. Approved For Release 2003/05/14 : CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-30 Approved For Release 209Wio CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential dertaken (FIGURE VIII-39). The civic center is to be re- vised in an elaborate manner (FIGURE VIII-40). The city will be divided into units with parks; residen- tial areas will have direct access to a new embankment along the Volga river, and the height of buildings along the embankment and in other sections will be restricted. Four- and five-storied buildings will be erected in central sections only; along embankments the average will be two stories; and houses to be located on the second terrace will be small. (8) Riga (Riga) (56?57'N, 24?05'E). Latvia. Popula- tion: 385,000 in 1935; estimated 480,000 in 1946. (FIGuREs VIII-43 and VIII-119, 86) (a) Importance.?Riga, aside from its status as capi- tal of Latvia, is a cultural and economic center, and the largest port of that state. (b) Physical characteristics.?Riga is situated on both sides of the Daugava (Zapadnaya Dvina) river, 15 kilometers (9.5 miles) above its mouth (at the Gulf of Riga, Rigas Juras Licis) . The river is about 800 meters (0.5 mile) wide at this point and contains a series of islands. The Lielupe river empties into the Daugava just below the city. Rigas Jarmala (Riga Beach) is located 18 kilometers (11 miles) westward, between the Gulf of Riga and the Lielupe river. It consists of the following resorts: Prie- daMe, Lielupe, Bulduri, Avoti, Dzintari, Majori, Dubulti, Melluzi, and Asari. The oldest part of the city of Riga, a fortress until 1857, is on the right bank. It is distinguished by its two public squares and its narrow crooked streets (FIGURE VIII-42). FIGURE VIII-42. Riga. Center of city looking northwestward. Typical Baltic States town. Prewar. The new sections, on both right and left banks, have wider streets with fewer turns. Church spires are landmarks. Elevation varies from about 0.2 meters (0.7 feet) along the river to 10 meters (33 feet) on the east and 15 meters (49 feet) on the west. The total area of the city is about 211 square kilometers (81 square miles) ; the total area, excluding water, is about 175 square kilometers (68 square miles). (c) Transportation.?Double-track lines * provide rail service by two routes south-southeast, and by one route to the southwest. Single-track lines run west and north- west. A second route to the northwest may be double- track. All are wide gage. The city had 19 passenger and freight stations, of which eight have been identified (6, 13, 14, 24, 26, 29, 30, 33). Other important points include the *More recent information states that in 1947 these lines were single-track for some distance out of the city. Confidential large junction yard and the combined highway and rail- road bridge (28). Six highways provide connections northeast, southeast, south-southeast, south, southwest, and west-southwest. A seventh extends westward to Riga Jtiirmala. Motor traffic crosses the Daugava over two bridges (27 and 28). Although the Daugava river is frozen between December and February, the flow of traffic is maintained by use of ice breakers. The prewar harbor could accommodate ves- sels of up to 7.3-meter (24-foot) draft, and had 5.5 kilo- meters (3.4 miles) of improved quays with transfer equip- ment, some with rail connections. In March 1946, the docks and naval harbor could accommodate ships of up to 8,000 tons. By September of the same year, it was planned that the entire working area of the wharves (10,000 square meters, or 107,600 square feet) would be rebuilt in con- crete. Extensive reconstruction was under way by March 1947. In June, it was reported that increasing amounts of construction equipment and material were being shipped from Rostock, and that an unloading platform had been installed. This project, with an appropriation of 80 million rubles, is the largest item of Latvia's partici- pation in the current Five-Year Plan. The plan contem- plates increasing harbor capacity by 150%, with the addi- tion of new concrete piers, marine railways, and motorized loading equipment. Air facilities at Riga include a field located on the left bank of the Daugava and west of the city (19) , 2 other fields, and 2 auxiliary seaplane bases at Ki?evers Lake) to the north-northeast. Minor airfields also were located at Bolderaja and at two other places near Riga. The old city has narrow crooked streets; those in the newer sections are wider and straighter. Although it is reported that streetcars are being replaced by trolley busses, plans existing at the close of 1946 called for ex- pansion of the streetcar system as a whole. A fleet of 50 cars was to be installed, and improved service was to be extended to the suburbs of Daugavgriva Jaunciems, Belluciems, and the cement factory area. A fleet of ferries was also contemplated. The road to Milgravis had been asphalted, and a bridge 226 meters (741 feet) in length was being built at the confluence of the Milgravja Caur- teka. (d) Industry and commerce.?Riga's prewar indus- tries were largely metalworking, electrical, and chemical. Although industries suffered heavy war damage, the ship- yards and principal factories had been restored to opera- tion by the spring of 1947. Shipbuilding was an important industry. The Latvian State Shipyards, which produced submarines during the war, employed 10,000 workers according to the most recent postwar information. The product at that time was not known. In addition, two ship-repair yards were in opera- tion in 1946. Armament may be produced at several plants. The for- mer Latvian Tractor Factory, which employs 8,000 work- ers, was operating on a quota of two T-34 tanks daily in March 1947. An automobile plant, with 6,000 workers, was producing the same item. Shop 29, a tank- and trac- tor-repair plant, was located at the railroad station. Facilities for rail equipment included the Vairog rail- road car shops and the Rizhskiy Vagonostroiterny Zavod trolley-car plant. The latter was rehabilitated by Janu- ary 1947 and was then engaged in the manufacture of rolling stock for the new suburban trolley line from Riga to Rigas Jarmala. Among other metalworking plants was the Riga bicycle plant, which had been reconstructed, enlarged, and Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential CITIES AND TOWNS Page VIII-31 equipped by April 1947. Its quota for that year was 20,000 bicycles, and a planned output of 100,000 annually was to be achieved by 1950. A rubber factory located near the railroad station pro- duces automobile and bicycle tires, rubberized clothing, and other rubber products. The electrical and radio industries are of considerable importance. A large radio and radar factory, located at the naval port, in its postwar operation employed about a thousand German prisoner-of-war specialists under strict supervision. Electrical apparatus was also produced at the Etalon and Avto-Elektropribor plants. Chemical plants produced both ammunition (Rizhskiy Sudoremontny Zavod plant) and pharmaceuticals. A china factory, located at the edge of town near the Skiro- tava railroad station, was converted to production of phosphorus inserts for incendiary bombs, of which it pro- duced 7 million between October and December 1945. Prewar industries included leather tanning and shoe manufacture. The shoe factories were being restored and new units were being built in December 1946. Other products included construction materials (as- phalt, cement, tiles, wood, glass) and consumer goods (foodstuffs, canned goods, tobacco, textiles, paper) . Prewar storage included considerable military goods (arsenals, munitions dumps, quartermaster stores, and an automotive pool). Refrigeration and storage facilities were located at the harbor. No specific information is available as to reconstruction of these facilities; however, the expansion of port facilities has included construction of a new warehouse. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?In addition to billeting facilities at identified points (1, 15, 23, and 25) , there are 12 large hotels, various schools and educational structures, and the buildings occupied by Latvian ministries and by 21 foreign embassies before Soviet annexation. There are many boarding houses and about 20 thousand summer cot- tages at Rigas Jfirmala. A large camp is located at Kikvers. In addition to the eight city hospitals (2), there are tuberculosis and various sanitaria at Rigas Jfirmala. (f) Utilities.?Information concerning water supply is limited. There were several prewar water towers. Six prewar power plants were located in or near Riga: a) the municipal plant (21) , which had 985 transformers in its network and produced 88,342,400 kilowatt-hours in 1937; b) a plant located near Jugla, east of Riga on the Riga-Tint-2'i highway; c) the Augstprieds plant, about 23 kilometers (14.3 miles) east of Riga and north of Ik?kile, exact location unknown; d) the Dobelnieki plant, 27 kilometers (16.8 miles) east of Riga and 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) north of Ik?kile; e) an underground plant at Babites Ezers (lake) ; and f) the Kegums power station, on the Daugava river. Information on war damage is gen- erally lacking, although the Kegums plant is known to have been destroyed. The dam and two turbines had been restored by December 1946, and it was planned to expand the installation to several times its prewar capacity. This plant now has a capacity of 51,000 kilowatts. The charac- teristics of current distribution are: a.c., 3-phase, 50-cycle, and 220/380 volts. There were two gas plants before the war. (g) Communications.?The prewar city had postal, telegraph, and telephone service. It also had a radio transmitter (three towers) and a military radio station. Most of these services have probably been restored. Four radio stations, including one broadcasting station, are re- ported (1946) in operation. Original (h) War damage and reconstruction.?Riga suffered extensive war damage, particularly with respect to its port facilities and industries. Little specific information is available as to the extent of destruction, but a considerable amount of reconstruction has been accomplished. In some instances, plants or facilities will be rebuilt on a larger scale. (9) L'vov (Lwow, Lvyv, or Lemberg) (49?56'N, 24?02'E). L'vovskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Population: 317,800 in 1937. Population analysis of March 1947: 85% or more, Russian, 10% Ukrainian, 2% Polish. (FIGURES VIII-44 and VIII-119, 227) (a) Importance.?L'vov is the capital of L'vovskaya Oblast', a commercial center, and important rail junction. Planned additions to its present industries will make it an important industrial center. The university (16) and citadel (17) may serve as land- marks. In 1931, there were 14,058 dwellings. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located on the Pel'tev river, a tributary of the Bug, and is surrounded by wooded mountains. The urban area is about 56 square kilometers (21.6 square miles) , varying in elevation from 320 meters (1,050 feet) in the north and west to 340 meters (1,115 feet) in the east, with an intermediate level of 330 meters (1,083 feet) in the south. The older, central sec- tion is made up of congested structures and narrow wind- ing streets. The surrounding sections, of more recent construction, are more spacious, with parks, gardens, and wide streets. On the outskirts are numerous suburban developments.. (c) Transportation.?Eight rail lines extend from L'vov, providing service in most directions. There are numerous stations (3, 6, 13, 19, 21, 25). The main station (19) , which had repair shops, locomotive sheds, and vari- ous other facilities, was destroyed during the war but was being rebuilt by April 1947. Six main highways, plus two minor roads (the latter alternate routes to Kolodruby) , carry traffic in and out of L'vov. There were two airfields (military and civilian) before the war. One field, located 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) from the city, is known to have been destroyed. A new office building had been constructed and some repairs effected by April 1947. On this date, a military hangar was re- ported to have been recently completed at one of these fields. An electrified street railway has car barns (18, 20) and repair shops. (d) Industry and commerce.?Production of ma- chines and parts, particularly precision types, was among the most important prewar industries. The city had both foundries and producers of finished end products, such as railroad equipment, small arms, armatures, and files. Aluminum was also produced. A large petroleum refinery with storage tanks is served by a railroad spur. Chemical production included both commercial or in- dustrial types and chemical warfare agents (the latter pro- duced at a plant in Vinniki). An oxygen plant, destroyed by the Germans, was fully restored by April 1947, and a new branch had been planned for carbide production. Various other factories produced paper, soap, bricks, tex- tiles, shoes, alcohol, and ceramics, including enamelware. Among food products were flour (three motorized mills) , beer, canned goods, sugar, and margarine. L'vov will become an important industrial center if the objectives of the Fourth Five-Year Plan are realized. First Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Page VI 11-32 JANIS 40 Confidential priority is being given to expansion of machine-construc- tion facilities, with emphasis on construction of precision and electrotechnical machines. Other projected plants will assemble automobiles and agricultural machinery and produce electric light bulbs and telephone-telegraph equipment. Prewar L'vov was an important commercial center, deal- ing in agricultural products, petroleum, and lumber. Storage facilities included two storehouse areas, food and clothing warehouses, oil storage installations, a large powder magazine, and two large munitions-storage in- stallations. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Prewar billeting facili- ties included a number of barracks (three infantry, two cavalry, two artillery, and at least one each armored, en- gineering, quarantine, police and secret service). Eleven additional places including a hospital, fairground, sta- dium, and sports fields, were used for quartering troops. Military and police command buildings were also avail- able. Structures of political use included the Party Build- ing, the city and oblast administration buildings, and the city hall. Schools, institutes, and the university occupied other structures (including a university library) . Vari- ous other possibilities included the museum, the railroad administration building and the hotels. In prewar times six hospitals, one military, plus a sana- torium and university clinics were available for billets. (f) Utilities.?The prewar water supply system was destroyed but was fully restored by November 1946 accord- ing to a report which also described the system as having 42.4 kilometers (26.3 miles) of incoming mains, a distri- bution network of 215 kilometers (133.5 miles) , 7 water- supply stations, and a capacity of 35,000 cubic meters (9,000,000 gallons) daily (a supply of 100 liters, or 26.4 gallons, per person). The municipal power plant (24) had a prewar capacity of 25,900 kilowatts and transmitted 5,500-volt current. A report of November 1946 claims complete restoration of prewar capacity, including two substations (serving trol- leys) with a general capacity of over 5,000 kilowatts. It is planned to increase the municipal plant capacity to 444,000 kilowatts, and to provide reserves by construction of a new L'vov-Borislavskiy power circuit. Other prewar power plants were operated in conjunction with a railroad (560 kilowatts) , a shoe factory (113 kilo- watts) , and a brewery (208 kilowatts). The city gas works and distributing stations were built in 1858. Gas supply was doubled in 1941 following con- struction of a supply pipe line 75 kilometers (46.6 miles) in length and 30 centimeters (12 inches) in diameter. Dis- tribution is effected through two high-pressure pipe lines, one for industrial and central heating, the other for gen- eral use. Daily gas supply is reported to have increased from 60,000 cubic meters (2.1 million cubic feet) in 1939 to 500,000 cubic meters (17.7 million cubic feet) by early 1947. The present situation with respect to water, power, and gas supply is probably not as favorable as reported, since observers have stated that all three services are inade- quate. (g) Communications.?L'vov is a main switching sta- tion on the main telephone-telegraph netWork, with nine lines as follows: 1) north to Zholkhva, 2) northeast to Kamenka-Bugskaya, 3) east to Krasne, 4) southeast to Potutory, 5) south-southeast to Rogatin, 6) south to Stryy, 7) southwest to Rudki, 8) west to Przemysl, and 9) west- southwest to Yavorov. A new automatic telephone ex- Confidential change was completed in 1945. The post and telegraph offices are supplemented by branch offices. Wireless facilities include radio-telegraph, three broad- casting stations, and four official radio stations for air service. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?War damage was not extensive; the main railroad station, an airfield, and some scattered buildings were destroyed. (10) Zaporozh'ye (formerly Aleksandrovsk) (47048'N, 35?11'E). Zaporozhskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Popu- lation: 289,200 in January 1939; 290,000 in 1941. (FIG- URES VIII-46 and VIII-119, 250) (a) Importance.?Zaporozh'ye, the capital of its oblast, was a prewar center of the metallurgical industry, with one of the largest steel mills in the USSR. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city occupies an area of 128 square kilometers (49 square miles) on the left bank of the Dnepr river near the Dnepro-GES power plant and the dam (2, 1) . Elevation varies from about 16 me- ters (52 feet) on the river bank to 50 meters (164 feet) in the southeast and 70 meters (230 feet) in the northeast. The street pattern is generally gridiron, with consider- able irregularity in the older sections. Some housing de- velopments are modern in style (FIGURE VIII-45) . FIGURE VIII-45. Zaporozh'ye. Type "D" residential area, showing typical modern construction and design. Note open areas. (c) Transportation.?Railroads extend in four direc- tions and make use of five stations (5 to 9) . There are sev- eral railroad bridges, plus a combination railway-highway bridge (4) . In September 1942, it appeared that the mid- dle span of the combination bridge had been destroyed. A main highway from the north provides connections south and east-southeast. The Dnepr dam (1) is used as a street and railroad bridge, and several smaller struc- tures span a canal and the Dnepr tributaries. A canal with locks (3) enables large ships to pass the otherwise impassable rapids at the Dnepr dam. A 'mili- tary harbor and an airfield (10) are the only other known prewar transportation facilities. In 1946 there were 5 airfields, 4 with permanent facilities. (d) Industry and commerce.?Zaporozh'ye was a cen- ter of prewar metallurgical industry, with production of iron and steel, copper, aluminum, and manganese. The Zaporozhstal' steel plant (12) , one of the largest in the country, was reportedly being re-equipped with machines and equipment from Leningrad in May 1947. 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Notwithstanding the Soviet expansions elsewhere, especially in the Moscow area and in the Urals, Leningrad is still a major manu- facturing center with a ring of industrial plants circling the densely built-up central portions. Much of this is heavy industry and includes a number of shipyards and naval shipbuilding plants. Eleven railroad routes enter the city area and converge on five terminals. A large port is still under development to the southwest. Main highways radiate north into the Karelian Isthmus, south to Moscow, and southwest into the Baltic SSR's. From the winter of 1941 through 1942, the prewar popu- lation of the city was reduced, through evacuation, death, and disease, to bel iv 2,000,000 people. However, by 1946, the population had been restored to some 2,800,000, and it is contemplated that the population will increase to 3,500,000. For new construction, the planned maximum population will be 49,400 persons per square kilometer, with a maximum average for the entire city of 59,300 (200 and 240 persons per acre, respectively) . Because the area of Leningrad is limited this density is considerably greater than that of Moscow. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city lies on the delta of the Neva river and spreads 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the Fortress of St. Peter and St. Paul (104) and 11 kilometers (7 miles) south-southeast; the city is about half as wide as it is long. The Neva river enters the city in a northerly direction and makes an abrupt right-angle bend to the west before it fans out into the delta. The entire area is low, varying from sea level to 5 meters (16 feet) in the southern and eastern sections, and to 10 meters (33 feet) in the northern section. Low-lying por- tions are liable to flooding in the autumn. In the harbor area to the southwest, considerable made-land exists. The only high land lies to the south-southwest around Nizh- nyeye Kovrovo, 18 kilometers (11 miles) from the Fortress of St. Peter and St. Paul (104) . This land, on which stood the now-destroyed Leningrad Observatory, was used by the Germans as their artillery observation point. The built- up area of Leningrad is small, approximately 59 square kilometers (23 square miles) , as compared with Moscow. Prewar Leningrad was limited in its open areas. Small sections in the badly damaged areas are being converted into parks, especially along the river fronts (FicarBE VIII-94) . (c) Transportation 1. EXTERNAL a. Rail.?Leningrad, as the second most impor- tant city in the entire USSR, is the center of a network of lines of the Oktyabr'skaya Railroad radiating in all directions. Tracks leaving the five passenger terminals (82, 149, 176, 206, 227) , of which four are located in the southern or main city area, separate into 11 routes, includ- ing the main line to Moscow 107, and the important route to Murmansk 3. Within the city, intercommunication across the Neva river is provided by a single-track railroad bridge (189) with a contiguous elevated structure (TABLE VIII-12), which forms part of the semicircular belt line serving all routes and connects with the harbor and the major manufacturing plants. Facilities for handling Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Page VIII-60 Approved For Release 209A.Vio CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential freight are located at strategic points, with special em- phasis on rail-ship transshipment. Several large storage areas are also served by this belt line (Chapter VII, 71). b. Road.?Five main highways, including the im- portant route southeast to Moscow 107, radiate from the city. Within the city through routes are plentiful and main streets are generally well-planned to avoid bottle- necks. However, the waterways require many bridges (Chapter VII, 72). c. Water.?Besides being a major seaport serving the USSR through the Baltic Sea and Atlantic Ocean trade routes, Leningrad is also a major port on the inland water- ways of European USSR. In 1945 the Northwestern Steamship Line had 16 passenger lines, and the volume of freight carried was increasing rapidly. Direct water com- munications at that time existed between Leningrad and Lake Ladoga (Ladozhskoye Ozero) and the Volga. It was expected that when the Svir' river facilities had been re- stored, considerable additional freight would be carried (Chapter VII, 73) . d. Air.?The city is served by three airports in its immediate vicinity, two of which are equipped to receive seaplanes. Three other airfields are located in the sur- rounding area (Chapter XII). FIGURE Leningrad. View northeastward across the Neva showing Lt. Shmidt Bridge. (22) ; Academy of Fine Arts, background. 2. INTERNAL a. Streets.?Leningrad is fairly regularly laid out and is monumental in character. A uniform skyline has been adhered to with spires and domes as landmarks. The southern portion consists of a basic radial-circumferential pattern of main streets with the Admiralty Building (123) FIGURE VIII-86. Leningrad. Kamenostrovskiy Prospect, looking south-southeastward, showing mosque with minarets, streetcars, and busses. Before 1940. Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14n:RAAle7M44A000200010008-1 Page VIII-61 as the focal point. The northern portion, due to the many waterways and irregularly shaped islands, is not so regu- larly planned. The Vasil'yevskiy section follows generally a regular gridiron. Within the limits of the city, there are more than 400 bridges. The most important ones, over the Neva and Bol'shaya Neva rivers, permit large ships to pass (TABLE VIII-12 and FIGURE VIII-85). The streets in the urban areas appear to be well-paved. The main streets are wide (FIGURE VIII-86) , and capable of handling six traffic lanes in addition to the pair of streetcar tracks usually located in the center portions. In 1939, 1,800,000 square meters (2,152,800 square yards) of streets and squares had been asphalted. The right bank of the Neva, as well as the banks of the Obvodnyy Kanal, were improved with granite and concrete facings. b. Transit.?The streetcar system was being re- placed by trolley busses in 1934, but the extent of the change-over is not known. At that time there were some 2,400 streetcars (FIGURES VIII-85 to VIII-89) , including freight streetcars, and busses. The railroads serve Lenin- grad with a commuter service, and many stations are located in the immediate environs and suburbs (PLAN 30). In 1947 preliminary construction had been started upon the first section of a new subway system. This will re- quire the use of the tunnel-and-shield method of con- struction owing to the marsh nature of the area. The tunnel, at a depth of approximately 60 meters (197 feet) , passes below the Kirov plant, the Narva Gates, the War- saw Station, Litgniy Prospekt, and Finlyandskiy railroad FIGURE VIII-87. Leningrad. A roofed, freight trolley car. FIGURE VIII-88. Leningrad. Streetcars satisfactorily constructed with wooden facings by the Leningrad Municipal Railroad to conserve metal. Original FIGURE VIII-89. Leningrad. Summer trailer-type streetcar (interior view). Before 1934. station toward Ozerki, where it comes to the surface. The position and direction of the tunnel suggests a possible connection with underground defenses and workshops of Kolomyagi airdrome. Exact alinements of the proposed routes are not known. (d) Industry and commerce.?In spite of the siege and consequential dislocations to manufacturing, the city of Leningrad was able to keep its munitions plants and those converted to the production of war materiel in some degree of operation. The Kirov heavy machinery plant (261) never stopped production, notwithstanding the fact that the Germans were less than two miles from its gates. Although considerable damage was received by all indus- try, 1,000,000 square meters (10,764,000 square feet) of industrial space had been restored by the end of 1944, soon after the siege was raised. Reports indicate that the res- toration and reconstruction has been continued. The major plants are listed in TABLE VIII-13. The Stalin metal works, on the right bank of the Neva, 3/4 mile above Liteyny Bridge, planned six turbines for the Dnepr hydroelectric power station. Four turbines, includ- ing one each of 25,000, 50,000, 75,000, and 100,000 horse- power, had been produced by July 1947; the last two were due in 1948. A system of interchangeable units for vari- ous turbine sizes has been developed. These turbines are claimed to be more efficient than American-made sets in use at the Dnepr plant before the war. The Kirov metal works and machine shop, northwest of the city, had been reconstructed in 1945, and made seven powerful electric cranes for the Zaporozhstal plant. Ad- ditional plants include the Sevkabel which produced 20,000 meters of high-voltage cable for Zaporozhstal; the Ekonomaizer Zavod which manufactures turbo pumps for Zaporozhstal and other plants; Elektroapparat which man- ufactures electrical and rubber-technical goods. By 1945, the capacity of the Elect rosila, for electrical equipment and machinery works, had been restored to prewar level. High-grade shoes are being made in a new shop in the Proletarskaya Pobeda factory. Shoes of a poorer quality are produced in the relatively modern Skorokhod factory, the largest in production in the USSR. The daily prewar production was 80,000 pairs; 40,000 pairs were produced in one day in 1947. In June 1947, the annual production had reached 5,800,000 pairs, with 16,000,000 pairs planned by 1950. By November 1946, the Zhelyabov textile factory was completely reconstructed and had 1,500 weaving looms in operation. Among other plants, the Progress plant which was evacuated has since been returned and by June 1946 was producing nearly 1,000 microscopes monthly, includ- Approved For.Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-62 Approved For Release 20pAlI4ig/146: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential TABLE VIII- 13 SELECTED IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL PLANTS IN LENINGRAD Plant Number and condition of main buildings Total estimated area of buildings R.R. connections (all Oktyabr'skaya R.R.) Product PLAN 30 Reference no. Ordnance depot No. 5 11 and many small (2 bad- ly damaged, 1 destroyed, summer 1942) Aircraft tuselage plant No. 7 30 plus 1 large and 36 small under construction; sev- eral small; 79 in all Sq. meters 73,800 56,950 Connection with ad-Munitions and jacent Finlyandskiy ordnance material freight station (84) Alongside track to Airplane fuselage Sestvoretsk; also parts and assembly direct connection with North Military 84 26 Airport (14) Krasny Vyborshets ("Voro-13 including 1 acid tank (20 shilov") copper and alumi-m. dia.) ; small buildings num plant 71,650 None. Wharf on Smelter, foundry, Neva river rolling mill, and small finished parts 171 Krasny Treugornik rubber 13 and many small, approx. and asbestos factory 25% damage (1942) 146,700 Connection with belt Natural rubber line 226 Pyrokholin high-explosive Over 100 scattered; maga- 74,000 Connection with line High explosives 41 plant zine to Ladozhskoye (including TNT) Ozero Okhtenskiy Khimkombinat Over 100 scattered high-explosive plant and 58,800 Connection with belt High explosives line 20 R.R. station Krasny Khimik Chemical Over 40 with evidences of 40,255 Connection with Bal- Heavy chemicals and 255 plant No. 15 some damage (summer 1942) tiyskiy R.R. station poison gases yards Marti Shipyard 12 plus some small; 2 ship- ways, 2 docks 54,900 None Small and large ships 172 Kirov heavy machinery 17 large, many small. 352,670 Connection with belt Heavy machinery and 261 plant (This plant was under continual artillery fire during siege, but never stopped production) line to harbor equipment. (One of biggest plants in USSR) OGPU optical plant 1 large (42,700 sq. m,), about 20 small; some damage 51,850 Connection with ad- Optical instruments jacent Finlyand- skiy freight station 40 Borshevik armaments plant 17 large, with smaller units 108,800 Connection with main Large munitions line to Moscow plant 279 Ordzhonikidze Baltiyskiy Over 30 large with small shipbuilding yard buildings, 5 shipways, 1 drydock 142,900 None Small and medium ships (drydock can handle large ships) 170 CONVERSION FACTOR: 1 square meter=10.76 square feet. ing biological and metallographic microscopes; an output of 2,500 microscopes per month was planned by the end of 1947. In 1945, however, large shipbuilding plants at the mouth of the Neva river were idle and no reconstruction was in evidence. The manufacture of arms and ammuni- tion is carried on in the Lepse and Kr. Vyborzhets plants. Steel plants include the Bolshevik machine shop, and the Lenmetallurgstroy and Mopr plants. Machine shops in- clude the Kalinin Works No. 4; the Sverdlov for tools; ll'yich grinding-machine shop; Leningrad shops for lathes and automatic machines; Stankopribor; and the Engles machine building plant. The Molotov plant manufac- tures armatures. Finally there is a Yegorova railroad car shop, and a Okt'yabe-revolyutsiya locomotive works. The importance of the city as a rail-ship transshipment point necessitates a number of storage areas: bulk (19, 259, and harbor area) ; cold storage (198, 204, 219, 221, 228, 231, and 251) ; oil and fuel (5, 93, 236, and 273); Confidential . military (83, 114, 159, 207, 209, 234, and 239) ; and muni- tions (8, 9, and 15). (e) Billeting and hospitals.