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Approved For Release 1999/991 1?IA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 CPYRGHT FAirted by viELVIN J. LASKY and ANTHONY THWATTE T~'InrtworNo Enrrofi: Margot Walmsley. AsssrwN r EorroR: Bryan Healing. Gzr:gw MANAGER: Anthony Robirson. ADVERTISEMEr'T MANAGER: John Hall. L edZ, ,~ADVSORY BOARD: Mau'zce Cranston, D. j: Enright, Anthony Hartley, Leo &ronwy Rees, Edward Shits, John Weightman i 7?var: AD95ER5: lard Ardzuiek, Blouse Carus (Chairman), Sir Hugh Cudlipp, Cecil ifa~msuwrth King, Leon Letry, jack Watmough. publishedmonthly by Encounter Ltd. (in association with the Open Court Publishing Co.). - Pp e-opy' UK 35p: USA & Canada $1.25: Back numbers Sop ($1.50). moral subscription: UKL4: USA & Canada $ra (by air $r5.5o): Elsewhere ?4.95? -Addressfor all Departments: Encounter Ltd., 59 St Martin's Lane London WC2N ?7S (or-836 4r94). X. 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MEN Er IDEAS & JEWISH MARGINALITY. 46 AMERICAN CHRONICLE LIFE & DEATH IN THE U.S.A. 57 Melvin Ma4c1 s POETRY BOOKS Er WRITERS RIGHTS & WRONGS 67 Lorna Sage MARGINAL SALVATIONS 72 Douglas Dunn " THE VIRTUES OF LAUGHTER 78 Geojrey Strickland EAST & WEST John Fuller 25, Alan Brownjohn 62, Seamus Heaney 63, Susan Schaefer 92 THE CASE OF COMRADE BLTgHARI3:N 81 DOCUMENTS Gunter Grass & Andrey Sinyavsky : A Controversial Exchange 94 LETTERS 93 Approved For Release 1999/09/02: CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 CPYRGHT ' v&4 r&e eye CPYRGHT ShMftr CIA-RIWT9iOiPb94AOOD Q4 AQ1-6 DEAR NDREY YAVSKY, DEAR ALEXANDER SoL2nENSTSYN, I have been asked by the . director of the Ullstein-Verlag, Wolf Jobst Sledler, to write a few words of welcome to the new journal Konti- nent with which you asmuch as 1-along with many of my fellow-writers in WesternEurope-sympathised with yourplight and tried our best to help when you were being persecuted and sentenced and imprisoned, or being prevented from working as professional writers in the Soviet Union, I take the liberty of telling you, without mincing words, what I think of your project. It should, after all, be known to you that as authors in thejournal Kontinent you will be working together with a certain power empire, famous under the name of the Springer-Konzern, whose reactionary intoler- ance is an expression of the same mentality which, under different ideological markings, forced you in the Sos4er Limon to protest and.to resist. I cannot understand how you, as writers with moral criteria, could through such a collaboration offer support to a power complex so dangerous to Western democracy. Each day in the publications of the Springer-Konzern (i,,"iether they're called "Biki-Zeitung" or "Welt am Sonniag") there is disseminated exactly that which you experienced in the . Soviet Union, if In totalitarian extent,. namely, falsification of information according to doctrinaire opinions, demonisation of political opponents, appeal to the latent violence in the so- called silent majority, the condemnation of the accused as already guilty-all of which has led your fellow-writers to feel anxious, about the future of democracy in the Bundesrepubitik. In terms of politics the ideological anti-Communism of the Springer Konzern is only a reflex action in response to Leninism-Stalinism; - and just as Western private capitalism and Communist state capitalism can fund themselves united throughout the world when it comes to blocking a third way and to repressing whether in Chile in 1973, or in Czechoslovakia in 1968-democratic socialism, so is the Springer- Konzern a part of that Power of Money or Statism, whose corrupt activities both you and ]fear so much. Must one, in order to express a justified opposition. so totalitarian communism, seek support from those forces who were never seriously annoyed by Western dictatorships and who in anti-Communist blindness are altogether prepared to drive out the communist Devil with the fascist Beelzebub? For all my respect for the courage which you demonstrated in the Soviet Union in your struggle against an autocratic State power, I cannot approve your cooperation with the Springer-Konzern. I beg you to reconsider your venture. You are keeping very bad company. With friendly greetings, Yours, Gunter Grass Dy~EAR G'NTER GRASS, ? 