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Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 JANIS 84 CHAPTER Hardcopy document Released-in-Full JOINT ARMY-NAVY INTELLIGENCE STUDY of SOUTHWEST JAPAN: Kyushu, Shikoku, and Southwestern Honshu BRIEF AUGUST 1944 DOCUMENT NO. ?I~E0I,AIED ss ci4AWE iot is s c NW E*WVIEW DATE:.... ~..- ...- AUT'W: Nib I DATE: 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 List of E, fjfective Pages, Chapter I SUBJECT MATTER CHANGE IN EFFECT Cover Page . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Original List of Effective Pages and Table of Contents, Chapter .I (inside front cover) . . . . . . . . . . . Original Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Text (reverse blank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Text and Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Original Table (insert, reverse blank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Text . . . . . . 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Original Figure (insert, reverse blank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Figure (insert, reverse blank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Table of Contents continued and imprint (inside back cover, reverse blank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original unnumbered pp. I- I to 1-2 p.I-3 pp. 1- 5 to 1- 32 Table I - 4 pp. I-33 to 1-40 Figure I - 5 Figure I - 6 Figure I - 7 Figure I - 8 Figure I - 9 Figure I - 10 Figure I - 1 I Figure I - 12 Figure I -13 Figure I -14 Figure I - 15 Figure I -16 Figure I -17 Figure I - 18 Figure I - 19 Figure I - 20 Figure I - 21 Figure I - 22 Figure I - 23 Figure I - 24 Figure I - 25 Figure I - 26 Figure I - 27 Figure 1= 28 Figure I - 29 Figure I - 30 Figure I - 31 Figure I - 32 Figure I - 3 3 Figure I - 34 Figure I - 35 Table of Contents Note: This chapter is based upon material available in Washington, D. C., on 1 August 1944. Page FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I - 3 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 5' 2. MILITARY GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . 1- 6 A. Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I - .6 (1) Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 6 (2) Lowlands .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . I - 6 B. Drainage : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . I - 7 C. Soil traflicability . . . . . . . . . . . . 'I- 7 (1) Weather and trafficability . . . . . . . . . I - 7 (2) Terrain and trafficability . . . . . . . . . 1- 8 (3) Soil type and trafficability . . . . . . . . I - 8 D. Vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I - $ E. Regional summary . . . I - 'g F. Natural critical areas . . . . . . . . . . . I -11 G. Routes to natural critical areas . . . . . . . . . I -1'1 5. OCEANOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Tides . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . I -1 ]. B. General circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . I -11 C. Sea and swell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 D. Sea water characteristics . . . . . . . . . . I -12 E. Sonar and diving conditions . . . . . . . . . . I.12 T. Bottom sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 4. COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES . . . . . . I ..12 A. Kyushu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I -- 12 B. Shikoku . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 C. Southwestern Honshu: North Coast . . . . . . . I -13 D. Southwestern Honshu: South Coast . . . . . . . -1-13 5. CLIMATE AND WEATHER . . . . . . . . . . 1.13 A. Regional differences . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 B. Weather and operations . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 C. The weather elements . . . . . . . . . . . . I -13 6. PORT FACILITIES '. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.16 A. Kyushu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I -17 (1) Principal ports . . . . . . . . . . I -17 (2) Secondary ports . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 B. Shikoku . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 1 .1.9 (1) Principal port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 (2) Secondary ports . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 C. Southwest Honshu . . . . ... . . . . . 1-21 (1) Principal ports . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21 (2) Secondary ports . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 (Table of Contents continued inside back cover) Confidential Approved For Releae 2004/12/20: CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 JANIS 0 500 1000 I MILES APPROXIMATE SCALE Sinusoidal Equal Area Projection Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Page 1- 1 AREAS COVERED BY PUBLISHED JOINT ARMY-NAVY INTELLIGENCE STUDIES Page 1'.. 2 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 BRIEF LOCATION MAP OF SOUTHWEST JAPAN Radial Scale from TOkyi5 Soo 1000 ioo anon STATUTE MILES MARIANAS ISLANIi Guam (U. IONIN IS. . , e B()JtM`, Holm hera CORAL SEA 150" - Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 .on ial EUT1P,4:?~~ 4C?: ARC e'? J,0 I . '1 ~3 e~N I aLECE 15.:: Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Chapter I BRIEF Foreword Page I - 3 The purpose of this study is to make available, subject to limitations of time and material, one publication containing all the necessary detailed topographic information upon which may be based a plan for military operations in Southwest Japan ( Kyushu, Shikoku, and southwest Honshu). The study is intended also to provide an organized presentation of material to be used as a base on which to plot later information obtained from aerial reconnaissance and other sources available in the field. Data available in Washington up to I August 1944 have been incorporated in the study. A list of principal sources will be found at the end of each chapter. To meet the varied requirements of users, the material is presented in 2 distinct patterns. CHAPTER 1, entitled "Brief," is a con- densation of the material presented in much greater detail in the succeeding chapters. It provides a "quick look", complementing the main body of the study. This publication has been prepared from material contributed by a number of agencies of the United States Government, includ ing the following: Aerology Section, Office of the Chief of Nadal Operations; Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Intelligence; Board on Geographical Names; Coast and Geodetic Survey; Hydrographic Office; Joint Meteorological Committee; Military Intelligence Division; Office of Chief of Engineers (Army Map Service, Beach Erosion Board, Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors; Geo- logical Survey); Office of Naval Intelligence; Office of Strategic Services; Office of the Surgeon General; Weather Division. Army Air Forces. For convenience, contents have been made up into 2 volumes: Volume 1, text, and Volume 2, plans pouch. A table of contents will be found on the inside cover of each chapter. The text includes the following 14 chapters, all of which are "Confidential," except CHAPTER XI and XV, which are "Restricted." CHAPTER I BRIEF CHAPTER II MILITARY GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER III OCEANOGRAPHY CHAPTER IV COASTS AND LANDING BEACHES CHAPTER V CLIMATE AND WEATHER CHAPTER VI PORT FACILITIES CHAPTER VII TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUN [CATIONS CHAPTER VIII CHAPTER IX CHAPTER XI CHAPTER XII CHAPTER XIII CHAPTER XIV CHAPTER XV CITIES AND TOWNS RESOURCES AND TRADE HEALTH AND SANITATION DEFENSES NAVAL FACILITIES AIR FACILITIES GAZETTEER. AND MAP APPRAISAL CHAPTER X, PEOPLE AND GOVERNMENT, will be published at a later date, with JAMS 85, and will cover all of Japan proper. A summary of this chapter appears in this study, CHAPTER I, Topic 10. FIGURE I - I shows the areas covered by previously published JANIS studies. JOINT INTELLIGENCE STUDY PUBLISHING BOARD Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Pagel-5 1. Introduction Southwest Japan as delimited in this study includes that portion of Japan proper between 31 ? and 36 ? N, 128 ? and 1.38 ? E. The latitude and climate are similar to those of the coastal plain of North and South Carolina in the United States, but the terrain is much rougher. The area may be divided for convenience into 3 sectors: 2 of the main Japanese islands and part of a third-Shikoku (7,244 square miles), slightly small- er than the state of New Jersey; Kyushu (16,591 square miles), more than twice as large; and the southwestern part of Honshu, larger than Shikoku and Kyushu combined. The sectors are grouped about the Inland Sea, a narrow, island-studded body of water 260 miles long which forms the industrial, commercial, and military heart of Southwest Japan. Honshu forms the north and east shore of the Inland Sea, Shikoku the south shore, and Kyushu the west shore. Access to the Inland Sea by water is possible only through the 3 nar- row, heavily fortified straits which separate the 3 major islands. The 2 most vital industrial districts of Southwest Japan lie at the opposite extremities of the Inland Sea; the Osaka-Kobe district, at the cast end; and the northern Kyushu district, at the west end. The naval base of Kure and lesser military cen- ters also lie on the Inland Sea. The principal industrial centers are interconnected by a well-developed steamship system, and by a well-developed but highly vulnerable railroad system. Outside the Inland Sea, the principal nuclei include the naval base of Maizuru, north of Kobe on the shore of the Japan Sea; the Sasebo naval base and the port of Nagasaki, in north- western Kyushu, facing the East China Sea; and the industrial center of Nagoya, in the eastern part of the Honshu sector, facing the Pacific and 160 miles westward from Tokyo. Southwest Japan is approached by outside land masses or island chains only at 3 places (aside from the adjoining Cen- tral Honshu). From the south, a line of islands extends from Guam through the Marianas and Nampo-shoto (including the Ogasawara-gunto or Bonin Islands) to within 70 miles of the eastern edge of Southwest Japan. Another strip of islands, Nansei-shoto (including Ryukyu-retto), leads northward from Formosa to the southern end of Kyushu. From the Asiatic mainland, Korea projects to within 110 miles of Kyushu and Honshu, and the intervening strait is broken midway by islands. More distant are such centers as Shanghai (490 miles to Sasebo) and Vladivostok (530 miles to Maizuru). North- eastern and eastern islands and land masses-Hawaiian Is- lands, Alaska, Kamchatka-are much more distant from Southwest Japan than are western and southern bases. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Page 1..6 The following list gives approximate airline distances various outlying localities from places in Southwest Japan: Scup Guam to S Kyushu Manila to S Kyushu N end Luzon to S Kyushfi interruptions at the Kii-suido (channel) and Bungo-suido. Most of these mountains are high and rugged, but elevations decrease westward. Ridges and valleys are oriented northeast - southwest across any line of advance from the Pacific. Vol- canic cones, ash plateaus, and lava flows create additional ter- rain difficulties in the southeastern Kyushu highlands. There are only a few plains associated with the southern arm, the outstanding ones being the Miyazaki Lowland of Kyushu, the Kochi Plain of Shikoku. and the Hamamatsu Coastal Low- land of Honshu. The northern highland arm extends almost due west from the central Honshu knot, and includes all the mountains north of the central lowland zone from Nagoya westward. Some parts of this area are genuinely mountainous, more are rough hill country, but the entire area is marked by extreme variety. It is a region of disconnected rugged plateaus, many parts of which have been subjected to intense volcanic activity which has added ash, lava, and volcanic cones to an already complex topography. In general there are more land routes through this relief barrier than through the one bordering the Pacific, but these routes are by no means easy. As on the southern arm, elevations decrease westward; but the terrain differs somewhat in that there are several large coastal and interior plains ( Biwa, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka), and a large number of smaller ones in or bordering this area. On the northern or Japan Sea side of this mountain barrier, however, there is only I coastal plain large enough to accommodate large forces and airfields--the plain west of Shinji-ko (lake). (2) Lowlands. The lowlands of Southwest Japan are of 2 types: interior basins and coastal plains. Although the largest lowlands are distributed roughly along a line between the northern and southern highland belts., they are actually imbedded within or adjacent to the highland arms. Both basins and coastal plains have at least one common feature, isolation. The basins may be entered overland only through narrow valleys of varying number and size. The coastal plains may be entered by similar valleys on their landward side, or directly from the sea. From neighboring coastal plains, they are approachable at best by narrow coastal routes which are backed by hills and mountains. The lowlands of this part of Japan are small, even the Nagoya Plain measuring only 32 by 24 miles. The largest lowlands are coastal (Nagoya, Osaka, Saga, Kumamoto), but the Nara, Kyoto, and Biwa basins are among the larger of the interior basins of Japan. The typical coastal lowland consists of a nearly flat alluvial floor, covered mostly with rice paddy fields, but in places hav- ing low flat mounds with dry crops or villages. Elevated foot- paths and roads lace the plain, providing means of deployment among the ever-muddy rice fields. The levees of the rivers and the elevated banks of irrigation ponds and canals also provide comparatively dry roadways and a certain amount of concealment and cover on the plains. Foot troops can move in almost any direction, but with difficulty, across the plains. There are adequate roads and paths for bicycles and srrial l motor vehicles; tracked vehicles can probably be deployed, but the larger wheeled machines will be confined to the main roads throughout the year in most of the rice areas. The seaward side of coastal plains is bordered in many places by rolling beach ridges, often dune-capped, along the immedi- STATUTE MILES 1510 1290 1020 Chichi-shima, Ogasawara-gunui (Bonin Islands), ro S Kyushfi_ -- - - 710 Chichi-shima to S Honshu 600 Chichi-shima to Kobe 680 Formosa to S Kyfishft 670 Wept Chunking to Sasebonaval base, NW Kyushu 1380 Shanghai to Sasebo 490 Shanghai to Kobe 8;0 Korea to Honshu and Kyushu 110 Nrrtl Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka, to Kobe 1700 Vladivostok to Kobe 580 Vladivostok to Maizuru naval base, N coast fast Honolulu to Kobe Dutch Harbor to Kobe Wake Island to Kobe 4150 3130 1650 'T'here may be some differences between spellings of place names in the text and on maps. Correct spellings are given in the Gazetteer., CHAPTER XV. 2. Military Geography Most of Southwest Japan is mountainous, but there are many small isolated basins scattered among the uplands, and small disconnected plains fringe the coasts (PLAN 38). The strategic military objectives in Southwest Japan are in the low- lands, the most important of which lie along a line extending from northern Kyushu through the Inland Sea and on past Osaki to Nagoya. The over-all arrangement of relief makes this central zone of lowlands difficult to reach. At most points iit is protected from assault from either north or