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ITIAI Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA "A RUSSIAN LIFETIME," by Robert G. Kaiser, The Washington Post, ib-22 June 1974. The attached series of seven articles might well be subtitled "Family Life in Soviet Russia." Kaiser describes the sociological aspects of life for most Russians in the first six articles; he saves his final piece to depict the wholly different world inhabited by the elite. For the overwhelming majority of Russians Kaiser concludes that, "Life in the Soviet Union is quieter, duller and harder than in the West. It is also more secure. No one need fear unemployment, inflation or a financially catastrophic illness. On the other hand, no one out- side a very special elite can realistically hope to visit the Champs Elysees or the canals of Venice. The state provides, but it also withholds." Although the series emphasizes the continuity in the Russian life style, Kaiser notes that, "The question remains whether the Soviet Union can remain the kind of country it has been when a new generation that does not remember the Revolution, the 1930s, the war or Joseph Stalin is running the country. People born after the war have lived lives that are difficult to compare with their parents." We are furnishing these articles as background and as a means to better understand our principal adversary. This issuance contains articles from domestic and foreign publications selected for field operational use. Recipients are cautioned that most of this material is copyrighted. For repub- lication in areas where copyright infringement may cause prob- lems payment of copyright fees not to exceed $50.00 is authorized per previous instructions. The attachment is unclassified when detached. 2 July 1974 E.2AP my.eA FQF$Rel ase 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 f/'1 AICII'1CAIT1 A I W^!ASHINWRIMOr Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 16 June 1974 With a Birth, EntirrFORi HTation o -ze navy in tEUSsia:_ First of Seven Articles. CPYRGHTBy Robert G. Kaiser Washington Post Foreign Servtee MOSCOW-A Moscow street scene: a young man with a worried look standing on the sidewalk gesticulates toward a nearby budding. From a sec- ond story window, a-young woman in a bathrobe, smiling reassuringly, waves; at him. The Soviet Union's population has just grown by one. Husbands aren't allowed to visit the maternity hospitals where Soviet ?'ba- bies are born. In keeping with a,'na- tional phobia about germs and babies, even the mother is separated from her new child for the first 24 hours of its life, and sometimes longer. She will spend about 10 days in the hospital, and will see her husband only from a second-story window until she and the baby are sent home. Motherhood is governed strictly by rules ana regulations, both formal and inherited. At a lecture for .expectant mothers, the doctor (like most, a woman) warned her audience: "Stay calm and take long walks -every day.. Don't eat too many. sweets or your skin will itch. Wear only wool or_. cotton clothes, baby doesn't like it when you wear synthetics. Come to the polyclinic regularly for your ultraviolet rays (a source of Vitamin D)." Many in this audience are girls of 18 and 19, the age of brides in more than half of Moscow weddings. It is still common for a newly married woman to use her first pregnancy as the occa, sion to become a mother. That 'is not as absurd as it sounds. As a rule, birth control is not practiced shows them ow to rub eir stom- .She achs during labor. There are no exerckes, no elaborate ea ose w o ave nact a ies must discourage pregnant women, !" One Moscow woman recalls lying in her awn blood on the delivery table 'women In the West who want to have their babies without anesthetic. There' born. The nurses, cleaned. up all is nochoice about that here; 'anesth-, around her, but Ignored the new etie.is used only In emergencies. mother. When finally transferred to a American women are told that the proper bed, she was left with her dirty Lamaze method of natural childbirth sheets until' she screamed loudly is; based on a Russian -technique, but enough to have them changed. the Russians have never heard of it. Once the new baby is home, little is Toward the end ' of pregnancy a aeft to chance. There are strict rules mother is given the telephone number and traditions to be followed; they hardly change from generation to gen- of the lab nity home where she is to eration. The baby must be wrapped up gowhen n labor begins. like a sprained ankle, head to toe, of-" The system doesn't always work ten with a piece of wood as a brace, to .smoothly. One mother called the num- make sure the baby's neck can't move. ber she'd been given, but there was no 'The