-Leningrad's importance as a military base required the erection of many military establishments (7, 24, 38, 60, 62, 80, 94, 96, 98, 99, 104, 120, 123 to 128, 130, 136, 152, 158, 159, 161, 173, 175, 195, 202, 208, and 250). Estimated ground area for available stor- age and billeting space is as follows: SQUARE METERS SQUARE FEET Bulk storage 1,690 18,190 Food storage 2,970 31,980 Solid fuel 130 1,390 Liquid fuel 2,550 27,460 Explosives 4,065 43,775 Barracks 11,460 123,355 Educational and similar buildings 6,060 65,240 Garages 1,000 10,765 Open areas (Hippodrome and Kirov plant stadium) 1,160 12,505 Approved For Release 2003105114: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 CITIES AND TOWNS Page VIII-63 Prewar Leningrad had 60 hospitals with an estimated 21,000 beds. Some of these structures (1, 2) are quite large. (1) Utilities 1. WATER SUPPLY.?Before the war, there were three waterworks and a new pipe line from Lake Ladoga under construction. At that time there were 32 fire stations with 130 pieces of fire apparatus (FIGURE VIII-90). FIGURE VIII-90. Leningrad. A new fire watchtower. Before 1934. 2. SEWAGE AND GARBAGE DISPOSAL.?Leningrad is noted for its cleanliness and its use of sanitary facilities. As early as 1934 a municipal system of garbage collection was in operation (FIGURE VIII-91) . However, sewage drains into the Neva river and the city's several canals (FIGURE VIII-92). 3. POWER.?A steam power plant at Dubrovka of 200,000 kilowatt capacity, approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) east-southeast of Leningrad, supplies electric cur- rent to the city. Six additional hydroelectric power plants with total capacity of 488,000 kilowatts supply the Lenin- grad transmission system. Beside current brought in by high-voltage transmission lines, there are 14 steam power plants and at least two transformer stations within the city's area (25, 43, 146, 168, 174, 183, 199, 225, 260, 278; 284). 4. Gs.?In 1945 a four-year program for expansion and restoration of the Leningrad gas-fuel supply system was under way. Utilization was to be made of the exten- sive shale-oil deposits south and west of the city in Estonia and Leningradskaya Oblast'. Twenty-four shale-oil pits were to be restored and placed in service; three plants in the above area for the extraction of gas were to be con- Original FIGURE VIII-91. Leningrad. Waste-disposal container for courtyards centered in groups of residential buildings. Before 1934. FIGURE VIII-92. Leningrad. Laying of the new sewer at the Krasnyy Oktyabr Stadium. Before 1934. structed; 530 kilometers (330 miles) of new pipe lines built, and 150 to 170 kilometers (95 to 105 miles) of pipe lines in the existing network restored. In addition, new gas tanks and gas-distributing stations were to be built, and vast quantities of equipment for the use of this fuel man- ufactured. An expansion program was planned to pro- vide gas facilities for 60,000 apartments (dwelling units) in 1946, 150,000 in 1947, and a minimum of 275,000 in 1948. Plans are proposed for central heating plants with coal and peat-gas as fuel. For the latter, a peat-gas factory is to be built 5 kilometers (40 miles) from the city. (g) Communications.?Leningrad is one of the main centers of the telephone-telegraph network. In addition to long distance connections, there were several automatic Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14 ? CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Page VIII-64 JANIS 40 Confidential exchanges for local service. The war disrupted communi- cations, but by the middle of 1944 telegraph and telephone connections to Moscow, Novgorod-Pushkin, Pavlosk- Gatchina, and Viipuri had been restored. There are also submarine cable connections with Helsinki, Finland, and Liepaja, Latvia. Two broadcasting stations are reported, also 8 experimental stations, and 27 other radio stations. (It) War damage and reconstruction.?A report fol- lowing the raising of the siege stated that every building had received at least one hit. Beside bomb hits, there were 150,000 artillery hits Of all calibers. The shelling came from both the German lines at short range from south of the city and the Finnish lines to the northeast of Sestro- retsk (25) . Living quarters for 700,000 persons, or 25Y(' of the total, were destroyed. Restoration of the city began almost at once. By 1944, 908,000 square meters (9;774,000 square feet) of residential dwellings had been restored. A 10-year reconstruction plan is presently in progress, with much of the labor being supplied by German prisoners of war. The new building of the City Soviet in the southern portion of Leningrad, which was approximately 80% complete before the war, will not be finished until all destroyed buildings in the city proper have been removed. Center portions of blocks in the congested central area of the city (FIGURE VIII-9) are being cleared away to give more light and air, and to reduce the dense population in these sections. However, the present classical aspect of the central area will not disappear even though modern buildings are being con- structed (FIGURE VIII-93). Prewar large apartments of 10 to 11 rooms, reminiscent of Tsarist days, are being re- placed with small 3.- and 4-room apartments. These are being built in superblocks with open park areas in the FIGURE VIII-93. Leningrad. General view looking eastward, showing the Admiralty Building. center. New structures are to be five or six stories high (FIGURE VIII-94). (3) Gor'kiy (Gorkii, Gorky, formerly Nizhniy Novgorod) (56?20'N, 44?00'E). Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Popu- lation: 644,100 in 1939; estimated at 650,000 in 1941 and 900,000 in 1946. (FiouREs VIII -98 and VIII-119, 56) (a) Importance.?Gor'kiy is the capital of its oblast, but itself is under direct jurisdiction of the RSFSR. The area has generally good transportation facilities, with access by rail, road, water, and air. It has a considerable amount of heavy industry and is a center of the USSR's automotive industry. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is situated at the confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers. It occupies approximately 26 square kilometers (10 square miles) at an average elevation of 60 meters (197 feet). The largest and most beautiful section is located in the Dyatkovy Mountains, which rise 120 meters (394 feet) above the level of the Volga (FIGURE VIII-95). The business and in- FIGURE Gor'kiy View northwestward across the Oka over the old business section. Note high bank at left and low bank at right. Bridge has been replaced by new ferro-concrete structure. Before 1937. Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/griesb5-ABpTgutm0002000l000s-1 Page V111-65 KEY TO MAP A 1. Ostrov Vasi]lyevskiy 5. Okhtinskiy Bridge 2. Ostrov Petrovskiy 6. Ouvorov Prospect 3. Finlyandskiy Station 7. Nevskiy Prospect 4. Smol'ninskiy Rayon 8. Dzerzhinskogo Street VIEW 8 % SECTIONS will be opened up by a number of ambitious projects. View A shows the future green area between Finlyandskiy Station and the Neva River. The embankment will be widened and a boulevard built along the water's edge. Several nearby streets,'now sealed off, will be breached for freer circulation. The station will be given a new facade. View B shows the new Okhtinskiy Prospect which cuts through from the Okhtinskiy Bridge (lower left) to the heart of the business section and served to shorten and straight- en mid-town transportation. Demolition for the Prospect has been completed and construction work will soon begin. View C shows the new plaza and square at an important intersection along the Suvorov Prospect designed in the shop of architect Igor Ivanovich Fornin. Here the uniform building height is particularly noticable. This regulation is intended to emphasize the monuments and famous spired buildings such as the Admiralty and St. Isaac's Cathedral, Original VIEW C FIGURE VIII-94. Leningrad. Plans for opening up strategic arteries during reconstruction of seriously damaged areas. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-66 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 JANIS 40 ConfidenFial FIGURE VIII-96. Gor'kiy. Looking northward over highway bridge across the Oka. dustrial section is at a lower level, on the shores of the Oka and Volga. The Kanavino section, located on the left bank of the Oka, is adjacent to the factory area and the site of the Nizhniy Novgorod fair grounds (4), which were formerly an international meeting place in an an- nual fair. The city as a whole is notable for its churches, cathe- drals, monasteries, and mosques. It also has an astro- nomical and meteorological observatory. (c) Transportation.?Broad-gage railroads extend from the city in four directions. The line to Kirov makes use of two bridges in the immediate vicinity, one over the Volga (5) and one over a lake, a short distance northward. FIGURE VIII-97. Gor'kiy. New main street in the foreground. Reinforced concrete bridge across the Oka in background. About 1937. Confidential About 1937. One superhighway leads westward to Moscow; lesser roads lead in four other directions. A modern reinforced- concrete highway bridge (3) over the Oka river joins the older section to the new industrial section between the rivers (FIGURE VIII-96). A modern highway connects the bridge with the upper city (FIGURE VIII-97). The city is served by seven airfields, five of which have permanent facilities. (d) Industry and commerce.?Gor'kiy is noted as a center of the automotive industry. The Molotov plant (1), which produces motor cars, tractors, and parts, has been working to meet civilian requirements since 1944. Under the current Five-Year Plan, motor-car production by 1950 is to reach 300,000 units annually, or 60% of Soviet automobile production. Steel mills include the Krasnaya Etna rolling mill (11) and the Kaganovich high-test-steel mill in Sormovo. The Krasnoye Sormovo plant No. 92 in Sormovo produces rail- road cars and locomotives. There are two shipyards, the Krasnoye Sormovo (14) and the Teplokhod (6). The lat- ter is equipped with a foundry. Various other shipyards produce river steamers and tankers, or serve as repair shops. Metal-working shops include the Dvigatel' Revol- yutsii works in Kanavino which produces machine tools, and the Kaganovich gear-cutting shop (13). One plant produces chemical warfare agents. The new Katrola Kau plant was experimenting in production of nylon in 1947. A methanol and alcohol plant was to start production by the close of the year. It was reported that workers at the latter plant were from the Leuna works in Germany; equipment probably was also removed from Germany. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010e-IP URE VIII -98 OR'KIY CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL TO KIROV 455 KM. / v,%0 pio" Z I \ \ 1 ir,? ' '-- / e` 1 ' 1 \ 11 // A' // __,''''- \'?,..... .......,oziS* - ' 7' ".t:;-;1 \ 7 , --' 1 \ S,... /7 SS = ......."...0.0.7-r..._--1 / ;_iill L It\ / ?4114e0STI;A,Ntjaii; g ii , X 4 \\ /11 rr? nrArs LREL I 89 KM. tO KM r7eORE ell 1 Ill fl Aeeieeele000 I Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/16iiRA-ARe719611i1,14A000200010008-1 Page VIII-71 lurgical plant employed 10,000 workers in 1937 and the Ordzhonikidze plant employed 3,000. Facilities of direct use for production of war goods in- clude two small arms plants, No. 7 (16, 24) and No. 2, the latter with 300 workers. Hand grenades have been pro- duced at the Kirov machine tool plant No. 60, which em- ployed 4,000 workers in 1934 and produced grinding and milling machines and lathes. Explosive-type munitions are also produced at No. 6 cartridge plant (26) and at a powder and explosives plant. No. 10 airplane motor plant, which employed 15,000 workers in 1940, also produces opti- cal and other precision apparatus. Among the other metal-fabrication industries are a loco- motive factory producing units with gas generators and diesel motors, also narrow-gage locomotives; railroad car shops, a farm machinery plant, and a samovar factory, which resumed operation, in 1945, with an estimated ca- pacity of 10,000 per annum. There is one newspaper printing plant. The Prilepsk state stud farm is located nearby. The principal items of trade are hemp, grain, silk goods, leather, furs, and sugar. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Billeting facilities in- clude a museum, a theater, a hotel, the bishop's palace occupied by Secret Service, a military aviation school, sum- mer camp for armored troops, and barracks (10, 18, 25) . Medical installations include a hospital (9) and an eye clinic. (f) Utilities.?The city is provided with a water-supply system, a sewerage system, a thermal power plant with capacity of 60,000 kilowatts, and a gas works (20). (g) Communications.?Facilities include post, tele- phone and telegraph offices, and two radio stations (29) . One other radio station serves the commercial airfield. (10) Astrakhan' (46?22'N, 48?05'E). Astrakhanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 253,000 in 1939. (FIGuREs VIII-105 and VIII-119, 259) (a) Importance.?Astrakhan' is the capital of Astrak- hanskaya Oblast' and a port on both the Caspian Sea and the Volga river. It is the largest fish-trading center of the USSR and a center for trade with Iran and the Far East. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located on Dolgiy Ostrov, an island in the Volga, 90 kilometers or 56 miles above its estuary at the Caspian Sea. The Kutum river, which divides the city in two sections, is connected to the Volga by a canal. An important feature is the Kremlin at the center of the city. Disadvantages of the location include a climate which is not considered healthful, and a low elevation which results in annual flooding of a large part of the city. The city is 22 meters (72 feet) below sea level. The land- locked Caspian Sea, already well below sea level, is contin- uing to recede. The area of Astrakhan' is approximately 25 square kilometers (9.7 square miles). (c) Transportation.?The only existing direct rail connection extends north-northwest. The postwar time- table indicates that a branch line from the Rostov ? Baku route has been completed from Kizlyar to the Volga. North of Astrakhan' there is a ferry connection. All road connections are reportedly in very poor condi- tion. The principal road runs northwest; others extend to points in the Caucasus. Because of the shallowness of the Volga at its delta, ocean vessels must anchor in the "Astrakhan' Roadstead," about 180 kilometers (112 miles) from Astrakhan' and 90 to 97 kilometers (56 to 60 miles) from land. The harbor is frozen from the latter part of November to the begin- Original fling of March. During the summer, regular steamer service is provided up the Volga to Goekiy and Shcher- bakov (formerly Rybinsk). Port facilities include 48 wharves along the Volga with aggregate berthing space of 3,650 meters (11,974 feet), and an average depth alongside of 5.5 meters (18 feet). Numerous cranes and telphers are available (JAms 41, Chapter VI, Topic 64, C) . The city has 4 airfields. One was undergoing extensive improvement in October 1946, and one has a seaplane landing. No information is available on streets or internal forms of transportation. (d) Industry and commerce.?Shipyards comprise much of the town's industrial facilities. Two shipyards known by name are the Third International and Krasnaya Kuznitsa yards. Others include a small naval yard, a large shipbuilding yard, and a shipyard and docks built in 1938. The fish combines (6) compose another major industry. One factory, built in 1935, has a capacity output of 80 million cans annually, plus a daily output of 55 tons of frozen fillets. There is also a meat-canning industry. Sawmills (7) and wood products, including barrels, are of some importance. Chemical production includes chem- ical warfare agents. There are railroad car repair shops and some metalworking facilities. Some of the other in- dustries produce soap, confections, textiles (cotton and silk) , glass products (bottles) , leather products (shoes) , flour and baked goods, distilled liquors, beer, and non-. alcoholic beverages. The principal items of trade are fish and fish products (including caviar) , salt, petroleum products, cotton, grapes, and melons. Although some good warehouses, including two large cold-storage plants, were available in 1941, equipment was mostly outdated. There were also oil-storage facilities (1) (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Possible billeting facili- ties may be found at various hotels, museums, galleries, scientific institutions, public buildings, and the theater. There are at least three hospitals (2). (1) Utilities.?The city has a waterworks (11) , the details of which are not known. Information on the sew- erage system is lacking. One steam power plant with 100,000-kilowatt capacity serves the city; two power plants, in addition to supplying electric power, serve the sur- rounding area with heat; a fourth power plant serves the shipyard. Astrakhan' is the point of origin of an oil pipe line to Saratov and Kazan'. (g) Communications.?The city is on the main tele- phone-telegraph network. It is served by two lines, one northward to Delta and Verkhniy Baskunchak, the other westward to the European Caucasus. Radio broadcasting station RW-35 has a frequency of 598 kilocycles, a wave length of 501.7 meters, and an out- put of 10 kilowatts. There are 6 radio stations with ground-to-ship service. (11) Penza (53?12'N, 45?01/E). Penzenskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 157,100 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-106 and VIII-119, 136) (a) Importance.?Penza is an oblast capital and a junction point of roads and railroads. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city occupies about 40 square kilometers or 15 square miles on the left bank of the Sura river. The northern industrial section is connected to the southern part by the main street, the Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-72 Approved For Release 205M1.16 CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Internatsional'naya Ulitsa. The street pattern is grid- iron. (c) Transportation.?Intersecting rail lines provide service in four directions. There are four railroad stations (1, 2, 3, 4). A classification yard is located near Penza III station (3) . Two roads similarly provide four exit routes. Two airfields are reported in the vicinity. (d) Industry and commerce.?Penza has several metal-fabrication plants: the Frunze works, producing machine tools; No. 7 cartridge works, which produced 5 million rifle cartridges annually during World War II; No. 7 airplane plant, producing propellers and skids; the Frunze bicycle factory (5) ; and several railroad repair shops. There are two paper factories, the Tomsk and the Mayak Revolyutsii (the latter employing 1,300 workers). Other facilities include a tannery, a newspaper printing plant, a watch and clock factory (6) , and factories for pro- ducing or processing cottonseed oil, furniture, matches, soap, and spirits. Two local ordnance offices (Nos. 410 and 411) serve as supply dumps for Penza and Syzran'. The city is centrally located in an agricultural area which produces grain and other foodstuffs. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Potential billeting facil- ities are two hotels, two museums, a stadium (8), an art gallery, a botanical garden, a city park with nursery, and a number of schools. One hospital (7) has been identified. (f) Utilities.?A power plant is known to exist, but data are lacking on water supply and sewerage. (g) Communications.?Penza is served by postal, telephone, and telegraph connections, and by broadcast- ing station RW-56 operating on a frequency of 640 kilo- cycles with an output of 1.2 kilowatts. An additional radio station is operated by the airfield. (12) Kirov (formerly Vyatka) (58?36'N, 49?41'E). Kirov- skaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 143,200 in 7939. (FIGURES VIII-107 and VIII-119, 52) (a) Importance.?Kirov is the capital of Kirovskaya Oblast'. It is served by rail and road connections and has a number of industrial plants. (b) Geographical characteristics.?The city proper is located on the high left bank of the Vyatka river, with industrial suburbs on both banks. Elevations vary from 180 meters (591 feet) in the northern, eastern, and western sections to 200 meters (656 feet) in the southern section. The urban area covers about 20 square kilometers or 8 square miles. The Vyatka industrial section is located in the northern part of the city on the left bank of the river. The cathedral (31) is a landmark. (c) Transportation.?Railroads extend to the north- west and west-southwest. From a point southwest of the town a line also runs east-southeast. Related structures include two stations (13 and 36) and a classification yard. Roads extend south, west-southwest, and east-southeast. Connection with the latter road is effected by means of a ferry (24) over the Vyatka. An airfield and aircraft depot are located in the vicinity. Streets follow a gridiron pattern. (d) Industry and commerce.?Industrial activities of Kirov include the smelting of silver and copper (Peskov- skiy plant) ; the manufacture of machinery (11) ; and the production or processing of leather goods (1, 3, 4, 9), tex- tiles (5), matches (2), lumber (29), furniture, soap, bricks (12, 14), furs, canned meat (7), flour, and spirits. There are also ship-repair yards, railroad-car repair shops, and a printing plant. Confidential (e) Billeting .and hospitals.?Structures of possible use for billeting include, in addition to identified buildings (16, 17, 26, 28 and 32) , a museum, a library, and various hotels. Open space may be provided at the race track (10) and the stadium (23). There is at least one hospital (15). (f) Utilities.?The city has a water supply system (30) and, possibly, a sewerage system. A municipal power plant (18) with 17,500-kilowatts capacity is in operation; also a 60,000 kilowatt steam plant. (g) Communications.?Kirov has a post office (20) and a radio station, and is on the main telephone- telegraph network. Five radio stations, all but one for official use only, are in operation. (13) Shcherbakov (formerly Rybinsk, or Ribinsk) (58?03'N, 38?51'E). Yaroslavskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 139,000 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-108 and VIII-119, 46) (a) Importance.?Shcherbakov was formerly impor- tant primarily for its fishing industry. It has become an important river port since construction of the White Sea ? Baltic waterway and is currently the administrative cen- ter of its raion. (b) Physical characteristics.?The major part of the city lies on the right bank of the Volga and on both banks of the Cheremkha, a meandering tributary river. The suburbs of Petrovskoye and Vasil'yevskoye, on the left bank of the Volga, are separated by a second tributary, the Sheksna. The urban area totals 18.5 square kilometers or 7 square miles, comprising Shcherbakov proper (10 square kilo- meters, or 4 square miles) , the suburbs of Petrovskoye (6.5 square kilometers, or 2.5 square miles) and Vasil'yevskoye (2 square kilometers, or 0.8 square miles). Some sections of the city are laid out in a gridiron pattern with unevenly spaced blocks. In the central part, blocks are densely built up, with structures facing all four streets. In the suburbs, small one-story rectangular houses front on two opposite streets. (c) Transportation.?The Yaroslavskaya Railroad provides service southeast, and north-northwest. It makes use of a bridge over the Cheremkha river. Roads extend in three directions. Although the Sheksna has been bridged, it is a considerable obstacle to highway con- struction (FIGURE VIII-14). One airfield (17) is located to the southwest, one is located in the city itself and two others lie north of the city. Shcherbakov is a grain port, and a terminal and winter- ing port for large Volga steamers. It is connected, through the Volga and a canal system, with the Baltic Sea and Arctic Ocean. Harbor facilities include locks in the Cheremkha river (5) , and wharves (6) . A dam (15) on the Volga serves navigation and a power plant, and is used as a highway bridge. It is 12 meters (40 feet) high and equipped with double locks 300 meters (985 feet) in length and 28 meters (90 feet) in width. (d) Industry and commerce.?During the war, Shcherbakov had a number of plants adaptable to produc- tion of munitions. The Yezhov machinery plant, which had employed 3,000 workers in 1937, produced ammuni- tion, mines, and torpedoes. The Dormash machinery plant (10), designed for construction equipment, em- ployed several thousand persons in manufacture of guns and related items. The Poligraf plant (8), with approxi- mately 67,800 square meters (81,100 square yards) of floor space, was producing small automatic weapons in 1941. Another ammunition plant (9), unidentified by name, had storage magazines and several underground structures. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original t' 5 Cfr. flt AO 41 0%4f?O` joIo4,0 ? 70 li?ft Lk'' tb 12 elkt^ Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 105 ASTRAKHAN' CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL ? ... ? .. ? ? 11. .1 ? ? ? . ? ? . ? .. ? ? ? . ? .. ? ? ... ? ??? ?? ? ... ? .. ? ? . ? ? .1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ????? ???? ????? ? ??????,?,.. . ? ? .. ? ? . ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? .. ? . ? ? ? ? . ? .. ? ? .. ? . ? ? . ??????????? ???., ?,...,.,. ?....,..????? ? ?? .,.,.,?,? -)4 Note: KRIVAYA BOLDA and PRYAMAYA BOLDA join to form BOUSHAYA BOLDA IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Oil storage 2. Hospitals 3. Barracks 4. RR bridge, length about 1,150m, width about 4.5m and 7.5m, iron construction,12 piers, greatest distance between piers about 125m (a) Part of bridge used as a drawbridge. 5. Railroad station 6. Fish combines 7. Sawmills 8. Shipyards 9. Power plants 10. Airfields 11. Waterworks 12. City ferry ERS-AMS 6-413 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 ASTRAKHAN' 46?22'N 48?05'F, AS I RAKIIANSKAYA OBI AS LEGEND Urban areas Parks or recreation Water Levee Broad gage railroad, single track Streetcar line Identified point ctz, Trusovo ' 500 1000 1500 Meters 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Feet CONFIDENTIAL Reliability good. Basic information, dated August 1942, apparently was compiled from aerial photography. 122L7:2210 =I 0 0 , A 41k Zatsarevo / Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 -.....- -?-?, r ? ,, . ,,,,?,?.,?. 7, . ? , T. LIM/NO 4 4 K 64 *V lk - 41 , 1 ?IrevreNWNS 1.? ? ???????4 ? kty"..*"* 4 t . . '.? .4 ? ? -, -?? , , ?????41 ???????????????' ? ?? ''.. ? 'i- -. '4 '' 4,,Ant 1 ??? ?? O. ? 4 ,, ilk 4 II, ? ??4?10 r ..' -4 ! 14..P. : ft 1.1 At % t. ith, S,...;?!-*,:ie i - ?,,V, v ir *A. ? W ? A. .01, . . ? 11 .... ; - ? ? 7,.? ;?;? V e \ ? ? 4 ? FIGURE VIII - 106 PENZA CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL PNZA 53?12'N 45?01'E PENZENSKAYA OIL LAST' /TO RTISHCHEAppli5ved For Release 2003/05/14-:_CIA,R LEGEND Industrial areas PcKK;Cl Military areas Parks E777121 Railroad, Broad gage Single track ?,--,-- Multiple track Through streets Other streets Identified points 0 Kilometers 1 13 Miles CONFIDENTIAL Reliability fair. Approximate sketch based on good aerial photography dated 1943. IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Penza I railroad station 2. Penza II railroad station 3. Penza III railroad station 4. Penza IV railroad station 5. "Frunze" bicycle factory No. 50 6. Watch and clock factory 7. Hospital 0008-1 8. Stadium ERS-AMS 6.48 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 107 KIROV CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL fti Mukhiny ? AKIIIDDNOVO so 0 ? 110" 41) ' ? Iis, KIROV (VYATKA) 58?36, N 49?41, E KIROVSKAYA OBLAST' A ? ? Dymko S firir , 0.? .40 f 5.7 SOLOV'YEVSKAYA 4:4041:4 ? 3? VSHIVTSEVt 13 500 1000 1500 Meters z. o 2004 3000 400 Feet 60?NFIDENTIAL z , , , e pgRAf BOBROVSKAYA ? .7f?It ? '" .71 'IF' ? o ? .9 , Khlyrovka r41 TO POINTS IDENTIFIED POINTS LEGEND ERS-AMS 6-0 ef 1. Leather goods factory No. 2 20. Post office Urban areas Smell homes noS 2. "Krasnaya Zvezda" match factory 21. State Bank (Gosbank) 3. Sheepskin leather factory 22. City Communist Party Branch 4. Leather goods factory No. 3 23. Stadium Industrial areas Cemetery 5. Textile factory 24. Ferry 6. Artificial leather factory 7. kleat pecking combine 25. Port 26. "Dampen Bedny" Club Parks or recreation ? ? .1.21 ? 0 0 8. Armored equipment plant No. 38 27. Khalturin Square Woods 0 ? 0 9. Leather goods factory 28. Party school 10. Race track 29. Sawmill Water Gulley or bluff 11. Machinery plant imeni 1 Maya 30. Waterworks 12. Brickyard No. 1 13. Kirov II railroad station 31. Revolution Square (Ploshchad' Revolyutsii) & Cathedral Broad gage railroad 14. Brickyard No. 2 32. Pedagogic Institute Single track Double track 15. Hospital 33. Ploshchad' Zhleznodorozhnikov (Square) 16. Agriculture school 34. Munitions plant No. 60 Through streets Identified points 17. Municipal theater 35. Slaughterhouse 18. Municipal power plant 36. Kirov I railroad station 19. Oblast Executive Committee Reliability generally good. Based on intelligence information dated 1944. Through road going N only locat. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 SHCH -17,R It AKOV (RYILINSK, RIBANSK) 58?03'N 38?51'E YAROSLAVSKAYA OILLAST' LEGEND Common or waste land Woods Urban areas Sand or mud flats Railroadibroad gage Through streets Street s Unimproved or destroyed streets Identified point 2 Kilometers 1Mile 1---1II I CONFIDENTIAL Reliability good. Basic information reconciled with aerial photography dated 1941. . ? ? '',APO:?.?. , Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII- 108 SHCHERBAKOV (RYBINSK) CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL A Is , ..'..:.? , Ii --- i /;oak . 0 , ? Vasil'yevekoye , ....._ -? , ..?,. ? '.., ? ' , .. -, ? 5,-. - )., - ' '110 ' 4 0. ' . ? . . ,. , - .... . , .1 ?.? I . ? _- ; .. ., ..? . - ? 0-''? ? . ,---7 \ ? A . 1111, , 1 .. ?? Ae ?A? ? ? . ? . i ..' n . ? Petrovskoye .,..c. -, - ?-s N.te a "n ,\?,).... "tvi.'? : 1 %.:1, ; ? ...;;;.. ss? .., . i Ik` k\' ' ? .S. .1. \\N .1. . Al' Ae.,16,., ' 1:, .? ii, - '', 'A. . .-.4 ,. - , -6-;-: eirl,;01.--- i:i, q:*.?,?::.C7,-...:, . -:.: r .....::,:e .. , ., ' 4 N . iip . .1, e .. * ::.A ,1 TO VOLOGDA I70 KM. ..-: PO'. .A.ii, . \ . . 0 '''v. / . , ? ?.? ,? , t.s. .. . ' ' . .:, . ? Of c*a It .. . 11.. Alell ...,-- .? . ." a . ? - ? ) -- 14 1` ' . i - .? .. ' ? . . ::,-, 4 ?,. MR. 1. - ? . . .,. --- _ ? . , . .,.. 1 ? 0 x 0 0 k It 3 .0 r 1 .. .. ,,?. (c 1 ' , ii, , . ?,'fr % ? 4A * 6 li ? .4 i - t . J. ..,.... --, ? \ i A "4 ? ? ...? ? .i.,i:i3:,ii:%, *iii."'' ' ". . t. , $$ 4 , Ali, '4 ... . ?A.1.4..? ..t.. 44's ? 00 .4rf., ?\.. , --- ',.. ..i.: P : 5., .?, 3 T o, .. 0. ..'*? 14,1\ .4 .?ve :A\ . ,i, ..4..4;4`,.? r % -1r ' ? A ,i , a? 4 5 .t. . li . IP' 't''''? 1 ' s#4. 14401, Ikliell*I!.. ? '40 141?...4?' '''414-110 twft ? -. 11!"4?'?? . ? ...a.a..... - , ''... ? ???? IV '''-? 0 r a. ? 80. Mt I. LLI 4?? 4 . . 4'4 ? It ,,f, , or 0.v? ,, 4:0411,, ' .Y.0. . .4' ,: .e. ,.??",.!`?6;.. '.........' s ?,.. , ..-.Is ..''.. ? . I- --.-"' ' . i....p,, :"..?'''.. . 1 1 \ t? ,- / ,...... ,A, I ? . ,i..t 4 A -"' ?*1 '.,,'' '''' \.. , . ? .. . ? "a. 7 , r. ?;;;. , ? ? 411,,,j I . ? . 4.11,.. ,,..., . ril?.117- ..0 .......-.....:, .0 'sc.. "1 4,,- 4????60:4;'..., ? ..411 4%0 terACte ; .1'. ? ? i . ? ,V ,, 711.6' A. .:,? ...t., 'PA': a Nveilyristr A k ..". . .. ?,, l..1;:,... ? , - ?., ? - - ' - ... ` . i - TO SONKOVO 108 KM. ri / s ....:*-- .....?--:, ' IC: -- i'' - ? . .0' . ? ? - A. - f . ! ., ..-.. -. .. k , TO UOLICH 70 KM. . I . ' IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Hydroelectric power plant; dam 12 meters high 2. "Kirov" machinery plant 3. Shipyard 4. Fuel storage yard 5. Locks for the harbor in Cheremukha River 6. Wharves 7. Post and telegraph office 8. "Poligraf" plant used (1941) for small automatic weapons 9. Ammunition plant (several buildings underground) and magazines 10. "Dormash" machinery plant. Construction equipment (guns, etc., during war) 11. "Pavlov motor factory No. 26 (automobile and airplane motors) 12. "Kateyerstroyeniye" shipyard; small boats and torpedo boats 13. Barracks 14. Sawmill and lumber yard 15. 12 meter dam and lock with highway bridge 16. Hydroelectric power plant for lock 17. Airfield 1 ERS-AMS 6-48 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential CITIES AND TOWNS Page VIII-73 A number of plants were available for production of mobile equipment. A huge underground factory manu- factured aircraft and locomotives. Prior to the summer of 1946 it drew its workers from a very large labor camp. The Pavlov motor factory No. 26 (11) produced about 80 automobile and airplane motors daily. Together with its integrated aluminum producing plant and foundry, it cov- ered an area of approximately 127,000 square meters (152,000 square yards) and employed about 15,000 people. This plant has reportedly been moved to Pelman Station, Siberia. The Kateyerstroyeniye shipyard (12) produced small boats, including torpedo boats. The type of vessel produced at another identified shipyard (3) is unknown. Other heavy industries included the Kirov machinery plant (2), a printing machine factory, and at least one chemical plant. The city also had a sawmill and lumber yard (14) , a brewery, flour mills, and plants producing shoes and other leather goods, paper, and matches. Forced labor is currently employed in peat cutting. Grain and caviar are principal items of trade. Storage facilities (4, 9) included fuel storage yard (4), ammunition magazines (9), lumber yards (14), and a grain elevator at the harbor. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Among the prewar bil- leting possibilities were barracks (13), a museum, and a hotel. No data on hospitals are available. (f) Utilities.?The hydroelectric power plant at the Sheksana river dam (1) , three kilometers northwest of Shcherbakov has a capacity of 165,000 kilowatts and a planned capacity of 330,000 kilowatts. In 1941 a second power plant (15) was located at the Volga river dam at Perebory, 6.6 kilometers (4 miles) west of the city. A third plant (16) , located nearby, serves to operate the locks of the ship canal at the Volga dam. A fourth power plant serves the airplane motor factory (11) . Information on other utilities is lacking. (g) Communications.?The city was formerly served by a post and telegraph office (7) and a telephone office. One small radio station operates a shore-to-ship service. (14) Tambov (52?45'N, 41?23'E). Tambovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: /21,300 in 1939. (FIGURE VIII-119, 138) (a) Importance.?Tambov is an oblast capital, a junction point of roads and railroads, and an industrial center. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located on the Tsna river. Its main street, the Internatsional'naya Ulitsa, connects the railroad station to the central part of the urban area. Possible landmarks include a cathe- dral, churches, and monasteries. (c) Transportation.?Tambov lies on the Moscow ? Ryazan' ? Saratov railroad line and is the junction point of a branch to Balashov. Primitive roads extend to four destinations: Voronezh (181) , Gryazi (140) , Penza 136, and Borisoglebsk (185) . Air facilities include a commer- cial field and a military air base. (d) Industry and Commerce.?Several plants pro- duced explosives and other chemical products useful as war material. The Krasny Borshevik plant, which had 3,500 workers in 1936, produced powder, explosives, and chemical warfare agents. Poison gas was manufactured at the Ches plant. An incendiary bomb plant employed 2,000 workers. The Gigant factory produced synthetic rubber. A number of plants produced equipment designed for or adaptable to war use. An airplane fuselage plant em- ployed between 6,000 and 7,000 workers in 1936. One fac- Original tory employing 3,500 workers produced 17-ton tanks. Other facilities for handling heavy equipment included a machinery plant and repair shops for artillery, tractors, and airplanes (No. 56 plant). Industries of primarily peacetime interest included a printing plant and various plants for producing or process- ing soap, sugar, leather, and wood products. The city had a grain elevator and an artillery arsenal, No. 43. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Potential billeting facil- ities include a museum, a theater, a hotel, and civil avia- tion and cavalry schools. Four hospitals are reported. (f) Utilities.?Two power plants with total capacity of 72,000 kilowatts serve the industrial plants. In 1945 the administration of the Saratov ? Moscow gas line was contemplating construction of a powerful compressor sta- tion near Tambov. It was expected that around 200 kilo- meters (125 miles) of pipe line would be laid in Tambov- skaya Oblast'. (g) Communications.?Tambov is served by telephone and telegraph connections. One radio station maintains ground-to-air service. (15) Kostroma (57?46'N, 40?57'E). Kostromskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 121,200 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-109 and VIII-119, 63) (a) Importance.?The city is the administrative cen- ter of its raion. It is of importance in the production of linen. (b) Physical characteristics.?The urban area covers 32 square kilometers or 12 square miles. It is located on the steep left bank of the Volga at the mouth of the Kos- troma river. A series of terraces rises from the river banks (75 meters, or 246 feet, in elevation) to the maximum elevation of 140 meters (459 feet) in the north, with an intermediate level of 135 meters (443 feet) in the east. The principal streets radiate from Revolutionary Square in the center of the city. Metallist, an industrial suburb, is located on the right bank of the Volga. It is the orig- inal site of the city and is inhabited by Tatars. The western section is a factory area. Two cathedrals and two monasteries are local land- marks. (c) Transportation.?A rail line crosses the Volga on a double-track steel bridge (5) and extends southwest to Nerekhta. It is served by a station on the outskirts of the city proper (25) and by an installation across the Volga (2), comprising station, classification yard, and locomotive repair shops. Five roads leave the city, of which two lead to Yaroslavl' 70. A ferry (4) is utilized for crossing the Volga, but the Kostroma is spanned by a bridge (17). The city is a river port. Three landing fields have been reported in the vicinity. (d) Industry and commerce.?Kostroma is an impor- tant center of the linen industry and is reported to have flax-spinning and linen-weaving mills and a linen com- bine. Two textile combines (18, 26) and a textile factory (28) have been identified. Some of these are undoubtedly identical with the linen establishments previously men- tioned. The only identified heavy industries are the Krasina metallurgical plant (27) , the Rabochiy Metallist machin- ery plant (3), and a silicate plant (1). The other indus- tries include a newspaper printing plant, sawmills, flour mills (12), a fish cannery, a shoe factory (20), a needle factory (29), and factories producing soap and processing tobacco. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-74 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 JANIS 40 Confidential Deposits of peat are available locally. Storage facilities include an artillery arsenal and a grain elevator (9). (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Kostroma has at least two hospitals, one of which (24) has been identified. Structures of possible use for billeting include a museum, a bank, a hotel (21), and a workers' home (16) . (f) Utilities.?No information is available on water supply or sewerage systems. A peat-burning central heat and power plant (19) has a capacity of 11,800 kilowatts. (g) Communications.?Postal, telephone, and tele- graph services (23) are provided. (16) Murmansk (680 58'N, 33005'E). Murmanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 117,000 in 1939; estimated at 95,000 in 1946. (FIGURES VIII-110 to VIII-113, and VIII- 119, 3) (a) Importance.?Murmansk, founded during World War I, rapidly became an important commercial and naval port. It is now European USSR's most important ice-free northern port and the capital of Murmanskaya Oblast' (created in 1938). (b) Physical characteristics.?The urban area con- sists of 175 square kilometers (67.6 square miles) located approximately at sea level. The city is situated on the eastern shore of Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola Inlet) at a distance of 40 kilometers (25 miles) from the mouth of the Kola river. The inlet is about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) wide at Murmansk. The shores consist of rocky, barren hills of 92 to 112 meters (302 to 367 feet) in height. The city is not only closely surrounded by hills, but has numerous steep grades within its limits (FIGURE VIII-i10). A weather observatory is located on a hill north of the rail- road station. Rosta, a more recent settlement, is also on the eastern shore of the inlet and located about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) north of Murmansk. (c) Transportation 1. EXTERNAL a. Rail.?Surface transportation lines are mostly north ? south. The city is the terminus of the Kirov Rail- road from the south. A branch line extends the short distance to Vayenga on the north. b. Roads.?A road runs westward to Pechenga (Petsamo). Three short roads lead to Vayenga, 23 kilo- meters northeast; Kil'dinstroy, 20 kilometers southeast, and Murmashi airfield, 21 kilometers southwest. c. Water.?Murmansk is the only sheltered ice- free port of the northern USSR and is accessible to the FIGURE VIII-110. Murmansk i General view largest ships. The Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola Inlet) is easily navigable from its mouth, and water depths at the wharves are at least 8 meters (26 feet) . The common occurrence of fogs during the winter months has not im- peded development of the port. Aside from its impor- tance commercially, it is a base for ice-breakers and head- quarters for development of the northern spa route. The Murmansk port area, as defined in this study, ex- tends from Zelenyy Mys (cape) , north of Rosta, to Zar- nichny Mys, at the southern limits of Murrhansk proper. The northern portion (Rosta) has piers totaling 600 me- ters (1,968 feet) in length, while those in the south (Mur- mansk proper) total 1,000 meters (3,281 feet) . Reported unloading facilities within the port area in- clude seven 7-ton cranes, railroad cranes of 15 and 45 tons (one each) , three 6-ton tractor cranes, a 130-ton floating crane, and a number of electric 2-ton stevedore trucks. Aside from the general commerce basin (13) , various facilities are provided for specific products, such as lumber (9, 46) , oil (57) , and coal (60). Facilities at Zelenyy Mys, north of the main port, are used for unloading explo- sives and loading apatite phosphate. Most prewar docks were built of wood, although one (which accommodated three ships) was faced with con- crete blocks. The majority were supplied with fresh water and electricity, and had fire-fighting installations. World War II damage by explosives and incendiary bombing was severe. Four wharves were then in use in 1943, providing berthage for a total of ten liberty ships. In 1946, the port had four floating and two dry docks, of which the latter was located in Rosta. An additional 27,000-ton (metric) floating dock was being towed from Gdynia. Naval facilities not shown on FIGURE VIII-113 include a small auxiliary base at Vayenga. This base has a 76- meter (249-foot) dock with 5-meter (16-foot) water depth. Structures include eight large brick buildings including housing barracks, hospitals, and shops; underground storage for ammunition, fuel, and supplies; and bomb shelters. Another base is located on Pinagorskiy Mys. In June 1943 the Murman-Ryba Trawler Base, just out- side the southern limits of Murmansk, had. a slip accom- modating vessels up to 700 tons. A number of small shops provided supplies for a fleet of 200 fishing trawlers. d. Air.?The two Murmashi airfields, 21 kilome- ters (13 miles) southwest, were used as wartime bases for fighter planes. The Vayenga field is located 23 kilometers (14 miles) to the north. In 1943 it had a dirt and gravel surface with Confidential Original Approved For Release 2003105114: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/tifigAAIRD7rb9J4A000200010008-1 Page VIII-75 of city looking southwestward. About 1944. no regular runways. There were few buildings at the field; most repair shops and barracks were located at 1 kilometer distance. The field was surrounded by revet- ments and provided with underground storage. It has handled as many as 170 planes, with the best operating conditions existing in the winter. The Gryazny field, 13 kilometers (8 miles) northwest, was the main seaplane base of the Soviet Northern Fleet. It was equipped with hangars, small workshops, store- houses, and barracks. The two Polyarnoye fields nearer the mouth of the Tuloma furnish additional seaplane fa- cilities. The Arktino field (5) is located between Mur- mansk and Rosta. Excluding those already mentioned there are eight other airfields in the vicinity of Murmansk. 2. INTERNAL.?Many of the city streets have steep grades and follow an irregular gridiron pattern. Few are paved and, except for 140 meters (459 feet) of asphalt, all paving is of cobblestone. Paving was in extremely bad condition in 1943. By 1945 repaving was in process and underground electric and telephone cables were being laid (FIGURE . The city has no internal public trans- portation system. FIGURE Murmansk. "Volunteer" workers repaving streets. One of the best quality constructions used. Type "D" residential buildings. (d) Industry and commerce 1. MINING.?Apatite phosphate is mined and ex- ported for use as fertilizer. Nepheline is also found in large quantities. It is planned to increase utilization of the extensive iron-ore deposits, increasing annual output to 1,700,000 tons. 2. INDUSTRY.?Ship-repair facilities represent an important part of Murmansk's industry. The Sevmorput Original shipyard (51 and 52) at Rosta (5 kilometers, 3 miles, north of Murmansk) has two graving docks, one measuring 107 meters (351 feet) by 26 meters (85 feet) ; the other, 198 meters (649 feet) by 26 meters (85 feet) . Both can carry ships with a 9-meter (30-foot) draft. The yard facilities include electricity, running salt and fresh water, steam, and low-pressure air. Two other shipyards have been identified (25 and 40) . A 6,000-ton floating dock is located at one of the yards of Rosta or Murmansk proper. An installation under construction in the Zhaldeyeva Mys area in June 1943 is apparently a naval dockyard. It will probably be the main naval shipbuilding and repair yard for the Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola Inlet) . An EPRON (govern- ment salvage agency) installation is located on the western shore of the inlet, north of Yelovyy Mys. It is probably equipped to handle all but major ship repairs. There is a seaplane repair shop in the area. Aluminum and wolfram (tungsten) refining were reported in opera- tion in the vicinity in July 1947.. The aluminum plant is believed to be south or southwest of the urban area. Woodworking industries produce boxes, barrels, and furni- ture. There is a flour mill and bakery. Textile industries produce woven and knitted cotton fabrics and finished clothing. Large quantities of fish are caught for local use and export between March and August. The principal kinds are cod, herring, and salmon. A fishery biological station in the vicinity is provided with a museum and aquarium. Small quantities of potatoes, rye, barley, and oats are raised, but the growing season is very short and most agri- cultural products must be imported. The most important export items are timber and apatite phosphate; others in- clude salt, fish, cod liver oil, and grain. Most of the warehouses in the dock area were destroyed by bombing and ensuing fires. Extensive caves were exca- vated for use as air raid shelters and for storage. They were located around the city area and northward along the rock coast toward Rosta. One cave was equipped with heat, light, and ventilation systems and could accommo- date at least 2,000 persons. The entire area of the Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola Inlet) had liquid fuel storage facilities totaling 20,000 tons in 1943. Underground storage for an additional 20,000 tons was re- portedly under construction. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Thirty modern apart- ment buildings of several stories had been built before 1939 (FIGURE VIII-112). Some other buildings were eight stories in height. Prewar structures included a hotel, a naval technical school and barracks. Data on existing Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-76 Approved For Release 2094R1uCIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential FIGURE VIII-112. Murmansk. View northward. Modern four- to seven-story masonry apartment buildings. billeting facilities are lacking. It is known that the city suffered heavy war damage. Prewar civilian hospitals, plus the naval hospitals in Vayenga and vicinity, were adequate for peacetime needs. During the war, they were supplemented by five military hospitals and convalescent centers. (f) Utilities.?The city's water supply, drawn from local lakes, must be boiled or chlorinated if used for drink- ing. The water-distribution system extends throughout the city and water front area. The sewerage system does not extend beyond the central part of the city. Electric power supplied to domestic consumers is 220- volt, 50-cycle, 3-phase, alternating current. The major source of supply is the Nizhnotulomskaya (lower Tuloma) hydroelectric plant, located 30 kilometers (19 miles) south-southwest on the Tuloma river near Murmashi. The station occupies an area of 6,700 square meters (72,- 000 square feet) and has a capacity of 50,000 kilowatts. A high-tension line enters Murmansk from the south and leads to a transformer station (37). Current is also pro- duced by 4 local steam power plants with a total capacity of 36,000 kilowatts, one of which is identified (29). A steam plant at Kirovsk with 36,000-kilowatt capacity and a hydroelectric plant known as Niva III (67?10'N, 32?28'E) with a planned capacity of 120,000 kilowatts also supply current to the Murmansk transmission system. (g) Communications.?Murmansk is connected to the main telephone-telegraph network by means of a line south to Murmashi and Kandalaksha. Underground cables were being laid in 1945. An unconfirmed report states that cable connections extend to Polyarny and Arkhangel'sk. The city, in addition to its connections with all settlements and signal stations on the Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola Inlet), has direct military wires to points on Beloye More (White Sea) and to Moscow. The Kirov Railroad is equipped with its own telegraph system. The city has six radio stations. Station RW-79, a 10- kilowatt station on a hill in the northern part of the city, operates on a frequency of 610 kilocycles and a wave length of 491.8 meters. (h) War damage and reconstruction.?Most civilians were evacuated during the war. German bombing had destroyed about a third of the city by 1943 and seriously damaged another third. Extensive reconstruction and expansion were under way by 1945. (17) Vologda (Wologda) (59?14'N, 39?50'E). Volo- godskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 95,200 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-114 and VIII-119, 47) (a) Importance.?Vologda is the capital of its oblast and is an economic center of northern USSR. (b) Physical characteristics.?The urban area covers 16 square kilometers (6 square miles), distributed on both banks of the Vologda river, a tributary of the Sukhona. Confidential The old city is centered around the citadel (25) and Cathe- dral Square (24), on the right bank. It is surrounded by the remains of a wall. Immediately beyond are more modern sections with straight, broad streets. The street pattern is generally gridiron, with some radial elements. Southwest of the center of the town is a workers' garden settlement (Oktyabrskiy Rabochiy Pr,delok-sad). Three cathedrals and a bishop's castle are landmarks. (c) Transportation.?The city is a junction point of two railroads, which provide service in four directions. There are five road exits. River vessels from the Sever- naya Dvina and Volga rivers make regular stops at the steamer landing (10). Three military airfields are located in the vicinity. (d) Industry and commerce.?Vologda has several industries producing or adaptable to production of war materiel, including armaments plants, a chemical com- bine, and a powder and explosives plant The specific facilities provided by the Vologda military repair shop are not known. Other industries produce machinery (8) and railroad equipment. In addition there are plants for pro- ducing lumber (at least one sawmill) , wood products (17), leather goods (6), peat, canned food, alcoholic beverages (3, 4, 26), and printing (newspaper plant). The city is a transfer point in the shipment of butter, flax, grains, and wood products. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Among the structures of possible use for billeting are a museum, various hotels, a dairy institute, and the botanical gardens. No informa- tion on hospitals is available. (f) Utilities.?There are two power plants (20, 22) . A waterworks is operated in conjunction with the older plant (22). (g) Communications.?The city has a postal and tele- graph office (16) ; also one radio station. (18) Noginsk (formerly Bogorodsk) (55?40'N, 38?26'E). Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 81,000 in 1939. (FIGURE VIII-119, 115) (a) Importance.?Noginsk is an industrial town near Moscow and is connected to that city by road and rail. (b) Physical characteristics.?The town is located on both banks of the Klyaz'ma river at a point 68 kilometers or 42 miles east-northeast of Moscow. Its area is about 12 square kilometers (4.6 square miles). Elevation varies from 112 to 153 meters (367 to 502 feet) . (c) Transportation.?A branch line from Fryazevo connects Noginsk with the Moscow ? Gor'kiy Railroad. There are three exit roads. City streets are asphalt- surfaced. Internal transportation is provided by street railway. Two airfields are located in the vicinity. (d) Industry and commerce.?The important Elek- trostal electrometallurgical plant produces tool steel, air- plane parts, ball bearings, and other items. It employed 12,000 workers in 1936. Although a reported 20,000 workers are employed in peat-cutting, they are distributed among 13 plants. Manufacture of yarns and textiles is of considerable importance. One cotton-yarn mill has 116,000 spindles. At least three mills produce, individually, cotton, silk, and wool textiles. One wool mill also produces felt. One cot- ton mill, located on the Moscow ? Gor'kiy highway 55 kilo- meters (34 miles) from Moscow, has integrated production of cotton yarn and dyes. In May 1947, a phonograph record factory was secretly utilizing part of its facilities for production of zinc blasting caps for ammunition. An ammunition magazine was available. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TO GALICH 124 k t FIGURE VIII- 109 KOSTROMA CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Silicate plant 2. Old railroad station, classification yard and locomotive repair shops 3. "Rabochiy Metallist" machinery plant 4. Passenger ferry 5. Railroad bridge 6. Factories (type unknown) 7. Factories (type unknown) 8. Factories (type unknown) 9. Grain elevator 10. Oil refinery 11. Steamship piers 12. Flour mill 13. Shipyard (?) 14. Lumber yards and piers (?) 15. Lumber yards and piers (?) 16. Workers home, formerly "Ipatevskiy Monastery 17. Highway bridge 18. "Lenin" textile combine 19. Power plant and central heating plant 20. "10 October" shoe factory 21. Worker's Cooperative Hotel 22. Club house 23. Post and telegraph office 24. Second city hospital 25. Railroad station 26. "Lenta" textile factory 27. "Krasina" metallurgic plant 28. "Inginera Zavarykina" textile combine 29. "Krasnaya Mayevka" needle factory KOSTROMA 57?46'N 410?57E Urban areas_ Mud flat Meadow land Woods Waste land Inundated land Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 LEGEND 111111111 Gully or bluff_ C II II II II .i!! Broad gage railroad, single track A GA aA a A a.A a. 1 Q. A Through streets Unimproved streets 0 Identified point. Vs, 1 Mile CONFIDENTIAL Reliability good. Basic information reconciled with aerial photography dated 1941. ERS-AMS 840 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 113 MURMANSK CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL / 7- _4/ MURMANSK :1; 68?58'N 33?05'E ;1 MU MANSKAYA OBLAST' P R. S. F. S. R. .c/ 0 ? 50 . I ? saas, \ /7:?,, a. \L-.." LI) \ ? ? ??_, rriw /- 1 1 1 / ? 8 aw ? ??? ? ? Mt/SMASH, MIME, Sr KAI V SO KM. ?? -00 a c:=4 IDENTIFIED POINTS I. Schools 2. HosPilals 3. Military establishments 4. Government eslablishments 5. Airfield 6. Water system P. pumping plants B. Broadcasting stalion 9. Dock for wood products end lumber harbor storage yards 10. Intorno?. sheds 11. Railroad repair shop 12. Automolive repair shops 13. Commercial harbor wilh warehouses and harbor railroad station 14. Post office it. Feedatufts warehouse 16. Mililary harbor with warehouses it. Coal storage 18. Railroad frelaht station 19. Dock for height and passenger ships 20. Railroad Motion 21. Post office 22 Hotel 23. Clothing factory 24. Stadium 25. Repair shops for floating docks 26. Warehouses 27. Canneries. list and cold storage 28. Pickling and curing plant 29. Power plant 30. Fuel (gasoline) dump 31. Salt storage 32. Fish smoking plant 33. Railroad power Plan' 34. Garages and Orion repair 003 35 Furniture factory 36. Sausage factory 37. Transformer station 31. Commissarial end equipment storage 39. Camouflaged fuel tanks 40. "Murmanryba" shipyard 41. Sawmill and lumberyard 42. Grain elevator 13. Bread factory and warehouse 44. Foodstuffs warehouse 15. lumberyard 46. Lumber harbor and slorage 47. Feel (gasoline) dump and automobile scrap pile 46. AallaIrcraft equipment stored. 19. Fuel (gasolim) dump Approvea ror meiedbe 20831153/14 . CIA RDr73 011111A00020091-90911-1 LEGEND Urban areas Industrial areas Destroyed areas ilk77",f1 rm. mor Broad gage railroad, single track Through street Street Unimproved, dirt street Trail Identified point I I I 0 500 1000 Meters 0 1000 2000 3000 Feet CON Fl DENTIAL Reliability of information: Based on captured German map dated 1943. IDENTIFIED POINTS IN NORTHERN SUBURB OF ROSEN 50. Lumberyard it. Ship repair yards of drydalis 52. Drydocks. (Vessels or all sizes) 53. Locomotive repair shops 54. Rost* railroad station 55. Underground fuel tanks 56. Industrial establishment 57. Oil harbor 58. Goal dome 59. Forced labor camp 60. Coal harbor and cool storage for fisheries harbor 61. Fuel (Baseline) dump 62. Radio station 613. Power plant with coal storage area ERS.AMS 6.48 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII- 114 VOLOGDA CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL VOI,OGDA (WOLOGDA) 59 ?14'N 39?501E VOLOGODSKAYA OBLAST' .." . r 4 ?r .... ? ,J!'...,? Lev . , ;,.. , -7 , % &,,,.?t?.,.. `'''' 17 m., 7,4 .k?..,? 01- -k- , k a, r co \ \ ? , / i 0 ...! 4'40 / 4 e ' 4 , e , *bps , 1 A / / 4 7 . , ' 0, _ ; ... .1 ? . o z A 0 < , ? .7 / , Ar4,? -ix.,.... e s....1, ir,t,? ...**?. ----,,... k Q .90 4)-- 4 , , , ,... , 1 --c- LENINGRAD i -s, ? , , . , t3 t t s / 01 ? /, 0 r / & / Afi20". ..rv 4.) , .., \' 1 I it/ , ? ; ...?., . ?,. 4 . - ? ....? f iR) 5. 4 --1 ' 0 , ?? 0 % 4D ? , y? r l& / il 0 'A. / .. '?..?-,i-_. 44g, ' ---, , ....?.., - - - _- ' ,- ? 4 - - - , , .,. )0 .. , 0,... ._.. .-- 0 .. 0,... . . , ,.,. ,' e ,,, WD / V -quki, ' V 94 0 0. ....- , /./. Oktyabrskiy , Rabochiy Poselok-sad 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Meters . 0 2000 4000 CONFIDENTIAL 6000 Feet IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Railroad workshops 2. Brickyard 3. Distillery 4. Brewery 5. Railroad station 6. Leather goods factory 7. Flour mill 8. "Severny Kommunar" machinery plant 9. Sawmill 10. Steamer landing 11. Trade Union Building 12. Oblast Party 13. Oblast Peasant Building 14. Rayon Executive Committee 15. Bank 16. Post office 17. Woodworking plant 18. Bridge 19. Oblast' Executive Committee 20. New power plant 21. Bridge 22. Old power plant & water works 23. State Bank 24. Cathedral Square (Sobornaya Ploshchad') & Sophia Cathedral 25. The Kreml' (Citadel) & museum 26. Brewery Urban areas Parks or recreation Cemetery Broad gage railroad Through streets LEGEND ERS-AMS 648 Identified point Reliability fair. Basic information, dated August 1941, not verified. Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 1?:e?:8 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/atriEsipappag4Aown000lowm-1 Page VIII-77 Among the producers of chemicals is the Chemical De- fense Plant No. 12, producing asbestos materials and gas masks. Other industries include a shoe factory and various woodworking plants. Agriculture is generally limited to vegetable gardens. A Sovkhoz, or state farm, is located in the vicinity. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Billeting space might be provided in schools, public buildings, a library, or struc- tures occupied by the pedagogical technical institute. No data are available on hospitals. (1) Utilities.?The city reportedly has a sewerage sys- tem and a power plant, but no information has been avail- able relative to water supply. (g) Communications.?Facilities consist of telephone and telegraph connections and a radio station. (19) Kolomna (55?05'N, 38?47'E). Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 75,100 in 7939. (FIGURE VIII-119, 113) (a) Importance.?Kolomna is a strategic river .port, with rail and road connections. It has a variety of in- dustries and is a center of rayon production. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located at the confluence of the Oka and Moscow rivers, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Moscow. It occupies an area of about 7 square kilometers (2.7 square miles). Its elevation varies from 120 meters (394 feet) on the FIGURE VIII-115. Kolomna. Aerial view of center of town showing the large Kuybyshev locomotive and machinery plant. 11 November 1942, 0914 hours. Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Page VIII-78 Approved For Release 2096D1i4?CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential outskirts to 150 meters (492 feet) in the central part. The built-up area as a whole is triangular, and is divided into parallelograms by its streets. (c) Transportation.?Railroad lines extend north- west, southeast, and south-southwest. A prewar bridge on the Moscow - Ryazan' line crossing the Moskva river was 260 meters (853 feet) in length, 16 meters (52 feet) in width, and had three approximately 90-meter (295-foot) spans. This structure was destroyed. A new bridge over the Oka was under construction in 1943. A highway running generally northwest-southeast bi- sects the town in a line north - south and crosses the Oka river at a point 220 meters (7a0 feet) upstream from the .urban area. Minor roads lead southwest and northeast. There are two harbors, one each on the Moskva and Oka rivers. An airfield is located in the vicinity. (d) Industry and commerce.?Kolomna and its neighboring settlements have a variety of industry, both heavy and light. The Kuybyshev locomotive and ma- chine shops are located in Golutvin. The Voroshilov gun factory, on the left bank of the Oka, employed 15,000 workers in 1936; its structures covered an area of 28,600 square meters (308,000 square feet) in October 1941. A locomotive factory on the right bank of the Moscow cov- ers an area of 161,000 square meters (1.7 million square feet). Another factory produces freight cars. Other in- dustries produce cotton textiles, clothing, shoes, lumber, and foodstuffs (canned meats, flour) (FIGURE VIII-115). (e) Billeting and hospitals.?No information on po- tential billeting facilities or hospitals is available. (f) Utilities.?The city is known to be served by a water-supply system, but no information is available as to any sewerage system. Prewar there was a nearby pre- war coal-burning power plant with a capacity of 1,000 to 3,000 kilowatts. (20) Lipetsk (52?36'N, 39?35'E). Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 66,600 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-116 and VIII-119, 141) (a) Importance.?Lipetsk has important iron and steel factories. It is also a health resort and administra- tive center of its raion. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located in the central Chernozem (black earth) region on the ,high right bank of the Voronezh river. The Lipovka river, which joins the Voronezh at this point, flows through a deep gully which divides the city area into two terraces 50 and 60 meters (164 and 197 feet), respectively, above the river level. The urban area totals about 16 square kilometers (6.2 square miles). Elevation above sea level varies from 100 meters (328 feet) in the eastern and southern sections to 160 meters (230 feet) in the north and west. Carbonic ferrous salt springs and health installations with ferrous mud baths are located at the center of the city. (c) Transportation.?The one railroad, a wide-gage line running west-southeast, makes use of a freight load- ing station and a passenger station (4) , the latter located about 3 kilometers (2 miles) from the center of town. Road connections are generally north - south (two roads Confidential south-southwest, one each northwest and north-north- east). The railroad bridge over the Voronezh (2) has a lower level for automotive traffic. Highway bridges over the Voronezh and Lipovka rivers (7 and 6, respectively) are traffic bottlenecks. Air facilities include four airfields and one seaplane base. (d) Industry and commerce.?Iron and steel indus- tries include smelters, a foundry, and a rolling mill (3, 9). Among the smelters are the Chuzun plant, one in Novyy- Lipetsk, and a new ferro-alloy plant in Lipetsk proper. The latter is equipped with a powerful electric furnace. Two metal works are known by name, the Svobodny Sokol works in Novyy-Lipetsk and the Krasny Sokol works which employed 10,000 persons in 1937. Producers of parts or end products include the Lipetsk machine shop, a tractor factory, an airplane factory, the Lipetsk ma- chinery plant which produces lathes, boring machines, and related products, and armaments plant No. 61 (10). (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Billeting possibilities consist of barracks (1) and a military aviation school. Although three hospitals are reported, their locations are not known. (f) Utilities.?A central thermal electric power plant has a capacity of 49,000 kilowatts and is connected to Voronezh by a 110-kilovolt line. (g) Communications.?Lipetsk has telephone and telegraph connections and is served by a radio-telegraph station. (21) Molotovsk (formerly Sudosfroy) (64?45'N, 39?55'E). Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population estimated at 15,000 to 20,000 in 1944, approximately /0,000 in 1945. (FIGURES VIII-117 and VIII-119, 10) (a) Importance.?Molotovsk is a port city with the advantage of usually being ice-free. Since it is situated on the Arkhangel'sk - Moscow rail line, it is in a position to handle water-rail transshipment. (b) Physical characteristics.?The city is located on the southwest coast of Dvinskaya Bukhta (gulf) , about 30 kilometers or 19 miles southwest of the Severnaya (northern) Dvina estuary. The main urban area lies 5 kilometers (3 miles) west of the port. The city occupies 16 square kilometers (6.2 square miles) at approximately sea level. (c) Transportation.?Molotovsk is the terminus of a railroad line originating in Moscow and passing through Arkhangel'sk. Steam locomotives and wide-gage tracks are used. Rail equipment, including mobile cranes, have access to the port area over additional trackage installed in 1944. In January 1944, storage tracks could accommo- date about 350 cars. The harbor consists of an indentation in the coast line, with no breakwater. Tidal fluctuation amounts to 30 centimeters (1 foot). Limiting depth is 8.5 meters (27.9 feet). The port can handle up to five liberty ships capa- ble of docking under their own power. The wharf, which extends the length of the harbor, is of wood construction and has the following dimensions: 762 meters (2,500 feet) long, 305 meters (1,000 feet) wide, and 3 meters (10 feet) Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Original Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 116 LIPETSK CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL TO VORONEZH 143 KM. TO VORONEZH 135 KM. ERS-AMS 6-41 LIPETSK 52?36/N 39?35/E VORONEMSKAYA 0 LEGEND 1 LAST' Urban areas Industrial areas Woods Gully Broad gage railroad Through streets Identified point m2.22 O 1 2 Kilometers 0 1 Mile CONFIDENTIAL Reliability generally good. Basic information recon- ciled with aerial photography dated 1941. IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Barracks 2. Railroad bridge; length about 140 meters, single track, three spans steel construction, two piers height about 55 meters 3. Steel smelter and foundry (with water tower) 4. Railroad station 5. Airfield 6 Street bridge across Lipovka river gully 7. Street bridge across Voronezh river 8. Dam and small reservoir 9. Large smelter 10. Armaments plant No.61 11. Large storage area Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A00020004660)81 VIII - 117 MOLOTOVSK CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL TO ARKHANGEL'SK, 32.2 KM. ERS-AMS 6-48 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 ? .I1a0,11tr-?:14.,.5:A.:1a.x.:41g:.:0,k,;,MIz.,XI:iiiMiIgir.1.i1:iIiMIgI IDENTIFIED POINTS I. Barracks 2. Radio trellis masts 3. Underground gasoline and oil tanks 4. Wood storage 5. Wood storage and sawmill 6. Woodworking plant 7. Coal storage,"Sondostroy" naval shipyard 8. Naval construction sheds 9. Harbor basin under construction 10. Lock for harbor basin (9) 11. Way with cross slip 12. Storage for wood and construction materials 13. Plants No. 12 and No. 13 for production of steel plates 14. Ship construction and repair shops 15. Models plant 16. Boiler rooms 17. Steam pipes 18. Power plant (boiler, machine, and control building) 19. Coaling installation with inclined elevator to power plant 20. Oil tank 21. Warehouses 22. Administration buildings 23. Cement-pouring plant (for construction of dock and basin) 24. Railroad classification yard 25. Warehouses 26. Railroad car repair shops 27. Radio station 28. Harbor basin under construction S. INSKAYA GUBA 1..?3r130?. MOLO OVSK (NOLINSK) ARKIIIANGEL'SKAYA OBLAST 64?40,N 39?50,E LEGEND Identified point 0 Coal elevator Broad gage railroad, single track Streets Unfenced, dirt, unimproved streets 0 500 , 1000 Meters Li I i 0 500 1000 2000 3000 Feet CONFIDENTIAL Reliability good. Basic information reconciled with aerial photography dated 1944. 800 METERS / TO Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII- 118 KRONSHTADT CITY PLAN JANIS 40 CONFIDENTIAL FORT ALEKSANDR _ Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 60 59 FORT likkrri RIF il?r4\-N-\41L), ? , 4., 7 56 NO. 4 KRONSI ITADT 59?59'N 29?47'E LENINGRADSKAYA 0 It LAST 9 SOUTH LEGEND Urban areas V A Parks or recreation ETTITTM Cemetery 14=.] Railroad, single track (gage unknown) streets Suburban streets Urban streets Identified points 0 1 0 1 2-Kllo ISLAND NO. 3 1 1 Mlle o CONFIDENTIAL Reliability generally good. Basic information incomplete; approximate date 1942. IDENTIFIED POINTS 1. Gas works 2. Hospital 3. Naval workshops with docks 4. Barracks FORTS 5. Artillery barracks 6. Barracks 7. Artillery and munitions storage 8. Naval harbor 9. Middle harbor 10. Commercial harbor (now for submarines) 11. Powder factory, poison gas factory 12. Mine depot 13. Chemical factory 14. Prison for sailors of the Red Navy 15. Mine depot 16. Airfield 48 49 50 51 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential Approved For Release 2003/05/1&EAARH7r9411A4A000200010008-1 Page VIII-79 high. Its facilities include six 5-ton and two 15-ton elec- tric cranes, four 3-ton floating cranes, and two tugboats. There are no buildings on the wharf and only a few ware- houses on shore. Although weights of over 3 tons per square meter (2.5 tons per square yard) are normally not permitted, the wharf has been known to support up to 120 tons per square meter (100 tons per square yard). There is an oil dock, and also a number of oil-storage tanks, some underground. In February 1945, the army was in charge of discharging tankers, guarding tanks, and dispatching tank cars. The only road out of the city area is a one-lane corduroy road leading to the port. In March 1943, the best city streets consisted of corduroy, made of small logs, and not exceeding one-lane in width. In general, they follow a gridiron pattern. A small airfield is located about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) from the port and 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) northward off the road to the city area. During the war, this field was used for assembly of airplanes delivered to Molotovsk by water. There were also facilities for seaplane landings. The city has no system of local transport. (d) Industry and commerce.?A shipbuilding and re- pair yard covered an area of 179,000 square meters (1,926,- 000 square feet) in 1941. There were a number of metal industries. A large hangar-type building 31 meters (102 feet) high, 90 meters (295 feet) wide, and 300 meters (984 feet) long, on the western outskirts appeared unfinished and unused early in 1944. Its purpose is not known. In 1944, a number of warehouses had been built or were under construction in the restricted docking area. Four reservoir tanks in the port area are used for storing toluene, gasoline, fuel oil, and alcohol. Tank cars load from discharge pipes within the restricted area. Other facilities are used for wood and coal storage. With the exception of the local fish catch, all food is brought in from outside sources. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Molotovsk, developed since 1941, had no wartime civilian population. A few government buildings are three-story and built of stone. The remaining structures consist of wooden housing for workers. Most wartime labor was supplied from three concentration camps. In addition, a railroad labor camp was located in the vicinity. A military hospital, located near the center of town, is reported to have inadequate facilities. No data are available on the civilian hospital. An existing first aid dressing station has very crude facilities. (f) Utilities.?Water is brought by tugboat from the Severnaya Dvina; its treatment is unknown. The town has no street drains or storm sewers. However, apart- ments and residences near the center of town, which houses between 40% and 45% of the population, have a water-borne sewerage system. A large thermo-electric power plant with a 50,000- kilowatt capacity (February 1945) is located one block north of the dockyard. It supplies the city and shipyard with electric power and provides heat for some adjoining buildings. There is also a central heating plant. In Original March 1942, a voltage transformer plant supplied three high-tension lines extending south and southwest. (g) Communications.?The town is served by a radio station. Telegraph connections are probably used in con- junction with the railroad. (22) Kronshtadt (Kronstadt) (59?59'N, 29?47'E). Lenin- gradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Population: 60,000 in 1939. (FIGURES VIII-118 and VIII-119, 32) (a) Importance.?The city was formerly an impor- tant commercial port. Since completion of the channel to Leningrad, however, it has become exclusively a naval base, barred to civilian commerce. (b) Physical characteristics.?Kronshtadt is located 49 kilometers (30 miles) west of Leningrad, on the eastern end of Ostrov Kotlin (island). The low-lying island is surrounded by shallow water. It divides the entrance to Nevskaya Guba i7ito north and south channels. The fresh water Gulf of Finland is located to the east. The urban area, approximately 14 square kilometers (5 square miles) , has a fairly uniform elevation of 0.2 meters (0.7 feet) . The central part of the city is sur- rounded by a wall with three gates, with suburbs beyond. It is also divided into arbitrary zones designated for naval operations and administrative functions. (c) Transportation.?A local railway serves the island and a number of outlying forts. However, there are no road or rail connections with the mainland. The port is an important base of the Soviet Baltic fleet. Three harbors are located on the southeastern coast of the island; two are used by destroyers and large vessels (8, 9), and one is for submarines (10) . Docks are provided for ships of all sizes. There are two floating docks, one dry- dock, and other repair facilities (3). An airfield (16) and seaplane landing are located on the northwestern end of the island. (d) Industry and commerce.?In addition to the shipyards, Kronshtadt has several plants producing war goods, including two chemical plants (poison gas), a pow- der factory, and a mine factory. A sawmill, a slaughter- house, and a bakery are also located in the city. Storage facilities for war materiel are numerous and in- elude artillery storage (7), a powder magazine, mine de- pots (12, 15), and various munitions dumps, some camou- flaged. A former church has been converted into a grain elevator. Lumber yards and oil tanks are also available. (e) Billeting and hospitals.?Potential billeting in- cludes barracks (4, 5, 6), schools (artillery, naval, Kirov submarine), prisons for naval (14) and military personnel. a Red Army House, a customs house, a secret police build- ing, and various administration buildings (admiralty, coastal defense headquarters, military port). There is at least one hospital (2). (f) Utilities.?The city is served by a water supply system with pumping station, a power plant, and a gas works (1). (g) Communications.?Telecommunications include a telegraph station and one coastal radio station. There is also submarine cable connection with Lisiy Nos (cape). Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Confidential I0g.U01014U0) Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII- 14 SELECTED SMALL TOWNS IN EUROPEAN USSR (This table lists only the known data. Many towns may have other facilities not listed herein.) Undated population figures are from prewar German sources. Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Aleksandrov (67) * (Alexandrov) 56?24'N, 38?43'E Pop. 15,000 (1932) Alatyr' (124) 54?51'N, 46?35'E Pop. 25,000 (1932) Arzamas (122) 55?22'N, 43?50'E Pop. 22,690 (1932) Atkarsk (190) 51?52'N, 45?00'E Pop. 15,000 (1931) Azov (255) 47?05'N, 39?22'E Pop. 20,000 (1932) Balakhna (59) 56?35'N, 43?32'E Pop. 15,300 (1932) On banks of Sera- ya river. Vladimirskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Elevation: 179 m. At confluence of Alatyr' and Sura rivers. Chuvash ASSR, RSFSR. On right bank of Tesha river. Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On Yetkara river near its conflu- ence with the Medveditsa. Elevation: 150 m. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. In Don estuary area 23 km. SW of Rostov - na - Donu. Rostovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right bank of the Volga 32 km. NW of Gor'- kiy. Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Junction of Moscow- Yaroslavl', Aleksandrov- Ivanovo, and Aleksan- drov - Orekhovo - Zuyevo lines. Air: Airfield. Internal: Wide main street. Rail: Connections with Moscow-Kazan' and Rya- zan'-Ul'yanovsk lines. Water: River harbor. Internal: Bridge. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of Moscow- Kazan' and Gor'kiy- Sar- ansk lines. Air: 3 airfields. Rail: Junction of Saratov- Tambov line. Road: 2 hwy. bridges. Air: Airfield. Rail: Connection with Ros- tov-na-Donu. Air: 2 airfields. Water: Steamer connec- tion with Rostov-na- Donu and Kagal'nik; usefulness of harbor re- duced by silting. Rail: Connection with Gor'kiy. Munitions dump. Machine shop (production of guns, machine guns, and shells) . Motor plant, car-repair shops, radio receiver plant No. 3. Hides, furs, leather, clothing, shoes; textiles; book publishing; wood- working industry; distillery; state farm in vicinity. Monastery. Palace. Museum. Aviation school (mili- tary) . Trade in grain, cattle, and lumber; tractor station; metalworking, lo- comotive and car shops; locomo- tive-repair shops; clothing and knitting mills; saw mills; con- sumers' goods. Tractor station; car-repair shops; hides, furs, and leather; fulling of wool and felt; fruit-canning; distillery and brewery; starch works. Second to Gor'kiy in oblast as trade center for agricultural products. Tractor station; machine shops; Sanatorium metalworking; dairy products and grounds. margarine; flour and oilseed mills. State farm in vicinity. Export of grain by way of Taganrog. Tractor station; printing plant; shipyards, chemicals, textiles; hides and furs; stocking and shoe factories; woodworking; fish can- nery; distillery; flour mill and cereal plant. Largest paper factory in the USSR. (120,000 tons annually) . Cellulose factory; soap, building slabs, tannic acid; consumers' goods; tractor station; state farm in vicinity. Power plant (1,000-3,000 Part of Moscow indus- kw.; source of power? coal) . Power plant (500-1,000 kw.) . Radio station RFXS. Power plant (500-1,000 kw.) . Cold storage plant. Radio station RFXK. and Power plant (500-1,000 kw.; source of power? petroleum) . Cold storage plant. Radio telegraph station. Telephonic and telegraphic connections. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . 2 radio stations, 1 ground- to-air. trial area. Area populated chiefly by Turki-speaking groups. Gridiron street pat- em. Forest area at eastern edge of town. Decline of town due to competition of Ros- tov-na-Donu and to silting up of harbor. Port of local impor- tance only. 2 power plants (35,000 kw. Street pattern gener- (1943) , 204,000 kw.) . ally gridiron. 1.-90001.000Z000V14'1?1?0-6/dCltl-VI3 (31,461/n0Z eseeieu JOd peACLIddV Io!luanuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 loH.uapuuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals. and billeting Balashov (189) 51?33'N, 43?10' E Pop. 40,000 Baranovichi (156) (Baranowicze) 53?08'N, 25?59'E Pop. 26,440 (1937) Belaya Tserkov' (215) 49?48'N, 3007'E Pop. 46,000 (1932) Belgorod (178) 50?35'N, 36?36'E Pop. 36,000 32,500 (1932) Belgorod - Dnes- trovskiy (237) (Cetatea Alba. (Akkerman) 46?11'N, 30?23'E Pop. 34,490 (1930) On left bank of Khoper river W of Saratov. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Baranovichskaya Oblast', Wh it e Russian SSR. SSW of Kiev. On Ross' river. Kiyevskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. On the right (chalk) bank of the northern Do- nets. Elevation: 190 m. Kurskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right shore of the Dnestr es- tuary. Izmail'skaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square Rail: Line to Tambov. Air: 4 airfields. Rail: Important junction of railroads from Brest or Volkovysk to Minsk, and Vil'nyus to Rovno. Main and freight stations with extensive trackage. Road: Hwy. connections with Novogrudok and Slonim. Air: Airfield enlarged by the Russians. Rail: On Fastov - Dnepro- petrovsk line. Road: Good hwy. connec- tions. Air: 3 airfields. Rail: Junction on Moskva- Tula-Khar'kov and Bob- rik-Kupyansk lines; 2 bridges. Road: Hwy. junction; 2 bridges. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: On the Belgorod- Dnestrovskiy - Kishinev line. Road: Hwy. connections with Budaki, Bolgrad, and Bendery. Air: Airfield. Water: Harbor unsuitable for larger oceangoing vessels; 5 landing stages (4 of stone, 1 of wood (for passengers) ). miles Tractor station. Aircraft factory (No. 28) ; aircraft repair plant No. 88. Metalworking; conveyor machinery industry; clothing and knitting mills; flour mills, dairy products, and fruit canning; distillery; trade in grain. Weaving; tanning; plaster and ce- ment plant; brickyards; fat re- fining; soap and candle works; wine, liqueurs, cheese; cereal mills; slaughterhouse. Gasoline and oil dump (military) (5,000 barrels capacity) ; 2 mili- tary depots; munitions dump; air forces depot. Machine shop. Chalk quarries and plant. Arms factory No. 31 (automatic re- volvers, machine guns; 12,360 workers) . 2 brickyards; 2 oil-processing plants; flour mill. Export of grain to Odessa; import of coal from Mariupol'. Trade in wine, fish, tallow, and wool. Shipyards; salt works; production of tallow and candles. Three aviation schools. Technical schools. Several hospitals. 13 schools. Large group of bar- racks (infantry and artillery). New R us s ian barracks. Artillery and infan- try quarters. Hospital. Barracks. Utilities and telecommunications Power plant (1,000-3,000 kw.; oil-burning). 2 radio stations, 1 at air- field. Power plant belonging to R.R. (420 kw.) . Water and pumping plant, 2 water towers. Main post, telegraph, and telephone office. Fire department. Broadcasting transmitter (50 kw., antennae 150 m. high) . 2 lines on telephone-tele- graph network ESE and NNW. Radio station RKKP. Power plant. Telephone and telegraph connections. Power plant. Post office. Telegraph and telephone amplifying station. Commercial air-ground ra- dio station. Police radio station. Remarks 2,853 dwellings (1931 Gridiron street pat- tern. Built-up area about 3 sq. km. Mixed population of Ukrainians, Rus- sians, Greeks, Ar- menians, and Jews. ID!4uapguoD Approved For Release 2003/05/atriESMBP?8-vm4A0002000l0008-1 "Cl CD ID!4U9p9UOD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Name Geographical Means of access Resources Health, hospitals, Utilities coordinates characteristics and internal and and and Remarks population transportation trade billeting telecommunications Belomorsk (12)* (Soroka) (Sorokhan) 64?32'N, 34?45'E Pop. 15,000 (1938) Belozersk (44) 60?02'N, 37?48'E Pop. 7,500 (1932) Bel'tsy (232) (Balti) (Byeley) 47?46'N, 27?56'E Pop. 30,750 (1930) Bendery (235) (Tighina) (Bender) 46?50'N, 29?28'E Pop. 39,000 (1930) Bezhetsk (75) 57?47'N, 36?41'E Pop. 15,000 (1932) Bezhitsa (147) (Ordzhonikidze- grad) (Bolva-AAF. 167 chart) ? 53?19'N, 34?19'E Pop. 82,330 (1939) At mouth of Vyg river Kanal Imeni Stalina (Stalin White Sea - Baltic Ca- nal), Canal in Onezhskaya Gu- ba (Gulf of One- ga) on Beloye More (White Sea) . Karelo-Finnish SSR. On S shore of Be- bye Ozero, and o n Belozerskiy Kanal. Vologodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right bank of Reut, a tribu- tary of the Dnes- tr. Moldavian SSR. On the right bank of the Dnestr river. Moldavian SSR. North of Kalinin. Kalininskaya Oblast', RSFSR. 10 km. N of Bry- ansk. Bryanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Connection with the Murmansk R.R. bridge. Road: Hwy. bridges. Air: Airfield. Water: Terminus of Stalin White Sea - Baltic Canal. Deep harbor sheltered by moles, for large ocean- going vessels. Air: Airfield. Water: Belozerskiy Kanal. Rail: Junction on the Mo- gilev-Podol'skiy - Ia?i line; also line to Slo- bodka. Road: On Soroki-Ia?i and Khotin-Kishinev roads. Air: 3 airfields. Rail: On Odessa-Kishinev and Bendery-Kaushany lines. Road: Hwys. to Kishinev and Kaushany; combined hwy. and R.R. bridge over the Dnestr. Air: Airfield. Rail: On the Shcherbakov- Bologoye line. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Rail: Spur line to Bryansk; freight station. Road: Hwy. bridge over Desna river. Air: Airfield. 2 sawmills; shipbuilding; produc- Barracks. Power plant. Locks and dam across tion of building materials. Military hospitals. 4 radio stations, 2 coastal. Stalin White Sea - Fish cannery planned in 1945, to produce 1 million cans annually. Oil tanks; R.R. repair shops. Barracks. Water towers. Baltic Canal. Munitions and fuel dumps. Labor camps in vicin- ity; mining, lumber Coal and sulfur mines nearby. Machine shop, sulfur refining, dis- tilleries, foodstuffs industry. Tractor station. Aircraft repair shop. Sugar refinery; oil-pressing plant. Trade in sheepskins, cattle, wine, and fruits. Trade in agricultural products; grain, wine, fruit, maize, melons, and tobacco. Windmills. Metalworking. Garage accessories. Distillery. Armaments plant No. 13. Locomotive and car shops (includ- ing power plant) . Conveyor machinery; machine shops. Chemical industry (based on coke) . Textiles; alimentary pastes. Munitions dump. Two hotels. Power plant (1) : 100 to 500 kw. Radio station RDAW. Power plant. Telephone and telegraph office. 3 lines on telephone-tele- graph network E, SW, and NW. Officers' quarters in Post, telegraph, old fortress. phone office. industry, quarries, and work on Bal- tic - White Sea Ca- nal. Corps Headquarters. and tele- Old fortifications with towers, wall, and ditches; church in- side walls. Telephone and telegraph connections. Thermal power plant. Factory-heating plant. Telephone and telegraph connections. Radio station at airfield. Approved For Release 20JOANg/14b: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 loituapijuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 a loguappoD Name coordinates population Bobruysk (152) (Bobruisk) 53?10'N, 29?12'E Pop. 84,110 (1939) Bologoye (77) 57?53'N, 34?05'E Pop. 15,000 (1932) Borisoglebsk (185) 51?22'N, 42?05'E Pop. 52,060 (1939) Borisov (99) 54?17'N, 28?30'E Pop. 33,400 (1932) Borovichi (42) 52?25'N, 33?57'E Pop. 28,420 (1932) Bryansk (146) 53?15'N 34?21'E Pop. 87,500 (1939) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks On the navigable Rail: On the Minsk-Gomel' Newspaper; peat cutting; machine Hotels. Post office. Berezina. R.R. construction. University. Power plant (15,000 kw.). Bobruyskaya Road: Highway junction Clothing; veneer; furniture; saw-Central library. Radio station RRS. Oblast', White (2 steel bridges cross the mills. Military camp. Russian SSR. Berezina) . Canning; spirits and brandy; to- Air: 2 airfields. bacco factory; cereal mills. On a lake, 330 km. Rail: Junction of Moskva-Car-repair shop. Small power plant. Supply dump 9 km. NW of Moscow. Leningrad, Bolo goy e-Ordnance office. Telephone and telegraph WNW of center of Kalininskaya Shcherbakov, Bologoye-Grain elevators 9 km. WNW of cen-connections. town. Oblast', RSFSR. Pskov, and Bologoye-ter of town. Radio station RFAU. At confluence of Vorona and Khoper rivers. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the Berezina, 80 km. NE of Minsk. City proper is on the left bank, Novo - Borisov on the right bank. Minskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On the Msta river (filled with rap- ids) . Novgorodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the high, right bank of the Des- na. Bryanskaya Oblast' RSFSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTOR: 1 kilometer-0.62 miles Nevel'-Molodechno lines. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Orel-Gryazi-Stal- ingrad line. Air: 6 airfields. Water: River harbor. Rail: Minsk-Orsha line. Steel R.R. bridges over the Berezina R.R. station. Road: On Minsk-Moscow hwy. Timber hwy. bridge over the Berezina. Air: 1 airfield. 4 other fields in the vicinity. Water: Starting point for passenger and tug-drawn traffic on the Berezina. Rail: Terminus of a branch of Leningrad - Moscow line. Air: Airfield. Rail: Junction of Moscow- G om e Bryansk-Orel, Bryansk-Smolensk, Bry- ansk-Khar'kov, and Bry- ansk-Dyat'kovo line s; main station on left bank of Desna; switching yard. Road: Hwy. junction; 3 bridges over Desna. Air: Plane connections; main air base. Internal: Main street par- allels bank of Desna. Printing plant; R.R. shops; metal- Aviation school. working. Other schools. Clothing and knitting mills; brick- yard; cannery; flour mill; trade in agricultural products. Farm products; peat cutting; Hotels. metalworking; shoes and leather Aviation school. goods; glass and porcelain; ye- Barracks. neered woods; furniture. Matches, Krasnaya Berezina plant. Chemical wood derivatives; saw- mills; paper mill; brickyard; match industry in Novo-Borisov; alimentary pastes; military mag- azine. Headquarters of the Borovichi-Oku- lovka Industrial District. Fire bricks; hemp and jute indus- try; clothing and knitting mills; woodworking; machine and trac- tor repair shop; lignite mining in vicinity. Peat-cutting; Artillery arsenal (production of gun-mounts). Uritskiy carshops; conveyor ma- chinery; coal mines; coke plant; super phosphates; glass; textiles; shoes; Vorovskiy cement factory; woodworking; distillery; flour mills; state bank. Hospital. Technical and trade schools. 2 hotels. 2 monasteries. School of architec- ture. Power plant. Telephone and telegraph connections. Post office and radio sta- Raion center. tion. Power plant (3,000 kw.) . Radio station REBH. Power plant, steam-driven (7,000 kw.) . New fire house (1941) . Large power plant (22,000 Munitions dump No. kw.; peat-burning) . 44. By Dec. 1944, power capac- Cathedral. ity of 5,000 kw. had been Museum. restored. Post, telegraph, and tele- phone office. Radio telegraph station. 3 radio stations. io!4uapijuoD 0 CD 0- 0 to tri TO Cn? > Z73 OcP Z?' crrN 0 ?15 (0 CD co Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 io4uapijuoD 0 03" TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Chapayevsk (131) * (Ivashchenkovo) 52?58'N, 49?42'E Pop. 58,000 (1939) Cheboksary (55) 56?10'N, 47?15'E Pop. 12,000 (1932) Cherpovets (45) 59?07'N, 37?57'E Pop. 24,900 (1932) Cherkassy (214) 49?25'N, 32?03'E Pop. 51,690 (1939) Chernigov (172) 51?31'N, 31?20'E Pop. 35,000 (1932) 67,400 (1939) Chistipol' (128) 55?22'N, 50?35'E Pop. 15,800 (1932) On the Chapayevka river near its confluence with the Volga. About 35 km. SW of Kuybyshev. Kuybyshevskaya Oblast', RSFSR. In a pocket on the right bank of the Volga at the con- fluence of the Cheboks arka, Kaybulka, a n d Volga rivers. Capital of the Chuvash ASSR, RSFSR. On Sheksna river. Vologodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of Dnepr river. Kiyevskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. On the elevated right bank of the Desna river in the valley of a stream (Striz- hen') which di- vides the town into two parts; Mt. Boldina in vicinity. Elevation: 130 m. Chernigovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On left bank of Kama river, ESE of Kazan'. Tatar ASSR, RSFSR. Rail: On the Penza-Kuyby- shev line. Air: Airfield. Water: Steamer-landing. Air: Airfield. Rail: Leningrad-Kirov line. Water: River port. Steam- er traffic. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Bakhmach-Odes- sa line. Road: Hwy. connections. Water: River harbor; transshipment of wood. Rail: R.R. junction. Air: 2 airfields. Water: River harbor of slight importance. Rail: R.R. bridge over Kama river. Road: Two dirt roads (2- lane) ; one to Mamadysh; one to SW. Air: Airfield (fair weather) . Water: Freighters under 500 tons can use Kama river. Tractor station. Plant for production of explosives, power, and chemical warfare agents. Printing plant; woodworking; saw- mills; shoes and leather; brick- yard; distillery; consumers' goods; production of sunflower oil. Newspaper; machine and repair Hotels. shops; light industries; sawmills; Teachers' college. canneries; distilleries. Printing plant (newspaper) . Hotels. Tractor station; machine shops; Theater. metalworking; woo dworkin g; clothing; sawmills; brickyards; cannery; sugar refinery; tobacco processing. Printing plants (newspapers) . Hotels. Peat-cutting; metalworking; tex- Barracks. tiles; synthetic rubber; Chernig- Monastery. ovskiy Khim-Kombinat (chemical plant) . Brickyards; sawmills; canneries; distillery; flour mills. Tractor station; 3 large parachute and gas-mask factories; ship- yards (for repairs) ; textiles; woodworking; flour mills; asphalt deposits in vicinity. Normal school. Agricultural school. Technical school. 2 power plants (13,500 kw.) . Small power plant (100-500 kw.) . Broadcasting station. Post office. Telegraph office. Post and telegraph office. Power plant (30,000 kw., 1947). 2 radio stations. Post office. Telegraph office. 2 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, N and S. Post and telegraph office. 4 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, N, SSE, SW, and W. Broadcasting station and intrastate r adio- tele- graph. Power plant (1,000-3,000 kw.; oil-burning) . Radio station RGAE. Libraries. Museums. Museums. Cathedral. Museum. Irregular gridiron street pattern. Built-up area about 5 sq. km. New towns not shown on maps in vicinity. Biological station of University of Ka- zan'. "0 0 CD a. 11 0 to o >54 Zoo cn--? 41?-?N 0. ? 0 -4 CD 0 0 0 oo lopapluoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 a ioRuapijuoD Name I Geographical I characteristics coordinates population Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and Remarks transportation trade billeting telecommunications Chuguyev (207) 49?51'N, 36?42'E Pop. 20,000 * Daugavpils (96) (Dvinsk) (Diinaburg) 55?53'N, 26?32'E Pop. 45,160 (1935) Dneprodzerzhinsk (211) (Kamenskoye) 48?31'N, 34?38'E Pop. 147,800 (1939) Drogobych (229) (Drohobycz) approx. 49?10'N, 23?20'E Pop. 33,730 (1937) 32,000 (1940) On northern Do- nets river SE of Khar'kov. Khar'kovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On right bank of Daugava river. Daugava river (the Zapadnaya Dvina) 200 m. wide here. High levee protects city from flood. Latvia. On right bank of Dnepr river WNW of Dnepro- petrovsk. Dnepropetrovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. At rim of eastern Beskidy Vskhod- nyye Mts., on Tysmenitsa river (tributary of Dnestr) . Drogobychskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Rail: On Khar'kov-Kup- yansk line. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of following lines: Leningrad-Brest, Riga-Vitebsk, Liepaja- Siauliai 2 freight stations. 2 passenger stations. Road: Junction of first- class hwys: Riga-Vil'- nyus, Siauliai-Vitebsk. Air: 4 airfields. Water: Ocean navigation. Internal: Gridiron pattern of streets. Railroad and highway bridge over the Daugava. Rail: Lines to Dnepro- petrovsk, Krivoy Rog, Kremenchug, and Cher- kassy. Rail: Junction of lines to Sambor, Stryy, Borislav, and Truskavets. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield with 4 subter- ranean gasoline tanks (subterranean gasoline depot under construction in 1941). *Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Tractor station; construction of machinery; metalworking; con- sumers' goods. Railroad shops; foundry; forges; machine shops; cement; wool and silk mills; leather goods; oil pressing; cereal mills; breweries; grease rendering; soap factories. Grain elevator; plant for chemical warfare agents. Large steel-rolling mill (power from gas and dynamos (2 power plants of about 2,500 hp.) ) . Smelting. Ammonium nitrate plant, restored (March 1947). Large metallurgical works (near Tritusnoye Station). Pravda car shops (with steel foun- dry; 2 electric ovens with annual cap. 20,000 t. (1936) ). Textiles, brickyard, sawmills, con- veyor machinery. Oil refineries; 6 fuel depots for mo- tor vehicles; large grain eleva- tors; production of crude oil and natural gas; crude-oil pipe in- stallations (approx. 200,000 m.) ; oil tanks (98,250 tons) . In 1936 crude-oil production was 26,081 tons, lubricating oil 9,868 tons, paraffin 5,533 tons, asphalt 4,814 tons. Steel; copper; chemicals; salt mine; sawmills. Hospitals. 2 hotels. 2 barrack camps. 2 hospitals. 14 schools. Former prison used for billeting troops. Power plant in vicinity (48,000 kw.) . Waterworks. Post, telegraph, and tele- phone office. Tank storage. Hydroelectric plant (198,000 kw.) . Air-mail service. Probably on telephone- telegraph network. Power plant (4,700 kw., 550 and 5,400 V.). Gas plant. Water system. Post and telephone office. 3 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, SSE, SW, and WNW. Old Diinaburg for- tress. 2,735 houses (1931) . Corps Hq. Munitions and arms depot in former Forestry Building. Subterranean arms depot. lop.uopuuoD 0 CD 0- 0 CD to cm. >>1 ZX OD 0 CZ) cA.D. 0 0 0 oo -o a C0 CD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 l04u0pijuop z a TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Dzerzhinsk (61)* (Rastyapino- AAF. 154 chart.) 