south by rug- ged highIancs which extend southwestward from a mountain knot lying northeast of Nagoya (FIGURE I - 5, and PLAN 323). The highlands diverge into 2 arms, enclosing the Nagoya and Biwa - Osaka lowlands and the Inland Sea. The few overland routes through the encircling highland arms are very difficult. and although the southern. arm is broken by 3 water passages, Ise-wan (bay), Kii-suido (channel), arid Bungo- suido (Hoyo..kaikyo) all 3 are narrow and-easily defended. (l) Mountains. The mountain knot from which the 2 highland arms extend is a part of the great barrier of central Honshu lying between the Noto-hanto (peninsula) and the Flamamatsu coast. The Hida-sarnrrtyaku (mountains), north of the Nagoya Plain, contain some of the highest peaks, 10,000 feet, in Japan proper, and the rugged Kiso-sammyaku, 9,000 to 10,000 feet, constitute an almost equally effective barrier east of Nagoya.. The southern arm leaves the central Honshu knot north of 1-Ia:mamatsu, is; broken by Ise-wan (bay), and reappears on Ho:nshii in the southern Kii-hanto (peninsula). Thence it co n- dinues through southern Shikoku and southern Kyushfi, with Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 BRIEF Page 1 - 7 ate coast. Dune and beach ridge areas are best developed along the Japan Sea on Honshu. The sandy beach ridges are devoted to dry crops and forests, usually black pine. The depressions between ridges are often used for rice cultivation, although sometimes natural marsh or lagoon occupies the hollows. These ridges lie across the line of advance inland, but they also pro- vide considerable cover from flat-trajectory fire. On their landward sides many of the level plains terminate abruptly at the base of steep hills and mountains. In other places, the change from plains to hills is made transitional by either a sloping, fan-like accumulation of sand, gravel, and boulders, or by a series of intermediate steps consisting of sand and gravel terraces. These terraces are at several levels, rang- ing from a few feet to hundreds of feet above the plain. Streams have cut deeply into them and flow through shallow canyon- like valleys which separate the gently sloping or rolling sur- faces of terrace remnants of varying sizes. The higher terraces are usually much rougher than the lower, and in many areas are rugged forested hills through which movement is difficult. Limited deployment for all types of vehicles is easy on the lower terraces and fans. These terraces are generally utilized for dry crops such as vegetables, tea, mulberry, and grains. The ground is relatively firm under these crops. Bamboo and other patches of woodland provide concealment. Many of the vil- lages of Japan, and therefore much of the transportation sys- tem, particularly rail, are concentrated on the terraces and fans rather than on the lowlands themselves. Cross-country or con- tinuous movement along the edges of the basins on these ter- races and fans is not easy, because it requires the crossing of many steep-sided valleys. The interior basins have essentially the same general char- acteristics as the coastal plains. Flat terrace remnants surround the basins and arc carved into forms similar to those on the landward sides of the coastal plains. Several of the interior basins have fresh water lakes. B. Drainage. In Southwest Japan, water and mud are nearly as serious a problem in military operations as is the rugged terrain. In most areas flat enough to be used effectively in mechanized warfare, the presence of excessive amounts of water limits such activity. No plan for operations in this area can be made without con- sideration of the fact that rice fields occupy nearly all areas of low slope and are virtual swamps during the summer months. In fact, most of them are wet and muddy throughout the year. The ground does not freeze deeply in the winter; therefore, except in the limited areas where dry crops predominate (PLANS 41 and 42), wheeled vehicles will be confined to the roads throughout the year. Tracked vehicles, however, will probably be able to move through rice fields, at least during the winter after the paddies have been drained. The natural drainage pattern of Southwest Japan is very dense, and on the plains is augmented by a close network of drainage and irrigation canals and water storage ponds. Cold springs are numerous along the margins of the lowlands and there are several areas of hot springs. Wells are common. In the mountains most of the streams are short, swift, and shallow; on the plains the streams slow down and flow in wider, flatter channels. Because of the diversion of water for irrigation, many of the streams on the lowlands are shallow. 1 to 5 feet, for much of the year, and divide into many rivulets which flow in broad channels choked with boulders and gravel. The stream beds are bordered on either side by natural and man-built levees. Artificial levees are necessary because of flash floods occasioned by typhoon rains, most likely in late summer, and because many of the streams flow above the level of the surrounding plains. Except during short periods of high water, such streams are navigable only near their mouths, and even there only by small. boats. The rivers of Southwest Japan are of value chiefly for hydroelectric power, irrigation, and trans- portation of logs. Biwa-ko is by far the largest lake of Japan. Most of the low- land lakes are shrinking in size; many of them are bordered by narrow reed-choked marshes. Other natural marshes are not generally important in the area, because most of them have been converted into rice fields. Except when in flood most of the rivers would not be a serious obstacle to movement. A few of the larger streams which cross the coastal plains are barriers, especially where the stream channels have been canalized and deepened. River levees, from 10 to 20 feet high, form continuous bunkers. These levees could be breached. easily, and when the rivers are in flood large areas could be inundated. The drainage and irri- gation canals, except the very largest, would be only minor obstacles. Except during droughts, water supply is adequate in South- west Japan. Irrigation storage ponds, springs, wells, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs supply large quantities of water. The hot springs are highly mineralized. All water must be considered contaminated and should not be used for any purpose until it has been adequately treated. C. Soil trafficability. (FIGURE I - 6). Soil trafficability is the capacity of soils to support the move- ment of military vehicles. It refers especially to movement across country and on unimproved roads made of local soil, rather than to traffic on improved or surfaced roads. Soil traf- ficability is determined by the type of soil (texture, organic matter content, and other profile features), topography, vege- tation, and. weather factors. In general, soil trafficability is moderately unfavorable in Southwest Japan. (1) Weather and trafficability. The weather factors result in poor trafficability, at least seasonally, in this area. The important weather factors are: precipitation (duration, intensity, and character) ; temperature as it affects evaporation, plant growth, and the freezing and thawing of soil; and wind, cloud cover, and humidity, which affect evaporation of soil moisture. Weather information used in this section was obtained from Chapter V. See also Topic 5 in this chapter. At most places the precipitation is high, ranging from 50 to 190 inches annually, with the greater part of the area experi- encing between 60 and 80 inches. That part of the area south of the central mountain ranges of Honshu experiences a dis- tinct dry period during November through February; during the remaining months, precipitation results in periods of poor trafficability. In Honshu north of the central mountain rang-, the terrain is generally less favorable than south of the range, and nontrafficable conditions during the winter months are more common because of greater total winter precipitation and snowfall.. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Page 1- ti BRIEF Confidential The poorest trafficability conditions throughout the area accompany the torrential rains associated with typhoons, espe- cially during September. During this period, lowlands are often flooded by stream overflow, and coastal lands may be swept by extremely high tides which follow in the wake of typhoons. Rainfall of 8 to 30 inches in '4 hours may occur during the passage of a typhoon, and vehicular movement is halted. In most parts of the area, precipitation falls on 140 to 220 clays, a year. There is little time for the soil to regain normal trafficability between successive periods of precipitation, Moderately high humidity is characteristic of this region in all seasons.. and impedes the rapid evaporation of soil moisture. Relative humidity at all coastal stations ordinarily averages more than 70"/j: for the months with the lowest humidities; south of the central mountain ranges of Honshu, humidity is particularly high during summer. Snow on the ground is seldom an obstacle to the movement of vehicles, except in, and north, of the central mountain ranges of Honshu, where snow may restrict movement of vehicles for short periods in January and February. The occasional soil freezing that occurs in most of the area should not affect trafficability except insofar as it disrupts nor- mal soil drainage. If shallow freezing occurs when the soil is already saturated, vehicles will break through the crust, and traffrcability will be poor. (2) Terrain and trafficability. Terrain, like weather, is relatively unfavorable to cross- country movement in Southwest Japan. A large part of the interior of rhe area consists of rough mountain ranges where trafficability is poor regardless of soil or weather conditions, and where vehicular movements are restricted to discontinuous coastal plains separated by mountainous headlands or to the usually narrow valleys extending into the interior. Further- more, extensive cultivation of wet rice on terrain which other- wise would be favorable for vehicular movement. results in poor trafficability across large areas. The general distribution of rice land is shown on the accompanying soil trafficability map ( FIGURE 1- 6). Detailed distribution of rice land is shown on the vegetation maps (PLANS 41 and 42) . (3) Soil type and trafficability. The soil trafficability map shows that soil types vary con- siderably in areas of favorable terrain where soil conditions are important in determining general routes of movement. In such areas, fine-textured and medium-textured soils cover approxi- mately equal areas. Clay constituents predominate in the fine- textured soils, which are slippery and muddy whenever wet. The fairly even division of sand, silt, and clay constituents in the medium-textured soils gives them better drainage. Coarse- textured soils, which are generally trafficable except during heavy precipitation or when flooded in river valleys, cover less area than the other types. The map legend is self-expl'.anatory insofar as it indicates the relative trafficability of the different soil types in their natural state. Caution is urged in the use of the map, since it gives generalized rather than detailed informa- tion. D. Vegetation. About 50'4) of Southwest Japan is in forest, 17'4 under cultivation, and the remainder in scrub land, waste land, bar- rens, cities, villages, rural dwellings, lakes, and streams. Gen- erally, all non-urban land areas too steep for cultivation are in forest, much of it planted, or in second growth mixed with grass and scrub (PLANS 4 1 and 42). The forests are of types: broadleaf evergreen, broadleaf deciduous, coniferous (needleleat), and mixed broadleaf and coniferous. Under- growth is generally dense in the broadleaf and mixed forests and sparse in the coniferous forest. Clumps of bamboo fringe the forests in places, providing excellent concealment. The forests are somewhat similar to those in southeastern United States, but there are many more species of trees and plants. Cultivated crops consist of wet-field rice, small amounts of dry- field rice, and other dry-field crops such as tea, mulberry. wheat, soybeans, barley, fruits, and sweet potatoes. The vegetation of this area, particularly the forest on the steep lands and the rice fields on the lowlands, will tend to restrict movement to the established lines of communication. Some concealment from horizontal observation is obtainable in the rice fields, especially in late summer when the grain is high. Concealment from horizontal and oblique observation may be expected in the tea and mulberry groves; and conceal- ment from aerial observation may be had in some of the fruit orchards and in the forest and bamboo thickets at certain sea- sons. On the plains, concealment from air observation may be taken in the clumps of trees which ordinarily mark villages and temples. Except in limited areas, there are few dispersed farm- steads in Japan; the agricultural population generally lives in innumerable small villages which are 3/, to 1 mile apart. Fields of fire are not greatly limited by vegetation except in the forests. There is adequate wood for construction and fuel. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 .,>e~w~new~ne.~e~.Mew.wi~ww~ww~wwl~nw ~~w--_. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Confidential Rugged, steep, 3500-6000 ft. ridges; long deep, narrow, valleys; winding streams and some rice fields in valleys; no low passes; no corridors. Deployment and cross-country movement very difficult. E. Regional summary. The relief, drainage, and vegetation of Southwest Japan are summarized by terrain regions in TABLE I - 1 below. TABLE I - 1. REGIONAL SUMMARY DRAINAGP. Kyi.ihif Three coastal lowland areas among rugged I) Southern Kyushu uplands of moderate height; narrow pass- Lowlands and ageways between lowlands; some rice on Highlands larger lowlands. Deployment and cross- country movement is fair in lowlands, poor in passageways, very poor in up- lands. (2) Central Kyushu Southern highland belt has rugged blocks Mountains. with scattered higher volcanoes, narrow deep valleys, few passageways; rice in most valleys. Northern highland arm does not reach coast; has lower blocks and peaks, some hills, wider valleys, a few narrow valley routes. In both areas de- ployment almost impossible, cross-country movement very difficult. (3) Northern Kyushu Low rugged mountain areas rimmed by Lowlands and hills and separated by flattish lowlands Highlands. which face enclosed bays. Narrow corri- dors connect lowlands; many heights dom- inate corridors; rice fields on lowlands. Deployment and cross-country movement possible on lowlands, restricted in corri- dors, difficult in uplands. /) Northwest KyOshit Series of long narrow irregular peninsulas Broken Lands. and offshore islands; rugged hills and low mountains; few high volcanoes; narrow winding valleys; no corridors; some rice in valleys. Deployment and cross-country movement difficult. Shikoku I ) Southwestern Rugged mountains, moderate heights; Shikoku many long, narrow, deep, winding, valleys Broken Lands. form fair passageways, are not corridors; rice fields in most valleys. Deployment and cross-country movement very difficult. (2) Central Shikoku Mountains. (3) Kochi Plain. Small coastal plain where several valleys converge; largest clear flat areas 6 by 8 miles; rice fields on flats; ridges between valleys form commanding heights. De- ployment and cross-country movement possible. llil;hbuuls: Stream gradients steep, with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; dan ger of flash floods even on basin flats. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; (likes common; barren flats exposed be- tween dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canalized in urban areas; numerous irri- gation ponds and canals on many larger lowlands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. highland.(: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; dan- ger of flash floods even on basin flats. flighlancls: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; dan- ger of flash floods even on basin flats. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between (likes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams can- alized in urban areas; numerous irriga- tion ponds and canals on many larger lowlands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. fli);hlands: Stream gradient steep with many fills and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; dan- ger of flash floods even on basin flats. lliyhland.r: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power clams; danger of flash floods even on basin flats llighlaneb: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; danger of flash floods even on basin flats. Lou'lwrda: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Page L - 9 Rice on irrigable lowlands and narrow valley floors. Mulberry groves, fruit orch- ards, and other dry crops on many lower slopes. Forests, broadleaf evergreen and coniferous, cover most of uplands. Patches of grassland and scrub scattered through forests. Rice on coastal plains and narrow strips along streams. Dry crops on lower slopes above rice. Grasslands and scrub occupy wide belt across northern part of region; scattered patches elsewhere. Forests cover most of region; deciduous and coniferous trees above about 2800 feet; broadleaf evergreen and coniferous trees lower down. Much rice on Saga and lesser plains. Terraced paddy fields bordering Saga Hain. Dry crops on hillsides, especially northeast of Kumamoto. Grass on western uplands, and scattered patches elsewhere. Broadleaf and coniferous forests on other uplands. Less forest area, proportionately, in this region than in most regions. Narrow strips of paddy fields along streams. Dry crops on many slopes in southeast. Grass over wide areas in west and north. Forests over most of region; broadleaf evergreen and coniferous ex- cept in high elevations; deciduous and coniferous there. Most of region covered with broadleaf evergreen and coniferous forests. Camphor trees relatively numerous in Tosa-wan area. Grass and scrub patches mainly in northeast. Paddy fields in strips along streams. Dry-crop fields, many mulberry groves, on slopes of northwest and west. Orchards on south coastal and valley slopes. Forests, conifers with deciduous trees in high mountains and broadleaf evergreen over most of region. Extensive grass and scrub areas in west, lesser ones in east. Paddy areas few; mostly in valleys of ex- treme northwest and tributary to cast coast. Dry crops on many interior slopes. Paper mulberry in southwest. lxtensive paddy fields over most of low- lands; two crops annually. Mulberry im portant dry crop of low slopes and gray elly borders of streams. Broadleaf ever green forests on hills and unirrigable low lands. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Page C ? 10 i) Escste^n. Shikoku Narrow wedge-shaped lowland and coast Lowlands, strip; low flat-topped terraces in wedge; small flat deltas on coast; much rice; all exits over high ridges; comanding heights on ridges. Deployment and cross-country movement possible. 5) Northern Shikoku Series of lowlands along coast for I if Lowlands. miles; narrow, flat connections berween most lowlands; scattered hills on lowlands and on rugged highland rim form com- manding heights; rice fields on lowlands. Deployment anc cross-country movement possible. West Central Ifonshfi I i Kii-harto Large triangular peninsula; high rugged ~Iountain Land. mountains; narrow winding valleys with many commanding heights; no corridors; two small coastal lowlands; rice in Iow-- lands and sonic valleys. Deployment and cross-country movement very difficult in mountains, possible in small lowlands, f? i K.inki Region Four large flat-floored basins separated by I ow. ands and low steep-sided ridges; higher blocks and Highlands. ridges along eastern boundary; many pas- sageways and a I:ew good corridors be- tween basins; long narrow valleys and one short passageway through eastern highlands; commanding heights above all passageways and corridors. Deployment and cross-country movement possible in basins and corridors, difficult in passage- ways, very difficult on ridges. lse-wan Lowlands. Large horseshoe-shaped lowland around bay: marginal terraces and rugged hills on east and west; square 2d- by 32-mile Nagoya Plain on north; rice on plain and in small valleys among hills. Deployment and cross-country movement is possible on plain and in valleys, moderately difficult in hill and terrace :areas. Hamaniatsu- Long, narrow coastal lowland; series of 'I syohashi river plains separated by large high ter- Coastal Lowlands. races and rugged hilly areas; hills and terrace margins form commanding heights. Much rice on plains and between hills. Deployment and cross-country move- ment possible on river plains and terrace flats; difficult on retrace margins arid hills. 5) Central Honshu High rugged mountain ranges on the' east Rugged Highlands. rugged ranges and dissected blocks of lesser height on west; long, narrow, wind- ing, deep, valleys and narrow h:a.sins; many commanding heights. Rice in basins and in few sections of valleys. Deploy- ment and cross-country movement difficult in valleys and basins; very difficult in highlands. 111e rtern L'on'hir I ) 'l'ambs Broken Low but steep-sided blocks and ridges. Plateau. separated by long narrow valleys and in- terior basins which form passageways but not true corridors; many commanding heights above passageways. Rice fields in many valleys. Deployment and cross- country possible in valleys, very difficult in highlands. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; (likes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Iiixhlauds: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; danger of flash floods even on basin flats. Highlands: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; danger of flash floods oven on basin flats. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dices and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Highlands: Stream gradient steep with Many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; langer of flash floods even on basin flats. Ifighlands. Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins: some water storage and power darns; danger of flash floods even on basin flats. Confidential Paddy fields cover more than half of re- gion. Dry c:tops, chiefly mulberry, on higher lands along river and on delta. Forests, mainly conifers, on the few hills. Paddy fields cover greater part of region, 2/3 also used for winter grain or vege- tables. Mulberry, fruit, and vegetables on lower slopes and unirrigable lowlands. Conifers, broadleaf evergreens, and grassy patches on hills. Forests cover most of region; coniferous and broadleaf deciduous on highest parts, coniferous and broadleaf evergreen at lower elevations. Paddy fields on irrigable land of lowlands, and in strips along some valleys and small deltas. Fruit orch- ards and other dry crops on south-facing hills of one small lowland. Paddy fields on irrigable parts of basins, narrow valleys, and terraces. Dry crops on small, raised "islands" in paddy areas, and on hillsides above paddy fields. Fruit orchards, flowering trees numerous. Tea on some slopes in basins. Forests cover uplands and most slopes; coniferous and broadleaf deciduous widespread. Small areas of grass arid scrub scattered through forests. Paddy fields cover the irrigable coastal plains and many narrow valleys. Dry crops on unirrigable lowlands and lower slopes. Mulberries on "islands" of plain and eastern and western hills. Fruit orch- ards on hills in. east part. Forests on higher hills and upland rim. Grass patches scattered through forests. Paddy fields on irrigable lowlands. Winter grain and legumes on 1/3 of paddy area. 'lea gardens on many terrace slopes in eastern part of region. Mulberries pre- dominant on lower slopes of hills in western part. Other dry crops on some slopes. Open, coniferous forest on terraces and hills above tea and mulberries. Forests cover large part of region; mostly conifers and mixed broadleaf deciduous: broadleaf evergreen at low elevations; alpine flora on some high mountain tops, other tops bare. Grass and scrub areas usually on very steep slopes. Paddy fields on irrigable parts of Iida Valley; in nar- row strips along other streams. Dry crops on slopes above These strips. Mulberries on unirrigable parts of Iida Valley and on bordering low slopes. Forests, mixed coniferous and deciduous, on hills bordering Japan Sea. Mixed broadleaf (mainly evergreen) and coni- ferous over most of region. Much scat- tered grass and scrub. Strips of paddy fields along many streams. Mulberry groves on unirrigable borders of streams in northwest. Small areas of fruit orchards and dry crops on scattered slopes. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Confidential REGION RELIEF (2) Matsue-Tottori Series of small deltas and one large sand Coastal Lowlands. spit; some deltas are connected by narrow coastal flats. Lakes and rock ridges sep- arate larger flat areas. Many rice fields. No corridors or easy passageways inland. Commanding heights above most of deltas and all coastal flats. Deployment and cross-country movement possible on deltas and sand spit, difficult elsewhere. (3) Western Honshu Rugged ridges and flat-topped blocks Rugged Highlands. with steep sides; these decline in west to form rugged hills; many long narrow valleys; no corridors; commanding heights above all valleys; rice in larger valleys. (4) Western Honshu Rugged highland blocks and isolated Broken Lands. ridges separated by nets of narrow valleys and basins. Several small hill-dotted coastal plains with tributary valley nets; commanding heights above all valleys and most plains. Rice in coastal uplands and in larger valleys. Deployment and cross- country movement possible on coastal plains; difficult in uplands. (5) Himeji-Yashiro Small irregular hill-dotted coastal low- Lowland. land with tributary valley net penetrating Tamba Plateau to north. Commanding heights above valleys and most of plain. Much rice in coastal plain and larger val- leys. Deployment and cross-country move- ment possible in plain, difficult in valleys and on hills. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Highlands: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power dams; danger of flash floods even on basin flats. highlands: Stream gradient steep with many falls and rapids except in scattered tiny basin flats; streams fill narrow valleys and meander from side to side in basins; some water storage and power clams; danger of flash floods even on basin flats. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. Lowlands: Streams elevated slightly; dikes common; barren flats exposed between dikes and stream at low water; muddy banks and bottom unusual; streams canal- ized in urban areas; numerous irrigation ponds and canals on many larger low- lands; natural swamps rare; rice field swamps in all lowlands. F. Natural critical areas. There are 2 natural critical areas in Southwest Japan: North- ern Kyushu at the western end of the Inland Sea; and the group of plains and basins in the Kinki Region of Honshu, at the eastern end of the Inland Sea. Northern Kyushu is one of the chief centers of heavy industry of Japan proper; and the Osaka-Kyoto-Nara-Nagoya group of lowlands in the Kinki Region contains not only a large number of industries, but also has the largest aggregate of level land available for the con- struction of air and depot facilities. G. Routes to natural critical areas. Routes to natural critical areas from usable landing places are available in Southwest Japan, but the routes are difficult. (FIGURE 1- 7 and PLANS 39 and JO). The lowlands which form the hearts of the critical areas are largely isolated from each other and from the ocean by mountains, rugged hills, or constricted water bodies. Connections between the lowlands consist of narrow, steep-sided valleys some of which open into broader basins. The railways, roads, and trails that follow the valleys cling precariously to the valley sides in many places or tunnel through projecting spurs. Such railways and roads can be blocked or destroyed easily. Pagel-11 Paddy fields on irrigable lowlands. Dry crops, largely mulberry, on unirrigable lowlands and lower slopes. Forests, decid- uous and coniferous, on hills. Windbreaks of trees protect farmsteads. Scant grass areas. Forests cover most of region: coniferous and deciduous along Japan Sea north of about 34? 30' N, and at high elevations; coniferous and various broadleaf mixed elsewhere. Extensive areas of coarse grass and scrub in eastern and western thirds of region. Strips of paddy fields along many streams. Dry crops on slopes around villages. Paddy fields on coastal lowlands and in valleys, also on lower slopes above some valleys. Cultivated reeds in some flooded fields. Dry crops on many slopes, river levees, and "islands" in paddy areas. Thin forest of coniferous and mixed broadleaf covers uplands between valleys. Paddy fields cover extensive areas near coast and in basins behind low hills. Dry crops on some slopes. Forests, mainly conifers (partly scrub pine), including deciduous and evergreen broadleaf, cover hills and unirrigable lowlands. 3. Oceanography The mean diurnal. ranges of the tides in this area vary from about 0.3 foot on the coast of Honshu bordering on the Japan Sea, to 11.5 feet in Shimabara-kaiwan, a gulf in western Kyu- shu, and the average ranges at times of spring tides are as much as 15 feet. The ranges vary considerably during the month. At some places there is an appreciable inequality between the heights of morning and afternoon tides; at places referred to Kobe and Hong Kong, the inequality is so great that, for a few clays during the month, there is only I tide a day. B. General circulation. The Kuroshio (Japan Current) flows cast-northeastward off the south coasts of Kyushu, Shikoku, and Honshu throughout the year. Off the northwest and north coasts of Kyushu and Honshu the Tsushima Current also flows northeastward. Off the west coast of Kyushu a branch of the Tsushima Current flows southward throughout the year, joining the Kuroshio south of Kyushu. Near shore and in the channels between the islands, the tidal currents are often much stronger than the non-tidal currents and so mask the effect of the latter. The tidal currents in many of the passages of the Inland Sea are strong, and the diurnal inequality, in general, is large in the eastern part of the Inland Sea and comparatively small in the western part. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Page I . 