1J I found it very strange to read, in your open letter to Alexander Solz- henitsyn and myself that we who will be contributing to the new journal. Kon tinent, would be collaborat- ug with certain dark forces and with the `power em- and thereby becoming, if, tutwittirtgly, accomplices of Iuscism. . , - - acgwthrted with the situation. in the West.rI have no experience at all of the conflicts within Western democratic societies, . and.. it is not. really my business to conduct investigations into this - or that publishing house, or this or that "moneyed - power", in order to decide whose financial support may be better or worse.* Your apparent point of departure is a partisan struggle between various groups. But our concern. mine and those of my friends, it simply the magazine, Kontinent, itself Our venture is, to my mind, a challenging and promising beginning--a journal which attempts to bring together a whole group of writers in Eastern and Western Europe, among them not a few us Russia whose work is done in the shadow of the. prisons, camps, and lunatic asylimis. Trio, our new journal, which wants in a democratic .spirit to keep strictly above all parties, is now being helped by the old and traditional Gem= publishing house of Ullstein-Propylaen-a house which was destroyed by the Hitler regime.t And it is a pub. lishiig house which asks nothing of us; there are no guide-lines, and we shall. write as we please. Or can it be that you actually believe that we can be made to dance to somebody's rune? Do you doubt that it will be the shared ideals of liberty, generosity, and tolerance which will -shape our editorial cooperation? Tn PIcASE "Springer-Ronzern" comes from your lips in a very malicious tone--not unlike the phrases about the "Tito-Clique" or "the Fascist de Gaulle" with which they used to frighten us so long in Russia. Again, without going into the affairs of the "Kon- zern, for I know little about them. I would like. to observe that this "bad company," even if one were to judge them by the criteria of your letter, has not killed a single author or sent one poet to a concentration camp. Your comparison of the activi- ties of the "Springer Group" with the publishing conditions of present-day Soviet Russia, with the ruling state system bent on destroying all dissidents, ism-forgive me-simply scandalous. Your point of reference is a pile of opinionated newspaper clipping which you found unjustifiable. But our point of reference %s a mountain of corpses, and among them writers and poets. Can it really be that you equate a Hitler or a Stalin with a distasteful polemic in a newspaper? ? Among the publishers of other European editions of Kontinent are: Gallimard (Paris), Mondadori (Milan). Andre Deutsch (London). t' Ullstein-Verlag. a German-Jewish Berlin publishing house, was liquidated by Goebbels during the Third Reich. It was returned after the War to the Ullstein family, who sold it to Springer in 1959. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A0001004500~1Y6RGHT CPYRGHT 1.1 Can it be that you do not know that the whole prem, . including all publishers of books and maga- zines, in present-day Soviet Russia is not only under the. complete financial control of the Central Committee's Department of Agitation and Propa- ganda. but wider its total ideological (and physical) domination, bolstered up by the State- Security- forces deployed to keep an eye on all the works of Soviet writers? The free writer in present-day Russia is put on a par with the cruninal and the luma c. Bttr a?Hxtsr An supposed to be "liberalising" days Yet I am afraid I cannot see the least compari- soi between an honourable Western publishing house and the Soviet secret police (and it is the samtme secret police which controls cultural life in the Fast European kinds). You once carte to my personal defence, and I will always remember it with gratitude. But had you been sentenced for this personal and individual opinion to seven years in a work camp (as was the case with Alexander Gins- burg or with Yuri Galanskov, who died in camp), then I think you would appreciate a little better