56?14'N, 43?30'E Pop. 103,400 (1939) Enso (23) approx. 61?00'N 28?50'E Pop. 11,000 (1940) Feodosiya (248) (Kefe) (Kaffa) 45?02'N, 35?23'E Pop. 27,400 (1932) Gatchina (36) (Krasnogvarde- ysk) 59?34'N, 30?08'E Pop. 42,000 (1936) Gomel' (148) 52?33'N, 31?58'E Pop. 144,200 (1939) On left bank of Oka river. Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the Vuoksi (Vuoksa) . Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the S coast of the Krym (Cri- mea) and the NE slopes of the Tete-Oba. Har- bor lies in bay formed by S coast of Kerch'. Peninsula and E coast of the Krym. W section of bay sheltered by Mys (cape). Krymskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On both sides of White Lake (Be- bye Ozero), formed by the Izhora river; 45 km. SSW of Len- ingrad. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right high bank of the Sozh river. Gomel'skaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Rail: On Moscow-Gor'kiy line. Rail: On the Antrea-Khi- tola R.R. Rail: Connected with Se- vastopol'-Khar'khov line. Air: Airfield. Water: Chief commercial harbor of the Krym (ice- free throughout year) ; 12 docks; movable steam crane. Rail: On Leningrad-Pskov a n d Leningrad-Narva lines; suburban line elec- trified through Uritsk to Leningrad. Air: Airfield. Rail: Rail junction; 3 sta- tions (passenger, switch- ing, and freight) . R.R. bridge. Road: Highway bridge. Air: 2 airfields. Water: River port. Chemical and munitions plants in- cluding the Kalinin. Oil refinery; armaments; steel mills; auto, tractor, and conveyor machinery repair shops. Various chemical plants (fats, soap, glycerine, phosphorus, chlorine, prussic acid, gypsum, and lime; poison gas) . Distillery; rope, macaroni, meats, bread. 3 state farms in vicinity. Cellulose and vegetable fiber plants; paper mill; sawmill; box factory. Export of grain; 2 mechanical grain elevators (6,500 tons) ; 24 grain warehouses (2.3 hectares, 48,000 tons) . Export of coal in winter (bitumi- nous and anthracite) . Fisheries (including caviar) . Production of sodium sulfate. Foundry, metalworking; brickya-d; furs, carpets, textiles; soap; to- bacco processing (new cigarette factory) . Barracks. Aviation school. Theater. Metallurgical industry; Peat-cut- Aviation school. ting; tractor station; wood in- dustry; paper-machine factory. Car- and locomotive-repair shop; aircraft plant No. 140; agricul- tural machinery and implements; ball-bearing plant; ' aluminum plant; chemical plant. Newspaper; glass and porcelain in- dustry; knit goods; shoes and leather goods; sawmills; match factories; veneer factor ie s; chemical forest products; trade in farm and industrial products; grain elevator; gasoline storage; Hotels. Aviation school. Barracks. Power plant (50,000 kw.; Rapidly growing in- coal-burning) . dustrial city. Air-mail service. Hydroelectric plant at Rou- khiala (Raukhiya) (50,- 000 kw. (1946) ) . Power plant (500 kw.) . Radio telegraph station. Coastal radio station. 2 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, N and W. Intrastate radio-telegraph station. 3 radio stations. Small power plant. Gas works. Sewerage system. Radio station. Power plant. Post office. Radio-telegraph station. Broadcasting station RW- 40. Museums. Art gallery. Meteorological insti- tute. Churches and mosques. Mixedpopulation (Russians, Ger- mans, Tatars, Greeks, Armenians, Jews) . Oriental art museum in former castle; large park. 0 CD 0- 0 I as t_o Zo ?th 4=-P. o? ? 0 0 ???1 co 0 0 0 oo 0 71) co a Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 3' a Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Gomel (Continued) grease and bone rendering; sugar distilleries; cereal mills; tractor station. IDH.uapguo) Gorlovka (202) 48?18'N, 38?03'E Pop. 108,700 (1939) Gorodenka (225) (Horodenka) approx. 48?40'N, 25?35'E Pop. 13,500 (1937) Gorodets (60) 56?45'N, 43?22'E Pop. 12,170 (1932) Grodno (161) (Gardinas) 53?40'N, 23?50'E Pop. 50,120 (1937) In a river valley of the Donets plain; NNE of Stalino. Elevation: 220 m. Stalinskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. In the foothills of the East Beskids south of the Dnestr river and on one of its tributaries. Stanislavskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On the left, steep bank of the Vol- ga river; NW of Gor'kiy. Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. City proper on the right bank of the Neman (Niemen, Nemen, N e m u- n a s , Memel) river. Suburb of Zane- manskiy on the left bank. The Neman here forms a deeply cut valley. Gorodnichank a creek cuts a deep ravine on the right of the Ne- man, dividing Grodno into the northwest ern quarter of Ko- lozha and the northern quarter of Zavershchizna (Zawierszczyzna). Grodnenskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Rail: On Khar'kov - Ros- tov-na-Donu line; freight station. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Stefanehsti-Ko- lomyya line. Road: Junction of hwys. to Sny a ty n, Chernovtsy, Chortkov, Kolomyya, and Tlumach. Air: Airfield (300 by 600 m.) ; 7 km. SW of the town. Rail: Nearest station at Gorka, 20 km. distant (on a spur-line from Gor'- kiy) . Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of these lines: Warszawa-Vil'nyus Suwaki-Mosty Main sta- tion. Main munitions dump with loading plat- forms. Road: Highway junction. Combined R.R. and hwy. bridge over the Neman. Air: Military airport under construction (1941) , with underground gasoline and bomb storage. Internal: City proper is of irregular layout. Munitions and explosives; chemical warfare agents; coal mines; Kirov machine shop; auto fac- tory; car-repair shops; mining machinery; chemicals; textiles; spirits. Nitrogen plant (deep-cooling proc- ess; coke gas as raw material) . Quarries; brickyard; linen weaving; distillery; sugar and vinegar fac- tory; slaughterhouse; cultivation of corn and tobacco in area. Tractor station; small shipyard. Trade in building lumber and farm products. Machine factory; bicycles and motorcycles; farm - implement foundry; glass; tanning; cloth; chalk quarries; printing plants, book bindery; ceramic factories; brickyards; 6 sawmills; steam- powered and other cereal mills; roofing paper; matches. Tobacco products (once the largest plant in Poland) . Oil pressing; distillery, 3 breweries, liqueurs. Slaughterhouse; gasoline and oil dump (400,000 liters) ; QM staff; supply depot; military magazine. Hospital. 6 schools. 5 hospitals. Old and new military hospitals. 34 schools. 3 hotels. 2 groups of barracks. Russian troop garri- son. Power plant (12,000 kw.) . Air mail service. 4 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, N, NE, E, and S. 3 radio stations. Power plant (1,026 kw., 380/ 220 V.). Post and telephone office. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Power plant, 3,075 kw., 250 and 6,600 V. Waterworks with pumping and filtration plant, 2 water towers. Main post, telegraph, and telephone office. Street pattern irregu- lar combination of radial and gridiron plans. Built-up area about 15 sq. km. Large park in NW quarter of town. 2,106 houses (1931) . Medicinal springs in vicinity. 4,045 dwellings in 1931. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles loguepu.uoD Approved For Release 2003/05/Hri6b)ABPWW4A000200010008-1 CD CO IDRU9NUOD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Name coordinates population Gryazi (140)* 52?30'N, 39'57'E Pop. 12,000 (1931) Gryazovets (48) 58?53'N, 40?10'E Pop. 5,790 (1932) Ivanovo (62) (Ivanovo- Voznesensk) 57?01'N, 41?00'E Pop. 285,100 (1939) Izhevsk (53) 56?52'N, 53?14'E Pop. 175,700 (1939) Izmail (236) (Ismail) 45?20'N, 28?50'E Pop. 25,000 (1930) 26,000 (1940) Jelgava (87) (Yelgava) (Mitava) (Mitau) 56?39'N, 23?45'E Pop. 36,100 (1935) TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks On right bank of Matyra river, 116 km. NNE of Vo- ronezh. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Junction of Moscow- Voronezh - Rostov - na Donu, Gryazi-Stalingrad, and Yelets-Gryazi lines. Air: Airfield. Tractor station. Machine shops. Metallurgical industry. Wood industry. Stone for construction. Consumers' goods. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Telephone and telegraph connections. SSE of Vologda. Rail: Vologda-Moskva line. Tractor station. Mineral springs. Vologodskaya Flax working. Oblast', RSFSR. On both banks of Rail: Junction of the Alek- Car repair shops. Medical institute. 2 power plants (38,000 kw.). Cathedral. the non-naviga- sandrov - Kineshma and Construction of peat-mining ma-Hotel. Post, telegraph, and tele-Museum. ble Uvod' (tribu- Novki - Nerekhta lines: chinery. Theater. phone office. Polytechnic institute. tary of the Kly- freight station and Chemicals (phosgene and chlorine) . Advanced schools. Radio broadcasting station Normal, trade, and az'ma) ; NE of switching yard. Karolens Plant (gears). RW-31 (10 kw.) . art schools. Moscow. Ivanovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Important textile center; one mill produced 500,000 m. of cloth per month in 1944. Industrial academy. Distillery; petroleum; woodwork- ing; canning. On left bank of Izh Rail: On Kazan' - Votkinsk Printing plant; tractor station; Advanced schools. 2 power plants (88,000 kw.). Cathedral. river (navigable line; freight station. munitions plant; production of Post office. Museum. only by rafts) 42 km. above con- fluence with Ka- ma. Udmurt ASSR. Air: 2 airfields (one mili- tary) . small arms and machine guns. Steel foundry; agricultural machin- ery. Machine plant (production of high performance revolving lathes) . Radio broadcasting station Technical, norm a 1, RW-78. and workers' schools. (capital), Motorcycles; brickyards; brewery. RSFSR. On left bank of Rail: Connections with Fisheries. Danube in delta area. Bendery. Water: River harbor. Textiles (industry now being re- stored) . Izmail'skaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On the Driksa river (Drixe) , a branch of the Lielupe (the Curlandish Aa) . Latvia. Rail: Junction lines: 1. Riga-Kaunas-Berlin 2. Riga-MaZeikiai- Liepaj a 3. Jelgava-Krustpils 4. Jelgava-Tukums- Ventspils 5. Riga-Saldus-Liepaj a Road: 2 highways: Sovetsk (Tilsit) -Riga and Talsi- Bauska; and local roads. Air: Airfield, 600 m. x 900 m. enlarged (Mar. 1941) ; hangars. Textile industries; rope; dyeing; tanning; leather goods; vulcaniz- ing; chemical laboratories; ma- chine shops; forges; cement and concrete; gypsum; clay products; brick kilns; sawmills; sugar mill; warehouses; grain elevator; lum- ber yards; tank storage; cereal mills; brewing; distilling; dairy products; cheese; tobacco. Hospital. 3 hotels with garages. Boardinghouses. Power plant (1,625 kw.) ; 4 steam turbines, 2 boilers. Post, telegraph, and tele- phone office. Trade center of a rich farming region. Approved For Release 209M14?6 CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 ioN.uapiluoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 loH.uepuuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Jelgava (Continued) Kadnikov (50) 59?32'N, 40?20'E Pop. 2,030 (1932) Kaliningrad (263) (Konigsberg) 54?45'N, 20?30'E Pop. 315,700 (1933) 368,400 (1939) Kaluga (105) 54?30'N, 36?15'E Pop. 90,000 (1939) Kalyazin (73) 57?15'N, 37?51'E Pop. 7,300 (1932) NE of Vologda. Vologodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On both banks of the Pregel' (Peri- gel) river 8 km. from its mouth (in the Frisches Haff). Kaliningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left, high bank of Oka river (200 m. wide at this point) at conflu- ence with Yach- enka. Kaluzhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the high, right bank of the Volga river. Kalininskaya Oblast', RSFSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles Internal: Broad, straight streets. Highway bridge over the Driksa. Rail: Nearest R.R. sta. is at Sukhona, on the Volog- da-Arkhangel'sk line, 21 km. away. Air: 1 airfield. Road: To Vologda. Rail: Connections with Vir- balis Baltiysk (Pillau), Polessk (Labiau) , and Krants; 2 bridges over Pregel' river. Road: 7 hwy. bridges over Pregel' river. Air: Airfield; modern air- field with underground hangars at Maraunen- koof. Water: Pillau Canal makes port accessible to large oceangoing vessels. Rail: Junction of Smo- lensk-Tula and Moscow- Bryansk lines. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Water: Steamers on Oka river; landings. Rail: On the Moskva-Kal- yazin-Uglich and Kal- yazin-Krasnyy Kholm lines; bridge over Volga; water tanks; ramp for 50 cars. Road: Good hwy. connec- tions with Moscow. Water: River harbor; steamers on the Volga (212 km. to Kalinin) . Air: Airfield. Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and Remarks trade billeting telecommunications Paper industry; chemically-treated wood products; condensed milk. Tractor station. Printing plants; shipbuilding; loco- motive shops; machine factories; chemical industry; consumers' goods; amber. Plants restored in Kaliningrad- skaya Oblast' as of April 1947; 4 cellulose-paper plants; machin- ery plant; oxygen plant; 2 paper mills; R.R. car shop; shipyards (among largest in USSR). Town in Moscow lignite basin. Aircraft assembly and repair plant (under construction 1941) . Armaments factory; coal mining. Machine plant; conveyor machin- ery; electro-mechanical equip- ment; scales and weights. Steam turbine factory. Textiles; leather; matches; saw- mills; canning; distillery. Tractor station. Wool and felt fulling. Clothing and knitting mills. Hospital. Palace. University buildings. Barracks. 3 hotels. Monastery. Theater. Advanced schools. Aviation school. Monastery. Power plant (17,500 kw.). Post office. Power plant (49,250 kw.). Power plant (12,000 kw., coal-burning). Hydroelectric plant under construction in 1941 (25,- 000-50,000 kw.) . Post, telephone, and tele- graph office. Radio telegraph station. Cathedral. Observatory. Medical institute. Two marsh areas on outskirts of town. City used primarily at present as repair and supply base for Baltiysk naval base (submarines, torpe- do boats, etc.) ; re- pair pens for sub- marines near Fish- gauzen (Primorsk, formerly Fishgau- zen). Museums (in former palaces). Power plant (100-500 kw.). Cathedral with high Telephone and telegraph bell tower. connections. Museum. loy.uapijuoD 0 (T) 0- 11 0 to tri r-)1: r71" cnO It-T" ZX OD *1) Za% cn.p. 1.-80001.000Z000vm1.0-6/dC1U-VI3 171./90/?00Z eseeieu JOd peACLICIdV TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Kamenets - Podol'- On bank of Smot- skiy (221)* rich river, near 48?43'N, 26?35'E its confluence Pop. 50,000 (1939) with the Dnestr. Kamenets-Podol'- skaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. Kamensk (200) (Kamensk- Shakhtinskiy) 48?20'N, 40?16'E Pop. 50,900 (1939) Kamyshin (191) 50?08'N, 45?20'E Pop. 18,480 (1926) Kandalaksha (7) (Kantalahti) 67?09'N, 32?30'E Kashira (111) 54?51'N, 38?33'E Pop. 23,000 (1935) Kaunas (91) Ca (Kovno) (Kow- no) (Kauen) 0 54?54'N, 23?55'E On the right bank of the Donets river. Elevation: 20 m. Rostovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. At confluence of Kamyshinka and Volga rivers. Stalingradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. At mouth Of the Niva into Kan- dalakshskaya Guba on the White Sea; built on tongue of land. Murmanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right bank of Oka river, 110 km. SSE of Mos- cow. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On a point of land at the confluence the Neris (Vil- iya) with the Ne- Rail: On Shepetovka-Lip- kany line. Road: Junction of hwys. to Chernovtsy, Ternopol', and Ivane Puste. Air: 2 military airfields. Internal: Bridges connect old city on rocky island with newer sections. Rail: On Voronezh-Rostov line. Water: Starting point for river shipping. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Tambov-Kamy- shin line; station 2 km. from river harbor. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: On the Murmansk R.R. Railroad construc- tion westward via Kuo- layarvi to Finland almost finished (1941) . Air: Airfield. Water: Harbor conditions unfavorable, but rebuild- ing and expansion under way (1941) . Several wooden piers, 1 steel pier. Rail: On Moscow-Saratov line; R.R. bridge (steel) over Oka river. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Rail: Junction of Gusev- Siauliai and Kaunas- Siauliai lines; steel bridge over Nemunas R; tunnel Printing plant (newspaper) ; ma- Hotels. chine building; chemicals; litho- Theater. graphic stones; clothing; can- Advanced schools. ning; distilleries. Phosphorite production in vicinity (high content of phosphoric acid) . Coal mines. Technical school. Large plant for repair of locomo- Normal school. tives and cars. Sawmills. Nitrogen plant under construction (1941) . Agricultural Experimental Insti- tute; tractor station; aluminum plant; oil-storage area; chemical plant; grain elevator; sawmills; fruit-canning; macaroni factory; flour mills; distillery. Large electrochemical plant, pro- Barracks. ducing phosphates from apatite and aluminum oxide from apatite waste and nephelin. Aluminum plant, annual production 20,000 tons (about 5 km. from center of town). Production of titanium white (a pigment) . Car-repair shop; foundry and ma- chine-repair shops; sawmill; fish canneries. Tractor station; locomotive shop (heavy electric locomotives) ; construction of turbines and gen- erators. Wood; shoes; clothing; consumers' goods; three state farms in vi- cinity. Armaments. Metalwares (heating apparatus, pipes, agricultural machinery, screws, nails, chains) . Military hospital. 2 other hospitals. 7 large schools. Hotels. Power plant (oil-burning). Post and telegraph office. 2 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, N and S. 2 power plants (50,000 kw.). Power plant (500-1,000 kw.) (partly destroyed). 1,600,000 kw. (planned) . Radio station RGMX. Power from 3 plants on the Niva above the city: Niva Plant I: 30 km. north, 60,000 kw. Niva Plant II: 18 km. north, 30,000 kw. (be- ing expanded (1941) to 75,000 kw.) . Niva Plant III: (under construction, 1941) : 3 km. north, 150,000 kw. 3 radio stations. Large power plant at Ka- ganovich (4 km. distant) (220,000 kw.; coal-burn- ing) . Telephone and telegraph connections. Radio station RFAK. Old power plant. Main power plant (approx. 10,000 kw.) . 2 gas plants. Town dominated by . castle built on a height with walls and towers; good view of city. Old city situated on rocky island. Artillery depot. Technical school. Museum. Institute for popular culture. Agricultural institute. Corps Hq. Division Hq. Gridiron street pat- tern. about 6 s r. n. k Built-up km. R.R. R.R. runs along SW and W edges of town. Naval base under con- struction (1941) . Labor camp in vi- cinity; aluminum, nickel, and zinc mining. Old city built on point of land formed by 2 rivers; suburbs across rivers. "0 0 CD a.0 CD g_o >54 Zoo o? ? 0 0 CD???1 0 0 0 coo Flwappop Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 ca 3' a loguappop Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Kaunas (Continued) Pop. 154,000 (1939) Keksgol'm (22) (Kexholm) (Kyakisalmi) (Kakisalmi) 61?02'N, 30?10'E Pop. 5,100 (pre- 1939) Information in 1941 indicated population was evacuated. Kern' (11) (Kjem) (Kemb) (Kemi) 65?00'N, 34?38'E Pop. 6,600 (1928) Kerch' (249) 45?21'N, 36?28'E Pop. 104,500 (1939) munas (Niemen, Memel) . City surrounded by heights (60 m.) . Outside the city proper are the suburbs of San- Panemune, Aleksoto, Viliam- poles. Lithuania. On bank of the northern distrib- utary of the Vu- oksi not far from its mouth at La- dozhskoye Ozero (Lake Ladoga) . Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. At mouth of Kern' river at Onezh- skaya Guba (Bay of Onega) of Be- bye More (White Sea) . Karelio-Finnish SSR. On the W side of the Kerch Strait; at the foot of Gora Mitridat. Krymskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and transportation . trade billeting telecommunications in SE of town. Road: Junction of Daugav- pils-Suwatki, Klaipeda- Vil'nyus and Kaunas- Alytus roads; 2 bridges over Nemunas (1 steel- wood, 1 steel-concrete) ; bridge over Neris river. Air: Airfield. Internal: Old city is crowd- ed. Floating bridge across Nemunas. Rail: Connection with Leningrad and Vyborg. Rail: On the Leningrad- Murmansk line. Spur to outer harbor at Raboche- ostrovsk (11 km. away) . Air: Airfield. Water: Harbor has deep water. Rail: R.R. connections with Feodosiya; freight sta- tion. Air: 4 airfields and 4 auxil- iary seaplane bases. Water: Protected harbor; bay freezes over 40 days per year; icebreakers keep strait open all year; basin protected by broad moles; oil harbor S of town; Kerch' channel 7 m. deep. Canal through center of town. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Steel-rolling mill. Sheet metal, automobiles, electrical and optical goods. Chemicals: rubber, dyes, drugs, soap, fertilizer. Textiles: cotton, silk, wool. Wood and paper industry. Formerly large cellulose plant. Sawmills. Metalworking; car-repair shops; large sawmill. Chemical plant under construction (1941) . Brickyard; bakery; trade in lum- ber, fish oil, hides. Shipyards (for naval vessels) . Iron and steel (smelting and rolling mills) . Brickyard; car-repair shops; dry- dock facilities; chemical industry (coke, soap) ; woodworking; can- ning (fish, etc.) ; tobacco process- ing; flour mills; salt and iron mines and manganese deposits in vicinity. Barracks. Barracks. Theater. Barracks. Remarks Waterworks. Telephone central. Post and telegraph office. Automatic telephone sys- tem. 2 radio stations. Small power plant. Radio station RDOC. 1 ground-to-ship radio sta- tion. Power plant (10,000 kw.) . Water system. 10 radio stations (7 coastal). Cable to Kosa Chushka (spit) . Telephone-telegraph net- work line to W; 2 cables (under water to European Caucasus). Intrastate radio-telegraph station. 2 radio towers 76 m. high. Various public build- ings dating from period of Lithua- nian independence. Heavily damaged dur- ing the Finnish- Russian war. Rabocheostrovsk (for- merly Kern' Pris- tan') : Workers set- tlement and outer harbor for Kern', on the west shore of the White Sea. Piers totaling 250 m. in length, several large sheds, coal de- pot. Secret police building. Munitions depot. Gasoline and oil dump. Scientific institutes (chiefly for pisci- culture) . Museum. Irregular gridiron street pattern with some radial ele- ments. loi4uapu.uoD Approved For Release 2003/05/sfigAMT69)4A000200010008-1 '13 0 C0 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 z =i) z -t 0 0 TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Kherson (241)* (Cherson) 46?39'N, 32?37'E Pop. 97,200 (1939) Kinel' (129) 53?12'N, 50?41'E Pop. 6,900 (1932) Kirovograd (213) (Zinov'yevsk) (Kirovo) (Yelizavetgrad) 48?31'N, 32?17'E Pop. 100,300 (1939) Kirovsk (5) (Hiipina) (Khibinogorsk) 67?37'N, 33?40'E Pop. 30,000 (1940) In the estuary of the Dnepr river at Dneprovskiy Liman. Khersonskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On left bank of Bol'shoy Kinel' river near its confluence with the Samara; 41 km. E of Kuyby- shev. Kuybyshevskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On both banks of Ingul river. Elevation: 105 m. at river. Maxi- mum heights on each side of river: 160 m. 140 m. Kirovogradskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. 200 km. from Mur- ma ns k. Sur- rounded by mountains. Cen- ter of a mining region. Murmanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and transportation trade billeting telecommunications Rail: R.R. terminus; switchyards. Air: 2 airfields. Water: Harbor frozen over from mid-Dec. till March (84 days) ; 2 floating docks under construction (1941) ; channel to sea 68.5 km. long, 100 m. wide, and suitable for ships of 6.9 m. draught. Internal: Paved streets lead to docks. Rail: On Kuybyshev-Ufa and Kuybyshev-Chkalov lines. Rail: On Kremenchug- Novo-Ukrainka line; bridge over Ingul river. Road: Roads leading SW, SE, NW, E, and S. Air: 10 airfields. Rail: Funicular connection with the Murmansk R.R. (20 km. distant) ; also R.R. connection. Internal: Funicular 20 km. long transports apatite ore to the Murmansk R.R. (at town of Apa- tity) . Air: Airfield. Munitions plant; armored vehicle plant. Ship-repair facilities; shipyards (now being restored) . Parachute factory; agricultural ma- chinery; motor-repair shops; chemical indttStry; glass industry; textiles and leather; canning; brewing; distilling; flour mills; soap; and glue. Sulfur deposits; tractor station; flour mills; car-repair shops; brickyards; gypsum mining; 2 state farms in vicinity. Aircraft factory; coal-mining; agricultural machinery; chemi- cals; textiles; edible oils; maca- roni; flour mills; distillery. Mining (apatite and nephelin) . Plants at Apatity for producing phosphates and crude aluminum; 2 million tons of apatite produced in 1937. Sawmill; several brickyards; print- ing. Military hospital. Barracks. Hotels. Schools. Hotels. Aviation and para- troopers' schools. Cavalry school. Theater. Hospital. Mining school. Remarks Large power plant. Pumping station for water system. Post and telegraph office. Coastal radio station. 4 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, NNE, SE, SW, and NW. Coastal, intrastate radio- telegraph and commer- cial airport radio sta- tions. Power plant (100-500 kw.; oil-burning) . Post office. Radio telegraph station. 2 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, NE and W. Power plant (36,000 kw.) . 3 radio stations. City consists of a military suburb (be- hind which the for- mer fortress with church, arsenal, and barracks) , the city proper, and the sub- urb of Zabalka. Cathedral and 12 churches. Municipal library. Institute for popular culture. Historical-archeologi- cal museum. Museum. Regularly laid - out town with fine bou- levards. Town area 6 sq. km.; gridiron pattern. Agricultural experi- ment station. Type F residential area to N. Fortified area on right bank of river. Race track (or sta- dium) on SW edge. New city, rapidly de- veloping. Approved For Release 200A911ithCIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 p0i4u0P1Ju0D Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Io4uapjuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Kishinev (233) (Chisinau) 47?01'N, 28?50'E Pop. 130,000 (1946) Kobrin (163) (Kobryn) 52?13'N, 24?21'E Pop. 12,000 (1937) Kol'chugino (66) (Kellerovo-AAF. 154 chart) 56?18'N, 39?23'E Pop. 25,000 (1935) Kolomyya (224) (Kolomypa) 48?31'N, 25?02'E Pop. 40,000 (1937) On right bank of Byk river; river valley swampy. Moldavian SSR. (capital) . At confluence of the Mukhavets and the Kobrin- ka, ENE of Brest. Brestskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Vladimirskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the N slopes of the East Beskids Vskhodnyye and in a broad valley of the upper Prut river. Stanislavskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Rail: On Bendery-Iasi line. Road: Junction of hwys. to Bendery, Hui (Ruma- nit) , Bolgrad, Iasi (Ru- mania) , and Bel'tsy. Air: Airfield. Internal: Lower town has narrow, winding streets; upper town has broad, straight streets on grid- iron plan. Rail: Station on the Brest- Gomel' line. Road: Junction of the fol- lowing roads: 1. Brest-Slutsk 2. Kobrin-Pinsk 3. Kobrin-Wlodawa Air: 3 airfields. Rail: On Ivanovo-Moskva line. Air: Airfield. Rail: Junction of L'vov- Chernovtsy, Kolomyya- Stef aneshti, Kolomyya- Valea-Viseului, and Ko- lomyya-Sloboda Rungur- skaya Kopal'nya lines. Air: Airfield. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Cotton textiles; tanneries; edible oils; distilleries; flour mills; printing plants; slaughterhouse; fuel dump; petroleum and gaso- line tanks. Trade in grain and cattle; meat shipments. Brickyards; steam-powered saw- mill; cereal mills (2 motor-driven, 1 wind-driven) ; slaughterhouse; tank depot. Tractor station. Large aluminum-rolling mill. Metallurgical industry; machine shops; oil refinery; chemicals; textiles; tanneries; cement fac- tory. Pottery and tiles (one factory with its own power plant) . 4 brickyards; 2 sawmills; flour mills. Soap, candles, beer. 6 hospitals. 5 hotels. 6 large schools. Paratroopers' school. 4 . barracks installa- tions. 3 theaters, one re- stored. 7 motion picture the- aters restored. Hospital. 5 schools. Former Polish garri- son town. Hospital. Hotels. 28 schools. 3 barracks. Power plant. Streetcar system. Commercial air-ground ra- dio station. Police radio station. Radio telegraph station. Water system. 2 lines (and amplifier sta- tion) on telephone-tele- graph network N, SSE, SW, and W. Small power plant. Water main. Post and telephone office. Cathedral, bishop's palace, administra- tion buirding. Widely scattered sub- urbs. 2 public libraries. State university (opened 1946) . Town divided into up- per and lower sec- tions; former is modern with broad, straight streets on grid pattern; latter is ghetto with nar- row, winding streets and houses crowded together. Power plant (10,000-25,000 Street pattern gener- kw.; coal-burning), ally gridiron. Power plant (460 kw.) Water system. Sewerage system. Gas works. Ice plant. Post, telephone, and tele- graph office. 5,065 dwellings in 1931. Corps and division Hq. Target ranges. ID9U9N.U0) Approved For Release 2003/05/6:1RAAIW.MA4A000200010008-1 0 0- CD =1".. a Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Kolpino (38) * 59?45'N, 30?35'E Pop. 37,000 (1935) Konosha (19) 60?57'N, 40?16'E Pop. 2,820 (1932) Konotop (174) 51?18'N, 33?10'E Pop. 36,200 (1932) Kotel'nich (51) 58?21'N, 48?23'E Pop. 15,100 (1936) Kotlas (16) 61?12'N, 46?50'E Pop. 5,470 (1932) Hovel' (165) (Kowel) 51?13'N, 24?42'E Pop. 20,820 (1937) Krasnyy Liman (204) (Liman) 48?58'N, 37?50'E Pop. unknown (be- low 50,000, 1939) 24 km. SE of Lenin- grad. Flat ter- rain. Izhor a stream (tributary of Neva) mean- ders through town and passes through Izhora plant. Elevation 13.7 m. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. SSE of Kargopol'. Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. On a tributary of the Seym river; marsh area in vicinity. Elevation: 140 m. Sumskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. On steep, right bank of the Vy- atka river; WSW of Kirov. Kirovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. At confluence of Vychegda with the Severnaya Dvina, at termi- nus of R.R. from Kirov. Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. On both banks of the Turiya river, a tributary of the Pripyat' river. Volynskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. About 7 m. N of the Donets river; NE of Slavyansk; small lake to NW of town. Elevation: 100 m. Stalinskaya TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Rail: On Leningrad-Mos- Izhora plant partially restored; Radio broadcasting station. Older portions have cow main line. Flying steel-rolling mill. Power plant (24,000 kw.) . typical small de- bridge 2 km. N of station. Large munitions plant (still a tached houses. Road: 2.2 km. W and 1.8 km. SSE to Leningrad- shambles in 1945) bldgs. covered 185,900 sq. m. Large area for coal S of lzhora plant, development of Moscow highway. Both 11/2-lane traffic capacity. storage. modern workers' apartments. Air: Airfield. Extent of war damage not known. Irregular gridiron in 3 major sections around semicircular civic center area. Rail: Vologda-Arkhangel'sk line. Sawmill. Power plant (100-500 kw.). Workers' settlement. Rail: On Kiev-Kursk line. Peat-cutting; metallurgical indus- Air-force barracks. Radio telegraph station. Ordnance office. Air: 2 airfields. try; locomotive repair shops; 3 lines on telephone-tele- Street pattern very light industries (consumers' graph network, N, E, and irregular gridiron. goods) ; flour mills. W. Built-up area about 9 sq. km. Rail: R.R. junction; lines Tractor station. Railroad school. Power plant (72,000 kw.). Museum. to Kirov, Vologda, and Gor'kiy; R.R. bridge over the Vyatka. Clothing and knitting mills; saw- mills. Library. Water: Steamer landing. Rail: Terminus of line from Metalworking; carrier construction; Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Labor camp in vicin- Kirov. flax working; cotton-cellulose Power plant (68,000 kw.) ity; lumbering and Water: Transfer point, land to river traffic. Air: Airfield. combine; sawmills. reported as planned. 4 radio stations (2 for air- fields) . R.R. construction. Rail: Junction of lines to Tanneries; knitting mill; stocking Several hospitals. 2 power plants (332 kw. and 2,925 dwellings in Brest, Rovno, Kholm, Vladimir-Volynskiy, Sar- ny, and Kamen' Kashir- factory; 3 brickyards; sawmill; 22 schools. candle factory; syrup factory; beer, liqueurs, tobacco; flour mills 158 kw.) . Water tower. Post, telephone, and tele- 1931. Division Hq. skiy. 2 R.R. bridges over the Turiya river. (3 motor-driven; also windmills) . graph office. 6 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, NNE, E, SE, SSW, W, and NNW. Rail: On lines to Khar'kov Machine shops; metallurgical in- Power plant. 3,281 dwellings in and Slavyansk; R.R. sta- dustry; mining of non-metallic 4 lines on telephone-tele- 1939. tion. minerals; food processing. graph network, ESE, SSE, SE, and NW. Generally gridiron street pattern. Built-up area about 2 sq. km. 0 CD 0- 0 CD s--o >cdo ct . 