12 BRIEff Confidential High sea and swell are frequent in this region. The 4 areas used for summarizing vary somewhat in the monthly d.istr.ibu- tion of the amounts of sea and swell, but in general the sea is least disturbed from May through July and roughest from October through March. Sea and swell are predominantly from northeast through northwest from October through March; they are more variable during the rest of the year, but in most areas southerly sea and swell predominate. l' ie temperature extremes of the surface water range from 29.5" to ')(l" F. Extreme salinity values of 20.20 to 38.82 parts per thousand have been recorded at the surface; but salinities below 32.00 or above 35.00 parts per thousand are unc01llnion. The mean transparency of the water varies from aboat 40 feet to over 80 feet. The water in the open sea in the southern part of th.:s area is very blue, but it becomes greener toward the northern part. E. Sonar and diving conditions. Average echo ranges at the surface vary from 2,700 to 2,750 yards in winter and from 700 to 2,100 yards in summer. In winter, the ranges will frequently be the same at all depths, but in summer the ranges will usually be appreciably shorten- ed at some particular depth. In both winter and surnme.r, ranges in shallow water will he reduced by the high background noise level. It will rarely be possible for a submarine to maintain :rim or to run quietly in balance during the winter, but in summer balancing is probable at average depths of 90 to 150 feet. 'I'h,e bottom sediments within the 100-fathom contour in this area are, in general, sand with numerous patches of rock, except in the deeper parts of the bays and in the Inland Sea where the bottom is chiefly mild ( PLANS 31 to 37). 4. Coasts and Landing Beaches The coasts of Southwest Japan are in general much indented, with numerous rocky promontories separated by bays or small bights (FiGvJRr; 1 - 8) . Many islets and detached rocks and reefs fringe the shore. The coast is backed by rugged, rocky hills and mountains, which rise either directly from the water's edge or a. short distance inland. In places the mountains arc interrupted by small alluvial plains which extend inland up the river valleys, and are bordered by beaches. The upper mountain slopes are largely clothed with oak and pine forests, while the lower slopes are cultivated or in grassland. The alluvial flats are intensively cultivated, with irrigated rice paddies adjacent to the streams. Immediately behind the beaches a belt of scattered pines and grass is commonly present. Hundreds of beaches line the shores of Southwest Japan, but the great majority of there are either relatively small, in- convenien of approach, or removed from existing objectives. Some 40 _rf the more extensive beaches are well-situated with respect to approach, inland terrain, and accessibility of objec- tives, including airfields. These most important beaches are mainly along the Pacific and China Sea shores of Kyushu, Shikoku, and southwestern Honshu; a few lie along the shores of the Inland Sea. Most of the small beaches are in bights or are scattered pocket beaches on the many small islands which fringe the major islands, especially in the Inland Sea. Many of these small beaches are composed of pebbles or sand and pebbles; the longer beaches, especially those near the mouths of large rivers flowing into the larger bays., are predominantly sand. There are no coral beaches along the shores of Japan as far as is known, but areas of live coral arc present on the near- shore bottom at a number of places along the southern shores of the main islands, especially along K:yushi and Shikoku ( Frc;unt; 1 - 8). A. .Kyushu. Along most of the deeply indented coasts of Kyushu rugged hills and mountains rise directly from the water's edge, or a short distance behind the shore. The coastal mountains are cut by numerous short, narrow, deep, steep-walled ravines and by a few larger river valleys. Alluvium forms small coastal plains around the river mouths, extends inland up the valleys, and in places forms narrow isolated strips between the mountains and the shore. The largest alluvial plains are on the northwest, coast, on the west coast, at the head of Ariakeno-umi, and on the east coast around Takanabe. Approaches range from gently shelving off the alluvial flats to steep-to off some of the moun- tainous sections of the coast. Detached rocks and reefs are com- mon along the more deeply indented stretches, but except for sand and mud banks around the river mouths, dangers are rare off the coastal plains. The hills and mountains are largely covered with subtropical oak and pine forests, alternating with patches of grassland. Along the lower hill slopes are small groves of bamboo. Bordering the coasts and rivers many of these slopes are terraced and planted to dry crops. The alluvial flats are covered with a patchwork of dry crops, truck gardens. irrigated rice fields, and mulberry groves. Immediately behind the beaches a strip of grass and scattered pines is commonly present. The best beaches on Kyushu are along the southern half of the island, although there are also good beaches along the northwestern shore and in the bays on the northeast. Most of the beaches along the western part of the island are small. In general., the large beaches are backed by extensive coastal plains with good communications and, the approaches to them are clear; some of the beaches are at the heads of bays, Most of the small beaches are along the more rugged parts of the coast, where both inland terrain and communications are unfavorable for operations. The coasts of Shikoku bear close relation to the inland ter- rain of the island. The most prominent feature of Shikoku is a range of mountains trending southwest - northeast, and con- sisting in part of alternating, roughly parallel ridges and val- leys. Where these mountains meet the shore approximately at right angles, on parts of the southwestern. southern and eastern sides of the island, the coast is deeply indented and fringed by islets. A number of small, disconnected alluvial flats and plains, Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Confidential BRIEF many of which are bordered by landing beaches, are present on the northern and eastern sides of the island and around the shores of Tosa-wan, a large bay on the southern side of Shikoku. The bottom ranges from gently shelving off the alluvial flats to steeply shelving where mountains parallel the shore. Detached reefs and shoals are numerous except off the northwest coast bordering the Inland Sea, off the north and cast shores of Tosa- wan, and off the southeast coast of the island. The vegetation is in general similar to that on Kyushu. The best beach area on Shikoku is along the eastern part of the southern shore; good beaches are also found in the north- eastern and northwestern parts ( Fi txn i I - 8). Except for the southern shore, however, the beach approaches are by way of relatively narrow channels which lead to the inner seaways among the islands. On Shikoku the large beaches are backed by plains and the small beaches by rugged terrain. The seaward approach to this sector is relatively clear. The bottom ranges from steeply shelving off the straighter parts of the coast to very gently sloping, as around Miho-wan. Detached rocks and islets fringe the shore in places but are less numerous than along the coasts of other sectors of this region ( Eiotntl: I-8). Except for Wakasa-wan, at the eastern end of this coast, Miho-wan, near the center of the coast, and several smaller bays to the southwest, the coast is not greatly indented. The entire coast is backed by hills and mountains. In places these rise steeply from the water's edge, but where large streams reach the coast, the shore is fronted by alluvial flats, which extend inland up the valleys. The most important of these flats are in the vicinities of Tottori, Yura, Tsunozu, Takatsu, and Hagi, and along the south shore of Miho-wan. The major alluvial areas, including the large plain west of Miho-wan are bordered by landing beaches. The vegetation is similar to that of Kyushu and Shikoku but contains fewer subtropical varieties. More than half of the south coast of southwestern Honshu borders the Inland Sea, lying between Honshu on the north and east and Kyushu and Shikoku on the south (FIGURE I - 8). This seats about 240 miles long cast - west and about 10 to 30 miles wide, It is entered from the west through Shimonoseki- kaikyo, between Honshu and Kyushu; from the south through Bungo-kaikyo between Kyushu and Shikoku; or from the east through Kit-suido, between Honshu and Shikoku. The Inland Sea coast of Honshu is deeply indented with many inlets and promontories and is fronted by numerous small islands. Smoothly rounded pine-covered hills characterize the coast. The only large alluvial areas are in the vicinity of Hiro- shima, between Fukuyama and Ogushi, along the northeastern shore of Harima-nada, and at the head of Osaka-wan. Along the southeastern shore of Osaka-wan flat-topped sand-and- gravel terraces terminate in steep bluffs. There are landing beaches east of Shimonoseki and south of Osaka. The bottom, in general, has moderate slopes and the central and larger part of the Inland Sea is studded with numerous rocks, reefs, and islets. The shores of the Kii-hanto, eastward of the Inland Sea, are Page I - 13 similar to those of Shikoku. Ise-wan is a long inlet bordered by alluvial flats, flat-topped terraces, and low but rugged hills. An extensive alluvial plain, on which is the city of Nagoya, lies at the head of the bay. Landing beaches are present along the eastern and western sides, and there are very few dangers. East of Ise-wan to the eastern boundary of the area, the coast is nearly straight. Areas of sand and gravel terraces, rising from the water's edge, alternate with alluvial flats extending several miles inland. Both are backed, by rugged hills and mountains and the flats are bordered by landing beaches. The bottom is gently sloping and practically free of dangers. The vegetation on the southern coast of Honshu is in gen- eral similar to that of Kyushu. 5. Climate and Weather A. Regional differences. Kyushu, Shikoku, and Southwestern Honshu may be con- veniently divided into 2 principal regions for the discussion of climate. The first, and larger, region lies to the south of the main mountain ranges of Honshu and includes all coastal sec- tions and mountain slopes facing the Pacific Ocean. The climate of this region is characterized by summers with heavy rainfall and much cloudiness, and by winters that are relatively dry and sunny (FIG U RE I - i ). The second, and smaller, of the 2 regions lies to the north of the main mountain ranges of Hon- shu and includes all coasts and mountain slopes facing the Japan Sea. This region is characterized by frequent precipita- tion and much cloudiness in the winter months and a second- ary maximum of precipitation and cloudiness in the summer months. B. Weather and operations. In the region facing the Pacific Ocean, the cooler months of the year (November through February) appear to offer the most favorable conditions for military operations, with August having the most favorable conditions in the summer season. In the region facing the Japan Sea, August appears to be the most favorable for operations, with favorable periods also probable in the late spring months. The weather over only the Japanese Islands has been here considered, not the weather over the open ocean or over the adjacent Asiatic mainland. TABLE I - 2 gives detailed implications of climate and weather for Kobe. Precipitation is heaviest in June over the region facing the Pacific, with a secondary maximum in September; the monthly amounts usually vary between 8 and 12 inches. The heaviest falls are recorded on the slopes of the higher mountains of Shikoku and of the Kii-hanto (peninsula). The least rainfall occurs over the Inland Sea (Seto-naikai) region. The season of moderate to heavy rains lasts from April through October, while the relatively "dry" season lasts from November through March. Some years have a midsummer drought, which is most likely to occur in August. In the region facing the Japan Sea, the precipitation is very frequent and very heavy during the winter months. Over the higher elevations, considerable snow Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Page I - 14 14 4 2 0 JAN '(e MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SF.P COT NOV OEC TEMPERATURE Absolute - Maximum Mean Maximum Mean Mean Minimum Moon No. of Days With M7x. Temp. > 77 IF. R MAY JUN JUL 9CP OCT MOO DEC Meon No, of Days wi/b Min 7smp.< 32117, to 3 out of 4 yrs., monthly amts. foll in shaded area. Mox. Mo. Amt, Mean No. Amt. Max. in 24 Hrs to 3 out of 4 yrs., monthly number of precipitation days fall in shaded area. /to to 2 Days (Consecutive) with Precipitation Snow wet cove/ Soil Clear /< 2//0 sAy cover) Cloudy I > e/0 Sky cover) Confidential (Ceiling < /000 ft. and/or visibility lITHS OF MOST FREO(1ENT Ov RENCE' NINTHS OF LEAST FREQl1D(T OIXXMMENCE` AIR OPERATIONS General Thunderstorms Vey-Oct. (I-3 days/mo.) Nov.-Apr. (I day/mo. in occasional yrs.) Severe icing Dec.-Mar. (3-7 days/mo.) May-Oct. (kare) Ceiling < I,000 ft. and/or visibility < 1+ mi. Apr. -July (7-10 days/mo.) Jan.-Feb.: Aug. (3 days/mo.) Gales All months (0-13 of obs.) High Level Bombing Sky > 8/10 cloud covered May-July; Sept. (14-(3 days/mo.) Nov.-Feb. (5-7 days/w.1 Visibility< 6 mi. May; July-Aug. (26-26 days/mo.) ?? Jan.-Feb. (21 days/mo.) Incendiary Bombing Wind velocity< I8 m.p.h, Feb.; May-Dec. (97-99% of obs.) Jan.; Mar.-Apr. (95-96% of obs.) Rainfall June. Sept. Dec.-feb. (2-/mo.) Observation b Photography Sky> 8/10 cloud'covered may-July; Sent. (14-I?3 days/mo.l Nov.-Feb. (6-7 days/mo.) Visibility < 6 mi. May; July-Aug. t25-26 days/mo.) '? Jan.-feb. (21 days/no.) Air-Ground Support Ceiling of Japan's total), 10,000,000 to 15,000,000 metric tons must be imported annually, largely high-grade cok- ing coal from North China, Korea, and Karafuto. The locations of coal fields are shown in FIGURE I - 20. (h) Coke. Capacity of by-product coke ovens in South- west Japan, heavily concentrated in the Yawata-Tobata area, is estimated to be slightly more than 4,000,000 metric tons of furnace-grade coke, or 7/10 of Japan's total capacity and / of the combined capacity of Manchuria, Korea and Japan (TABLE I - 4, FIGURE I - 17). Under current conditions, it is likely that some excess capacity exists. (c) Petroleum. Japan's petroleum supply is extremely dependent upon stockpiles and production in the East Indies. Total Empire production in 1944 is estimated at about 22,- 000,000 barrels of all products, including 12,000,000 barrels produced by hydrogenation of coal or tar and by Fischer- Tropsch synthesis. Southwest Japan has no oil wells but is responsible for between and ~/ of the synthetic oil produc- tion (TABLE I - 4, FIGURE I - 20). (d) Charcoal. Charcoal is the principal household fuel in Japan. Production and distribution difficulties have been encountered during the war. (3) Industrial crops. Japan cultivates no cotton. Sericulture in Southwest Japan centers around Nagoya. Oilseed production is important in Fukuoka prefecture. E. Manufacturing plants. Locations of principal plants important in Japan's war econ- omy are shown on a series of maps and are briefly summarized in TABLE I - 4. This table gives information for all prefectures in Southwest Japan, but locations within prefectures are gen- erally given only for cities of 30,000 population or more. Esti- mated percentages of capacity or production are shown for some products. These are based on totals for Japan proper only; percentages based on all Japanese-controlled production would be considerably lower in. many cases. Industrial concen- tration in the area in 1.943 is shown on FIGURE I - 21. (I) Iron and steel. The steel production of the Japanese Empire is less than ids that of the United States. It depends very heavily on iron ore and coking coal mined on the continent. Southwest Japan has over / of the Empire's blast furnace capacity, over I/2 of the steel-making capacity, and % of the net capacity of rolling mills. Currently the Japanese are not obtaining enough iron ore to utilize, on the average, more than 60 rof their pig iron capacity and 80',.'