the distinction between publishing in East and West. The journal Kontinent is an independent publica- tion, planning a cultural and editorial programme ofgreat breadth and variety. It is completely beyond my comprehension why you should feel it necessary to speak out against a venture which has not even seen the light of day-to disrupt a magazine whose first number you have not yet read and whose quality you presume to judge only by the imprint of the publishing house. What would you think of Russian readers of Western books-from Faulkner to Boll--who passed judgment. on writers and works without LONDON, TIMES ? - 29 -Sep ember 197' having read them, and only on the basis of the imprint of the Soviet periodical or publisher who happened to put them our (always, of course, by permission of the KGB) ? The permission of the KGB, even when it comes to foreign authors, is surely stricter than the controls of any Western publishing house over any of its publications. I can understand this much: that you think in other categories, that you concern yourself with who is behind what and why, and who in secrecy and with clever financial tactics influences political life. Back home it used to be referred to as "the claws of Imperialism". but in the meantime we have ceased to look at history with the eyes of adetective. We have gone through the concentration camps, and money will neither buy us nor b tinddate us. HERB GRass, why don't you and I talk about books. about writers and their works-and not about financial corporations. Not so long ago I was con- demned because I had not only been published in the West but evidently also because I received no Western royalties. According to the logic of my Russian judges, I. was writing my books not because 1 had sold myself (that would have been from their point of view more understandable and even forgiv- able), but far worse---out of private impulse and hence inner malice. But I hope, and I share this with my colleagues on the journal Kontinent, that on one point nothing will change to the end of our days: that we wrue ho- cording to our inner convictions. Respectfully yours, Andrey Sinyavsky bul s.j. f Several of Russih's best-known recent emigres-for instance Alexander Galich, Audrey Sin* yavsky and Vladimir Maximov -are in London this week to launch Kontinent, a new Russian-language journal that appears for the first time on October 10. It will be different from other such journals in two important respects. The first number will contain original contributions from East Euro- pean writers who are well known in the Nest, such as Solzhenit- syn, Sinyavsky, Joseph Brodsky, Milovan Djilas and Ludek Pach- man. And it will be aimed not otily at the Russian emigre communities, but also at the Western public and, the editors hope, at readers inside the Soviet Uuion. Our aim is to build up a. dialogue path the west",. says Mr. Maximov, the editor-in-chief. In -the first number he. clearly,- outlines his journal's principle, he the main one being struggle against totalitarianism o any type- arxis , national- ist or religious ". But he will be ready, he says, to consider for publication contributions or letters from people who dis- agree. The dialcgue will be made possible by the ambitious and unusual plan of multilingual publication: The first number, is already being translated into German and will be published in November by Ullstein Verlag, with ?a printing of, they say, 50,000. Deutsch in England, Gallimard in France, and Mon- dadori in Italy also plan to produce it shortly. Such s ' journals have iii the past lost ctedit with some western liberals through. sus- picions that they were financed from secret sources. But this Vill not be the case with Kontinent, which is financed openly-.by Ullstein, part of the Axel 'Springer group. The editors hope that all they will need is initial funding _to, get them started and that soon they will be able to survive finan- CPYRGHT era3Tr cit, their ewwn. - " r- If nu" Russian edition of .7,000 sells out, it will cover its costs' , says Mi Maximov. Kontinent will then profit from the non-Russian sales of some of its " goodies for instance an unpublished chapter from First Circle by