baby must sleep on its back, wrap- answer. That maternity home, she ped in blankets. learned later, was closed for "rernont," Breast feeding is mandatory. If a a ubiquitous Russian term meaning re- mother does not have enough milk, pair and refurbishment. she can buy human donor's milk at Another woman had been treated at special stores. The Russians have nev- a special clinic for those whose babies, er heard of baby formula. When told doctors feared, would be born prema- of It they tend to shudder, and to turely. After eight months of preg- doubt its efficacy. nancy she was told not to come any The baby can be bathed only in more since her baby wasn't going to be boded water, and only - when-sub-,premature. merged up to' its neck, to avoid chills. She had not yet contacted another The recommended treatment for dia- eiinic when labor began. It was late at per rash is corn oil. Petroleum jelly '- night, and she left home with her bus- isn't available. The lecturer at the ma- ternity clinic recommends that diapers be made from old sheets. Rubber pants One maternity home turned her are not sold here. away because there were no empty After several months, a typical child beds. But first the nurse on duty shifts from mother's milk to special bawled her out for coining to have a milk products, sold at special baby kitchens. A thin, without the -_ proper change of most t popular. A , mild mother yogart must st be b is the most r,'gis, Then they went to the hospital l for tered on the baby kitchen's list to get premature babies, and were turned this specially ser ed product, and p she must pick up p her supply every few away because her baby was not prema- days,' or the kitchen will take her off ture, and space couldn't be wasted on the list. normal births. Mothers are advised not to stop A third extablishment agreed to al- ' nursing an infant in the .spripg, when low this woman to come in and have- fruits and vegetables are beginning to her baby. (Under the Soviet medical reappear after the long and barren system, a citizen is theoretically enti- 'Russian winter. Beter to wait until tied to free treatment in every medical midsummer, the -theory goes, when PART I in the Soviet Union. Abortion is the most widely used means of preventing unwanted children. In big cities, 80 per cent of all pregnancies are aborted. The young women at the lecture are shy and ask-, no substantive questions. They listen to an explanation of what is going on inside them, and to advice -about how to cope with labor and " de- ' livery. Breathe deeply, the doctor advises, oxygen is the best antidote to pain. A RUSSIAN LIFETIME ? It was a boy, healthy and noisy. Ev- mina and minerals of these fresh foods erything turned out fine. The British from mother's milk, and will be better may have coined the phrase "muddling prepared for. them when independent ;through." but the Russians have mac- feedng begins. :eyed the art. : Well, independent isn't quite the The delivery was uneventful, though right word. Russian parents (even, it loud. Two or three -women may give seems, those who read contrary advice birth in the same delivery room at the in Dr. Spock, whose book has been same time, which results, according to translated into Russian) don't believe many witnesses, in a lot of screaming. 4n letting a baby try to feed itself. The Russian mothers expect birth to be mess is offensive, and the inefficency difficult and painfuL They don't seem wasteful. So it is not unusual to see a t look -forward to It. Some of the , mother patiently spooning each mouth- Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 CPYRGHT P 1-1 e 0 d For Release 1999/00/02 : CIA RDP7e 91 194AGOO! 996999 ful into a child of four or five. In sum, the arrival of a new baby in a Russian family changes the entire or- ientation of family life. Energy and resources are withdrawn` from most other -pursuits and redi- - rected enthusiastically at the new- comer. No amount of fussing ovep the baby could be considered excessive. The family budget can be destroyed ,by expenditures on baby carriages, blankets and other paraphernalia. It is fashionable to buy one's equipment all in pink for a girl, or in blue for a boy. "Russians are an irrational people,"` one Moscow artist observed recently. - We are afraid of the unknown. And what could be more unknown and un- knowable than this little creature who suddenly appears among us? .So, we de- vote ourselves entirely to it, in hopes this will somehow satisfy it,, or remove, the mystery." Continuity-the guarantee that old traditions are sustained-is provided by the famous Russiaan "babushka," or grandmother. Not evEtiry young couple has babushka living nearby, of -course, i;ut a large percentage still do. Her . role is often' greater than