(` of their steel capacity. In Southwest Japan, production of pig iron is highly concentrated in north- ern Kyushu; steel production, in northern Kyushu and the Osaka-Kobe district (FIGURE 1- 17). (2) Chemicals. Largely because of the coal fields in the area, Southwest Japan is most important in Japan's well-developed chemical industry. Large quantities of the chemicals necessary to war industry and for sustained agricultural production are produced in this area (TABLE I - 4 and FIGURE I - 22). (3) Industrial machinery. The machinery industry in general is characterized by many small plants. About ' ; of all production in Japan proper oc- curs in the Osaka-KObc district and 4, in the Nagoya district. Kyushu and the western end of Honshu are of growing im- portance (FIGURE I - 23). In view of large-scale prewar imports and the heavy equip- ment and great skill required to produce machine tools, exist- ing facilities must be hard pressed to keep up with the heavy demand for tools for war industries. The production of pre- cision gears and reduction gears for warships is highly con- centrated at Tsukada in Osaka prefecture. Production of anti- friction bearings is a major bottleneck in war production; I/2 of Japan's total capacity and 90',, of Southwest Japan's is in Kuwana (Mie prefecture) and Ryogenmura (Hyogo prefec- ture). (4) Electrical machinery and equipment. Southwest Japan does not produce a major part of Japan's electrical machinery and equipment but does produce some in- dividual items in important proportions (FI(;URE I - 23). (5) Ordnance. Japan has probably been able to maintain an adequate sup- ply of light weapons, but her position in heavy weapon pro- duction appears much less favorable and may be a weak spot. Osaka, Fukuoka, and Hiroshima prefectures, each containing large government arsenals and concentration of private plants manufacturing ordnance and ordnance components, are the most important munitions centers in Southwest Japan (FIGURE 1-24). (6) Shipbuilding and ship repair. By the middle of 1944, Japan was faced with a serious ship- ping shortage causing curtailment of imports of industrial raw materials. It is estimated that Southwest Japan will build about 170,000 tons of merchant vessels in 1944 (/, of the Japanese total) and 325,000 tons of naval vessels (! ; of the Japanese total). Most principal shipyards have their own engine build- ing facilities (FIGURE I - 25 ). There are 2 large marine engine builders at Osaka and Kobe, not shown on FIGURI; I - 25. The Japanese are expected to build 650,000 gross tons of wooden ships (the equivalent of 325,000 tons of steel bot- toms) in 19,1'i. Southwest Japan will contribute about 's of the total, or i of the wooden shipbuilding in Japan proper. (7) Railroad equipment. Wartime traffic increases have placed a heavy strain upon Japanese railroad equipment, but additions to rolling stock have kept pace with minimum requirements. Southwest Japan is probably responsible for over 9/10 of the locomotive pro- duction and more than of the freight car output of Japan proper (FIGURE I - 25 ). (8) Motor vehicles and tanks. The Japanese motor vehicle industry, virtually non-existent Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Page 1 - -34 BRIEF prior to 19"6, by Western standards, is extremely small. Some of the facilities have been converted to tank production. Two plants, one near Nagoya and the other at Kobe, account for to V2 of' the capacity of the Japanese motor vehicle in- dustry. (9) Airc-raft. Aircraft now commands top priority in the Japanese war production program. Despite rapidly increased production, cur- rent output is still small, compared with American production. Righters and torpedo bombers constitute 3 of new production. Production in Southwest Japan accounts for about 400 finished operational. type aircraft per month (! of the estimated total). and a proportionate share of aircraft engines. Mitsubishi I-I.ikoki KK, one of the two largest aircraft builders in Japan, has a complex of plants in and around Nagoya, including; the largest single aero-engine plant in all Japan. The Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK has plants scattered between Nagoya and Osaka, including a large aero-engine works at Akashi and the Kaga- migaha.ra assembly plant at Sohara-mura (Gifu prefecture), which is the exclusive source of Japan's newest and best fighter planes (FIG'JJRE I- 24). (19) Rubber titres. Japan is believed to have stockpiles of rubber. Her minimum requirements for truck tires are well below productive capacity. Three plants in Southwest Japan have about ' of the tire making capacity of Japan proper. (/ i) Textiles. Japan's textile economy has shrunk to relatively small pro- portions. The staple fiber and rayon industry, located mainly in Southwest Japan (FIGURE I - 26), now produces most of the clothing marcrial for the civilian population. Some plants have been converted to war chemicals or to machinery and aircraft parts p.roducti.on.-The military forces use all the available wool and much of the cotton. After military and industrial require- ments are met the supply of all clothing fibers (including silk) left for civilians is only about !/, of prewar consumption. ( 1.2) Pzd p and paper. Paper pulp and paper industries in general are probably operating below capacity. Southwest Japan produced 1/12 of Japanese-controlled pulp output in 1938 and (82,000 metric tons) of the newsprint made in Japan proper. The area produced nearly % the cardboard and paper board (FIGURE 1- 16). F. Electric power. At the end of 1943, the electric power generating plant;; of Japan proper had a total capacity of 13,400,000 kilowatts, of which about is was in Southwest Japan.. Total output in Japan proper for 1'.913 is estimated at about 49,000,000,000 kilowatt hours. In Southwest Japan there are 4 major "grids" or transrnis- sion networks into which several hundred generating plants send energy (FIGURES I - 2-17 to I - 29). These are the Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Osaka-Nagoya supply areas. The latter is tie(l wirh the Tokyo grid, and details of its operations and a figure showing the 2 grids will be included in JANIS 85. Most power is produced from hydroelectric plants scattered throughout die uplands and carrying the base load at all sea- sons. 'f he principal exception is the Kokura - Tob,cta- Yawata sub-area at the western end of the Inland Sea, where steam Confidential plants are used almost exclusively. This is true to a lesser ex- tent in the Shimonoseki - Ube area also, but elsewhere steam capacity is used chiefly to supplement hydroelectric production during the dry season. About 90 % of all coal used to operate steam plants in Japan in 1943 was consumed in Southwest Japan. Principal electric power consumers in Southwest Japan are the iron and steel industry, aluminum and magnesium plants, coal mining, and certain chemical industries. Japan's dependence on imports, primarily from the west and secondarily from the south, is very great. Imports from the west include large tonnages of coal, iron, and foodstuffs, as well as considerable quantities of non-ferrous metals, synthetic oil, and cotton. The most important imports from the south are pe- troleum, bauxite, iron ore, rice, and sugar. Chief ports in South- west Japan are Moji, Wakamatsu, Yawata, Osaka, and Kobe. Interisland commerce is dominated by the movement of coal from Kyushu to Honshu. Pig iron, rolled steel products, ce- ment, refined metals, and chemical products also flow from Kyushu to Honshu. Japan's circulating currency, based on the yen which is di- v.ided into 100 sen or 1,000 rin, consists mainly of Bank of Japan notes in various denominations from 1 to 100 yen and a small amount of 200 yen notes. Although the Bank of Japan has exclusive right to issue legal tender in Japan proper, Bank of Chosen and Bank of Taiwan notes are generally accepted and circulate freely at par. Commercial banking is concentrated in 5 large banks known as the "Big Five." There are important semi-governmental in- stitutions in the fields of industrial and agricultural credit. 10. People and Government This topic is a brief coverage of People and Government of Japan proper. A map showing population distribution in Southwest Japan appears as FIGURE, I - 30 in this chapter. A. People. (1) Numbers and distribution. As of 1. October 1940, the date of the last regular census, the population of Japan proper was 7 3,114,000. Estimates of the 1944 .population variously place the number at 74,310,000 and 75,239,000, the latter being based on the acceptance of -Premier Tojo's somewhat questionable figures on births for 1939 and 1910. The 1940 population represents an increase of about 13.4'/(' since 1930 and about 30%() since 1920. Prior to the war the average rate of increase was nearly 1,000,000 per year. In addition to the Japanese, the above total includes an esti- mated 1,000,000 Koreans most of whom have been brought to Japan in recent years as laborers; a few thousand foreigners, mostly Chinese; and about 16,500 Ainus, living mainly in Hokkaido. In 1940 there were 36,566,000 males, 36,548,000 females. Honshu, the main island, contains 77 %; of the total popu- lation; Kyushu, 14 is ; Shikoku, 5 %; Hokkaido, 4- jo ; and Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Confidential BRIEF Page I - 35 the Ryukyu Islands less than I 'Yo. The prefectures containing the great cities of Tokyo, Osaka, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, and Kobe had 24 % of the total population in 1920; by 1940 they had 31 In the period between 1935 and 1940 the centers containing war industries grew most rapidly, at the expense of the rural areas and of those cities important by virtue of light industry or commerce. The extent and growth of urbanization is shown by the fact that in 1920, 16,592,000 persons, or 29 of the total population, lived in cities; by 1940 these figures had increased to 28,392,000 or 38.8 % . Around 1938, the Government adopted a decentralization pro- gram designed to maintain 40'7c of the population in agricul- tural districts. More recently the fear of air raids has brought about some dispersal of population from the large cities. (2) Social structure. (a) Origin groups. The inhabitants of the 4 main Jap- anese Islands, with the exception of a few small and scattered minorities, belong to the Yamato race, a mixture of Mongol, Malay, and other strains, with a culture by now remarkably homogeneous. One minority group, probably Japanese in ori- gin, is that of the Eta or pariahs, who are usually depressed economically because of social discrimination against them and who in the recent past have attempted as a group to better their condition. Korean laborers have been imported into Japan in increasingly large numbers, but the Koreans do not consti- tute an organized minority although they are looked down upon by Japanese. The Ainu aborigines constitute another group, small and quite primitive, which is slowly dying out. (b) Social organization. Japanese society is organized into a hierarchy, beginning with the Emperor and the Imperial Family and continuing downward through the nobility, army and navy leaders, civil service, industrial leaders, lower middle class, and rural and urban laboring groups. The basis of or- ganization is the family, of which the eldest male is head; the Emperor is head of the Japanese Family. The groups have prestige according to their association with the Emperor and his government (the ranking derives from Tokugawa central- ized feudalism modified by individual prosperity accruing from Japan's industrialization) ; in Japan the social superior is almost inevitably the leader. Women are considered socially inferior to men and have been trained to accept this position, but their extensive use in wartime employment may have somewhat broken down this convention. (3) Cultural characteristics. (a) Language. The standard Japanese language is under- stood and spoken, with regional colloquialisms, throughout Japan. Two dialects exist, one in the Tohoku region (northern Honshu), and the other in Kyushu around Kagoshima, but standard Japanese is also understood here. The written lan- guage, adapted from Chinese, is taught in elementary schools; but newspapers and magazines use a sidescript of kana (syllabic symbols) which obviates the necessity for knowledge of many characters. (b) Education and religion. Formal education in Japan is universal for the first 6 years and is carefully regulated by the government, with a view to nationalistic indoctrination of youth and to elimination of sources of "dangerous thoughts," by which is meant any ideas advocating a social organization different from the existing one. Religion is almost equally well controlled at present, and both Buddhists and Christians in Japan are heartily supporting the war. Shintoism, the third important religion, is the main channel of nationalism, preach- ing the divinity of the Emperor, of the land and people of Japan, and of Japan's conquering destiny. Everyone is required to participate in Shinto rituals regardless of his adherence to other faiths. (c) Temperament and customs. Social training in Japan is designed to produce individuals who will fit well into Jap- anese society. Children are taught to be extremely sensitive to ridicule, so that public opinion becomes a powerful brake on unconventional tendencies. This sensitivity is the basis for "face-saving" practices, including an elaborate structure of ap- propriate polite formulae and expedient polite fictions. Hardly second to individual sensitivity is Japanese national pride, which is closely related to Shinto doctrines. A third facet of the national character is docility toward regimentation, re- sulting from Japan's long history of minute social organization from the top down. Other important Japanese characteristics are respect for the Emperor and for religious monuments, cleanliness both of per- son and of the home, and chastity of women who arc not li- censed prostitutes. B. Labor supply. The 1930 census reported that 46 ?fo of the total Japanese population was gainfully occupied. Agriculture is the principal source of livelihood. In 1930, 48 j% of the labor force, totalling 29,000,000 workers, was engaged in agriculture, 20 7c in manufacturing and building, 17 % in commerce, 6 % in gov- ernment and professional services, and the remaining 9 % in communications, mining, fishing, domestic service, and mis- cellaneous occupations. The past 14 years have witnessed significant changes in the industrial distribution of the labor force. It is estimated that, by 1944, agricultural employment has declined to 41 % of the total; manufacturing has increased to 29 %, ; commerce has decreased to 12 %c ; and government and professional service has increased to 7 %. Within the manufacturing category there have been tremendous employment increases in metals, ma- chinery and tools, chemicals and other war industries, with declines in employment in textiles, ceramics, and other less essential industries. Meanwhile the total labor force has ex- panded to 33,000,000, or about 45 '70 of the population in 1944. The mobilization of Japanese labor for war has been gov- erned by strict decrees promulgated under the National General Mobilization Law. Workers, both male and female, are under compulsory labor service. New reserves of labor, including women, juveniles, older workers, physically handicapped per- sons, and foreigners (particularly from Korea), have been added to the labor force. Intensive efforts to increase utiliza- tion and raise productivity include controls over wages and hours, training program in the schools and factories, and ra- tionalization and simplification of industrial processes. Labor unions have been abolished and the labor force has been en- tirely regimented. .All political power in Japan sterns from the Emperor, and the constitution, by which the country is governed, is the Em- Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Page I - :16 Confidential peror's to ;-i's people. Power is highly centralized and con- centrated in the executive, in theory the Emperor but in prac- tice his advisers, who include the Lord Privy Seal, the Imperial Household Minister, the Lord Chamberlain, the Privy Council. the various military advisers, and the Cabinet. Executive inter- relationships are highly complex, and the location of control varies with shi,Fts in the political situation. Popular representation is provided for in the lower house of the bicarneral Diet. Although the Diet must approve all laws, its actual position is not one of great importance or in- fluence because of the executive exercise of extensive ordinance power, the absence of cabinet responsibility, and the Diet', limited control of the budget. For purposes of local administration Japan is divided into 9 regions and subdivided into prefectures which, in turn, con- tain cities, towns, and townships. Local government. is con- trolled almost entirely by national authorities, chiefly through the Minister of Home Affairs. Local executives are either ap- pointed or removed by the Home Minister, and elected as- semblies, while they exist on. all levels except the regional, have little power. Although units of local government lack autonomy in matters of policy, they have recently acquired extensively increased administrative functions as a result of the national government's program of decentralization. On the lowest level of government, the Neighborhood As- sociations, to which all Japanese belong., provide the indi- vidual with the opportunity to participate in community affairs such as the rationing program, civilian defense, and the main tenance o;f public order. 