Solzhenitsyn and a remarkable essay on the 'Russian literary scene by Sinyavsky, which will he offered to the foreign pub- lishers on a commercial basis. A. further departure from emigre publishing is the plan to print the work of writers still living in the Soviet Union, nrenly, with their knowledge raid consent. ITsuaIly in the past journals like Possev and Grant ".lave tried to protect their con- rributori from the Soviet Union li saving that their work ;)nears ; without their consent. so,,-iet adherence to the Uni- -ersal Copyright Convention n:akts this more difficult, and anyway the editors of Kontinent ',e!ieve that their ideas are ^rved more by open contribu? andestine ones. Those who do send them t err irk from Russia run a risk, of course, butt contrary to popular "elief a soviet citizen does not commit a\ criminal offence bi? pi,hushing his work abroad, so long as the work is not-judged "anti-Soviet ". In fact one man "still living in the Soviet Union, AndreN Sakharov, is a member of Kontinent's editorial board. It a letter welcoming the neN enterprise he writes: " Tht reality of these (socialist) coun tries is a historical phenomenon that is very badly understood it the west. Its social, economic and spiritual qualities cannot bi grasped from the window of tourist bus, or from the semi official Soviet press. Therefor these people do have something to tell the world." He ends wit] the hope that the journal, " wil be available not only in th west, but.also to many peopi in the east". Mr Maximov say that he already has several cot. CPYRGHT A?r~rnvnr! Cnr Dn1n-2cn loooino/A7 ? r`IA_DI?TD70_AhlQAAAAAlfnrAMMOnJ1-M tributions from Soviet writers, as well as the promise of more. For the moment the "star" of Kontinent is bound to be Solzhenitsyn. " For 50 years writers have been crying out from the Soviet Union. No one ever listened. Now at last we have found one man whom the west will listen to ", says Maxi- mov. As well as his unpublished chapter, Solzhenitsyn has con- tributed a letter to the editors in which he says that Kontinent raises new hopes that the Rus. sian intelligentsia will for the first time "unite its ideas and works, ignori both the will of officialdom and the fact of its division. by states' frontiers ". He sees particular hope in the fact that. bitter experience has united so many thinking people in Russia, Poland. Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Ger- many and the Baltic. Forty years ago such unity would have been unimaginable. He hopes that Kontinent will be able to express this unity and predicts imminent woe to the west, should it, fail to heed the warning. The Russian editors- and -con- tributors will need not only talent and energy, but also unity l n`9JRI1, Z ALLG SINE ZEIflJNG, Frankfurt ? ,12 Septelri,er 1974 achieve their purpose. They have got the better of two of their enemies, censorship and repression, but they will find others in the west-indifference to the problems of seemingly far-away countries and a natural liberal suspicion of the strong opinions which conflict and suffering create. They believe that they have something to tell us, and doubt- less they do. To have worked out the physical means of trans. mitting this "message" is in itself a great administrative arhiavamn?? u..t Heehaw ex sting of all is their plan to pr vide a dint gue, not merely an warnings, though this is an im ortant aim, but also to open th r pages to vestern writers, in he editor's words " to sup- po t all democratic institutions fin their wa , as they un- do btedl will in a R i , uss an- y Ian uage journa across the Iron Cu ain. Kontir. nt would then all Russia bo h to teach and . ", w1. LV\\V1 L t'KO'N,TDfi11;r"- A European i, gazine to Depict Literature arid Problems of the E b ast 111 c - Countries-:-_th `? .'_s . lov, SSakharov and Solzhenitsyn - The preli.Tli`Ia'-y 1}I e a a --iC:'S for t i~ONTINv ~iTtt, the riagaz2P_e which Lv2s ~ _ :e sores eek 4 i. 5 a o, 11: Ve reached ti;v of _ ?'Z first volume can be - v v presentet- London in late .Septether. ttil~i~~t?" il't is an at.te zt to create a form for ii.. l'_` erature of Eastern E'uro e; one r the free conditions of the Ti'~ej V 'E-oices of authors from these ?cct.rntries are heard t.