mama's own,- especially when mama goes back to work when the baby is be _.tween three months and a, year old. 4 ,Virtually every woman of child-bear- ing age living in a town or city holds a full-time job. A young mother is not likely to challenge her own mother's views of how to raise the child, espe- cially if the grandmother actually does most of the raising. It is difficult to . quarrel with many of babushka's notions. Fier basic princi- ple is love and affection, praise and ap- preciation to the highest possible de- gree. But this is coupled wit)' a com- plete deprivation of independence from the earliest stages, which child psychologists in the West would find confining. Babushkas are so sure of their basic standards that most of them unhesitat=s ingly tell young parents on the street;- even total strangers, when they are making a mistake. An American father took his 15-month-old daughter for a walk in Moscow recently. The daugh- ter was dressed in rain gear from rub- ber boots and pants to sou'wester, and was running merrily through a puddle, back and forth. ,An elderly lady walking by came up short.' "Papa." she said in a stern voice, "How dare you? How can you allow it? Her mama would never allow it ..." Babushkas routinely look into other peoples' baby carriages to check on the protection against Russia's unpredicta-_ ble,.weather. and freely express an opinion If one seems called for. Like , viru tually any aspect of life in the Soviet Union, child-bearing is a-- subject of Interest to the state. And "there is official displeasure about one ,aspect of giving birth: it happens too seldom _'. Despite all the enthusiasm and affec- tion that Russian parents and grand- parents throw into the raising of their first child, it is increasingly likely that the first will also be the last. In Moscow, families with one child are the most common size. Families with three children are virtually. un- `beard of. "Of all my friends and acquain- tances, I can think of just one with three children," a Moscow engineer ob- served recently.. "He's an Orthodox priest." Rural families are slightly larger, ,but Russia-.proper, is ,approaehiipg, and may have reached, zero ?zopulation growth::,The majorcities-would now be shrinking, were it not - for' migration from the countryside =? '. The population of the` ~oviet Union ,will cortintie, to grow,thanks .to high birth rated in Central- Asia -and- the Transcaucasus. This is a source. of anx- iety to demographers here, though the anxiety is expressed in muted terms, for fear it might sound racist. Russians are now probably just less than half ,the total Soviet population, and their share of the total is shrinking- The declining growth -is tho-.subject of much commentary in the'- press and professional journals,., but, no one. has proposed a practical way.-to. persuade Russian women to have more babies. On the contrary,-.the officially encour- aged Soviet way of life-small-apart- ment living, working women, generally tight family .budgets --seems to be es- tablishing the one-child family as a norm, at least for city dwellers. The-state could abolish the right to .abortion on demand which helps So- viet women keep their families- small, but !the..no :guarantee-;.that this would have the desired effept. Stalin made most abortions illegal in 1936, re- sulting in a short-term rise in the birth rate, but eventnally ,a decline: When ,abortion was legalized again in 1955, she birthrate did not fall. "'?''i:?_ ' Illegal abortion 'thrwed during those years, and women may` have taken -other measures to prevent pregnancy. Unofficial abortion="on the left," in the Russian phrase-4s-still. -common. Many women want to avoid the humili- ation of an official abortion,%accompa- nied by- lectures on the need 'to bring more children into the world, and mar- red by -the discomfort of Soviet hospi- tals. A privately arranged abortion at home costs 30 to 50 rubles, or nearly half the-monthly salary of an average working woman. - Another proposal, is to improve the economic benefits to working women to, encourage them to have more chil- dren. Soviet benefits now are less gen- erous than those in some East Euro- pean countries. A working mother gets two months' leave wtur WY., ` -have a baby, and her job is held open-for her for one year..-There-is no fanri allow- ance on the West Eurnpean.m e1 un- til a fourth child-isborn, and en it is only four rubles.a-month. The state could also expand be net-. work bf state-vn nurseries nd kin- dergartens, which flow --have _ ace for about one-quarter:- of ,the c entry's children up to age _tbree, a more than two-thirds between -. "to and The prevailing opinions a ng ex- perts in Moscow is that,-ideaI1y' a child ~ should be put into a nursery, here it will usually spend au' 8_-_ 0`19:., day, 'his re- at the age of three -monthsf6l leases the mothers for a quurn to the work force -, and bringhild into "the collective.' atau =hich `inakes`:its physicai.