0 0 ???1 C.0 0 0 0 oo pNwapijuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 lo4uanuoD Name coordinates population Krasnyy Liman (Continued) Kremenchug (212) 49?05'N, 33?30'E Pop. 89,550 (1939) Krivoy Rog (242) 47?55'N, 33?21'E Pop. 197,600 (1939) Kulebaki (120) 55?25'N, 42?32'E Pop. 21,090 (1933) Kuolayarvi (6) (Kuolajarvi) (Salla) 67?O'N, 29?10'E Pop. unknown Kupyansk (206) 49?42'N, 37?38'E Pop. 14,000 (1932) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On left bank of Dnepr river. Rail: Lines to Poltava, Kirovograd, and Romo- Machine shops; metallurgical in- dustry; conveyor machinery; Barracks. Hydroelectric plant (600,000 Artillery arsenal. kw.) and locks planned Center of lumber Poltavskaya dan; freight station. freight car shops; road building (prewar) . trade. Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Water: River harbor; steamer traffic to Kiev and Dnepropetrovsk. machinery; shoes and leather; textiles and felt; chemicals; saw- mills; food, tobacco, spirits; wood- working. 3 lines on telephone-tele- graph network N, NE, and SSW. Radio station RKAP. Internal: Bridges (2) over the Dnepr (one R.R. and one hwy.). At confluence of the Saksagan' and Ingulets rivers; in a hol- low. Dnepropetrovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. SE of Murom. Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. About 140 km. W of Kandalaksha. Karelo-Finnish SSR. On right bank of Oskol river, a tributary of the Donets; ESE of Khar'kov. Elevation: 145 m. Khar'kovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Rail: Lines to Dneprope- trovsk and Zaporozh'ye. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: R.R. connections with Murom. Road: Hwy. connections with Murom. Rail: Line from Kandalak- sha through Kuolayarvi (Salla) to Finnish fron- tier almost completed in 1941; in May, 1947, the construction of large number of sidings and spurs was reported. Air: Former Finnish air- field extended to adcom- modate heavy bombers. Rail: Lines to Khar'kov, Belgorod, Valuyki, and Svatovo; switching yard; R.R. bridge. Road: Hwy. bridge. Air: 3 airfields. Iron and steel plant (being ex- panded) ; farm machinery. 40% of total iron ore production of USSR from area (prewar) ; metal content of ore 70%. Aircraft factory; textiles; wood- working; distilleries. Kirov steel mill; includes rolling mill and 2 Siemens-Martin fur- naces; production of bar iron, sheet iron, spring steel, and wheel rims. Large bakery; state farm in vicin- ity. Armaments plant; machine shops; metallurgical industry; wood in- dustry; large sugar refinery; trac- tor station; state farm in vicinity. 2 large power plants; over- land transmission. Post and telegraph office. 3 lines on telephone-tele- graph network NNE, S, and NW. Power plant (12,000 kw., 1937) . 3 divisions known to be in area in May, 1947. Small power plant. Irregular street pat- tern. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 square meter=10.76 square feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles lo4uappop Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 a_ CD 7 a TABLE VIII -14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Kuznetsk (134)* 53?07'N, 46?37'E Pop. 34,000 (1932) Lida (160) 53?53'N, 25?19'E Pop. 24,870 (1937) Livny (144) 52?25'N, 37?37'E Pop. 18,820 (1932) Luga (39) 58?43'N, 29?50'E Pop. 26,200 (1935) Lutsk (167) (Luck) 50?45'N, 25?19'E Pop. 37,280 (1937) 35,000 (Dec. 1940) Lyskovo (56) (Makar'yev) 56?03'N, 45?02'E 0 Pop. 6,900 (1932) a Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and transportation trade billeting On left bank of Truyeva river. Penzenskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the Lideya (Lidziej a) river. Grodnenskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On left bank of Sosna river; ESE of Orel. Orlovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of Luga river. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of middle Styr' river, where the Volynian plain sinks toward the broad marshland of the Pripyat' river. Elevation: 178 m. above sea level. Volynskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. ESE of Gorldy near the conflu- ence of the Sun- dovik and the Volga rivers. Gor'kovsyaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: On Penza-Syzran' line. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Rail: Important junction on the Molodechno-Cher- emkha and Baranovichi- Vil'nyus lines. Station has freight sheds, plat- forms, 2 military plat- forms, fuel storage, 2 steel overpasses. Road: Junction of the Nov- ogrudok - Vil'nyus a n d Lida-Grodno roads. 2 re- inforced-concrete bridges Air: Airfield. Rail: On Verkhov'ye-Mar- myzhi line. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: 4 airfields. Rail: On Leningrad-Pskov line with a secondary line to Novgorod. Road: 2 hwys; connections wi th Leningrad a n d Pskov. Air: Airfield. Rail: 2 stations on Ki- vertsy-L'vov line. Road: Junction of hwys. to Ustilug (on Bug river) , Rovno, Brest, Dubno, and Kivertsy. A i r : 2 airfields wit h hangars. Rail: Nearest station 60 km. away at Sergach on Arzamas-Kazan' line. Production of agricultural equip- ment; leather and furs; hemp and jute processing; textiles; woodworking. Farm machinery factory with its own power plant and foundry. Locomotive sheds and shop. Railroad shops. Rubber-goods factory with its own power plant (150 kw.) . Spinning mill; cement plant; glazed tiles; 2 steam-driven sawmills; oil pressing; soap; 2 breweries with their owh power plants; slaugh- terhouse; fuel dump; munitions depot; camouflaged military camp with rail spur. Iron foundry. Refinery for natural rubber. Graphite industry; tractor station; sawmills; tanneries. Gasoline depots. Agricultural machinery plant. Textiles; tanneries; brickyard; saw- mill (with its own power plant) ; flour mills (including 4 motor mills) ; brewery. Tractor station; shipbuilding; ma- chine shops; metallurgical indus- try; consumers' goods; brewery. Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Several hospitals. Railroad infirmary. 18 schools. Air-force barracks. 4 hospitals. Military schools. 23 schools. Prison. Several barracks in- stallations (wi t h stables) ; facilities for motorized troops, tanks, and field artillery. Large fuel-driven power plant with long-distance power lines. Telephone amplifying sta- tion. Telegraph connections. R.R. power plant 180 kw. Power plant 286 kw. Main post, telegraph, and telephone office. Telephone and telegraph connections. Small steam-driven power plant. Radio station RDBK. Power plant (584 kw.) . Water system with small power plant. Main post, telephone, and telegraph office. 3 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, ESE, SW, and NW. Broadcasting station 422. Army mobile radio station. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . 2,175 dwellings (1931) . 3,827 dwelling in 1931. 2 sections of the se- cret police. District court. Agricultural bank. State bank (branch) . Ruined castle. Army and division Hq. -12 ca CD cas Approved For Release 20Ma110: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 loH.uapijuoD 1.-80001.000ZOOOVIVI?1?0-6/dati-VI3 : 171490/COOZ aseeieu JOd peACLICIdV 0 5. Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Makeyevka (253) About 15 km. NE of Rail: Part of a complex Armaments plant; munitions fac- Makeevka) Stalino. R.R. network. tory (artillery ammunition). (Dmitrovsk- Stalinskiy) Elevation: 220 m. Stalinskaya Oblast', Air: Airfield. Internal: Streets in poor Kirov smelting plant; pig iron, in- gots, plates, sheet metal, bar iron, 48?02'N, 37?59'E Ukrainian SSR. condition. rails, etc. (restored). Pop. 240,100 (1939) Chemical plant (based on coke) . Textiles; sawmills; distilleries; flour mills; bread factory. Mariampole (93) On right bank of Rail: Kaunas-Alytus line. Brass mfr.; automobile repair (Mariampol') the Sekipe river; Road: Branching point of shops; textile mills; leather fac- 54?33'N, 23?20'E SW of Kaunas. Kaunas-Suwalki and Ma- tories; furniture and cabinet- Pop. 16,000 (1939) Lithuania. riampole-VilkaviSkis roads. Air: Military airfield, un- derground hangars. making; 8 sawmills; brewing; sugar mills (restored) ; oil press- ing; 11 cereal mills. poiwappop Mariupoi- (251) 47'05'N, 37?30'E Pop. 222,400 (1939) Marks (194) Marksshtadt) (Marxstadt) (Yekaterinen- shtadt) (Katharinens- tadt) Baronsk) On N coast of Sea of Azov (Azov- skoye More) and on right bank of the Kal'mius es- tuary; part of the town extends along coastal plain; part on higher ground. Stalinskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On left bank of Volga river. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Connections wi th Makeyevka and Zapo- rozh'ye; switching yard and freight station. Air: 5 airfields. Water: Very important harbor with elaborate port installations; steam- ers to Yeysk, Kerch', and Feodosiya. Rail: Nearest station at Saratov. Export of coal, iron, and grain. Seamless-tube mill. Large iron and steel plants; Aviation school. Hospital. Artillery and infan- try barracks: 15 dormitories. 21 secondary bldgs. 3 stables. 3 garages. 2 hospitals. Hotels. air- Barracks. craft-motor factory; small arms; chemical warfare agents; radio factory; machine shops; ship re- pairing (floating dock) ; textiles; leather; soap. Tractor station; machine shops; Several higher metallurgical industry; produc- schools. tion of agricultural machinery; textiles; sawmills; flour mills; to- bacco processing. Power plant (47,500 kw.). Radio station RHB. Power plant, coupled with new hydraulic plant at Puskelniai. Post and telegraph office. Street pattern gener- ally gridiron. Built-up area 16 sq. km. Power plant (49,000 kw.) ; 2 cathedrals. 2 factory power plants. Post and telegraph office. Radio telegraph station. 5 coastal radio stations. Air-mail service. Water system. 3 lines of telephone-tele- graph network, N, E, and SW. Power plant (100-500 kw.). Museum. Gridiron street pat- tern. Built-up area about 21/2 sq. km. Church square in cen- ter of town. 51?42'N, 46?46'E Pop. 12,460 (1926) Melekess (126) On right bank of Rail: On Ul'yanovsk-Uf a Tractor station; peat cutting; iron Power plant (500-1,000 kw.; 54?18'N, 49?35'E Bol'shoy Cherem- line. foundry (tractor parts) ; flax oil-burning). Pop. 19,300 (1932) shan river; NNW of Kuybyshev. Ul'yanovskaya processing; sawmill; woodwork- ing; flour mills; tannery; meat packing; brewery. Oblast', RSFSR. Metallist (121) On right bank of Rail: Nearest station at Tractor station; metalworking; pro- Power plant (100-500 kw.). (Pavlovo) 55?58'N, 43?05'E Pop. 20,600 (1932) the Oka river; SW of Gor'kiy. Gor`kovskaya Metallist (3 km. away), a terminus of a spur line from Gor'kiy. duction of instruments for auto- mobiles and tractors; consumers' goods; center of an old domestic * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: Oblast', RSFSR. metal industry. 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles itl.tuappop "0 0 (T) a. 11 0 CD c7 CD c.n r )1: ? . . rn cnO >F. ZX 00 Oci) CAN 0 0 0 co (13 CD 1.-80001.000Z000VIVI?1?0-6/dCltl-VI3 :t1/90/?00Z aseeieu JOd peACLICIdV loguapijuoD 0 TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Mezen' (8) * 65?50'N, 44?15'E Pop. 3,220 (1932) Michurinsk (139) (Kozlov) 52?53'N, 40?30'E Pop. 70,200 (1939) Mikhaylovka (188) 50?03'N, 43?13'E Pop. 12,000 (1932) Millerovo (199) 48?55'N, 40?22'E Pop. 15,430 (1932) Mogilev (151) 53?55'N, 30?18'E Pop. 99,400 (1939) Mogilev-Podol'skiy (218) (and Ataki) 48?28'N, 27 ? 15'E Pop. 22,270 (1926) On right bank of Mezen' river, emptying into Mezenskaya Guba (M e z e n' Bay) on Beloye More (White Sea). Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of the Lesnoy Voro- nezh river; 73 km. WNW of Tambov. Tambovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Near the right bank of the Medve- ditsa river; SE of Borisoglebsk. Stalingradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of the Glubokaya river. Elevation: 100 m. Rostovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of the Dnepr river. Mogilevskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On left bank of the Dnestr. Vinnitskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Rail: None. Nearest R.R. station is Arkhangel'sk, 421 km. away. Water: Steamer traffic. Rail: Junction of Moskva- Voronezh - Rostov - na- Donu and Michurinsk- Tambov-Saratov lines. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Sebryakovo station on Stalingrad - Gryazi- Moskva line. Air: 5 airfields. Rail: On Voronezh-Rostov- na-Donu and Voroshilov- grad-Millerovo lines; 2 R.R. bridges. Air: 8 airfields. Rail: Orsha-Zhlobin line. Switchyard. R.R. bridge. Road: Junction of local roads and railroad. High- way bridge over the Dnepr, timber, 200 m. long. Air: 3 airfields. Rail: On Kiev-Chernovtsy line; bridge over Dnestr destroyed and restored (single-tracked) ; auxil- iary bridge next to it. Road: Hwy. bridge over Dnestr river. Lumber trade; stock raising; ship- building; sawmills; fish packing; dairy products. Grain elevator; peat cutting; loco- 3 hospitals. motive-repair shops; metallurgi- cal plant (tractor parts and vul- canizing apparatus) ; chemicals; brickyard; canning; distillery; flour mills; state farm in vicin- ity; tractor station. Tractor station; flour mills; meat packing; canning; state farm in vicinity. Machine shops; armaments and munitions (including shells and mines) ; car-repair shops; edible oils; flour mills; state farm for breeding of merino sheep near R.R. station. Aircraft assembly and repair shop (under construction, 1941) ; peat production; automobile - parts factory; car-repair shop; pipe foundry; several kinds of machine building and metalworking; raw leather and hides; shoes and leather goods; knit goods, brushes, synthetic fibers; arti- ficial silk; chemical industries; furniture; flour products; canned fruit; foodstuffs; munitions dump. Vineyards and sericulture in vi- cinity. Iron foundries; machine shops; wool and felt fulling; textiles; lime kilns; sawmills; flour mills; canning; distillery and breweries. Hotels. Artillery barracks. Theater. Power plant (500 - 1,000 kw.) . Power plant. Telephone and telegraph mental institute. connections. Radio station RFRQ. Horticultural experi- Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Power plant (1,000-3,000 Street pattern irregu- kw.) . lar gridiron. Radio station RFG. Built-up area about 4 sq. km. Post and telegraph office. Power plant (15,000 kw.) . Radio station REBL. Telephone and telegraph connections. 2 lines on telephone-tele- graph network, NNE and SSW. Several old churches. Cathedral. Museum. OD 0 CD 0- 0 cri >c-4 zso ?0 0.. 0 ???1 co 0 0 0 oo 104u0p9u0D 1.-80001.000Z000VM71.1.0-6/dCltl-VI3 :171./90/?00Z eseeieu JOd peACLICIdV 0 Name 6 coordinates population a io9uapjuoD Geographical characteristics Molodechno (97) (Molodeczno) 54?19'N, 26?53'E Pop. 6,000 (1937) Monchegorsk (4) 67?55'N, 32?58'E Pop. 30,000 (1938) Morozovsk (198) (Morozovskiy) 48?21'N, 41?50'E Pop. 13,680 (1932) Mozhaysk (106) 55?30'N, 36?01'E Pop. 10,000 (3,000 in 1944) Mozyr' (153) 52?02'N, 29?15',E Pop. 12,000 (1932) Munkachevo (231) (Mukachevo) (Munkacs) (Munkakevo) , Pop. 26,123 (1930) approx. 48?30'N, 22?40'E Murom (119) 55?34'N, 42?04'E Pop. 40,000 (1937) West of a swampy depression at the foot of a hill. Molodechnenskaya Oblast', Whi te Russian SSR. On an inlet of Im- andra 0 z ero (Imandra Lake) . Murmanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. W of Nishne- Chirskaya. Elevation: 80 m. Rostovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On right bank of the upper Mosk- va river; 110 km. west of Moscow. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of the Pripyat' river. Polesskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On the left bank of the Latoritsa river where it de- scends from the East Beskid Mts. Zakarpatskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On high, left bank of the Oka river; SW of Gor'kiy. Vladimirskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Rail: On Vil'nyus-Minsk and Polotsk-Lida lines. R.R. bridge over the Usha and Viliya. Air: Airfield. Road: Good roads only in vicinity of the town. Rail: Spur track connects with Murmansk line at Olen'ya. Rail: On Likhaya-Stalin- grad line. Air: 6 airfields. Slaughterhouse; flour mills; gaso- line station. Newly established mining city. Nickel and copper smelting; sulfur production; 3 sawmills; brick- yards. Tractor station; printing plant; machine shops; metalworking (production of pistons, piston rods, and cylinders) ; flour mills; consumers' goods. Hospital. 6 schools. Barracks. Power plant (15,000 kw.) . Post office. Power plant (500-1,000 kw.). Radio station RLDR. 794 dwellings in 1931. Generally gridiron street pattern; streets rather ir- regular along me- andering stream running across N part of town. Built-up area about 9 sq. km. Rail: On Brest-Smolensk- Tractor station. Large military hospi- 1944. No running water. Theater was blown Moskva line. Powder factory No. 4 (in 1937, 4,000 tal (1944) . Power plant (100-500 kw.) . up. Road: On Moskva-Gzhatsk workers). In 1944 hospital was Telephone and telegraph Most brick buildings Hwy. Veterinary instruments factory; repaired and in connections. burnt-out. construction materials (mineral) ; consumers' goods. service. Radio station RFCJ. 70 homes in 1944. Old church. Rail: Mogilev-Zhitomir line Lumber industries; furniture fac- Hotels. Power plant (peat-fired) . (station 6 km. f r om town) . Combined R.R. and hwy. bridge. Water: River port. Air: Airfield. tories; brickyards; cereal mills; newspaper; tractor station. In the vicinity are large orchards, farming, stock raising, and fish- ing. Post and telegraph office. Rail: Line to L'vov. Breweries; distilleries; flour mills; Old fort on a nearby Road: Hwys. to Uzhgorod tobacco processing. hill. and Beregovo. Rail: On Moscow-Murom- Kazan' and Murom-Kov- rov lines. Water: River harbor. Air: Airfield. Tractor station; munitions dump; iron-ore mining; locomotive and car shops; railroad shops; small shipyard; tool and machine-tool factory; textiles (cotton and lin- en) ; veneer industry; canning; large bakery; distillery. 3 monasteries. Power plant (3,000-5,000 Many churches. kw.) . * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter =3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles popepuuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/t1T:aAAIRDitineA000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14 : CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 lopapijuoD 0 Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Narva (31)* 59?22'N, 28?10'E Pop. 23,510 (1934) Nerekhta (64) 57?27'N, 40?35'E Pop. 10,000 (1936) Nezhin (173) 51?03'N, 31?54'E Pop. 41,400 (1932) On the Narva river, both banks 13.8 km. above its mouth in the Gulf of Finland. Estonia. 50 km. ESE of Ya- roslavl'. Kostromskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of Os- ter river. NE of Kiev. Chernigovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Rail : Tallinn-Kingisepp Textile industries; 2 Kreenholn 5 hospitals. Several power plants in the 2,415 dwellings, 2,051 line; R.R. station re- plants with their own power 4 advanced schools. factories along the Narva of them wooden. stored. plants; large textile mill in vi- 1 hotel. rapids. 2 outstanding castles, Road: Through highway cinity restored. 2 barracks. Waterworks, pumping sta- one on left river- Tallinn-Leningrad. Cotton and linen goods; 2 sawmills; Polyclinic buildings tion (reconstructed) . bank, one on right. Air: Airfield. 2 machine shops (small) ; foun- restored. Post, telegraph, and tele- Town 98% destroyed Internal: 1 R.R. and 1 hwy. dry; brick kilns; printing plants; phone office. during war. bridge over the Narva. soap; leather; woodworking. Power generated at the 10,000 sq. m. of living Imports: cotton, jute, coal, machin- ery. falls on the Narva. space restored by early 1946. Rail: On Yaroslavl'-Kos- troma line; branch line to Yermolino. Road: Hwy. junction. Rail: Lines to Kiev, Kono- top, Chernigov, and Pri- luki. Air: Airfield. Exports: lumber, textiles, spirits, tile. Harbor: 1,100 m. of quays, depth 2.7 to 8.5 m. Warehouses on quays. Tractor station; wood industry; nail and peg production; flax spinning; consumers' goods. Artillery arsenal No. 63; printing Hotels. plant (newspaper) ; 2 brickyards; distillery; edible oils; 2 state farms in vicinity. Power plant (1,000-3,000 kw.) . Telephone and telegraph connections. Post and telegraph office. Plans for restoration of Narva. Old city to be restored (southern part, me- dieval; northern section, 17th cen- tury with regular streets) . Juncture of main street going toward Tallinn and of street to R.R. sta- tion will be large square with munici- pal buildings. New street will con- nect with restored bridge. Large power plant and hydroelectric devel- opment planned. Locks to be installed on Narva river. Town to be surround- ed by green land- scaping and to have protective zones be- tween the industrial and residential dis- tricts. 001-111A 96% Approved For Release 2O5 /l4-: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 z 0_ CD 1.-80001.000Z000VM71.1.0-6/dCltl-VI3 :171./90/?00Z eseeieu JOd peACLICIdV 0 pluanuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Nikopol' (243) 47?36'N, 34?25'E Pop. 57,840 (1939) Novgorod (80) 58?32'N, 31?18'E Pop. 45,000 Novoannenskiy (187) (Novo-Annen- skaya) 50?32'N, 42?41'E Pop. 11,370 (1932) Novocherkassk (257) 47?28'N, 40?05'E Pop. 81,290 (1939) On right bank of Dnepr river; SW of Zaporozh'ye. Dnepropetrovskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On both banks of the Volkov river, 2 or 3 km. below its emer gence from I m e n' Ozero (lake) ; on an elevation sur- rounded by low- lands usually flooded in spring. Novgorodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. SSE of Boris- oglebsk. Stalingradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On an open pla- teau surrounded on 3 sides by the Aksay, a tribu- tary of the Don, and by the Tuz- loy. Elevation: 100 m. Rostovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Rail: Connections with Za- porozh'ye, Krivoy Rog, and Kherson. Air: Aitfield. Rail: Junction of lines to Leningrad, Luga, and Staraya Russa; connec- tion with Moskva-Lenin- grad line. Road: Hwys. to Leningrad and Moscow. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Filonovo station (Fil- onovskaya) on Stalin- grad-Gryazi-Moskva line. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: On Voronezh-Rostov- na-Donu line; station in SE part of town. Air: 3 airfields. Internal: Broad, straight streets. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Manganese deposits; production of conveyor equipment; smelting plant; tractor plant; shipyards; production of metal pipes; food industry; tractor station. Shipbuilding; shoe manufacturing; printing; tractor station; fuel-oil dump. Machine shops. Metallurgical industry. Munitions plant (explosives and chemical warfare agents). Machine shops. Locomotive shops (14,000 workers in 1937) ; 9 km. NW of R.R. sta- tion. Soot industry; sawmills; flour mill and cereal plant; meat packing. Utilities and telecommunications 11 hospitals and other medical institutions (all destroyed dur- ing war). Hotels. 4 monasteries. Camps for troops. Theater. Hotels. Military town (bar- rack s, munitions dump, arsenal) . Palace. Advanced schools. Power plant (500 kw.). Radio station RKOZ. Remarks Labor camp in vicin- ity; mining and in- dustrial work. Power plant (destroyed City approximately during war). 100% destroyed Radio station RDDX. during war. The Kreml' Cathe- dral, and various churches being re- stored. On left bank of river, the old town (also known as Sofiy- skaya) ; Kreml' at center of radial street pattern. On right bank, the commercial ci ty with gridiron pat- tern. Cathedral and 47 churches. Museums. Industrial - technical school. Administration build- ing. 2 power plants. 16 churches. Post and telegraph office. Museums. Central library. A center of economic and cultural life in the Don Basin. Icli.uapguoD Approved For Release 2003/05/driESIUBPf8M4A000200010008-1 1.01.-IIIA aBod Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 lo!i.uanuoD 3 0 TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Novograd-Volyn- skiY (169)" 50?40'N, 27?35'E Pop. 18,150 (1932) Novogrudok (157) (Nowogrodek) 53?36'N, 25?50'E Pop. 10,500 (1937) Novouzensk (195) 50?31'N, 48?10'E Pop. 13,940 (1926) Nyandoma (18) 61?40'N, 40?10'E Pop. 7,350 (1932) Onega (13) 63?55'N, 38 ? 05 'E Pop. 3,000 (1932) Oraniyenbaum (33) 59?55'N, 29 ? 46' E Pop. 22,400 (1936) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and Remarks telecommunications At the confluence Rail: Connections with Cardboard factory; tannery; flour Barracks. Telephone and telegraph of the Smolka and Sluch' riv- ers; on left bank of Sluch'; about Zhito mir, Shepetovka, mill. and Korosten'. Road: Hwy. junction; hwy. to Rovno. connections. 2 radio stations. 55 km. NW of Air: Airfield. Zhitomir. Zhitomirskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. In wooded country. Baranovichskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. In a wide steppe on left bank of Bol'- shoy Uzen' riv- er; SE of Sara- tov. Elevation: 20 m. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. East of Pudozh. Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. On Onega river (right bank) 5 km. above its mouth in Onega bay. 134 km. from Obo- zerskaya. 219 km. from Ark- hangel'sk. Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. 40 km. W of Lenin- grad on the Gulf of Finland. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Station on the nar- Concrete plant; ceramics industry; 2 hospitals. Power plant (320 kw.) . 1,055 dwellings in 1931. row-gage line to Novo- tanneries; steam-powered mill; 9 schools. Post, telegraph, telephone. yeln'ya (Nowojelnja) Road: Road junction. gasoline dump; bus park. Administrative build- ings. Broadcasting transmitter. Red Army house. Barracks. Rail: Line to Saratov. Tractor station; cattle markets; Sanitarium. Power plant (100-500 kw.; Gridiron street pat- Road: 2 bridges. machine shops; metallurgical in- dustry; flour mills; state farm in vicinity. oil-burning), tern. Winding stream flows through town and into Bol'shoy Uzen' river. Built-up area about 31/2 sq. km. Church square in cen- ter of town. Rail: Vologda-Arkhangel'sk line. Mining of non-metallic minerals; metalworking; chemically treated wood products; sawmill; dairy products. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Workers' settlement. Rail: Terminus of line from Sawmills. Power plant (500 - 1,000 Naval training sta- Obozerskaya, 134 km. away. Lumber exports. kw.) . 2 radio stations. tion. Air: Airfield. Rail: Terminus of a subur- ban electric line from Leningrad. Air: Naval airport. Water: Steamer connec- tions with Leningrad. Tractor station. Repair facilities for small steamers. Naval arsenal. Sewerage system. Radio station. Palaces and churches (now museums) . Ruins of an old for- tress. Parks. 01.-111A aBDd 0 CD 0- 0 0 0 I? 0 > C-4 Zso UV"' o.. 0 -0 ???1 co oo pi.uapijuoD 1.-80001.000ZOOOVIVI?1?0-6/dati-VI3 :171490/COOZ aseeieu JOd peACLICIdV 0 1 cqi.uanuoD Name coordinates population Orekhovo-Zuyevo (116) 55?47'N, 38?59E Pop. 99,300 (1939) Orsha (102) 54?34'N, 30?20'E Pop. 31,310 (1932) Ostashkov (79) 57?09'N, 33?07'E Pop. 18,000 (1935) Ostrogozhsk (180) 50?52'N, 39?07'E Pop. 22,990 (1926) Ozery (112) 54?51'N, 38?33'E Pop. 19,060 (1932) Paldiski (26) (Baltischport) (Baltiiskii Port) 59?19'N, 24?06'E Pop. 850 (1925) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks On both banks of Rail: Junction of Moskva- Foundry. Bathing establish- Power plant (30,000 kw.; the Klyaz'ma; 90 km. E of Mos- Gor'kiy and Aleksandrov- Voskresensk lines. Production of oxygen apparatus, gas masks, and diving apparatus ment (spa). peat-burning) . Sewerage system. COW. Air: Airfield (of slight im- (Apparatus factory no. 3; 1,000 Telephone and telegraph Moskovskaya portance). workers in 1938). connections. Oblast', RSFSR. Plastics; textile industries; sawmill; state farm in vicinity. On right bank of Rail: Junction of Lenin- Aircraft repair shop; motor fac- Aviation school. Power supply from the the Dnepr. grad-Kiev and Minsk- tory; iron foundry; car repair Osinstroy plant (largest Vitebskaya Oblast', White Russian Smolensk lines. Switch- yard. Combined R.R. and shops; metalworking; cement; flax; furniture; sawmills; paper electric plant in White Russia; peat-burning) . SSR. hwy. bridge. mill; food packing (meat, bread). Radio station REAB. Air: 5 airfields. Water: River port. On Ozero Seliger Rail: On Bologoye-Velikiye Fisheries. Monastery. Telephone and telegraph Museum. (lake). Kalininskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Luki line. Water: Steamers on Ozero Seliger. Production of scythes, leather, white boots, and fish nets (last two products in home industries). connections. Coastal radio station. On left bank of the Rail: On Khar'kov-Penza-Tractor station; iron foundry; Power plant (100-500 kw.). Art museum. Tikhaya Sosna Gor'kiy line. metalworking; leather and shoes; Generally gridiron river, a trubutary of the Don; in the black earth Road: Hwy. bridge over Tikhaya Sosna river. Air: 2 airfields. edible oils; state farm in vicinity. street pattern. Built-up area about 6 sq. km. region; 330 km. ENE of Khar'- kov. Elevation: 120 m. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of the Oka river; SW of Kolomna. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On level land east of the bay of Rogerwiek at en- trance to Gulf of Finland. Estonia. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square Rail: Terminus of a spur line from Kolomna. Rail: Connections with Tallinn and Leningrad. Air: Naval flying field. Water: Harbor almost al- ways ice-free; in severe winters kept open by ice breakers. Internal: Gridiron street pattern. miles Tractor station. Iron foundry (production of spare parts for machines used in light industry) . Textiles; state farm in vicinity. Fish industries; railroad shops. Advanced schools. Barracks. Power plant (1,000-3,000 kw.; coal-burning). Telephone and telegraph connections. Telephone office. Post and telegraph office. 5,320 dwellings in 1941. Harbor formed on SW by mole, on SE by dike. Entrance (from south) 21 m. wide. Depth 6.6 m.; quays 400 m.; space for 3 to 4 av- erage ships. I oguappop 1.-80001.000Z000V4Waict2MYV191.1Q/90/COOZ aseeleu JOd 130A0iddV COL-111A aBod Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Panevays (95) * (Penevezhis) (Ponewesk) (Ponevezh ) 55?44'N, 24?22'E Pop. 26,650 (1939) Parnu (28) (Pyarnu) (Per- nau) 58?23'N, 24?30'E Pop. 20,330 (1934) Pavlovo-Posad (114) (Pavlovskiy- Posad) 55?45'N, 38?35'E Pop. 33,320 (1932) Pechenga (1) (Petsamo -Liinahamari) ) approx. 69?30'N, 31?10'E Pop. 4,333 (1939) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks On the NeveLis (Nevyazha) river, centrally located in Lithuania. Lithuania. At mouth of the Parnu river into Parnu Laht (bay) on the Gulf of Riga. Old Parnu, on right bank, connected by floating bridge with the new city. Estonia. On right bank of the Kl y a z'm a river; 68 km. E of Moscow. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the W side of Guba Pechenga (Petsamo fjord) an inlet of the Arctic Ocean. Murmanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Junction of following railroads: Daugavpils-Siauliai PaneveZys-Sveneionys Road: Junction of new highways. Air: Military airfield 800 m. x 1,000 m. with hangar, army radio station, 18 dormitory bldgs. Rail: Connections w ith Tallinn and Volga. Narrow-gage spur to har- bor. Hwys: To Tallinn and Val- miera (Latvia) . Bridge over Parnu river. Air: Airfield 500 m. x 600 m. Water: Parnu river naviga- ble as far as Sindi. Har- bor blocked by ice from end December to begin- ning April. Internal: Floating bridge across the Parnu river. Rail: On Moscow-Gor'kiy line. Rail: No known connec- tions. Road: Terminus of the Arctic hwy. (which be- gins in Rovaniemi 531 km. to 5). Water: Harbor ice-free Flax trade; machine factories; Infantry barracks. foundries; automobile - repair shops; chemical plant; paints, turpentine, tar, lubricants; linen, jute, and other textiles; wool, cotton weaving, wadding, rope, leather, shoe mfr.; cement; saw- mills; soap; 11 cereal mills; slaughterhouse, cured meats; printing plant; tobacco; farm co- operative warehouse; breweries, distilleries, sugar, marmalade, honey, yeast, preserved fruit. Repair of ship motors; machine Hospital. shops; linen spinning and weav- 5 higher schools. ing; felt; tanning; leather goods; 2 hotels. shoes; oil pressing; brick kilns; Infantry barracks. sawmills. At Kodara: 2 brickyards; match factory; paper mill. At Audru: Distillery; dairy; brew- ery; chocolate factory. Large textile plant operating nor- mally (May 1946). Exports: lumber, flax, flaxseed, po- tatoes; imports: coal, salt, fer- tilizer. Fishing; slaughterhouse and stock- yards. Peat-cutting; shoes and textiles; School. tannery; laundry and dyeing es- tablishment; pottery manufac- ture; slaughterhouse. Fisheries; nickel deposits in vicin- Hotel (20 rooms) . ity; brickyard; fish-meal plant. Power plant (1,616 kw.). Post and telegraph office. Power plant (1,500 kw.). Post, telegraph, and tele- phone office. Radio station ESP. Power plant. Sewerage system. Telephone and telegraph connections. 