1). Public order. The police of Japan are of 2 general types: the civil police and the military police or gendarmerie. The civil police are or- ganized on a national basis under the control of the Ministry of Home ,),Pairs; in the local areas they are supervised by the nationally appointed prefectural governors and police chiefs. While the military police are part of the army and are under the jurisdicton of the Ministry of War, they also exercise extensive control over the activities of the civil population. The functions of the Japanese police are unusually extensive, including not only traffic regulation, the apprehension of crim- inals. and the maintenance of public order, but also fire fight- ing, mediation of labor disputes, enforcement of sanitary and economic :regulations, supervision of public entertainment, and organization and control of civilian defense activities. In addi tion the police, both civil and military, play it major part in the control of "dangerous thoughts," censorship of publications, and the apprehension of political offenders. In the perfcrmance of their duties the police enjoy wide and relatively unrestricted powers. Searches are undertaker. without warrar,t or explanation, suspects and their associates are arrested and held for questioning for indefinite periods, and, particularly in political cases, third degree methods are frequently used. Detailed registration of the entire population makes possible a constant check of the individual's movements and activities, s.tch surveillance being reinforced by police su- pervision of the Neighborhood Associations. Possession of such wide powers has. made the Japanese policeman arrogant and paternalistic in his attitude toward the people, who both fear and respect him as the symbol of Imperial power. Japan has a national legal system under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Justice. Both in legal codes and in prison ad- ministration the Japanese system is similar to that of Western Continental Europe, with certain modifications. Appointments to judicial office are made as the result of examination, and the judiciary has maintained a high standard of integrity and abil- ity. The position of the bar, however, is less important than in most other countries. E. Political factors. During the last decade political power has passed increa-s- ingly into the hands of those groups favoring a policy of ex- treme nationalism both internally and externally, subordina- tion of the parliamentary system, increasing military control of government and economy, and expansion abroad. Widely varied political elements have played a part in this evolution and have willingly or unwillingly contributed to this general trend. The result has been to place the greatest influ- ence in the hands of the military. In general the various mili- tary factions have agreed in favoring an intensification of state control and external expansion. Certain of the more radical military elements have sought by terrorism to force the adop- tion of these policies, while others have confined themselves to more subtle means of increasing the hold of the military on the government. The Patriotic Society movement in Japan has been favored by the nationalism of the people and strives to foster chauvin- ism. These societies are devoted to the promotion of the Im- perial principle and have supported militarism either directly or indirectly. They opposed the political parties, the growth of the parliamentary structure, and moderate internationalism. Some groups employed terrorism to further these aims, while others confined their activities to propagandizing the people along ultranationalistic lines. Within the parliamentary structure the political parties were never able to attain complete development as dominant politi- cal groups or as representatives of popular opinion. In the fall of 1910 they were dissolved and amalgamated into the Im- perial Rule Assistance Association, which was designed to unite all political elements and the people in the face of national crisis. This organization soon proved unwieldy as an instrument of political control., and the Imperial Rule Assistance Political Society was created in May, 1942, to supersede it. The old political parties, however, have not completely lost their idea tity; their leaders have played a prominent role in the IRAPS, and some were sufficiently influential to gain representation in the Koiso Government. Of the class groups, the great industrial combines have been better organized and therefore have played a more dominant role. During the decade after the last war they worked through the political parties, but more recently they have turned to the military in order to assure protection of their interests. Labor and agricultural groups, while numerically strong, have always been prevented from becoming a potent political force by in- ternal divisions, governmental restrictions, and popular sus- picion. During the last decade, such of these groups as survived have been forced to subscribe to the doctrine of the dominant patriotic, nationalistic, and military groups. While the labor and agricultural groups are at present without influence or experience in government, they remain a potential force. Last, there are certain individuals who tend more toward western forms of thought, a somewhat more international ouit- Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Confidential BRIEF look, and a preference for it more cautious and moderate pat- tern of action than that espoused by the military. These per- sons may be found among the nobility, the diplomatic and bureaucratic personnel, the university professors, and the busi- ness groups. They do not in any sense form it cohesive group, but certain of them hold positions of some influence and may come to the fore when a suitable opportunity arises. Public opinion on political matters, kept under rigid super- vision for many years, tends to approve the patriotic groups and admire the military as servants of the Emperor. It has tended, however, to be critical of the business groups as being self-interested, and of the old political parties as being corrupt. H. Health and Sanitation A. Water and sewerage. Although water is found in abundant quantities in the region under discussion, there are likely to be shortages in a few areas during the latter part of the summer. Adequate filtering and chlorination facilities are found only in larger cities. In many instances the water purification may not be so efficient as the government record would seem to indicate (FIGURE I - 15). Most privies are provided with pits. Night-soil is removed and distributed for fertilization. There are very few flush toilets, and these are confined to larger cities. Sewerage systems have been established only in large cities. Open sewers or gutters are used to carry off liquid wastes in all other settlements. B. Harmful insects and rats. The chief mosquitoes acting as vectors of disease are Anophe- les hyrcanus sinensis (malaria and filariasis), A. lindesayi ja ponicus (malaria), Aedes f lavo fnctus (dengue, filariasis), Aedes albopictzus (dengue), Aeries alholaterahs, Aeries togoi. Aeries koreicus. The 4 last-named mosquitoes are probably suitable carriers for filariasis. The Aedes species are also con- sidered vectors of B encephalitis. Culex ti fpuli f ormis, Culex quinque f asciatus (f atigans) , Culex pi/lens, and Culex sinensis represent additional suitable vectors of filariasis. Especially Culex pipiens, but possibly also other Culex species, may repre- sent vectors of B encephalitis. The common house fly (Mrasca domestica) is very numer- ous. The sandfly transmits the virus of pappataci fever. Fleas are numerous and are dangerous as plague carriers as well as vectors of the murine type of typhus fever. Lice are found and may carry the epidemic form of typhus fever as well as the organism of louse-borne relapsing fever. Mites are present and are potential carriers of scrub typhus fever, a disease which prevails outside the boundaries of the area surveyed. Rats are very numerous. They are important in the spread of plague, murine typhus, and leptospirosis. Their bite may cause rat-bite fever (sodoku). C. Foods. The staple foods are rice and fish. Many articles of food, including rice, must be imported from abroad, there being little in excess of the needs of the native people. The prevail- ing method of fertilization necessitates a thorough cooking of vegetables and washing or cooking of fruits. Fresh water fish are frequently infected with flukes or other parasites. The dairy Page I - 37 industry is small, some of the cattle being used for slaughter. Meat plays only an unimportant role in the Japanese diet. The Japanese health service is well organized and efficient. Public health is administered by it special ministry established in 1938, the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare (Kosei- sho). The provincial and local bodies for sanitary administra- tion consist of the prefectural governors, police chiefs, and chiefs of towns and villages. Quarantine is regularly carried out at the principal ports open to foreign trade. During recent years there have been many advances in the field of sanitation, preventive medicine, and personal hygiene, although in the rural areas the standards still remain somewhat backward. Hospitals similar to those in the Western World exist in the larger cities. The hospitals connected with the medical schools compare favorably both in reputation and in equipment with the teaching hospitals in Europe. Hospital facilities are not so plentiful. as in the United States. On the basis of 1932 statistics it has been estimated that Japanese hospitals provide 19 beds per 10,000 people as compared to an average 97 beds per 10,000 people in the United States. Four of the 9 Imperial Universities are located in Southwest Japan: in Fukuoka, Osaka, Kyoto, and Nagoya. In addition, governmental medical colleges are found in Nagasaki, Kuma- moto, Okayama, and Kyoto. There are approximately 62,000 physicians, 22,000 dentists, 60,000 midwives, 124,000 nurses. and 1 7,000 veterinarians in the whole of Japan. Within the area surveyed there are about 31,000 physicians, or approxi- mately 50'4; of all Japanese physicians. With regard to the other medical and sanitary personnel, it similar ratio presum- ably prevails. The following are among the most important social service agencies: Japanese Red Cross Society, Salvation Army, Jap- anese Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis, the White Cross Society of Japan, the Imperial Relief Association, and various health unions and mutual relief associations. Diseases of military importance are bacillary and amoebic dysentery and various forms of diarrhea and enteritis, all of which have a high rate of incidence. Venereal diseases are also of military importance and very widespread in Japan. Other diseases which should be included in this classification are Japanese Summer, or B, encephalitis and a number of derma- tological diseases. Diseases of potential military importance are typhus and other rickettsial diseases, malaria, cholera, which is ordinarily very rare but may assume dangerous proportions, dengue, re- lapsing fever, and filariasis. Plague is not endemic but might be easily introduced from other Asiatic countries. Diseases of minor military importance are typhoid and para- typhoid, which have a high rate of incidence among the civilian population. Other diseases to be included in this classification are leptospirosis, rat-bite fever, pappataci fever (sandfly fever), schistosomiasis, intestinal worm infection, liver and lung fluke infections, and tetanus. Diseases common among the civil population are acute respiratory and infectious diseases, including pneumonia, in- Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Page 1 - X38 BRIEF C:rnfidential fluenz.a, diptheria, whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever, cerebrospinal meningitis, poliomyelitis, smallpox, and chicken- pox. Cerebrospinal meningitis has occurred in epidemics and tends to break out in the spring and early summer. Occasional cases of smallpox occur in spite of compulsory vaccination. Various forms of diarrhea, enteritis, and food poisonings are common in this area.. 'I'uberouiosis in its many forms is very widespread. it is esti- mated that there are about 35,000 to 50,000 persons afflicted with leprosy in the whole of Japan proper. Trachoma is very common. It has been stated that approxi- nsately 15' t:f the young men examined for military service show some evidence Of the disease. Beriberi is still a fairly frequent disease among the popula.- non, although its incidence has diminished considerably. Miscellaneous diseases of minor importance are actinomy- cosis, yaws, anti-irax, rabies, and kala-azar. Diseases of cattle and livestock which may be a potential danger to man. are brucellosis, foot-and-mouth disease, and rgl.anders. F. Recommendations. Recommendations of special importance in Southwest Japan include the following: 1. Proper treatment of water supply, all of which should be considered unsafe. proper care of waste disposal. i. Mosquito control for the prevention of malaria,, dengue, arLd encephalitis. 1. Fly control for the prevention of enteric diseases. ~. Typhus control through treasures against lice, fleas, rats, and mites. G. Sandfly control for the prevention of pappataci fever. ?. Plagae control through flea and rodent extermination as well as rat proofing. 8. Venereal disease control. 9. Proper prevention of schistosomiasis. 