-a & psyical adjustment the easiest - Not surprisingly, tnany.o sist this idea. There is also no guarantee at bet- ter' economic benefits -and -eh' serv- ices would increase the birth ate. In fact, there is contrary evidene . From 1960 to 1966, the number of spaces in Moscow day care centers grew by 61.5 per cent, but the birth rate fell 52-per As for increasing cash ben fits--to mothers, social scientists report that the government simply cannot afford it, at least for now. A small increase in allowances in a nation of 250 million would cost the state an enorm us sum. But, experts say, it might not c nvince one mother to have another ba y. Ada Baskin, a journalist wh writes about family life, s'uggested' ii i an in- terview that "the fairest soi lion to this problem may be for the Late to take responsibility for housework- government agencies doing t e work lit home." That way, she reds ned, a mother could hold ' her . job and raise two or three children without feeling that she was a victim of life instead of a beneficiary. This, too, is far beyond th state's present capacities for the for seeable future. The birth rate is likel to re- main constant at best, and it uld de- cline still more. NEXT: Children grad I Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01 194A000100600001-9 WASHINGTON POST For Russia: Second of seven articles C PYRGOLR, ~ PO t Foreignj Service ents take their small children outside on sleds. On a Sunday there are thou- sands of sleds in the parks and boule- vards of Ho wow, each c?rrying a care- fully bundled-up minicreature who rides triumphantly behind papa or mama. If there's a little hill'in the park, the children yell to be pushed down' it. The parents are nervous about that idea, so there is a compromise. Papa pulls the sled up the hill, turns it around, takes the- rope in hand and nuns down the hill ahead of the sled, never letting go. - That is the theme of Russian parent- hood-don't let go. Russian parents devote themselves to their children with a startling zeal. "When a baby arrives, it's as though we were all marched to the wall and told to put up our hands," one Moscow PART II father observed with a defeated grin. "Go ahead. we say, take it all, take ev- erything .. . :.Children. being children, do just that. Many are the Moscow apartments in which a child of 8 or 9 is the center of ;-attention for all who. live there. "For that child," one mother said re- cently, "we must keep up all the norms. We may have a cup of coffee and a piece of bread and butter for dinner, but for the baby-hors d'oeu- -vres, soup, meat, potato or vegetable, dessert, everything! And only the best!" This attitude toward children has consequences which- strike an Ameri- can eye as both good and not so good. Not so good is the child's total depend- ence on his parents. Children under the age of six or seven are rarely al- lowed to go outside by themselves. rm &year-~bld often won't dress himself to go outside. An American visiting a family in -iMoscoW may-out of habit-ask the -eight-year-old son to bring him a box -.of:matches from across the Teom. Be- fore the bewildered boy has a chance to even shrug his shoulders, papa is on his feet, patting his on reassuringly and jumping for the matches. "Here they are, here," he says. Little Miska hasn't moved an inch. RUSSIAN LIFETIME ~i~s: 'Only the Best behavior is sternly regulated. The courtyards of many Moscow apartment houses have sandboxes, which are pop- u,ar don't allow J_ ern to pit in the sand_ They must learn to squat on their haunches, so as not to get sahd in their clothes. Anyone who slips into his or her bottom is certain to be lifted out of the sandbox with a jolt. On the other hand, relations be- tween parents and children seem much closer in this country than In the West. One Soviet writer; a woman, discov ered this on a trip -to Paris several years ago: "I was invited to a fancy apartment for dinner. The family had a teen-age son, and r sat next to him. We had a long talk. He told me that he wanted to -go to Chile to see what was going on there. He told me all about his girl- friend. After dinner his mother asked what we'd been talking about so av- idly, and I told her. " 'Why," she said, 'You've found out more about my son than, I ever knew before.' You know, in Moscow a boy that age wouldn't go to the family da- cha (house in the suburbs) without dis- cussing it thoroughly with his parents, but that French boy was planning a trip to Chile that he's never even men- tioned at home." , Generation gaps exist here too, but they seem