3,056 dwellings, 2,761 of them wooden. Harbor: Ship channel: 250 m. wide, 5.5 to 6 m. deep, between 2 jetties from roadstead to har- bor proper. Harbor proper: Lower course of the Parnu, 1.3 km. long, 190 to 360 m. wide, 3.6 to 5.5 m. deep, quays 500 m. and 280 m. long, new quay 220 m. long planned (1941) . Also winter harbor. Simultaneous trans- shipment for 5 steamers. Warehouses 20,070 sq. m. floor area. Narrow-gage rail spur. 170 LIM aBod Approved For Release 2092M146 CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 polluappop Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0Ca 5 a lopapijuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Pechenga (Continued) Pervomaysk (239) (Olviopol') 48?03'N, 30?51'E Pop. 31,680 (1926) Pestovo (43) 58?36'N, 35?48'E Pop. 7,000 (1935) Petrodvorets (34) (Petergof) 59?53'N, 29?55'E Pop. 30,000 (1936) Petrovsk (135) 52?22'N, 45?19E Pop. 17,300 (1932) Petrozavodsk (20) (Kalininsk) 61?47'N, 34?21'E Pop. 69,700 (1939) At confluence of Sinyukha and Yuzhnyy Bug rivers; on both banks of former and left bank of latter. Odesskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. On left bank of upper Mologa river. Novgorodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the Gulf of Fin- land, 29 km. W of Leningrad. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of Medveditsa river, NW of Saratov. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On west shore of Onezhskoye Ozero (Lake Onega). Karelo-Finnish SSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter-3.28 feet 1 square meter-10.76 square feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles throughout year and ac- cessible to ships of all sizes; pier 200 m. long; port equipped to handle coal, oil, and general cargo. Rail: Connections with Odessa Vinnitsa, and Kirovograd. Air: 2 airfields. Machine shops; production of leather; 4 brickyards; flour mills; brewery. Post office and telegraph station. Radio station RUY. Airfield radio station. Rail: On Leningrad-Krasny Kholm line. Air: Airfield. Tractor station. Sawmill. Small power plant (steam) . Rail: 2 stations on the sub- Tractor station. Palaces of former im- Churches. urban electric line to Leningrad. perial family; made into museums. Parks around palaces. Air: Airdrome; second air- field 6 km. S near Nizino. Naval school. Water: Steamer traffic. Rail: Petrovsk-Saratovskiy Tractor station; production and re- Power plant (100-500 kw.; station on the Atkarsk- Vol'sk line. Air: 2 airfields. Moskva- pair of tractors; consumers' goods; flour mills; state farm in vicinity. oil-burning) . Saratov Airline by way of Petrovsk. Rail: On the Murmansk Fish cannery planned 1945, output Pedagogical, indus- Power plant. Oblast administrative R.R. Secondary R.R. to 500,000 cans annually. trial, and agricul- Private power plant in the center. Suoyarvi. Onega metal works: iron and steel tural technical Onega metal works. Half of town de- Air: 4 airfields. foundry; road building machin- school. 4th electric power station stroyed including Water: Local steamer traf- ery; farm machinery; motor Barracks. reported restored to op- university and most fic, and to Leningrad. saws; winches; pumps; molybde- 3 theaters. eration (May 1945) . of industry. num steel. Airfield and 2 other radio Street pattern gener- R.R. shops, car building; narrow- stations. ally gridiron with gage locomotive plant being re- Broadcasting station RW- main diagonal ave- stored (1946) ; farm machinery repair shops; shipyard; 3 saw- mills; prefabricated home plant under construction (1946) ; ski factory and other woodworking plants; stone working; bricks; mica; lime; sugar industry; bread; large cereal mill; refrig- 29. nue extending along river bank to con- nect two principal squares. Regional museum. eration plant; fish products; sau- sage plant; brewery; distillery; mica plant; munitions plant. inguappop col-IIIA 96Dd 1.-80001?000Z000VM71.1.0-6/dC1U-VI3 : 171./90/?00Z eseeieu JOd peACLICIdV 0 Name coordinates population Petseri (82)* (Pechory) 57?48'N, 27?37'E Pop. 4,270 (1934) Pinsk (158) Pinsk) 52?07'N, 26?08'E Pop. 35,000 (1937) 30,000 (Dec. 1940) Plesetsk (14) (Plesetskaya) 62?45'N, 40?30'E Pop. 8,000 (1932) Podol'sk (108) 55?26'N, 37?33'E Pop. 72,000 (1935) Polotsk (98) (Plock) 55?29'N, 28?49'E Pop. 25,800 (1928) TABLE VIII -14 (Continued) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks East of V6ru. Rail: Branching point of Trading town. Hospital. Telephone office. 629 dwellings, 587 of Estonia. Volga-Pskov and Petseri- Higher school. them wooden. Tartu lines. Cave monastery. Road: Junction of local roads. Air: Airfield. On left bank of the Rail: Station on the Brest-Ship construction yard (Pinsk flo- 4 hospitals. 2 power plants (1 steam- 3,608 dwellings in Pina, between Gomel' line. Combined tilla base) , shops, optical maga- 22 schools. driven, 788 kw.) . 1931. sand flats on the north and the R.R. and hwy. bridge. zine, motor boat assembly yard. Air: 2 airfields. Seaplane Depot for coal, wood, gasoline, 2 R.R. administration bldgs. Water-pumping plant, wa- ter tower. Gutters lined with lime as disinfectant Pripat marshes landing and winter quar-kerosene, and petroleum (5 tanks Prison. Radio station. because there is no on the south. ters. for fuel and oil) . Trade school (troop Main post, telegraph, and sewerage system. Pinskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Water: Pinsk flotilla base. Trade in lumber and fish; iron foundry; tanneries: 4 steam-pow- ered sawmills; paper mill; saw- mill; matches and matchbox fac- tory (with its own power plant) ; chalk; soap; candles; 2 plants for caulking materials (with their own power plants) ; mustard; brewery; liqueurs; 3 motor-driven mills; other mills; powder dump. billet) . 2 high schools (for- mer priests' semi- nary) . Airforce barracks. Naval barracks, in- fantry barracks, Pinsk Flotilla base. telephone office. SE of Onega. Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. On Pakhra river. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Very old walled city on both banks of the Za- padnaya Dvina (western Dvina). Polotskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Rail: Plesetskaya station on Vologda-Arkhangel'sk line. Rail: On Moscow-Khar'kov line; bridge over Pakhra. Road: On Moscow-Serpuk- hov hwy. (43 km. S of Moscow) ; bridge over Pakhra. Air: Large airfield 3 km. N. Internal: Asphalt - paved streets. Rail: Rail junction; lines to Velikiye tuki; Vitebsk, Daugavpils, and Vileyka. Combined R.R. and hwy. bridge. Water: River port. Air: 1 airfield. Machine shops. Sawmills. Chemical industry (wood deriva- tives) . Limestone deposits. Armaments: Airplane motors; air- craft; aircraft cameras and tele- scopic sights; arms and muni- tions plant No. 17 (machine-guns and pistols) ; steel-rolling mill; Podol'sk machine plant (guns and machine guns) ; electrolytic refinery (capacity-5,000 tons) ; storage-battery plant. Tin-smelting, Ordzhonikidze ma- chine plant; metalworking; chemical plant; construction of locomotives; 2 cement factories; slaughterhouse. Metalworking; knit goods; saw- mills; canning; distillery; cereal mills; artillery munitions dump. Hospital. 3 schools. Barracks. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Powerhouse. Sewerage system. Water system. Water tower. Telephone and telegraph connections. Power plant. Radio station RRU. Labor camp in vicin- ity; lumber indus- try and R.R. con- struction. Hq. of military dis- trict staff. Street pattern; irreg- ular gridiron. Cathedrals and an- cient castle. 90L1IIA GenDd 0 CD 0- 0 to 60= Cith 0 ???1 C.0 lopapy.uoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 pluapijuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Poltava (209) 49?36'N, 34?35'E Pop. 130,300 (1939) Polyarny (2) (Alexandrowsk) (Aleksandrovsk) (Polyarnoye) 69?12'N, 33?28'E Hq. for C-in-C of Northern Fleet Proskurov (220) 49?32'N, 27?01'E Pop. 28,250 (1932) Pskov (81) (Pleskau) 57?48'N, 28?22'E Pop. 60,100 (1939) Pugachev (133) (Nikolayevsk) 52?01'N, 48?48'E Pop. 21,600 (1932) On right bank of Vorskla river (winding river) ; marshy area. Elevation: 80 m. at river. 150 m. (av- erage at center). Cliffs along river N and S of town. Rambling erosion gully to N. Poltavskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola fjord) near its mouth in Beloye More (White Sea) . Murmanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of Yuzhny Bug river. Kamenets - Podol'- skaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. At confluence of Velikaya and Pskovitsa rivers; S of Pskovskoye Ozero (Lake Pskov) . Pskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the Irgiz Bol'- shoy river, a trib- utary of the Volga; NE of Saratov. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Lines to Khar'kov, Kiev, and Kremenchug; bridge over Vorskla river. Road: Bridge over Vorskla river. Air: 4 airfields. Rail: Line to Kandalaksha. Air: Opposite Polyarny, on Bol'shaya Tyuva river, is the naval air station. Water: Military harbor. Like Murmansk, ice-free and accessible to the largest ships. Rail: Lines to Odessa, Ter- nopol', Shepetovka, and Kamenets-Podol'skiy. Road: Hwy. to Kamenets- Podol'skiy. Air: 1 airfield. Rail: Lines to Leningrad, Ostrov, and Staraya Rus- sa; bridges over Velikaya and Pskovitsa rivers. Road: Hwys. to Leningrad and Ostrov; bridges over Velikaya and Pskov riv- ers. Air: Airfield. Water: River harbor. Internal: Streetcar system. Rail: Terminus of a spur line, branching from Sar- atov-Ural'sk line. Air: Airfield. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Artillery arsenal; aircraft assembly and repair plant; locomotive re- pair shops; metalworking; tex- tiles; shoes and leather; meat packing; alimentary pastes; flour mills; sugar refineries; printing plant (newspaper) . Hotels. Aviation school. Monastery. Post and telegraph office. Radio telegraph station. Power plant (10,000 kw.) . Radio station RKKA. Museum. Library. Important agricultur- al research station near town. Street pattern irregu- lar combination of radial and gridiron plans; open circle in center. Built-up area about 12 sq. km. (closely built-up area 3 sq. km.) . Ship-repair facilities. Hospitals. Schools. Theater. Medium steam power plant. Naval base with underground fuel and ammunition facilities. New housing for per- sonnel under con- struction in 1945. Machine shops; textiles; furniture industry; sugar refining; flour mills. Power plant (oil-burning) . Radio station RKUF. Division Hq. Leather and shoes; hemp and jute Hotels. Power plant (4,500 kw.; Cathedrals. industry; textiles (linen) ; tractor Barracks. peat-burning) . Museums. and machine repair shops; con- Convent. Military radio station. Irregular radial pat- struction of machines for peat- cutting and agriculture. Theater. Radio station RBF. tern of section on right bank of Ve- Tractor station; quartz sand depos- its; brickyards; machine shops; metallurgical industry; edible oils; flour mills; brandy distillery; state farm in vicinity. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . likaya river. I04u3p1Ju0p 0 (D 0- 11 0 to tniz =I. ? c.f) 0-0 0 ' z-4=. Cn.p. 0 0 0 oo LO-IIIA aBDd 1.-90001?000Z000V1V1.1.0-6/dCltl-VI3 :171./90/?00Z eseeieu JOd peACLICIdV ID4uanuoD 0 cra: 3 a Name coordinates population TABLE VIII - 14 (Continued) Geographical characteristics Pushkin (35)* (Detskoye Selo) (Tsarskoye Selo) 59?43'N, 30?25'E Pop. 51,000 (1936) Rezekne (83) (Rezhitsa) (Rositten) 56?30'N, 27?20'E Pop. 13,140 (1935) Rogachev (150) 53?07'N, 30?04'E Pop. 11,750 (1932) Rossosh' (183) 50?12'N, 39?35'E Pop. 20,800 (1932) Rostov (68) (Rostov Yaroslavskiy) 57?11'N, 39?25'E Pop. 24,000 (1933) On the Slavyanka river, in hilly country 25 km. S of Leningrad. Lake in vicinity. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the Rezekne river (both banks) . Latvia. On right bank of the Dnepr, 112 km. NW of Go- mel' (by rail) . Gomel'skaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On left bank of Kalitva river at its con flu en ce with Rossosh' river. Elevation: 80 m. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On western shore of Ozero Nero (rake). Yaroslavskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and Remarks transportation trade billeting telecommunications Rail: On Leningrad-Vitebsk line. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of Riga- Moscow and Daugavpils- Pskov lines (2 stations) . Road: Junction of the Dau- gavpils - Pskov through highway and local roads. Air: Airfield. Internal: On right bank of Rezekne river, broad streets, clean houses; on left bank, narrow, un- paved streets, rather dirty houses. Rail: On the Mogilev- Zhlobin line. Combined R.R. and hwy. bridge over the Prut. Road: Hwy. bridge over the Dnepr. Air: 2 airfields. R a i 1: On Moskva-Voro- nezh - Rostov - na-Donu line; R.R. bridge over Rossosh' river. Road: Hwy. junction; 2 bridges over Rossosh' river. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Moscow-Yaroslavl' line. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: Airfield. Hospitals. Several barracks. Trade in farm products; 4 machine 2 hotels. shops; brewery; oil pressing; wool Barracks. washing; gasoline filling station. Pitch products; paper and card- board mill; brickyard; woodwork- ing; sawmill; consumers' goods; tractor station. Iron foundry; 2 brickyards; 2 flour mills; poultry-canning. Tractor station. Kutuzov flax-spinning mill (1,200 workers (1941) ) . Fish and vegetable cannery; con- sumers' goods. 3 monasteries. Water system. Sewerage system. 4 radio stations. Post, telegraph, and tele- phone office. Power plant. Post and telegraph office. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Telephone and telegraph connections. Power plant (1,000-3,000 kw.; oil-burning) . Telephone and telegraph connections. Munitions dump. Former summer resi- dence of the Tsar with broad, clean, straight streets. Good sanitation. Healthful, dry cli- mate. Several palaces and country houses of former nobles; pal- aces undergo- ing restoration. Fa- mous park. Ruins of medieval castle. Street pattern irregu- lar gridiron. 2,661 dwellings in 1941. Built-up area about 33/4 sq. km. Very old town. 11 wide streets lead from rim of town to Kreml' (radial pat- tern) . Cathedral and 22 churches. State museum. Kreml' (ancient for- tress area) . 80L111A 60d Approved For Release 202k$11/1$0: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 lopappop Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 lopepuuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Rovno (168) (ROwne) (Ryvne) 50?37'N, 26?15'E Pop. 42,590 (1937) Rtishchevo (137) 56?16'N, 43?47'E Pop. 20,440 (1932) Ryazan' (118) 54?38'N, 39?45'E Pop. 95,000 (1939) On the Ust'ye, a tributary of the Goryn' river. Rovenskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On the 01'shanka, a small tributary of the Khoper, WNW of Saratov. Saratovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right bank of the Trubezh river, 2 km. above its confluence with the Oka; town divided into two parts by Lybed' river, the NW section is a plain, the SE contains numer- ous depressions. Ryazanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Ryl'sk (176) On the Seym river, 51?35'N, 34?42'E 151 km. W of Pop. 10,200 (1932) Kursk. Elevation: 160 m. Kurskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rzhev (78) On both banks of 56?16'N, 34?20'E the Volga river. Pop. 54,100 (1939) Kalininskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Junction of Brest- Zdolbunovo and L'vov- Vil'nyus lines; steel bridge over Ust'ye; 2 sta- tions (one for freight) . Road: Junction of hwys. to Lutsk, Dubno, and Kiev; 6 wooden bridges. Air: Airfield. Rail: Junction of Moscow- Saratov and Penza-Bala- shov-Khar'kov lines. Internal: Streets in poor condition. Rail: Junction of Moskva- Voronezh - Rostov - na - Donu and Ryazan'-Kuy- byshev-IJ f a-Chelyabinsk lines; narrow-gage line to Vladimir; station 2 km. from center of town. Water: River harbor (Oka). Internal: Bus service. Air: Airfield. Rail: Narrow-gage line to Korenev o, connecting with Kiev-Kursk-Voro- nezh line. Road: On Krupets-Sudzha hwy; hwy. bridge over Seym river. Rail: Junction of the Mos- cow-Riga, Rzhev-Vyaz'- ma, and Rzhev-Torzhok lines; bridge over Volga. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: 3 airfields. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Agricultural machinery; locomotive shops; mill machinery plant; wheel-rim factory; textiles; edi- ble oils; turpentine; brickyards; match factory; sawmills; soap factory; brewery and distillery; flour mills; Zdolbunovo cement plant again in operation follow- ing repairs. Tractor station; machine shops; metalworking; consumers' go,ods; slaughterhouse; meat packing. Peat deposits. Town is in Moscow lignite basin. Lignite mining; agricultural ma- chinery; lamp factory; leather and textiles; woodworking; can- ning; distillery; state bank; trac- tor station. Tractor station; mining of non- metallic minerals; brickyard; edi- ble oils; flour mill. Textiles (flax and hemp especial- ly) ; munitions dump; artillery arsenal No. 66; agricultural ma- chinery; car-repair shops; rope factory (1,000 workers) ; sawmills; canning; distillery. 3 hospitals. 20 schools. 4 barracks. Prison. 3 hotels. Large school building. Party club building. Workers' palace. 3 monasteries. Advanced schools. Aviation school. Power plant (690 kw.). R.R. power plant (115 kw.) . Water system. Sewerage system. Post, telephone, and tele- graph office. Radio telegraph station. Power plant (500-1,000 kw.; oil-burning). Post and telegraph office. Coastal and airfield radio station. Power plant (100-500 kw.). Telephone and telegraph connections. Power plant. Telephone and telegraph connections. Radio telegraph station. 3,865 dwellings in 1931. Corps and division hq. Court and district ad- ministration. Section of the secret police. Munitions dump. Military gasoline de- pot. Fortification in a quarry. Museum. Library. Krem1'. Spring floodwaters reach the edge of the city. Generally gridiron street pattern. Built-up area about 21/2 sq. km. 2 museums. Churches. Gridiron street pat- tern. 1,000 dwellings recon- structed by April, 1944. lo9uapijuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/arigAAMPTp5,M4A000200010008-1 601.-111A 360d 109U9p1J.U0) Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII -14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Saransk (123)* 54?15'N, 45?10'E Pop. 21,500 (1932) Semenov (57) 56?52'N, 44?28'E Pop. 7,530 (1932) Sengiley (132) 53?58'N, 48?45'E Pop. 10,700 (1932) Serpukhov (109) 54?56'N, 37?28'E Pop. 91,700 (1939) Sestroretsk (25) 60?06'N, 29?59'E Pop. 25,400 (1936) Shakhty (258) (Aleksandrovsk- Grushevskiy) 47?43'N, 40?14'E Pop. 155,100 (1939) Siauliai (94) (Shaulyay) (Schaulen) (Shayli) 55?56'N, 23?20'E Pop. 31,650 (1936) At confluence of Saranka and In- sar rivers. Mordovian ASSR. (capital), RSFSR. NNE of Gor'kiy. Gor'kovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the right bank of the Volga river, NW of Kuybyshev. Ul'yanovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of Nara river, a small tributary of the Oka, and near confluence of the two rivers; 99 km. S of Mos- cow. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. At confluence of the Sestra and Chernaya rivers and on the Gulf of Finland; 37 km. NNW of Len- ingrad. Favor- ably situated beach. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. NE of Rostov-na- Donu. Rostovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. NNW of Kaunas, on a rise of land surrounded by swamps. Lithuania. Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and Remarks transportation trade billeting telecommunications Rail: On Moscow-Kazan' line. Air: 1 airfield. Rail: On Gor'kiy-K irov line. Air: .,2 airfields. Rail: Nearest station at Ul'yanovsk 47 km. away. Rail: On Moskva-Khar'kov line; branch-line leading WNW; bridge over Oka river. Road: Hwy. junction. Water: River port. Air: Airfield. Rail: Suburban line to Leningrad; station on line to Finland; electrifi- cation of line underway in 1941. Air: Airfield (military). Rail: Shakhtnaya station on Armavir - Rostov-na- Donu - Voronezh line. Air: 4 airfields. Rail: Junction of following lines: Jelgava-Kaunas Siauliai-Sovetsk (Tilsit) Liepaja-Daugavpils Road: Junction of Sovetsk Metalworking; tanneries; hemp processing (785 workers) ; jute processing; cannery; edible oils. Tractor station; machine shops; metalworking; wood industry. Mining of machine cement goods. nonmetallic minerals; shops; metalworking; factory; consumers' Metallurgical plant; sawmills; can- ning; tractor station; artillery arsenal; trade in grain, hemp, and wood; textile industries. Precision instruments factory. Center of an important anthracite coal-producing area. Printing plant; munitions plant; machine shops; metallurgical in- dustry; textiles; leather-working; furniture factories; dairy prod- ucts; margarine. Important trade and industrial cen- ter of NW Lithuania. Leather and shoe industry (85%, 60% resp. of total for Lithuania) . Farm machinery; hardware; auto- mobile repair shops; wire; nails; Aviation school. Numerous rest homes. Hospital. Schools (high schools, teachers' college) . Infantry barracks (with rail spur, 4 living quarters, 2 Power plant (10,000 kw., 1941) . Telephone and telegraph connections. Radio-broadcasting station RW-65 (1.0 kw.) . Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Radio station RFXP. Power plant (500-1,000 kw.) . Radio station RFAI. Power plant in vicinity (10,000 kw., 1942). Telephone and telegraph connections. Large power plant (90,000 kw.; coal-burning) . Waterworks. 2 radio stations. 2 power plants (2,020 kw.). 3 transformer houses. Post and telegraph office. Radio station at military flying field. Cathedral. Old fortress. Reservoir (12 sq. km.) nearby; created by dam across Sestra river. 2 km. of track at sta- tion: 2 through tracks 11 spurs 9 sidings. St. Peter and St. Paul 01 L-IIIA 9619d Approved For Release 20fliag/14b: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 irlwaputioD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 CO 3 a pluanuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Siauliai (Continued) Slavyansk (205) On the Torets 48?51'N, 37?37'E river, N of Sta- Pop. 75,500 (1939) lino. Elevation: 80 m. Stalinskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Slonim (159) In the valley of the 53?05'N, 25?19'E Shara river. Pop. 16,280 (1931) Baranovichskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Slutsk (154) 53?02'N, 2'7?33'E Pop. 12,991 (1932) On the S 1 u c h' river, 200 km. S of Minsk. Bobruyskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. Sokol (49) On upper Sukhona 59?28'N, 40?08'E river NNE of Vo- Pop. 15,090 (1932) logda. Vologodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Sortavala (21) On north shore of (Serdobol') Ladozhskoye 61?41'N, 30?41'E Ozero (Lake La- doga). Karelo-Finnish SSR. (Tilsit) -Jelgava and Pa- nevays-Maeikiai hwys. Air: Military airfield (127.4 hectares) , 2 hangars, as- sembly shed, 6 living quarters, 30,000 liter gas tank, rail spur. Rail: Connections with Stalino and Khar'kov; freight station. Air: Airfield. Rail: On the Bialystok- Baranovichi line. 2 R.R. bridges. Road: Bialystok-Barano- vichi highway. 5 hwy. bridges. Rail: Connections w ith Bobruysk and Timko- vichi. Air: Airfield. Rail: Vologda-Arkhangel'sk line, station 2 km. from town. Water: River port. Air: Airfield. Rail: On the line to Vyborg. Air: 2 airfields. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles shoes; felt hides; leather; linen; jute; woolen and other textiles; rope; knit goods; bone meal; lu- bricants; medicinals; dyes; soap; cellulose; paper; furniture; large slaughterhouse (fresh and cured meats and poultry) oil pressing; starch; sugar; chocolate; cheese; brewing; 2 other slaughter- houses; sausage casings; egg grading and packing. Chemical warfare agents and ex- plosives; armaments and muni- tions; metalworking; car repair shops; 4 chemical plants; glass and porcelain (including insula- tors) ; soap; canning; distillery; chalk quarries in vicinity. Machine factory; tanning; 4 saw- mills; brickyards; glue; soap and candle works; slaughterhouse and stockyard with rail spur; liqueurs; cereal mills; military depot with rail spur. Metalworking; knit goods; furni- ture; canning; cereal mills; food- stuffs. Newspaper; chemical industries; celluloid; cellulose; p ape r; canned goods. Cellulose plant; 2 paper mills; saw- mill; small shipyard; plywood plant; wool spinning. stables, 7 store sheds, gasoline dump) . Barracks. 2 hospitals. 19 schools. Infantry barracks. 2 buildings of the Commissariat f o r Internal Affairs; militia bldgs. Power plant (3,000 kw.) . Power plant 410 kw. Water main, pumping 1931. plant, 2 water towers. Main post, telegraph, and telephone office. Church with steeple 73 m. high. Irregular street pat- tern with consider- able open space. Several small lakes in vicinity. 2,033 dwellings in Power plant. Power plant (15,000 kw.) . Small hydroelectric plant. mi.uapijuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/tifiRAAle7059M4A000200010008-1 L 11-111A aBod Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 lopapop TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Sovetsk (262)* (Tilsit) 55?04'N, 21?54'E Pop. 57,244 (1933) ? Starokonstantinov (219) 49?45'N, 27?16'E Pop. 12,400 (1932) Stry (228) (Stryj) 49?16'N, 23?52'E Pop. 31,700 (1937) Sumy (175) 50?56'N, 34?47'E Pop. 63,880 (1939) Svoboda (182) (Liski) (Novopokrovka) 50?59'N, 39?30'E Pop. 16,300 (1932) Syktyvkar (15) (Ust'-Sysol'sk) 61?40'N, 50?51'E Pop. More than 0 10,000 (no defi- nite data) On left bank of Neman (Memel) river, 115 km. NE of Kaliningrad. Kaliningradskaya Oblast'7 RSFSR. On Sluch' river. Kamenets-Podol'- skaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. In the wide valley of the Stryy river, a tributary of the Dnestr; 87 km. S of L'vov. Drogobychskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On the Psel, NW of Khar'kov. Elevation: 140 m. Sumskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. On left bank of Don river, 97 km. S of Voronezh. Elevation: 100 m. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. At confluence of Sysola and Vy- chegda rivers; left bank of both rivers. Komi ASSR. (capital), RSFSR. Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and Remarks transportation trade billeting telecommunications Rail: Connections with Klaipeda (Memel) and Kaliningrad; R.R. bridge over the Neman river de- stroyed and replaced by emergency bridge. Road: Hwy. bridge over the Neman river destroyed and replaced by emer- gency bridge. Second hwy. bridge over body of water beyond Neman river. Rail: Connections with Shepetovka, Vinnit sa, a n d Kamenets-Podol'- skiy. Road: Hwy. to Kamenets- Podol'skiy. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of lines to L'vov, Dolina, Munkach- evo, Drogobych, and Ter- nopol'; power plant for R.R. Road: Junction of L'vov- Munkachevo and Drogo- bych-Stanislav h w y s; bridge over Stryy river. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: On Khar'kov-Voro- zha line. Road: Junction of a net of local roads. Air: Airfield. Rail: Liski station on Khar'kov-Penza - Gor'kiy and Moscow - Voronezh- Rostov-na-Donu lin e s; R.R. bridge over the Don. Rail: Connection with Ki- rov-Kotlas line under construction in 1944. Machine shops; textiles; sugar re- fining. Oil wells and natural gas; metal- lurgical industry; machine shops; iron foundries; manufacture of drills (independent power plant) ; chemical plant; oil refinery; tex- tiles (expansion of industry under way) ; wood industry; sawmill (steam-driven) ; match factory; wood-products plant (independ- ent power plant) . 2 hospitals. Hotels. 18 schools. 3 barracks. Munitions plant (hand grenades) ; Hotels. production of armored vehicles and spare parts; machine shops; shoes and leather; textiles; chemicals; sawmills; sugar re- fineries. Machine shops; metallurgical in- dustry; slaughterhouse; consum- ers' goods. Rosin products; sawmill; brick- yard; cellulose plant (3,000 work- ers in 1941) . R.R. power plant. 2 factory power plants. Gas works. Post and telephone office. Post and telegraph office. Power plant (100-500 kw.) . Radio station RFRD. Power plant (1,000-3,000 kw.) ; 4 km. from town on upper Sysola river. Broadcasting station RW- 41. Airfield and 4 other radio stations. Street pattern very ir- regular gridiron. 2,904 dwellings in 1931. Munitions dump. Combination of grid- iron and irregular street patterns. Built-up area about 71/2 sq. km. Combination of grid- iron and irregular street pattern. Z11-111A 060d 0 CD 0- 0 to >"1,4 CAA 0 ???1 C.0 oo loguappop Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 a IDN.U9131JUOD Name coordinates population Tartu (30) (Yuryev) (Dorpat) 58?23N, 26?46'E Pop. 58,880 (1934) 72,092 (1938) Taurage (261) (Tauraggen) 55?15'N, 22?20'E Pop. 10,500 (1939) Ternopol' (222) (Tarnopol) 49?33'N, 25?37'E Pop. 40,000 (1937) 33,000 (Dec. 1940) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and transportation trade billeting River port on the Rail: Station on Riga-Tal- Machine manufacture; linen weav- University bldgs., in- navigable E m a Jogi (Embach), flowing here through a marshy area. City is on hilly ground. Estonia. On the Akmena, which joins far- ther downstream with the Se?usis to form the Jffra, at the former East Prussian boundary NE of Sovetsk (Tilsit) . Lithuania. In the valley of the Seret river, which is widened into a lake at the W edge of the town (lake partially dried up) ; town lies in northern part of Volyno- Podol'skaya Voz- vyshennost' (Po- dolskaya plain) , which is open and sparsely for- ested. Ternopol'skaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. linn line. Passenger sta- tion with sidings and switchyard. Road: Junction of Tallinn- Voru through hwy. and local ro ad s; 2 hwy. bridges. Air: 1 airfield. Internal: 3 bridges over the Ema Jogi. Rail: Sovetsk (Tilsit) - Siauliai line. R o ad: Sovetsk (Tilsit) - Siauliai through hwy. Rail: Lines to Podvolochisk, Z bar azh, Grimaylov Krasne and Berezovitsa- Ostrov. Road: Hviys. to L'vov, Berezhany, Terebovlya, and Odessa; bridge over Seret. Air: 3 airfields (one with area of 750 hectares) . Tikhvin (40) On the Tikhvinka Rail: On Leningrad - Vo- 59?38'N, 33?30'E (a small river) . logda line. Pop. 12,000 * Leningradskaya Air: 2 airfields. Oblast', RSFSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles ing; felt; 6 tanneries; shoes; 7 sawmills; matches; 2 brickyards; cigarettes; 2 breweries; distillery; starch; cereal mills. Slaughterhouse and stockyards; market hall; trade in lumber and flax. Machine shop; textiles; shoes; rope; woolen and cotton goods; 4 furniture factories; 4 sawmills; hides and skins; 8 cereal mills; geese fattening; sausage casings; large slaughterhouse (preserved meats) with its own power plant. 2 gasoline dumps; motor vehicle repair shop; agricultural machin- ery; cement factory; sawmills; chalk, soap, and candle factory; candy; vinegar; liqueurs; tobac- co processing plant (independent power plant) ; brewery; flour mills. Aluminum-oxide plant (50,000 met- ric tons) ; sawmill; woodworking; tractor station. Utilities and telecommunications Remarks stitutes and library, several museums. Military hospital, 11 other hospitals (with upper school clinic and other clinics) . 13 upper schools. 3 hotels. Barracks. Hospital. Dragoon barracks: 2 living quarters, garages, tank stor- age, 30 metric tons capacity. Infantry barracks. Hospital. 3 hotels. 23 schools. Barracks (including facilities f o r ar- mored forces). 2 monasteries. Gas works. Telephone office. Radio station. 2 power plants. Private power plant at slaughterhouse. Post and telegraph office. Power plant (1,150 kw., 2 x 150 v.; probably d.c.) . Water system. Main post, telegraph, and telephone office. Broadcasting transmitter. Small power plant (12,000 kw.) . Radio station RDFZ. 4,471 dwellings, 3,680 of them wooden. University city. Botanical gardens. Museum. Street pattern irregu- lar gridiron. City has grown be- yond the old walls on both sides of the small river. 3,592 dwellings in 1931. Churches. 2 detachments of the secret police. Militia building. 2 underground muni- tions depots and 4 other munitions de- pots. loguoppop Approved For Release 2003/05/a 0008-1 ?1.1-111A aBod ION.U0p9.U0D Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and ,billeting _Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Tiraspol' (234)* 46?50'N, 29?45'E Pop. 25,750 (1932) Tukums (88) (Tuckum) 56?58'N, 23?09'E Pop. 8,140 (1935) Tutayev (71) (Romanovo- Borisoglebsk) 57?53'N, 3912'E Pop. 13,000 (1933) Uglich (69) 57?32'N, 38?20'E Pop. 7,150 (1932) Ul'yanovsk (125) (Simbirsk) 54?23'N, 48?25'E Pop. 102,100 (1939) Uman' (216) 48?44'N, 30?12'E Pop. 50,000 (1932) Uryupinsk (186) (Uryupino) 50?48'N, 42?01'E Pop. 17,920 (1932) On left bank of Dnestr river. Former capital of the Moldavian SSR. On the Slocene river which here forms an elon- gated lake. City on an eleva- tion, surrounded by other eleva- tions. Latvia. On both high banks of the Volga river; 53 km. NW of Yaro- slavl' (by rail) . Yaroslavskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On both banks of Volga, WSW of Yaroslavl'. Yaroslavskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Between the Svi- yaga and Volga rivers; on a height 140 m. above the Volga. Ul'yanovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On both banks of Umanka river; 230 km. S of Kiev in a hilly region. Kiyevskaya Oblast', Ukrainian SSR. On the left bank of the Khoper river. Stalingradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Connections with Bendery and Odessa. Air: 2 airfields. Water: River harbor. Rail: Junction of the Riga- Ventspils and Jelgava- Tuktuns lines. 