*--censored'. Leading Soviet a sc e ` - id authors, such as Vladimir Aleksai dr Sol:henltsyn, who o01 nly recently had to leave the Soviet Ur i on; and r d_ ey Sakha:o are included. The r aga..ine seeks -to coiltinl the liberal tradition of ' i oY iy MLir", once, directed by Ale sa dr I Tvardovskiy, does scot. intend to be an. anti-Soviet p :7~lication, nor a pub -7-G? do of 'ssian emigres. The ex` pecLations are that so many *texts will Woe out of the oun tralrs of the East. Bloc itself that there ray be a true picture of the literary PM- -ion-and ::Cthe political, social and religious develo=Zlls`. there : The news of the .founding- of t'i{?:~i C ? :\ltt got aro'_d quickly arion1> authors in the East Bloc " . The first lt~ is anTlot-'[_ng tie follo:iir' g contrioLtions: a c ester-previously held %lzhenitsyn' s novel " r t Circ z F held back-from , l: e F~ s e of r ll;'t ah, essay-- by Audrey Sinya.vrsi;i' on the situation of l~.te a LTM-e in the Soviet Union; Foe- of Josi-o Brcdsk:-y, the 1 3c. poet who 'was expelled fro :. the USSR in 19721 and the f rst half of a new novel, 9Yithou-t Hands, Without Feet by Vladimir Ito a u lov, ::To still - lives in MMoscoww. - The manuscript =.e into the West a few weeks ago. eover, the volume contains a -rather long inteyriea with \Lilo'~an (sic) Dj ilas. The editorial site of the magazine, ;hi, ch is at =~-s a ,gearing in RLissian. and Ge '.an, is Lon-'on and Paris. The Circle of Friends of - =n. Authors decides-jointly o + the incorpo titioa of the contributions.- The Ullstei--1/~-pyla,,e,,e ' Publishing, ttse n g -~ ~ in Berlin, which-1s publishing the magazine, intends to carrel all profits to f.cd for the support of Riissi=i liter tore. 11,`ime r a _ rous Lore-gm pl ~biisli~r: f? z;Ils such as G-01-lima-rd and MacMillan, - arQ ay the moment negotiating on the rights ' Lo nado al edi :io:ls. The magazine is to appear quarterly.. Managing editor Vladimir ~~iaksir^ v is-contributing a foreword for the editorial staff to the first volume Aleksan - rote an i troducti.on and Eugen onesco a salutation. he are publishing these three texts which formulate the high intentions of the international project and the e re-rations for.it. VLADnim MAKS324OV: F IRST T T \ HISTORY The birth of a neon ma azine s ' at 4ti ' i -AA b CPYRGHT social anAo'fo~~ Fir ? 1978A- social doubts r:hich .arise during its p anring an o a nQ ?resentva:en t of the forthcoming struggle and responsibility which the initiators o such a project assume. One could be tempted to drawn a.parailel with Alexai der Herzen's rragazine 1.0101 has been brought into (the party) Lin., the founding of the magazine '1'DN I'LL 'T" signifies the first atte. wt of the Russian intelliger_tsia to find a ne,.r forte for its intellectual creation, against t e political rulers' will and across all national borders. It would of course be best -- and we would be yet o adder at heart - if an independent Flissian magazine-, its authors and publishing house were located on native Russian soil; but we -know that under present conditions that is not possible. And this magazine yet opens up anew perspective: =y; ti.ally it. wrill appear in Russian and German, but soon. is expected to appear in o ]-mer European languages. And thus the plight of us scattered throughout the world cages into o-a new hope: since this magazine is planned as an international organ, .it will also address non-- Russian authors and, xea4ers. Such a develotn.ent would be extraordinary fruitful, Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 CPYRGHT L Tn n o y's s iety - ar_ r.e as s resu tiny ere-rrom - are g, era?. ans no.. liriuted to national territories. Loo'king' r ore closely at the magazine's editorial staff and its plans, ~%C come across generally "sown and respected- East European names. Voices of East Europ will thus set the intellectual tone of "}CDNTIMENT". This circc-mstance opens up a still i or e interesting prospect:. could be a true voice of Easter;^ Europe and. same' ti e reach p=.. v'_e i n "`;es t Bar opt who do not sh? themselves off fro the Only "forty years a --,o c_.=sian, Polish,' l ngarian.' Czec . Romanian. Germa? Liti uanian authors could not -ssibly have the same experiences, drm the same bitter conclusions and aspire to almost the s?