narrower. Young people ac- cept a parental role in details of their life that Western adolescents would re- gard as private. There is a strong fam- ily bond that is especially evident at times of crisis, such as the last year of secondary school 'We have examinations this year," a Russian parent announces with a com- bination of pride and trepidation. In other words, their 18-year-old is hoping to win.. a place in a college or univer- sity, and the entire ' family is mobilized for the entrance exams. Though the Russian parent's incline. tion is to smother a child with atten. tion, the facts of Soviet life limit the opportunities for doing so. Arkadi M. kin, the Soviet Union's most popular, comedian, has a famous monologue on this subject. at concerns Slavik, whose mother, like most Soviet women, has a full- time job. Slavik's grandmother used to take care of him, but she died. Now Slavik's mother stops around the neighborhood on her way to work in the morning asking for favors. She asks a pensioner in their apart. ment: house to knock on the wall to be sure 'Slavik is up In time for school She asks a nurse to feel his forehead if she sees him after schooL She tells the gets Into a f ght. "But I think," Raikin says, a that none of these people can substitute for a mother who can sing a luUaVy- an- l=r nfyEt.ne4;nn rood Pit.. and c fort. Mothers - should probably work a little less and pay a little more atten= tion to their children. Everybody would benefit--children, parents and the state." Raikin's monologue Is. warmly ap- plauded, but in fact, the - state disa- grees.'The Soviet economy needs wom- en's labor. They make up 51 per cent of the work force. Moreover, the So- viet experience seems to prove that many, perhaps most women who take up -careers prefer to continue them rather than stay at home with a child. So the typical Russian mother faces a, series of dilemmas beginning imme- diately after her child is born. Does she return to work at the end of the two months paid maternity leave, or does she. take off a year without pay, knowing she can resume her old job without loss of seniority? Or does she give up work altogether to raise her child? A =all minority of mothers, particu: larly among the intelligentsia, decide to commit three to six years to their children, regardless of their own ca- reers, In many families this is econom- ically impossible. The average Soviet worker's family budget depends on two sources of income. _ For those who want to, or must, continue working, the most popular al- ternative is to leave the new baby with grandma (babushka). When ababushka isn't available. the state provides sub- stitutes. For infants there are nurseries which will take a child from the age of three months, but only 10 per cent of. the country's infants are in these nurser- ies. From ages one to three, the figure rises to about 30 per cent. Some of these children stay in the nurseries from Monday morning to Friday eve- ning, but most go home at the end of each day. Predictably, these are controversial institutions. The professionals respon- sible for them in Moscow are con- vinced of their worth, and argue that most children would be well-served by moving into a nursery at the age of three months. At that age the children adjust-most easily to the group, and develop strong immunities to infectious diseases. The testimony of mothers and West- ern specialists who have visited Soviet nurseries suggest another side of the Issue. . They are, by all accounts, underman- Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-O1194AOOO1OO6OOOO1-9 than they theoretically should, and are ative, clean, orderly and patriotic some school-in India. lVhe ruled by a strict, inflexible schedule. young'Communists. - Brezhnev went to India th "You sense that these kids lack "A kindergarten, the' book says, of pictures of the trip up o " ' ' one spunk, they re a little dopey, must set the pattern for the Commu- Western specialist commented after nist upbringing of children." - extensive visits, to nurseries here last There is no way to poll preschool year. opinion, but Informal observation and "I wouldn't . think of '. putting my inquiry suggest that the overwhelming child in a nursery,"the comment is majority of Soviet children think kin- repeated by any women, particularly dergarten is great. The combination of among the Moscow intelligentsia. play, dancing and singing, drawing, There is. a class distinction here. Work- and pasting fills their days-which can ing class women seem less reluctant to last 12 hours-with fun. Sometimes the use the nurseries, partly because they fun carries-a message. have less choice. The instructions for teachers of 2- There is less argument about the and 3-year-olds in nurseries stipulate: merits of Soviet kindergartens, which "The teacher will teach the children to take. care of millions of 4,5- and. 6-year- recognize V. I. Lenin [founder of the olds, more than two-thirds of. the total Soviet state] in portraits and illustra- population in this age group. tioas, and will arouse feelings of love "Our kindergartens give children a and respect for him." Teachers of 4- better upbringing than any - family and 5-year-olds are told that "on holi. ,?could, even the most intelligent," ac- days, children decorate the portrait of cording to Irma Ovchinikova, who V. I. Lenin in their playroom." Six- writes-about -children for Izves'tia, the year-olds, the teachers manual in- government newspaper. "There's no ar- structs, "should be taken to the town gument about that." monument to V. I. Lenin on his birth- is exaggerating, but kindergar- day; and should put flowers there." tens are popular. Some families dis Not surprisingly, Soviet children are pute the official. view that a small certain that Lenin was the kindest, child should be quickly immersed in a most intelligent and greatest man who "collective,"-subordinating some of his ever lived. own individuality to the group. But The best kindergartens may fulfill that is part of kindergarten life, ac- the ideal curriculum that Moscow re- cepted by the vast.majority of parents commends, but, as always in Soviet so- and children. ciety, there is a vast gulf between the The message - was forcefully deliv- ideal and -the actual. Komsomolskaya ered by the director of a kindergarten Pravda, a popular daily newspaper, re- in Volgograd - (formerly Stalingrad). ported recently on the grimmer reali- Boasting about her school to visiting ties in Semipalatinsk, a predominantly Americans, she brought out a beauti- Russian city in Kazakhstan. fully painted watercolor of a tree on a Semipalatinsk has a serious shortage riverbank. of nurseries and kindergartens, the pa- "One of our 6-year-olds did this," she per reported. The nurseries that exist said. "Look, here are some more." have places for 1030 infants, and they The director then held up- -a dozen presently take care of 1631. The kin- more watercolors of a tree on a river- dergartens are also overcrowded. bank-precisely the same picture, the Big factories with money - and re- same colors, the same strokes. How did sources to build their own daycare cen- they -all turn out alike? ters have adequate facilities, but every- "That's how we do it. The teacher one else. in Semipalatinsk does not. puts -a picture up on the board and Mrs. T. Stepanova wrote the paper -asks the children to copy it," .she said. that she had to take her daughter to This isn't the system everywhere. A kindergarten on two trolleys to the music teacher in Moscow, observed by other side of town, though they could :,,:a :foreign guest, taught her children see a kindergarten from the window the principles of high and low notes, of their apartment. It' belonged to a ,;...harmony and rhythm, then encouraged factory, and was open only to the them to Invent their own dances to ac- children of its workers. company- tunes she played on the pi- - - elf-* ano.;This seems rarer than the reliable A 10 year-old American who is now methods of rote and repetition. sustain studying in a -Moscow school remem- -'Kindergartens strict folk in Washington "you could get wisdoms about raising children-over- bers that up from your desk and walk around stance. dressing, them for play outside, for irk- the room if you wanted to. Here, if you stance, so they often come inside hot get up just to get a pencil, they bawl and sweating, or forbidding children to you out. And you've got to raise your eat or draw with- their left hands. Left- hand a special way, and memorize the handedness is regarded as an inadmiss- answers to all the math problems .. :' able abnormality here. Yet there are signs of an independ- The curricula for nurseries and kin- ent spirit among the young. Many Mos- cow are determined by govern cow parents report with awe on the po- ment authorities in Moscow, and are litical sophistication of their 10-year. conveyed to teachers in a book. Each olds. teacher is expected to stick to the of- .,kqv boy's at a special English fical plan. Its goals, not surprisingly, are to school," one father reported. "The nship with [Leonid I.] for? Aly boy says it was the place every- body gathered to tell the atest jokes about Brezhnev! Can you imagine my generation telling jokes about Stalin 'when we were 10?" i Next: Education and a4oiescence 1 Approved For RPIPagp 1 AAA/OA/09 - CIA_RfP7A_O11 AdAOOO1 OOROOOO1 _A Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 CPYRGHT' WASHINGTON POST 18 June 1974 Nonconformity Cr, Mg, ---E rtcl Careers Soviet .You.th `Build CorrQi~ 466 i- i r so histicated ma- Third of seven articles jor cities, conformity is still the rue, CPYRRQbert G. Kaiser, ashington Post Foreign service hard time about your long hair?" the 20-year-ol taxi driver was asked. His brown locks fell over the collar of his `.