10. Proper handling of food supplies and supervision of food handlers 12. Defenses The development of the defenses of Southwest Japan has been given careful attention by the Japanese over a long period o>l years. This area has played an important role in Japan's recent program of expansion. The densely populated and highly industrialized regions have furnished much of the personnel and ecuipment of the Japanese Army, and the well-developed transportation facilities have aided materially in supplying the overseas forces. A. Organization of army defense forces. (FIGURE: I - 3.1) . The Central District Army with headquarters .it Osaka and the Western District Army with headquarters at Fukuoka con- trol the administrative and defensive tactical functions of the Japanese Army :in Southwest Japan. Each Army district is split into 4 divisional districts, each of which is in turn. divided into 3 or 4 regimental districts. There are 27 regimental districts in Southwest Japan, The total. strength of forces normally disposed in Southwest Japan is estimated at 325,000 to 350,000. This figure includes 22,000 troops in fixed units, 187,700 troops in mobile units, and 120,000 to 140,000 line-of-communication, supply, and miscellaneous troops. The fixed units include fortress garri- sons and heavy artillery regiments located in the fortified areas. The mobile units include depot andactive divisions; independ- ent infantry groups; and infantry medium artillery, tank, and antiaircraft regiments. Most of these troops are replacement units, but: they may be considered full strength tactical units which would serve as a nucleus for any defensive action against a possible attack on Southwest Japan. Any landing or attempt at penetration in this area will be resisted desperately with all available means at hand and reinforcements from other parts of Japan. B. Supply and maintenance. (FIGURE; 1 - 32 ) The industries and. agriculture of Southwest Japan have supplied a large part of Japan's overseas troops.. It is believed that these resources, aided by adequate transportation facili- ties, are capable of sustaining as many troops as the Japanese would employ in the defense of this area. A number of major depots, believed capable of supplying several armies, are located in the area. Most of these depots are in the immediate vicinity of Osaka and Ujina, the 2 main ports of supply for Japan's overseas forces. In addition to the major supply depots there are 8 depot divisions and 1 depot brigade. Local troops normally stationed in each divisional district are maintained by the supply facili- ties of the various components of the depot division. The supply depots and depot division headquarters are well served by roads and railroads, and in some instances by port facilities. Except in Shikoku, which is much less important than the other major islands of Japan proper, the railroads form a well-integrated system. The roads are less developed and are intended primarily to supplement the existing rail- roads. The numerous good harbors in Southwest Japan and the sheltered waters of the Inland Sea have led in the past to an extensive use of shipping. The shortages in shipping brought about by the war have thrown a heavy burden on the rail- roads and roads. Nevertheless, it is believed that the existing transportation facilities will continue to fulfil logistical needs of Southwest Japan, unless heavy and persistent attacks disrupt the rail and port facilities in this area. (FIGURE I-33) The great preponderance of fortified areas in Japan proper is in Southwest Japan. The known coastal :Fortifications of this area guard the approaches to northwestern and northern Kyushu; they defend the Shimonoseki-kaikyo, Bungo-suido, and Kii-suido, which lead into the Inland Sea; and they protect the 3 major naval bases of Kure, Sasebo, and Maizuru, as well as the important shipbuilding center and port of Nagasaki. All Southwest Japan is well adapted for defense, with numerous offshore islands, restricted water channels suitable for mining and easily covered by coastal batteries, and high terrain along the coasts. The coastal guns range from 3 to 16 inches in caliber, and are of Japanese, French, English, or Russian manufacture. Most frequently reported is a 240-mm (.9.4-inch) gun of French design. The defenses in Southwest Japan were established. at a rela- Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Confidential Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 BRIEF Page l - 39 tively early date. Many old type fortifications are probably still present, although the most important batteries have been strengthened and modernized. Camouflage has not been used extensively, and many of the fortifications are conspicuous both from sea and air. Stationary defenses of Southwest Japan may be supple- mented by mobile artillery units. The following have been identified: 3 heavy artillery regiments (normal armament: eight 150-mm guns each) ; 2 medium artillery regiments (normal armament: twenty-four 150-mm howitzers or sixteen 105-mm guns each); seven field artillery regiments (normal armament: thirty-six 77-mm field guns and twelve 105-mm howitzers each) ; and I mountain artillery regiment (normal armament: thirty-six 75-mm mountain guns each). The Japanese are believed to have thirty 240-mm Schneider railway guns. These can be operated from the main Japanese railway lines along the coasts of Honshu and Kyushu. Antiaircraft batteries have been observed at some strategic points, and doubtlessly they are located at all important military and industrial centers. In addition, there are in Southwest Japan 16 antiaircraft regiments, each equipped with twenty- four 75-mm antiaircraft guns and sixteen 20-mm antiaircraft machine cannon. An extensive air warning system affords further protection to important targets. Defenses have doubtless been erected at many locations not previously known to be fortified. Certain additional areas have been singled out as potential defense zones. These include land- ing beaches and sheltered harbors not described among the known defenses. 13. Naval Facilities A. Organization and administration. Most of the home bases and facilities of the Japanese Navy are situated in Southwest Japan.. The main islands of Japan proper and their adjacent waters are divided into 4 naval dis- tricts and 2 guard districts. This study includes all the land area of the Second Naval District (with headquarters at Kure), of the Third Naval District (Sasebo), and of the Osaka Guard District; the major portion of the land area of the Fourth Naval District (including the headquarters and base at Mai- zuru); and the western part of the First Naval District (but not its main base and headquarters at Yokosuka) (FIGURE 1-34). Within their respective areas these districts are charged with the following responsibilities: (1) maintenance of construc- tion and repair facilities for the fleet, (2) protection of the sea and air frontiers of Japan, (3) recruiting, training, and supply of naval enlisted personnel, (4) coordination of all naval activities and maintenance of security, and (5) production, inspection, and distribution of naval aircraft, supplies, and stores. Each district is under a commander in chief (usually a vice admiral but occasionally at Yokosuka and Kure, a full admiral) who is also commandant of the major naval base within his district and who is under the Chief of the Naval General Staff for war plans and operations and under the Navy Minister for administrative matters. Sea forces attached to districts include the following com- ponents: defense squadrons and defense divisions, guard squad- rons and guard divisions, patrol divisions and picket boat di- visions. District land forces man the defense and lookout stations, and guard naval fortresses, fortified zones, etc. Air forces attached to districts function as escort and patrol forces, or as training forces. B. Naval bases and stations. Sasebo, headquarters of the Third Naval District, has within its port area a large fleet anchorage, extensive building and repair facilities, a small arsenal, torpedo and mining establish- ments, coal and oil storage facilities, a naval air station, and naval barracks. The harbor, which has it narrow entrance, is nearly landlocked and had deep water over most of its area. There are mooring facilities for 1 I battleships or aircraft car- riers, 8 cruisers, 45 destroyers, 19 submarines, and numerous special duty ships and small craft. The total waterfront of the dockyard is said to be in excess of 2 miles. There are extensive warehouses and supply dumps within the port. The base in- cludes 6 drydocks (the largest of which is about 1,000 by 175 feet), 3 building ways (the longest 600 feet), and adjacent machine shops. The Sasebo Arsenal is equipped to outfit and repair all classes of naval craft. The Maizuru. naval base, headquarters of the Fourth Naval District, is Japan's only base on the Japan Sea facing Korea and the Russian Maritime Province. It is the newest of the naval bases, having been a minor station before December, 1939. Situated on an arm of the most deeply indented bay on the Japan Sea coast of Honshu, its harbor is well-sheltered. The base is connected by rail with the port of Tsuruga and with the manufacturing centers of Osaka, Kobe, and Nagoya, on the other side of Honshu. Maizuru's facilities have been developed in recent years and are now believed to include enlarged build- ing facilities. It functions primarily as a repair station for de- stroyers and submarines, secondarily as a naval munitions plant, and thirdly as a shipyard for construction of new naval vessels. The shipyard includes 5 drydocks (the longest 735 feet) and 6 building ways (the longest 800 feet). The arsenal is believed to specialize in manufacture of naval mines and to produce about 75 `, of the total Japanese output. Tokuyama Minor Naval Station on the Inland Sea primarily a fueling depot, was raised to the status of a station within the Second (Kure) Naval District in March 1938. Since that time its facilities have been constantly expanded. As the Third Naval Fuel Depot it stores approximately 1,750,000 tons of fuel oil and 200,000 tons of coal. It has laboratories and refineries charged with fuel research and production. It is a processing and transshipment point for fuel destined for other naval sta- tions and bases. Privately operated shipyards on Kasado-jima within the limits of the station specialize in tanker and small cargo ship construction. The Kure naval base, headquarters of the Second Naval District, is on sheltered waters giving adequate protection for a large fleet anchorage on Hiroshima-wan, an arm of the In- land Sea. The base is the largest combined dockyard, shipbuild- ing yard, and naval industrial plant in Japan. It has 5 drydocks (the longest 1,000 feet) and 3 building ways. The industrial plant includes, in addition to the Kure Arsenal, the more re- cently established Hiro Arsenal, and the naval aircraft factory and engine and turbine factory also at Hiro. Kure's oil storage facilities, with about 1,000,000 tons capacity, are more exten- sive than those at any of the other 3 naval bases. In addition to these bases there are a large number of sites Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Page 1 - 40 suitable as anchorages, potential bases, or stations. In the Kyushu sector, 14 such sites are listed; in Shikoku, 7; and on the coasts of Honshu included in this study, 17. C. Supply and maintenance. Each naval base operates as a supply and maintenance depot with extensive fuel storage facilities, and additional depots arc established at strategic positions elsewhere in the area., usually in protected waters used for fleet anchorages. Three of the 5 such major depots operated in Japan are within the area of this study: at Yokkaichi on (se-wan (bay) (the Second Naval Fuel Depot), at Tokuyama on the Inland Sea (the Third Naval Fuel Depot), at Saitozaki in Fukuoka Prefecture (the Fourth Naval Fuel Depot). The largest of these depots at Tokuyama and Kure are on the Inland Sea. The 4 main oil storage sites are estimated to have the following capacities: Saseb-:) 400,000 tons Maizuru 400,000 tons Kure 1,000,000 tons Tokuyama 1,750,000 tons To-a1 1,550,000 tons Additional naval oil storage sites of lesser importance are known to exist at 9 locations around the island of Kyushu: Shibushi, Tomitaka, Nobeoka, Saeki, Moji, Saitozaki, 0-shima, Sashiki, and Kagoshima; and at 5 sires in Honshu: Miyazu, Wakayama. Toba, Yokkaichi, and Nagoya. Extensive commer- cial fuel stores, particularly on Honshu, are at the disposal of the Navy. Each of the naval bases and the minor station at Tokuyama also maintain large coal stores. Repair and shipbuilding facilities of the Japanese Navy arc established at the yards maintained at the bases of Sasebo, Maizura, ard Kure, supplemented by the Hikari Arsenal near Tokuyan-ia, and by the commercially operated yards in the area. These latter include most of Japan's privately operated yards, the most important of which are on the Inland Sea and at Nagasaki. The major supply routes to Japan proper from the Asiatic mainland, from the Indies, and from the Mandates converge in the coastal waters of this area to the ports of Nagasaki, Shi- monoseki - tvloji, Osaka, Kobe, and Nagoya, and follow routes close inshore. 14. Air Facilities A. Organization. The air services of Southwest Japan are largely the responsi- bility of the Japanese Navv and are an integral part of the air defense of the homeland. Training is the principal function of the Army air forces in the area. Organization of the Naval Air Service is flexibly broken down into aJr fleets, air flotillas, and air groups, with no uni- form nurnbar of aircraft assigned to these various echelons. Tactically the naval air forces are organized on the task force principle. The primary function of air strength in Southwest Japan is the de:Eense of the homeland, particularly the industrial and military installations around and near the Inland Sea. It is estimated that this air strength, during the first half of 1944. has grown from about 30'. to more than 40'/f of Japan's total! operational air force. B. Installations. In Southwest Japan, prior to 7 December 19/11, civil and training airfields were in the majority. Since that time, and to an ever increasing extent, the work of constructing defen- sive air facilities has been carried on. This activity has centered particularly on Kyushu, where such facilities were developed later than on Honshu. The principal concentrations of first class airfields and naval air facilities of Southwest Japan (FI(;tIRF; I- 35) are listed below by islands. l" 1) K.yiishu. (a) Southern tip. The southern tip of the island, closest point on the homeland to the Southwest Pacific approaches, is clotted with air facilities including at least I fighter and 2 medium bomber airfields. (h) Sasebo-Nagasaki. The general port area of Sasebo- Nagasaki on the west coast of the island has a number of in- stallations, some of indeterminate classification but including ,it least 2 fighter airfields. (c) Fukuoka-Wakamatsu. The industrial area on the northern and northwestern coast of the island has it concen- trated airbase complex including at least I fighter, I medium bomber, and 2 heavy bomber airfields; I lighter and I heavy bomber landing ground (tinder construction) ; and 3 seaplane stations. (2) Shikoku. Shikoku is the least developed sector from the standpoint of air facilities, although a number of fields are located at inter- vals around the perimeter of the island, spaced most closely along the north shor(-. 