~,:e for the future. This miracle or which we paid d.early., has core about today. The intelligentsia of Eastern .Europe.. speaks a single language; that of knowing about suffering. We will express our esteem for the rsaazir_e tTKONT " if it succeeds in effectiv.ely'procuring an audience for the voice of Eastern Europe.' Woe be Western :rope, if its ears . " remain deaf.. The result of our efforts does not infrecuently fall short of .our hopes and e)q ectations. May it not be so this time. EUGEX IC::.S CO YCU PEOPLE .ALONE ARE CAP= B E . .CPYRG-IT I bid you ~.el come. I feel very honored to be mrmbere'd among your 'colleagues beside the great Solzhenits -n and others. In point of .fact, it is very li ,eiy a question of finding a new basis on hich a more acceptable order of society =y be erected than t w that which has been. accc fished to date. 1'e lro;;' all too well that the profit society is damnable and da n~cd. We also ^ow that the so-called ,'sod all=t" scc? eties are worse that tI e so-ca.lIcd "liberal" societies. In the n.:re of justice amid liberty,, tyranny, corrupt ion, b ar itrar' ness, injustice, censorship and cruse have seized power. That has bec !e g -ad?, lly known. &&t the intellectuals of the Western countries, or very mangyY. o t do not ' :,ant to admit it. Ili France, a pair of these . intellectuals is "ton the left". The other part is "on the right" or stands "in the middle". That means that the country finds it- self virtually in a civil war: ;e are at the mercy of any economic crises - and everything can, collapse. And yet t e "left tiing" bourgeois can so little iciest the right.,ri- g bourgeois that they want to settle accounts with them, Come what ray afterwards - it's 311 - e same to them" dictatorship,. prison, Suppress=ca O eve:/ freedom, and if necessary, collective annihilation - w o cares? In reali , it is clear that every per son detests himself in someone else. . And in' fact, moan r . nowadays is not a pleas=at pi-t= e in terns of ethics, and we must mister a lot of self-control and courage in order not to hate our fellow meri.- . What. we lack is a new ideology, a non-Ma.-xist left. (such as F anuel Moun i r and Denis de Rougemenz had in mind and. like the editors of. the review "Esprit" ii L" around Donenach (sic) still today.) This ideology could be,, based on love or fri rd- SLUP"Eros" Inc,. not "Thsr2tos". I have had to struggle against. my self -critical, mi=d in order to use the word. "love".. Speak-Ling of love; friendship, relip on or :... anism in France means bringing scorn and derision up on-oneself. It is true that these words are discredited to the extent that it" is longer Imown iwihat they acs J- If. mean; -that: anyone -Who cares use. them is stamped as a hypocrite. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A0001004500~PY~GHT If`one no longer srea3c of love thesedays, one does speak all the more of "jus + ?ce? But what is actually reant by this void is mot justice, but persecution, z . . L. chastisement, the guillotine. As soon as a revoluticn leads to the seizure of power, . the tribunals -- What o:~ close beiLnd; and that has been a case f cm 1789 up to Stalin. can we do when everything has failed? To la~;-e ~:_.'ene else as we do cam- selves, -cculd mean hating him. Is a reversal still possible after we feel so 'cbos* to the apocalyptic catastrophe? You - Sol.zh_enitsyn, Bukovskiy, Arcalrik and yoursei , the hundreds of thousands of 'reroes, hart rs, - indeed, saints - who parish in Soviet camps you are the ones t+r_o can still do something for this world. ='Te others - I mean those among us who do not shut ourselves off from your message - who lived in freedom and comfort while you died every ,moment and arose agan to then die anew - we have neither your. experience or your. authority. Vil o 1 ows whether in your place we would. not have given into the fear, the the tet Cation,- to live comfortably and safely in }- . country, in the- mariner . of those who are. willing to serve -the regime, Yes, you are the ones. to enlighten us; you alone are able to do it. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100450001-6