2 stations. Road: Junction of local roads. Air: Airfield. Rail: Terminus of a spur line from the Bologoye- Shcherbakov - Yaroslavl' line; station on the right bank of the Volga. Road: On Shcherbakov- Yaroslavl' Hwy. Water: Steamer landing. Rail: Terminus on a spur line from Kalyazin. Road: Hwy. junction. Water: River shipping. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Moskva-Kazan'- Uf a line; bridge over the Volga; important freight transfer point from steamer to R.R. (and vice versa). Water: Steamer traffic. Rail: Terminus of spur line connecting with Cher- kassy-Vapnyarka line. Air: Airfield. Rail: Terminus of a branch of the Moscow-Stalin- grad line. Air: 2 airfields. Machine shops; sawmills; furniture Barracks. industry; brickyards; distillery; wine pressing; canning. Market for the agricultural region. 2 forges; 3 machine shops; 4 wool- working businesses; 2 rope fac- tories; 2 saddlery shops; 4 other leather-working businesses; ce- ment products; 3 sawmills; dairy; 2 cereal mills; tank depot. 2 hotels. Boardinghouses. Tulma flax-spinning mill (2,100 Monastery. workers). Paper factory; sawmill; wool and Monastery. felt fulling; consumers' goods. Castle. Printing plant; deposits of oil shale in vicinity; munitions plant (cartridges) ; metalworking; saw- mill; textiles; brickyard; brew- ery; distillery; flour mills and starch factory. Part of evacuated automobile plant (from Moscow) established dur- ing war. Diesel trucks to be mfr. Hospital. Hotels. Monasteries. Schools. Theater. Parachute factory; iron foundry Sanitarium. and machine shop; textiles; Barracks. chemical industry; leather; sugar refining; sawmill; flour mills; brickyards; distilleries. Tractor station; agricultural ma- chinery; meat packing; canning; edible oils; consumers' goods. Power plant (in vicinity). Telephone and telegraph connections. Broadcasting station RW- 57. Post and telegraph office. Radio station YLC. Telephone and telegraph 2 cathedrals. connections. Hydroelectric power plant (110,000 kw.) ; lock on the Volga. Telephone and telegraph connections. Power plant. Post and telegraph office. Radio station RGPE. Radio station RKKQ. Power plant (100-500 kw.). 2 radio stations. Kreml' area includes tower; area is focal point for 3 streets from edge of town; semiradial pattern. Labor camp in vicin- ity. Museums. Library. Cathedral and churches. Division Hq. PLL-11A 9613d mi.uapijuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 l04ueputioD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Uzhgorod (230) On the Ug river. Rail: Connections with Chemical industry. Advanced schools. (Ungvar) Zakarpatskaya L'vov. Furniture industry. Castle (14th century). (Whorod) 48?38'N, 22?18'E Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. Road: Hwy to Munkachevo. Air: Airfield. Flour mills. Pop. 26,669 (1930) Valga (84) and Twin cities on Rail: Valga: Junction of Valga: Tank depot, railroad shops, Valga: Hospital. Valka (85) (Walk) (Valk) either side of the Estonion-Latvian Riga-Tapa and Riga- Pskov lines. Valka: Junc- brickyard, furniture factory, brewery. 5 upper schools. 2 hotels. 57?47'N, 26?02'E border. tion of Aluksne-Rujiena Valka: 2 sawmills. Valka: 3 hotels. Pop. 14,110: Valga: Estonia. and Riga-Tallinn lines. Valga 10,840 (1934) Valka: Latvia. Road: Both: Junctions of Valka 3,270 (1935) Estonia and Latvia. local roads. Valuyki (179) 50?13'N, 38?07'E Pop. 11,000 (1932) On right bank of Oskol river, ENE of Khar'kov. Kurskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Velikiye Luki (100) On both banks of Air: Valga only: Summer airfield (500 m. x 600 m.) , not suitable for heavy aircraft. Rail: Junction of Moskva- Yelets-Valuyki, Khar'- kov - Kupyansk - Penza- Gor'kiy, and Valuyki- Luganskaya lines; R.R. bridge. Road: 2 hwy. bridges. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of Moskva- 56?22'N, 30?32'E L ova t' river, Riga and Bologoye-Ne- Pop. 26,480 (1932) which flows vel'-Polotsk - Molodechno through a large lines; 3 bridges over Lo- swamp N of the town. Velikolukskaya Oblast', RSFSR. vat' river. Road: Hwy. junction; 3 bridges over Lovat' river; 1 bridge over R.R. yards. Air: 2 airfields. Velikiy Ustyug (17) On Sukhona river Water: Steamer port. (Severodvinsk) near confluence 60?45'N, 46?20'E with the Yug, Pop. 23,380 (1932) forming the Sev- ernaya Dvina. Vologodskaya Oblast', RSFSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Tractor station; grain elevator; R. R. shops; edible oils; flour mills; consumers' goods. Metalworking; car- and locomotive- repair shops; textiles; pitch fac- tory; brickyard; 2 sawmills; can- ning; distillery; oil-storage fa- cilities. Metalworking; silver working; light Monasteries. industries; cotton manufactures; smokers' supplies; ceramics; lum- ber working; farm implements mfr; brewing; home industries; trapping. Valga: Post, telegraph, and telephone office. Valka: No data. Business school. Valga: A garrison town; irregular gridiron pattern, 1,423 dwellings, 1,250 of them wood- en. Power plant. Gridiron street pat- Telephone aa-id telegraph tern. connections. Waterworks with tower and pumphouse. Telephone and telegraph connections. Radio telegraph station. Airfield radio station. Radio station RDWL. Area of 2.5 sq km. ob- served as 85% de- stroyed in Jan. 1944. Cathedrals and churches. popapuuoD 1.-80001.000Z000VVIAN6RIalVIPI17990/?00Z eseeieu .lo d peAoiddv cu-111A aBod Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 io!wapy.uoD 0 5' a TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Ventspils (89) * (Windau) (Venta) (Vin- dava) (Ventpils) 57?23'N, 21?34'E Pop. 16,000 (1938) Viljandi (29) (Vilyandi) (Fel- (Vilyani) 58?22'N, 25?35'E Pop. 11,790 (1934) Vinnitsa (217) 49?13'N, 28?26'E Pop. 92,900 (1939) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications On left (S) bank Rail: Station on the Riga- Railroad shops; foundries; machine Hospital. Power plant. of the Venta Ventspils line. shops; wool and leather working 3 hotels. Post, telegraph, and tele- river, at its Air: 4 airfields. factories (2 each) ; 3 rope fac-Airmen's barracks un-phone office. mouth into the Water: 3rd largest port in tories; glass plant; brickyard; der construction Radio station. Baltic. Extensive Latvia. See remarks. soap; starch; 12 sawmills; brew-(Aug. 1940) . marshes w ith Internal: Timber bridge ing; distilling; 2 cereal mills; scattered settle- across the Venta. fishing. ments surround the city. Beach with summer homes. Torpedoboat harbor. Imports: coal, piece goods, 13,932 tons (1928) . Exports: lumber, grain, flax, hemp, butter, 4,734 tons (1928) . Latvia. On Viljandi Jarv (Lake Fel li n) , which drains through the Tanassilma into Vorts-Jarv (VOrts Lake). Estonia. On both banks of the southern Bug river (Yuzhnyy Bug) . Vinnitskaya Oblast' Ukrainian SSR. Rail: Station on the Moisa- kfila-Tallinn line. Road: Junction of local roads with the Tallinn- Valmiera through hwy. Air: Airfield, 550 m. x 650 Rail: Lines to L'vov, Cher- novtsy, Kiev, and Odessa. Road: Junction of local roads. Air: 2 airfields. Small machine factory; linen weav- ing; felt; matches; bricks; dairy, and 3 other dairies in the sur- rounding region; large horse market; large textile plant oper- ating normally (1946) . Printing plant (newspaper) ; fuel and munitions dumps; gun fac- tory; iron foundry; metalwork- ing; chemical plant (sulfuric acid; tower and chamber process; 15,600 metric tons) ; superphos- Hospital. 5 higher schools. 2 hotels. Exposition grounds. Barracks. Power plant. Telephone office. Remarks Power plant. Post and telegraph office. Broadcasting station RW- 75. 5 radio stations, of which 3 are ground-to-air. Natural alternate harbor for Riga which may be blocked by ice. Ventspils harbor is ice-free, but drift ice causes trouble in February, and a belt of drift ice is built up with west winds. Outer harbor: N and S moles extending out to sea; depth between them 5.3 m. to 6 m.; serves as harbor of refuge. Commercial harbor: Extends 13 km. up- stream; water area 283 hectares, 150 hectares being available to ships. Customs quay on N bank: 400 m., with 5 storehouses and 2 bins (4,250 sq. m.) 43-ton crane. Ele- vator quay (1 km.) wit h storehouses and sheds (49,500 sq. m.) , 28,000-ton grain elevator, re- frigerator (for 2,870 tons of butter) . Freight and passen- ger service on the Venta as far as Kuldiga. 1,342 dwellings, 1,040 of them wooden. Irregular combination of radial and grid- iron patterns. Ordnance office. Museums. Ukrainian Soil-Chem- istry Trust. 911.-111A aBod Approved For Release 209M/14ri CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 11314U9p14U0D 1.-80001.000Z000VM71.1.0-6/dC1U-VI3 : 171./90/?00Z aseeieu -10d peACLICIdV 0 ca. 3 a irlwapjuoD Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks Vinnitsa (Continued) Vitebsk (101) 55?10'N, 30?12'E Pop. 167,400 (1939) Vladimir (65) (Volodimir) 56?08'N, 40?25'E Pop. 66,800 (1939) Vladimirovka (196) 48?23'N, 46?08'E Pop. 7,250 (1932) Vladimir-Volynskiy (166) (Wlodzimierz) 50?51'N, 24?19'E Pop. 28,410 (1937) Volkhov (41) (Zvanka) 59?55'N, 32?20'E Pop. 11,000 (1932) At the confluence of the Zapad- naya Dvina and the Vit'ba. Vitebskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On high left bank of the Klyaz'ma river. Vladimirskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of Volga river; ESE of Stalingrad. Astrakhanskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of the Luga (a tributary of the Bug) . Volynskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On Volkhov river, 110 km. E of Len- ingrad. Leningradskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Important junction. Shunting yard. Combined R.R. and hwy. bridge. Air: Airfield. Water: River port. Rail: On Moscow-Gor'kiy line; branch line to Rya- zan'. Road: On Moscow-Gor-kiy hwy. Air: Airfield. Rail: Akhtuba station (3 km. away) on branch of Saratov-Astrakhan' line; R.R. bridge. Water: River port. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Junction of lines to Kovel', Ustilug, L'vov, and Voynitsa; locomotive sheds. Road: Hwys. to Lutsk and Ustilug. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Leningrad-Mur- mansk and Leningrad- Vologda lines; branch line to Chudovo. Air: Airfield (military and civilian) . * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 square meter=10.76 square feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles phate plant, being restored in 1946; textiles and leather; saw- mills; woodworking; meat pack- ing; - distilling. Trade center; arms factory; peat production; metalworking; Kirov tool factory; agricultural ma- chinery; car repair shops; optical industry (best in the USSR) ; newspaper; shoes and leather goods; cotton, flax, and other tex- tiles; stockings; cement; knit goods; chemicals; sawmills; fur- niture; woodworking and veneer; canning; oil pressing; distilleries; munitions dump. Printing plant (newspaper) . Arms factory; chemical plant (ex- plosives and chemical warfare agents) ; automobile accessories plant; car repair shops; electro- Schools. Monastery. Theater. Technical school. Aviation school. Trade union hall. 2 hotels. Post and telegraph office. Weather station. Radio station RRT. Power plant (7,500 kw.; peat-burning) . Post, telegraph, and tele- phone office. Oblast capital. Cathedral, old church, museum, pedagogi- cal institute. Kreml'. Cathedrals and churches. Museums. technical products; textiles; dis- tillery; alimentary pastes; new tractor factory est. during war (June 1945) . Salt production. Gridiron street pat- tern. Built-up area 21/2 sq. km. Church square in middle of town. Gasoline and oil dumps; coal depot; District hospital. Power plant (294 kw.) . 3,165 dwellings in brickyards; steam-powered saw- 19 schools. Water-pumping plant. 1931. mill; edible oils; tanneries; cap Several barracks (in- Water system. 2 secret police build- (hat) factory; flour mills; candy cluding two for ar- Post and telephone office. ings. factory. mored troops) . 2 radio stations in former Bunker with anti- Prison. infantry barracks. tank ditch. Munitions depots. Aluminum plant (10,000 metric tons annual capacity) ; tractor station Large hydroelectric power plant (66,000 kw. in 1933). (near Lungachi) ; paper factory. Radio station. lopapuuoD Approved For Release 2003/05/arigAAIRF'fb9M4A000200010008-1 LLL-111A 96od 1.-.80001?000Z000V1V1.1.0-6/dCltl-VIO :171./90/?00Z eseeieu JOd peACLICIdV TABLE VIII- 14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Volkovysk (162)* (Wolkowysk) approx. 53?20'N, 24?30'E Pop. 17,000 (1937) Voronezh (181) 51?39'N, 39?14'E Pop. 326,800 (1939) Vyaz'ma (104) (Wjasma) 55?12'N, 34?17'E Pop. 23,960 (1932) On the Kolosovsh- chyzna, not far from its mouth in the Ross'. The city extends 7 km. along the Kolosovsh- chyzna. Grodnenskaya Oblast', White Russian SSR. On the high left bank of the Vor- onezh river, 9 km. above its confluence with the Don. Elevation: 130 m. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of Vy- az'ma river 125 km. ENE of Smolensk. Smolenskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Rail: Junction of the Wars- zawa-Lida and Bialystok- Baranovichi lines. 4 sta- tions. Road: Bialystokslonim, road. Seven hwy. bridges, some road bridges. Water: Port, enlarged by the Russians. Rail: On Moscow - Voro- nezh - Rostov-na - Donu and Voronezh - Kursk- Kiev lines; bridges over Don; 2 stations. Road: Important hwy. junction; 2 bridges over Voronezh river. Water: Steamer landing on Don. Internal: Main street orig- inates at main R.R. sta- tion and runs N and S through middle of town. Streetcars and buses. Air: 4 airfields. Rail: On Smolensk-Moskva and Vyaz'ma - Kaluga lines. Air: 3 airfields. Iron foundry; farm implement fac- tory; tanneries; pottery; saw- mills; cork; many brickyards; starch; liquor; groats; and meat- packing plant; 2 slaughterhouses; railroad coal and fuel depot; tank depot. Aircraft plants; Komintern ma- chine plant; Stalin diesel motor plant; foundry; machine shops; Kaganovich car shops; automo- bile factory (parts) ; grinding machines; welding plant; oil re- finery; synthetic rubber (SK-2) ; completely restored. Chemicals, electric apparatus, textiles, shoes (shoe industry undergoing ex- pansion) ; distilleries. Tractor station; metalworking; hides and furs; cellulose plant; edible oils. Vyshniy Volochek On the Vyshnevo- Rail: On Moscow-Lenin- Peat-cutting; iron foundry (textile (76) lotskiy Kana 1, grad line. machinery) ; metalworking; tex- (Vishniy Volo- which connects Road: Hwy. junction. tile mill (7,500 workers) ; chemi- chek) the Tvertsa (a Water: Lock installations. cals; sawmill; canning. 57?35'N, 34?34'E tributary of the Internal: Boulevards along Pop. 64,000 (1939) Volga) with the the canal. Msta (a tribu- Air: Airfield. tary of the Volk- hov) . Kalininskaya Oblast', RSFSR. Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks 3 hospitals. 2 power plants 400 kw. and 2,022 dwellings in 11 schools. 160 kw. 1931. 3 hotels. Podros power plant 1,306 Troop billet in a for-kw., 220 and 3,000 v. mer school. Main post, telegraph, and Barrack group (cos-telephone office. sacks and infan- try) . Prison. Motorized troop billet at the Petraszowce estate. Repaired as of Jan. 1945: 16 hospitals. 10 polyclinics. 30 schools. 9 colleges. 9 technical schools. 3 maternity homes. 5 hotels. Monasteries. Power plant (60,000 kw.; coal-burning; overland transmission) . 2 power plants recon- structed since war. Post and telegraph office. Telephone central (3,000 connections) . Radio broadcasting station RW-25 (10-49.9 kw.) . Radio telegraph station. Airfield radio station. Water system. Power plant. Telephone and telegraph connections. Radio station RENI. Telephone and telegraph connections. Coastal radio station. The old city and for- tress lie east of the main street; irregu- lar street pattern. The new city lies west of main street and contains govern- ment buildings, commercial and in- dustrial buildings; general grid pat- tern. City 80%-90% de- stroyed during war. 7,647 dwellings re- paired as of Jan. 1945. Large forested areas N of city. Cathedral. 8 L L-IIIA 960d Approved For Release 2C591yR/141): CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 0 CO Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Name coordinates population Yalta (247) 44?35'N, 34?15'E Pop. 21,500 (1932) Yefremov (142) 53?09'N, 38?07'E Pop. 21,000 (1933) Yelets (143) 52?38'N, 38?30'E Pop. 50,000 (1939) Yevpatoriya (244) (Eupatoria) 45?15'N, 33?23'E Pop. 30,000 (1932) Geographical characteristics Means of access and internal transportation Resources and trade Health, hospitals, and billeting Utilities and telecommunications Remarks On SE coast of the Rail: Connections with Se-Shipyard; metalworking; 2 oil re- Numerous sanatori-Power plant (500 kw.). City is well-known Crimean Penin- vastopol' and Moscow. fineries; wine presses; tobacco UM& Post office. bathing resort. sula; surrounded Road: Hwy. junction. processing food industry; li- "Young Pioneer" 2 coastal radio stations. City consists of 3 sec- by mountains on Air: Airfield. queurs; tractor station. camp in Artek. tions; the old city 3 sides; small Water: Steamers to Sevas- Livadiya Palace (for- on the slopes of the ice-free harbor. topol' and Odessa; har- mer imperial resi- Yamalakh-Syr; the Krymskaya Oblast', RSFSR. bor protected by a long and massive mole with a lighthouse. dence). Theater. Hotels. Warehouses with area of 8,500 sq. m. new city between two streams, the Guva and the Uchan-Su, on the Sanatorium N o. 1 6 started operations (1945) . Megavi slopes, and the center of town on the Nab (a stream) . 4 museums, library. On the Krasivaya Mecha river, 169 km. SE of Tula. Tul'skaya Oblast', RSFSR. On the left bank of the Sosna river, Rail: On the Moscow-Yelets line. Road: On the Tula-Yelets- Voronezh hwy. Air: Airfield. Rail: On Moscow-Yelets- Valuyki, Orel - Lipetsk, Large synthetic rubber plant (Di- vinyl process) ("SK3") ; 3 tractor stations; consumers' goods; 5 state farms in vicinity. Iron foundry; leather processing; 3 brickyards; lime kiln; wood- Hospital. Power plant (12,000 kw.; coal-burning) . Telephone and telegraph connections. Power plant. Water system. Gridiron street pat- tern. Museum. 195 km. E of and Orel - Lev Tolstoy working plant; distillery; flour Telephone and telegraph Orel; in black soil area. Orlovskaya Oblast', lines. Road: Hwy. junction. Air: 3 airfields. mills; printing plant. system. Radio station at commer- cial airfield. RSFSR. On W coast of the Rail: Sarabuz-Yevpatoriya Export of grain. Many sanitariums in- Power plant (300 kw.) . City divided into old Krym (Crimea) branch line connects with Salt mining in vicinity; metalwork- cluding one mili- Post office. and new town (lat- and on the calm Khar'kov - Sevastopol' ing; furniture industry; textiles; tary sanitarium. Radio telegraph station. ter includes villas Kalamitskiy Za? line. chemical industry; production of Aviation school (na- Coastal radio station. and spa) . liv (bay) ; culti- Air: Airfield. iodine; distilling; flour mills; val) . Large mosque. vated steppe ex- Water: Steamers to Odessa bread factory; fisheries; canning; Hotels. Museums. tends to the and Sevastopol'; light- tractor station. Monastery. Coastal fortifications coast between two salt lakes, Ozero Maynak- skoye and Ozero house; port facilities with dock installations and open roadstead (4 sq. km.) . Theater. 5 warehouses. 4 sheds. Oil storage. Moderately d a m p, mild climate. Sasyk; pleasant beach. Krymskaya Oblast', RSFSR. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 meter=3.28 feet 1 square meter=10.76 square feet 1 kilometer=0.62 miles 1 square kilometer=0.39 square miles Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 TABLE VIII -14 (Continued) Name coordinates population Geographical characteristics Yevstratovskiy (184) * 50?10'N, 39?40'E Pop. 4,300 (1932) Yoshkar-Ola (54) (Tsarevokok- shaisk) (Krasnokok- shaisk) 56?39'N, 47?53'E Pop. 8,200 (1932) 9,400 (1939) Zagorsk (72) (Sergiyev) Sergiyevo) (Sagorod) 56?20'N, 38?08'E Pop. 27,820 (1932) Zhitomir (170) 50?19'N, 28?40'E Pop. 95,100 (1939) Zhlobin (149) 52?54'N, 30?02'E Pop. 10,100 (1932) At confluence of Valitva and Ka- litva rivers; 213 km. S of Voro- nezh. Voronezhskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On right bank of the Malaya Kok- shaga, a tribu- tary of the Vol- ga; on a height; NW of Kazan'. 71 km. NE of Mos- COW. Moskovskaya Oblast', RSFSR. On left bank of Teterev river. Zhitomirskaya Oblast', Ukrain- ian SSR. On the Dnepr, 80 km. NW of Go- mel'. Gomenkaya Oblast', Whit e Russian SSR. Means of access and internal Resources and Health, hospitals, and Utilities and Remarks transportation trade billeting telecommunications Rail: On Moskva - Voro- nezh - Rostov-na-Donu line. Air: Airplane. Rail: Terminus of a spur line from the Moskva- Kazan' line. Rail: On Moskva-Yaroslavl' line. Air: Airfield. Rail: Connections with Leningrad and Berdichev. Air: 2 airfields. Rail: Connections Gomel', Bobruysk, gilev and Mozyr'; bridge. Road: Hwy bridge. Air: Airfield. with Mo- R.R. Tractor station; printing plant; 2 sawmills; brickyards; flour mills; consumers' goods; sunflower oil; meat packing. Tractor station; motor factory; op- tical plant; 2 brickyards; dairy; flour mill; state farm in vicinity; gun factory; munitions plant and dump 17 km. from center of town. Metalworking; textiles; chemical industry; leather; tobacco proc- essing; distillery; alimentary pastes. Railroad repair shops; metalwork- ing; canning; agricultural indus- tries; oil dump. 3 technical schools. Monastery (used as museum) . Home for disabled persons. Children's home. Electrotechnical mili- tary academy. Barracks (including those adjacent to airfields and oth- ers for armored and motorized troops, artillery, and infan- try) . Aviation school. Barracks. Power plant (500-1,000 Technical institute for kw.) . wood. Broadcasting station RW- 61 (0.1-9.9 kw.). Power plant (1,000-3,000 2 cathedrals. kw.; oil-burning) . Pumping station. Post and telegraph office. Radio telegraph station. 2 radio stations. Radio station REAA. Parachute tower. Munitions dump. Raion center. * Index number on FIGURE VIII-119. CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 kilometer=0.62 miles OZ LIDA 0813c1 0 CD 0- 0 0 " > Z C/1 01 0 . . 0 0 CD???1 0 0 0 oo NAME Akhiar Akkerman Aleksandrov Aleksandrovsk Aleksandrovsk- Grushevsky Alexandrov Aleksandrovsk Alatyr' (Archangel) Arkhangel'sk Arzamas Astrakhan' Atkarsk Azov Balakhna Balashov Balt), Byeley Balttschport Baranowicze Baranovichi Baronsk Belaya Tserkov' Belgorod Belgorod- Dnestrovskiy Belomorsk Belozersk Bel'tsy Bendery Bezhetsk Bezhitsa Bobriki Bobruisk Bobruysk Bogorodsk Bologoye Borisoglebsk Borisov Borovichi Brest Bryansk Brzek-nad- Bugiem ByeIcy Cernauti Cetatea Alba Chapayevsk Charkow Cheboksary Cherepovets Cherkassy Chernigov Chernovtsy Cherson Chisinau Chistopol' Chuguyev Daugavpils Detskoye Selo Dmitrovsk- Stalinskiy Dneprodzer- zhinsk Dnepro- petrovsk Dorpat Drogobych Drohobycz Dilnaburg, Dvinsk Dzerzhinsk Engel's Enso Eupatoria Fellin Peodosiya Gardinas Gatchina Gomel' Gor'kiy Gorlovka Gorodenka Gorodets Grodno Gryazi Gryazovets Khitinogorsk Ismail Ivanovo Ivashchenkovo Izhevsk Izmail Jelgava Kadnikoy Haifa, Kele Kakisalmi Kalinin Kaliningrad KalinInsk Kaluga Kalyazin Kamenets- Podol'skiy Kamensk " See Leningr VIII-119). VARIANT Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 INDEX OF TOWNS MAJOR CITIES AND TOWNS ARE INDICATED BY ITALICIZED NUMBERS IN THE TEXT, AND BY UNDERSCORED NUMBERS ON FIGURE TOWNS BY PARENTHESES FIGURE VIII-119 INDEX NUMBER Sevastopol' Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy Alexandrov Zaporozh'ye Shakhty Aleksandrov Polyarnyy, Polyarnoye Arkhangersk Archangel Bel'tsy Paldiski Baranovichi Baranowicze Marks Akkerman Soroka Balti, Byelcy Tighina Ordzhonikidzegrad, Rykovo Stalinogorsk Bobruysk Bobruisk Noginsk 246 (237) (67) 250 (258) (67) (2) (124) 9 9 (122) 259 (190) (255) (59) (189) (232) (26) (156) (156) (194) (215) (178) (237) (12) (44) (232) (235) (75) (147) 117 (152) (152) 115 (77) (185) (99) (42) Brest Litovsk, Brzege-nad-Bugiem 164 (146) Brest (Brest Litovsk) 164 Bel'tsy Chernovtsy Belgorod-Dnestrovskly Ivashchenkovo Khar'koy Cernauti, Czernovitz Kherson Kishinev Danaburg, Dvinsk Pushkin Makeyevka (232) 223 (237) (131) 208 (55) (45) (214) (172) 223 (241) (233) (128) (207) (96) (35) (253) Kamenskoye (211) Yekaterinoslav 210 Tartu Drohobycz Drogobych Daugavpils Rastyapino Pokrovsk Yevpatoriya Viljandi Kefe, Kaffa Grodno Krasnogvardeysk Nizhniy Novgorod Gardinas Kirovsk (30) (229) (229) (96) (61) 193 (23) (244) (29) (248) (161) (36) (148) 58 (202) (225) (60) (161) (140) (48) (5) Izmall (236) Ivanovo-Voznesensk (62) Chapayevsk (131) (53) Ismail (236) Yelgava, Mitau, Mitava (87) (50) Feodosiya (248) Keksgorm (Kexholm) (22) Tver 74 Konigsberg (263) Petrozavodsk (20) ? (105) ? (73) (221) Kamensk-Shakhtinskiy (200) NAME Kamenskoye Kamyshin Kandalaksha Kasan Kashira Katharinen- stadt Kaunas Kazan' Kefe, Haifa Keksgol'm Kern' Kerch' Kexholm, Kakisalmi Khar'kov Kherson Khibinogorsk, Hilpind Kiev, Kiew Kinel' Kirov Kirovograd Kirovsk Kishinev Kiyev Klaipecia Kobrin Kol'chugino Kolomna Kolomyya Kolpino Konigsberg Konosha Konotop Kostroma Kotanich Kotlas Kovno, Kauen, Kowno Kovel' Kozlov Kramatorsk Krasnogvar- deysk Krasnyy Liman Kremenchug Krivoy Rog Kronshtadt Kuibyshev, Samara Kulebaki Kuolayarvi Kupyansk Kursk Kuybyshev Kuznetsk Lemberg Leningrad Lepaya Libau, Libava, Lipaya Lida Liepaja Liman Lipetsk Livny luck Lugs Lugansk Lutsk L'voy Lyskovo Makar'yev Makeyevka Mariampole Mariupol' Marks Melekess Memel Metallist Mezen' Michurinsk Mikhaylovka Millerovo Minsk Mogilev Mogilev-Poda- skly and Ataki Molodechno Molotovsk Monchegorsk Morozovsk Morozovskiy Moscow Moskva Moskva Moscow Mozhaysk Mozyr' Munkachevo Munkacs, Mukachevo Murmansk Murom Narva Nerekhta Nezhin Nikolayev Vernolentnsk, Nikolaev 240 VIII-119; MINOR FIGURE VIII-119 VARIANT NAME INDEX NUMBER Dneprodzerzhinsk (211) (191) Kantalahti, Kanderskaya (T) Kazan' 127 (111) Marks (194) Kauen, Kovno, Kowno Kasan Feodosiya Kerholm, Kakisalmi Keksgol'm Charkow Cherson Kirovsk Klyev Vyatka, Wiatka Zinov'yevsk, Yelizavet grad Iiiipinti, Khibinogorsk Chisinau Kiev, Kiew Klaypeda, Memel Koomyla Kaliningrad Kaunas Kowel Michurinsk Kramatorskaya Gatchina Liman Kuybyshev Salta Kuibyshev, Samara L'voy St. Petersburg, Petrograd Liepaja IAepaja Lepaya Krasnyy Liman Lutsk Voroshilovgrad luck Lemberg, Lwow, Lvyv Makar'yev Lyskovo Dmitrovsk-Stalinskty (91) 127 (248) (22) (11) (249) (22) 208 (241) (5) 171 (129) 52 (213) (5) (233) 171 260 (163) (66) 113 (224) (38) (263) (19) (174) 63 (51) (16) (91) (165) (139) 203 (36) (204) (212) (242) (32) 130 (120) (6) (206) 177 130 (134) 227 37 90 90 (160) 90 (204) 141 (144) (167) (39) 201 (167) 227 (56) (56) (253) (93) (251) Marxstadt, Markschtadt, Baronsk, Katharinenstadt, Yekaterinenshtadt (194) ? (126) Klaipecia 260 Pavlov? (121) ? (8) Kozlov (139) (188) ? (199) 155 (151) ? (218) (97) 10 (4) (198) 107 107 (106) (153) (231) 3 (11) (31) (64) (173) Nikolayevsk Nikopol' Nizhniy Novgorod Noginsk Novgorod Novoannenskiy Novocherkassk Novograd- Volynskiy Novogrudok Novopokrovka Novouzensk Nyandoma Odessa Orviopol' Onega Oranlyenbaum Ordzhonikize- grad Orekhovo- Zuyevo Orel Orsha Ostashkov Ostrogozhsk Ozery Paldiski Panevays Parnu Pavlov() Pavlovo-Posad Pechory Pechenga Penevezhis, Ponewesk Penza Pernau, Pyarnt Pervomaysk Pestovo Peter got Petersburg, St. PetrodvOrets Petrograd Petrokrepost' Petrovsk Petrozavodsk Petsamo Petseri Pinsk Plesetsk Pleskau Pock Podol'sk Pokrovsk Polotsk Poltava Polyarnyy Ponewesk Proskuroy Pskov Pugachev Pushkin Pyarnu I Rastyapino Reval Rezekne Rezhitsa Riga Rogachev Romanovo- Borisoglebsk Rositten Rossosh' Rostov Rostov-na- Donu Rovno Rtishchevo I Ryazan' 1 Rybinsk, Ribinsk Rykovo Ryl'sk Rzhev St. Petersburg Salta Samara Saransk Saratov Schaulen, Shaulyay, Shavli Semenov Sengiley Serdobe Sergiyev, Sergtyevo Elerpukhoy Sestroretsk Sevastopol' Shakhty Shavli Shcherbakov Shlisselburg VARIANT Pugachev Gorki}, Bogorodsk Svoboda FIGURE VIII-119 INDEX NUMBER NAME VARIANT FIGURE V111-119 INDEX NUMBER Pervomaysk Bezhitsa Baltisch port Penevezhis, Ponewesk Pernau, Pyarnu MetallIst Pavlovskty Posad Petseri Petsamo PrineveZys Parnu 0I'viopor Petrodvorets Leningrad Petergof Leningrad Shlisselburg Kalininsk Pechenga Pechory Plesetskaya Pskov Polotsk Engel's Pock Polyarnoye, Aleksandrovsk PaneveZys Pleskau Nikolayevsk Detskoye Selo, T sarskoye Selo Parnu Dzerzhinsk Tallinn Rezhitsa, Rosttten Rezekne Tutayev Rezekne Rostov-on-Don Rowne, Ryvne Shcherbakov Bezhitsa Leningrad Kuolayarvi Kuybyshev Siaulial Sortavala Zagorsk Akhiar Aleksandrovsk- Grushevskiy Stauliai Rybinsk Petrokrepost' adskaya Oblast' large scale insert (From (133) (243) 58 115 (80) (187) (257) (169) (157) (182) (195) (18) 238 (239) (13) (33) (147) (116) 145 (102) (79) (180) (112) (26) (95) (28) (121) (114) (82) (1) (95) 136 (28) (239) (43) (34) 37 (34) 37 (135) (20) (1) (82) (158) (14) (81) (98) (108) 193 (98) (209) (2) (95) (220) (81) (133) (35) (28) (61) 27 (83) (83) 86 (150) (71) (83) (183) (68) 256 (168) (137) (118) 46 (147) (176) (78) 37 (6) 130 (123) 192 (94) (57) (132) (21) (72) (109) (25) 246 (258) (94) 46 Siauliai Simbirsk Simferopol' Slavyansk Slonim Slutsk Smolensk Sokol Soroka Sortavala Sovetsk Stalingrad Stalino Stalinogorsk Stanislav Starokon- stantinov Stry Sumy Svoboda Syktyvkar Taganrog Tallinn Tambov Tarnoyor Tartu Taurage Ternopol' Tighina Tikhyln Tilsit Tiraspor Tsarevo- Kokshaysk Tsarskoye Selo Detskoye Selo Tsaritsyn Tukums Tula Tutayev Tver Uglich Ul'yanovsk Uman' Uryupinsk UsV-Sysol'sk Uzhgorod Valga Valka Valuyki Velikiye Luki Velikiy Ustyug Ventspils Vernoleninsk Vib6rg, Vitpuri Viljandi Vil'nyus Vinnitsa Vishniy Volochek Vitebsk Vladimir Vladimirovka Vladimir- Volynskiy Volkhov Volkovysk Volodimir Vologda Voronezh Voroshilovgrad Vyaz'ma Vyatka Vyborg Vyshniy Volochek Wiasma Wilno Windau, yenta Wodzimierz Wologda Yalta Yaroslavl' Yefremov Yekaterinen- shtadt Yekaterinostav Yelets Y elgava, Mitau, Mitava Yelizavetgrad Yevpatoriya Yevstratovskiy Yoshkar-Ola Yuriyev, Dor pat Yuzovka, Yuzovo Zagorsk Zaporozh'ye Zhitomtr Zhlobin Zinov'yevsk, Yelizavet- grad Shavli, Schouten, Shaulyay Ul'yanovsk Belomorsk Serdobol' Tilsit Tsaritsyn Yuzovka, Yuzovo Bobriki Stanislav, Stanislavyv, Stanisawow 226 (219) (941 (125) 245 (205) (159) (154) 103 (49) (12) (21) (262) 197 252 117 Stryj Novopokrovka Usr-Sysol'sk Reval Ternopol' Yuryev, Dor pat Tauroggen Tarnopol' Bendery Sovetsk Yoshkar-Ola Stalingrad (2281 (1751 (182) (15) 254 27 138 (222) (30) (261) (222) (235) (40) (262) (234) (54) 197 Pushkin 135) ?188) 110 Romanovo-Borisoglebsk (71) 74 (89) (125) (216) (186) (15) (230) (84) (85) (179) (100) (17) (89) 240 24 (29) 92 (217) (76) Kalinin Simbirsk Uryupino Syktyvkar Venta, Windau Nikolayev Vyborg Viryandi, Fellin Vilna, Wilno, Vilnius Vyshniy Volochek Volodimir Wodzimierz Vladimir Wologda Lugansk Wiasma Kirov Viborg, Viipuri Vishniy Volochek Vyaz'ma Vil'nyus Ventspils Vladimir-Volynskiy Vologda Marks Dnepropetrovsk Jelgava Kirovograd Eupatoria Tsarevokokshaysk, Krasnokokshaysk Tartu Stalino Sergiyev, Sergiyevo Aleksandrovsk Kirovograd (1011 (65) (196) (166) (41) (162) (65) 47 (181) 201 104 52 24 (76) (104) 92 (89) (166) 47 (247) 70 (142) (194) 210 (143) (87) (213) (244) (184) (5.4) (30) 252 (72) 250 (170) (149) (213) Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 FIGURE VIII - 119 CITIES AND TOWNS EUROPEAN USSR JANIS 40 34? ? Volkhoy (41) 66. Tikhyin (40) ? LENINGRADSISAYA OBLAST' za 30 40 50 60 70 Kilometers . S. S. R. TOWNS n. D C.. on February 12, 1948. 40 Miles 34. 300 400 500 Kdorneters 300 Mans ELY 0_ 0_ "I TALLINN 5) ZZ N'ye re? Belozersk (44) Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 Approved F 00200010008-1 Approved For Release 2003/05/14: CIA-RDP79-01144A000200010008-1 1.-80001.000ZOOOVIVI?1?0-6/dati-VI3 : 171490/COOZ aseeieu JOd peACLICIdV ( (92) 7 ???1 A 7 '111 ,Vyshny Volochek (76) (69 ezekne,(83 ? '95) (96) " KALIN)N z4 e) SHCHERBAKOV 4.5 Tutaye:14f YAROSLAVL (71) 21/ fki, Rostov (68) n (73) e ?- J ??? eoi Aleksandrov (6 ) * Korchugt 0(66) 1111(72).. ? 115A_ (S) Vladimir (65) (116) '? (114) Kyaz'rna (104) erekhta (64) IVANOVO (62) SI ? emanoy (57) Gorodets (60) Balakhna (69),L, vrAENSK (53) LEGEND 0(108) (109) Murom (119) GOR'KlY 5.1_3 DZERZH I N8K7 19s10000 (56) =VIZ (121) (61) ? Kulebaki (120) Arzamas (122) 8"5?' 09) Kaluga (105) Ryazan' (118) Saransk (123) 15,g) Yefremov (142) 7L-3) Michurinsk (139)i Lipets 141 TAMBOV 1.11 Gryazi (140) Nald 6uznetsk.(134) NC" ? ('''d V?1Ynsk0 (169) I Zh't?Mir (170) . ? tabbn 220) (219) *KURSK 177 FIEL;Vj.."7-.1-12,i I .11. ) Siumy (175) \_.......Nezh,n ::,731.:A.K.onotop (174) ?N?'''" 44?111 I 4c. ..Svoboda,:k(i182) Area Boi.-clary International and B&B Boundaries Oblast' Boundary A.S.S.R Boundary Capital of J.S.S. R. MOSCOW* Major Capital 4>41 Oblast' or A.S.S.R. Capital ? 0 () Cities and Towns: Over 1.000.000 LENINGRAD l0o.0oo,0 1.000.000 KAUNAS.. 50.000 to I00.000 Bezhitsa Under 50.000 Millerovo ? Farthest line of German Penetration Index Numbers: Major City or Town OREL lit Minor TO Bryansk (146) Railroad Center fit Road Center gift Sea Port River Por/ Major Air Poet thOr Mining Ce-ter Major Industries Minor Industries Chemical industry Agricultural Center VORONEZH (181) Belgorod (175) Rossosh :odoi'skiy P"4?I.'ior (2 Urrlan (215) KIROVOGRAD (213) ? ar.nyy Liman (204) , miller.? (199) 8Iavyansk (205) 0 evo 411) DNEPRODZERZHINSK e ei m::?. LDNEPROPETROVSK SI! i \-1..r 0 Krama or- L:7? .....y (233 , NEV (233) N.' K.:TVOY ROG :Oil, Twaspol' (23 GORLO-V(K2?A3111) 0 (202)... 11301,1,,LOVIRM,(14;8) 4r. alII . I MAKEYEVKA j