#'Ah, they d like to, but I play on our garage's football team. I'm pretty good, so they dor't dare say anything." By such arrangements, long hair has finally come to this -,isolated land. For PART III years a few Russian eccentrics have followed the fashion established in the early. 1960s by the -Beatles, but sud- denly this year, the adolescent males of Moscow and other towns have blos- somed out with long hairdos. The new hairstyles are a nice symbol of the temper of Soviet youth. Long tresses are hardly counterrevolution- ary; they don't challenge the Com- munist Party or the status quo. But they, do depart from the strict stan- dards of this outwardly puritan society. School principals don't like the change-they still insist that, the younger boys (whom they can control more easily) keep their hair cut short. Parents giggle nervously about their Rwayward sons. But there it is-long hair on Russian boys, just'like Ameri- cans or Britons or other Westerners. !Measured by the standards of the Western world's rebellious youth, So- viet adolescents are a somnolent lot. They don't stage demonstrations or oc- cupy the dean's office. Nor do they ac- their elders' world just as they find it. Most of all, they seem impa tient. with the isolation from the out- side' 'orld that every previous genera- tion iSince the time of Stalin has ac- cepted,, : !Likeall generalizations about Soviet :society,: any collective descriptions of the nation's youth are rash, and per- haps 4.misleading. It would be impossi- ble. to.:exaggerate the gulf between a 17:year-old` student in one of Moscow's special schools for bright children and a 17-year-old farm' boy,?in Siberia or Soviet Central Asia. ing on isolated or. atypical deviant be- havior so it is .reasonable to assume that these reports describe social prob- lems that the authorities regard as serious. More tolerable deviance is so com- mon that it is visible, even to a 'foreign -e There'is no disguising the black arket in phonograph records con- vast majority of young people are pre- d cted daily, in front of the second- h nd store on Moscow's Sadovoye her a co of an - of 8 or 9 they have been lectured, ca- joled and entreated to work hard to get a jlace in college and build a good career.., A Hungarian girl studying in a pro- vincial Soviet college of engineering found her fellow students universally bored by world politics or Alexander Solzhenitsyn or any subject outside the approved mainstream, save per- haps Western clothes and pop music. This is a conformist society, and the overwhelming majority of young peo- ple respect the tradition. But the. dra- conian controls that once guaranteed Soviet conformism haves largely been removed.' As a result, there is more room ? for individualists to express themselves. Expressive nonconformists can have an infectious influence. "By the 6th grade [age 12 here)," one .Moscow mother reports, "the kids have stopped thinking that they have to do every single assignment in school and obey .every single instruction they hear. Most of the boys and a lot of the girls have started to smoke. "Teachers who used to maintain iron discipline now find they can't. It snakes them nervous. Some try to rush through their lessons and escape from the classroom before they lose control. The teacher no longer enjoys full au- thority just because she's the teacher.." The official Soviet press has con- firmed the existence of a serious juve- nile delinquency problem. Published sociological studies suggest that there is a deprived under-class that breeds :juvenile crime. One study reported that of its sample of juvenile offend- ers, 48 per cent had begun smoking at age 9, and 43 per cent were drinking alcoholic beverages at 12. A recent television program in a se- ries on law enforcement was devoted to a teen-age gang that had killed two tellers in a savings-bank holdup in the Ukraine. The gang leader was sen- tenced to death. - The press has revealed the existence of bands of young dropouts from all walks of life who roam remote areas of the country, working when they need money (and getting the good salaries that are paid In remote regions), then quitting when they're bored, blowing their earnings on easy or wild living. The strict regulations that govern the Soviet mass media prohibit report- Christ, Superstar" might change hands for 100 rubles ($135 at the official ex- -change rate, and the monthly salary of a young physician). The leading status symbols in the cafes for young people on Moscow's Kalinin Prospekt are articles of West- ern .clothing - platform shoes for the girls, mod shirts or blue jeans for the boys. The black-market price for a pair of Levis is 80 rubles ($108). Three cafes along this avenue are much, frequented by the young the most stylish hang- outs in Moscow. If you want a seat you'd lest arrive about 6:30 p.m.