3) Honshu. (a) ! /iroshima-Kure. This area, which includes the Kure Naval Base, has well-developed air facilities, with at least I medium bomber and 2 fighter airfields, and 2 seaplane sta- tions. (b) Osaka-Kobe. In the vicinity of this heavy industrial and port area on the northeastern coast of the Inland Sea are at least I medium bomber and 3 fighter airfields, I seaplane station, and numerous other air installations of it lesser or indeterminate classification. (c) Ise-wan. The industrial area around Ise-wan, includ- ing the city of Nagoya, has it heavy concentration of air in- stallations, some of them connected with aircraft factories. There are at least 2 heavy bomber, 2 medium bomber, and 2 fighter airfields. (4) General. The following numbers of air installations are described or listed in CHAPTER XIV: Heavy bomber airfields 6 Medium bomber airfields 9 Fighter airfields 14 Heavy bomber landing grounds I Medium bomber landing grounds I Fighter landing grounds 3 Seaplane stations 1l Auxiliary seaplane stations 3 Also listed are 131 fields and 55 seaplane installations of uncertain or undetermined classifications. In addition there are listed 25 suitable locations where airfields or seaplane facili- ties may or may not exist. Details are given in CHAPTER XIV, TABLES XIV - I to XIV-3. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA=RDP79-01144A001500010001-4 Table o t Contents (Continued) Page 7. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS . 1-25 A. Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25 (1) Railroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25 (2)' Roads . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1-26 (3) Water transport . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26 B. Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 (1) Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 (2) Land telegraph . . . . . . . . 1-27 (3) Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 (4) Submarine cable . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 8. CITIES AND TOWNS . . . . . . . . . . ... .1-27 A. General characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 1-27 B. Nagoya area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 (1) Nagoya . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 (2) Gifu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I -'28 (3) Toyohashi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 C. Osaka area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 (1) Osaka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 (2) Kobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 (3) Kyoto . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . 1-28 D. Inland Sea area . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 1-29 (1) Okayama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 (2) Kure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 (3) Hiroshima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 .(4) Matsuyama . . . . . . . 1-29 (5) Niihama . 1-29 (6) Takamatsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 E. Sanindo area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 F. Shimonoseki-kaikyo industrial area . . . . . . . 1-29 (1) Shimonoseki . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 (~) Mo j i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (3) Ube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (4) Yawata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (5) Tobata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (6) Wakamatsu . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (7) Kokura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-30 (8) Fukuoka . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1-30 G. West-central Kyushu . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (1) Sasebo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (2) Nagasaki . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 (3) Kurume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 (4) Omuta-Miike . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 (5) Kumamoto . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 H. Southern Shikoku and southeastern Kyushu . . . . 1-31 (1) Kagoshima . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 (2) Kochi . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 (3) Tokushima . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 9. RESOURCES AND TRADE . . . . . . . . . 1-31 A. Food resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31 (1) Present food position . . . . . . . . . 1-31 (2) General characteristics of agriculture . . . . . 1-31 (3) Food consumption and food balance ... . . . . 1-31 (4) Food productiori . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 (5) Fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 (6) Food products industry . . . . . . . . 1-32 B. Water supply Page 1-32 (1) Natural availability . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 (2) Waterworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 C. Construction materials .. . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 D. Industrial raw materials and primary processing . . . 1-32 (1) Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 (2) Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33 (3) Industrial crops . . . . .. . . . . . . 1-33 E. Manufacturing plants . . . . . . . . 1-33 (1) Iron and steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33 (2) Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33 (3) Industrial machinery . . . . . . . . . . 1-33 (4) Electrical machinery and equipment . . . . 1-33 (5) Ordnance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33 (6) Shipbuilding and ship repair . . . . . . . . 1-33 (7) Railroad equipment . . . . . . . . . 1-53 (8) Motor vehicles and tanks . . . . . . . 1-33 (9) Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 (10) Rubber tires . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 (11) Textiles . . . 1-34 (12) Pulp and paper . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 F. Electric power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 G. Commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 H. Finance . . . . . 1-34 10. PEOPLE AND GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . 1-34 A. People . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 ( 1) Numbers and distribution . . . . . . . . . 1-34 (2) Social structure . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 (3) Cultural characteristics . . . . . . . . 1-35 B. Labor supply . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 C. Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 D. Public order . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36 E. Political factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36 11. HEALTH AND SANITATION . . . . . 1-37 A. Water and sewerage . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37 B. Harmful insects and rats . . . . . . 1-37 C. Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37 D. Public health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37 E. Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3.7 F. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1-38 12. DEFENSES . . . . . . . 1-38 A. Organization of army defense forces . . . . 1-38 B. Supply and maintenance . . . . . . . . 1-38 C. Fortifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38 13. NAVAL FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . 1-39 A. Organization and administration . . . 1- 39 B. Naval bases and stations . . . . . . . . 1-39 C. Supply and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 14. AIR FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 A. Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 B. Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 (1) Kyushu . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1-40 (2) Shikoku . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 (3) Honshu . . . . . . . 1-40 (4) General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40 ooattlg~ N Published by THE JOINT INTELLIGENCE STUDY PUBLISHING BOARD Military Intelligence Division, G-2 Division of Naval Intelligence Office of Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Intelligence Office of Strategic Services Office Chief of Engineers AT WASHINGTON, D. C. Approved For Release 2004/12/20 : CIA-RDP79-01144AO01500010001-4 ... ..... ~u Releas I a 1 q Q ' , ?~'-o a [t~l, J & .... ? . Y S' ~' '' ?'?< ~~"[ ?~~ ?I~ = f ` I` T $A NAN "[ ( SOUTHWEST JAPAN KYUSHU, SHIKOKU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHU) a N K i S ? h y s ' t y ^ =~ LUMBER AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES F=aHW . f , f~^ ~`? v~ :wa.T SURi0.C%UL FOREST ~ w 0 A ? n ' y?? yJWYp ? ?M1p '. WOODBJ SHIPYARDS IMPORTANT PNRR AND/O0. PULP MILL () On. SAIppE 0 ~P e ! RAYON PULP MILL IMP^RTANF CEIWPHANE FACTORY shm Iv,mxd by P,. , Q o SA Pmb pml SA p/?N, bmM mn M p,?MHpn ^ IMFO0.iANi CELLULtND FACTORY Sxr n U/ r`'enpn a?sMwe e ry~(pYhJ EAS .. ~ A / T CHINA SEA 1 0?aW -Appr. -4 ~IA 1~1 1 144A001 001 -4 FIGURE I.17 Eq'I]AI sN . E ?.x J A P A N 5 E A K O R H A - ss \ y U? I o Sl ICHbBENI N"t' yCS ~ 3 'tA -D O x ... ?J >em JJ .vnx "~?~' a~e.. p .0.N a`""' ?I xxn . _ Oo e A LEAD ^ ANTIMONY P PLANT MERCURY M IMPORTANT MINE EA M SMALL MINES: The number within a symbol indicams the number of small m nm per pmkcure ST CHINA SEA CIA_~ 4c lease 2004/1 J A 2/20 : CIA -R P A N SOUTHWEST JAPAN (KYUSHU, SHIKOKU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHU) ? BYPRODUCTS COKE OVENS SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS CRUDE CAPACTY OVER 1,500000 O 9SCHERIROPEW PROCESS RANTS} BARRELS A YEAR ALSO CRACKING ESTIMATED 1943 OUTPUT OVER CAPACITY, CERTAIN OR PROBABLE) 5q,00 BARRELS O CRUDE CAPACITY 50 000A,LW,tlp BARRELS A YEAR Qi HYDROGENATION PLANT(5) (CO. AND/OR TAR) ESTIMATED Cl OIUDE CAPACITY UNDER 500,0.0 BARRELS A YEAR 1913 OUTPUT 75000.37 000 BARRELS 5 prove or a ease ? K O R E A ~ATJ w IC Rd SENI ~ ^ .??? ?? ~ w +1y'. ~ 4 ?' ` ~ a al fl / .JJyq; x^ a Y'F~b a a!~ :x: ^?^.^ \ OB0" ~ ? ,`' ee .~l ?""o ` xxE~?~O K ,Uve..x. .,.x x'r? ~ ~ f x IN @ rou .vw '"'-- SOUTHWEST JAPAN (KYQSHO, RHIKOYU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHOf Y Q INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION 1943 /~,~(,V? 9 ..~u.B s" ?'(/ Qs ? xv ~J u^ ? DEGREE OF INWSlUWUlATpV ENMNNU OE W MININ P I N MANUFACTACIUWN UGNO AND MINING G OF ~ ? .: x r VwYugh XSM1 Par JD ~~ D . ua ? xxw 1 0 ^? ~ Hi-h M?dnmdY XbM1 MRn 'V 1 N.I?INdYE,, 1630 CCNON1MiICNn Cf SNKIFD INDIISiXIES ?aim4 oav ~-_ O Ti O e EJe s G. W N ~~~Mw~ ~ ? q ? o eae?. o o ~ _ _ IUD s EAST CHINA SEA ~^ ~alwd c,.?I mdxxMxl lmwX?rc m ? ON.C?TWxab Ilmp?ft... 0^^~ 9flo8. ? OIM~GIV.imm?~YJq. rYA lmp? ~ IMuxM?I bulollolbn O MtlI*C7a261 au......~ w ma.m EIGIIRF3-]1 ]AM864 WNAN1584 FIG~.USLR~E 1.33 Ce7PID~ &P A J A P A N S E 'A CH6SEM ~ o 2 m 0 4Mb ( n n o . n a .. ? HAaUA- ENSNQ.NADA Hsi .or o5~ ? X. n.. n l ts p~ry}( o ~ y \ S 4,~ :I~. --- TOSA MAN SOUTHWEST JAPAN ote A (KYOSHO, SHIKOKU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHO) K CHEMICAL PLANTS s H .D- ~e ^? ~. a .J- ? ra.` ALCOHOL PUNTS ? ETHR ALCOHOL (Oa. Saab US wllm. dei,.yed.l 0 METHYL ASCppl (,0JJ US p bm ennwl m : O ISM ALCOHOL NITROGEN RXATKNJ PUNTS S SN ^0 ? O ^ AMMCNU ^ CALCIUM CYANIMICE T c` CAUSTIC SODA PUNTS A ELECTROLYTIC OEOYNE AND CAUSTIC SODA A SODA ASH AND CAIRTIC SODA lo.. pJ,CW ma. annnln dIyI i~ DYES AND INTERMEDIATES ? DYES ISSe mwad MpnL nEmnM podiaunl J U DYE INInMEOATES IR a nWn d JPN. aliment pndCenl SULPHURIC ACID a .... , . ?E.., Iaaaoo m.r. snee,m. xd enmel uywN 7 ~(? EAST CHINA SEA ? PHOSPHATES CALOUM G Se l deO eSY CRBIDE o EXPLOSIVES al.wmee a F r Releas /12/20: CIA- DP79-01144 00 00 -4 HGEIRfi I.23 M S86 ENt3AE J A P A N S E A ~ ?m "" C HO BEN, l [ ? .?. b 111 0? "~ V"' I '~J rct~w^ d ~J' b5 c~ ~0' ~ x?.?e9??" ??a'wM~ a IL~W ^y~"{'w^' + 4 ~ ~'. .. w All- ENO? .W.MN3. C1Y... ?? " a~, oop .,,. FNSNp.NAOA .HN Mww.WRa MS s ~ me cxMrno. sa6MA w~~ xxM,.M K L. AM r ~..~ .? "?" ? iG51 -Z~.. -wAN SOUTHWEST JAPAN ? a (KYUSHU, SHIKOKU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHO, r" MACHINERY PRODUCTION _ K J. Y V S H ~, V (E? AQQEMROP UCTi BIM-g OF J a NPR MM M4 BY FREKNRES m-d .~ .,o"e EI mxm?non xoumrc..Ae M =gy rc Pmv.YaR,, Dl-3 AM inwwc Munro ?xamMx ~4x.w r( IMPORTANT MACHINERY MANUFACTURING PLANTS, 1943 ' Y 2 ? MACHINE 1002 j~ ? 9LCIWGL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT " ~( e lAS.. m ...e \ \ ??oe n'xn ` J o M o x.a..a P r ~ p S o e c.MM ^eyM y ( CAST CH NA SEA `" MACHINERY OTHER THAN EIERRIUI l ? ?^^n?- m mx x. M.e..xa.w M roved F r Releas /12/20: CIA- DP79-01144 00 _ _ 00 4 --------------- FIGURE I-u JANEa64 GDNED s?AE p A prove For elease : - ? ? N~ J A P A N S E A ~~?rp~m " ~ x fe a e fe xRaRta w ID? J ?/ ? t7 O ?? ? ? Epc' mn ~[u~ PLy'e p .I.y w.x K/' RRIK1.RlADA A.A A -A S alaAiw & , eA ~... .a[.. N M ~ :' ..._ TDSA MAN N ~ a ~"N~ ?~ " ^ SOUTHWEST JAPA a I .. (KYOSHO? SHIKgN? AND a THWB HENiSHO) i y o s x PRINCIPAL AIRCRAFT, MOTOR VEHICLE, e 1 .. L' ? AND MUNITIONS PLANTS x: p ~~ H 0 MOTOR VBCE RANT d ! ~' ? ^ TANK FACTORY A $ O ARMY APSENAS N C Q MAW ARSENAL T+ _ A PRIVATE ORDNANCE PLANT A PRIVATE AMMNJITON PLANT AEROeAOINE PLANT AIRCPAPT PLANT TOP COMPONENTS .ooee?u, ` OTHER TAN ENGINES 6 ' COMRINATH)N AIRO AFT ASSENT&Y AND AEROBJGINE PLANT o AIRWAR PSSENHr PLANT EAST CHINA SEA \l, wueiem. a . pprov or e lease K O R E A U ?O?x IC HO6EN1 a ~ . ? V ~ +? O J RJ p ?~", VP ? b5 VV?~ 6M dam'- / i' sM d5,u vu., . .w. Q?-A? r+ so 1 x1a.xA ~( )/, : uxu ^?1~P ? i ?? tt40M0A ne 10 ` yJ'R MESRTRADA e . xwo oc.. ? ? ?w?,V, M? ~~~JJJ + ~?(}?..... a+v `y 4??? \ TOSA -WAN SOUTHWEST -T JAPAN \ (KYOSHU, SHIKOKU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHU( ~? x`O?n` K I ~ H Y 0 s SHIPYARDS AND RAILWAY EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING CENTERS + ?~- HD ??e < SHIPYARDS RAILWAY EQUIPMENT 4 SRIR-u 'jV ~eAiwu~ Q Z L ^ ? NAVAL L ~T MAJOR CENR0.-IOCOMOPVES O MERCHANT AND NAVAL IIEI MAJOR CENTER- LOCOMOTVES AND OARS wunq ~, ? SMALL A PLANT -..VES ---~---- ? MH2HANT AND NAVAL A RANT - CARS ~~(( MERCHANT A PLANT- IOCOMOTNES AND CARS EAST CNINA SEA CIA RDP79-0114 AO 0001 -4 MGDRS 125 JANI584 CONPIDENYIAE a FIGURE I. 26 ]ANISES ENWL `er rov o a ease - lull, J A P A N S E A ..~ FFF C ~- f K 0 R E IC H O EE NI A [ ^ ?E a - ~~ " - ~? Z $M1g./~Y?.r. !d `Y~ S e n ~J r~~. ?LYI_vm ~(~[~~?~?'~C , a 4b cr- flr m? ElplllEllll ..,,.. ? ! a n . e x. a a ? Aloe r4l-xx`sIJE' R~"7? ~~ ,/ Keiwki 8 .w / " P 49 5 ? ?O4b w ' i - ? NeFow ~ ~iakM ?LaJWL Okpmoo i ~~ ?1 bL~ ached l ~-N^a ((\ . , . a . , x . *ammnlne ~ NwS. Ha,?X?) ? ? ? ? ENSHO.NADA r.l. aMx? ~ Xm,M1'ma ? y ~ ? ~ M ? . m W M Y FI ~ ~'. N.S v. u ~ Nad?4 e u e n , ,m6% D e o x TakwA l ~ " ? A p IS JS @q~l g 5 _T e_O HIVAWU? ~? It nn a NiE, j( F ve ~MeM1Oee a K U \fv+ A111UDA ~` g /. oL~JY4 .. o . J ! ? x TOSA WAN ?, r- p ` ..i . a,.. J. ("~ ' \ } - `- ?~\ W-- J title SOUTHWEST JAPAN (KYOSHU, SHIKOKU, AND SOUTHWEST HONSHU) Y 0 s H o COTTON SPINNING, SILK a a ~~? AND RAYON PRODUCTION 'y[ ' a?+~ ~XO oL.~ Na IlF ? SEIKTED COTTON MI14 OVER I=CCO SPINUM AS OF MRY 1941 PRESENT OPERATION UNCDTAIN) ? e ? XIINOPAL RAYgJ AND STARE FINE MRS AS OF 191p PER CENT %F PRODUCTION NAUJE) y PREFECTURES OF JAPAN PRO R IN 193], B EAST CHINA SE;1 JAPAN: DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS CHUGOKU SUPPLY AREA HYUROELKTRIC %AMS THERMOELECTRIC %AMS S I.W19.999 N. ? I.W-c999 k., n IQE 49.999 M 9 IQC o 49.999 H. HO4JRE9-n JAWS s4 COIHPID@Tf1AL fGUEB1.3B JAMBS 84 UUNPIDBNTLLL JAPAN: DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS SHIKOKU SUPPLY AREA O q,CWJ9999 W. fi0WJ9,9994w. 50a99,,999 b. ii CITY ----- PREFECTURAL BOUNDARY Number accompanying plant symbol on map ra(ea to plant number in RBA, 0.55 Report Na 1000 JAPAN: DISTRIBUTION OF EIECIRIC POWER PLANTS KYOSHO SUPPLY AREA YMRIT