- from then until closing at 11, they are all full._ An interest in Western styles ana Western culture seems strongest among the Moscow elite-the children of government officials, professors, writers and journalists, -etc. The wife of one prominent musician bragged to an American recently that her son was going to be a poet. The American observed that Russia was the perfect country for that ambition, since Rus- sians were so in love with poetry. "Oh," the mother said excitedly," I wish you'd tell my son that! He only talks about bow good things are in the West-the freedom, the lack of censor- ship ...' A large percentage of these children attend special schools that give inten- sive instruction in a foreign language or a branch of science. Admission to these schools is by fiercely competitive examination. Their. students-accord- -ing to their own testimony-see them- selves as a special slice of the coun- try's youth. These schools appear to produce a skeptical spirit that disturbs the au- thorities. Last year a special mathe- matics school in Moscow was dis- banded because, according to one for- mer student there, "the atmosphere was too free." The official pretext for the unpubli- cized closing of the school was that soma of its students had visited the main Moscow synagogue and signed the guestbook there as representatives of "Mathematics School No. 3." In fact, this student reported. the authorities realized that they couldn't control the school's intellectual environment. "We had a Russian literature teacher whc, tpld us Solzhenitsyn was the best liv- ing Russian writer," the student said. CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Approved or Release A boy of 17 in the 10th class (the last tors can help ,you get admitted-"It's' ' year In Soviet schools) at a special what we,'cali 'Blatt in Russian-influ- ' ently physics school in Moscow 'ec }talked at length about life there. His story is worth recounting: His fellow students can't see how their contemporaries in ordinary schools ("They're lousy") get ann~ edu- cation at all. But they are working hard, mostly at physics, with an.eye to Moscow state university or' one of the best physics institutes. There are 32 students in his class- four of them from the families of man- uatworkers. The others are 'all 'child- ren`of officials and intellectuals. All but three are members of the 'Young Communist League.' " (the Komsomol), "but very few take it seri- ously. It's a credential you have to have to get into university,. (There's a full-time, paid Komsomol secretary on the school staff to organ- ize Communist Party activities.) Most of those who are active in the Komsomol are completely cynical about - it-"or they are fools." They know that most fringe benefits go to the active young Communists. Last year, for 'example, half a dozen stu- dents in the school were chosen. (by the Komsomol secretary) for a tourist trip ,to ,Poland. "Anybody who's been ,abroad has the highest status in school." ~' They have "military preparations" class twice a week, conducted by "a dumb retired colonel" who is also on the school's permanent staff. Girls and boys march together in military train- ing. 'But the boys are anxious to avoid being- drafted into _,the_, army-that's ghastly. Their parents trto help. Lots of mothers. are always looking for physical defects that might keep their sons from being drafted." No one from his school would. want "to make a fa- reer iii the military:" "There's nb pres- tige in it." However, a'.boy who goes into the army after high school and then ap- plies for admission to, a university or institute has a big advantage over .other, applicants. Preference i4 given to veterans. But if you get into the' in- stitute directly from school, you'll only .be,a reserve officer after graduation, nand probably won't have to serve on active :duty. 11?iany 10th graders have private tu- tors to ,"help them prepare for the uni- versity ,entrance exams. The school curriculum doesn't cover all the mate- rial that students will be held responsi- ble, for in the exams. Some students a think that teachers in the universities and institutes, maintain this gap on ,,purpose, so they'll get more business as tutors. A teacher from Moscow iJni- versity-whose salary might be 200 ru- bles a month-can earn up to 10 rubles an hour tutoring. Because they're members of the fac- ulty at universities and institutes, tu- ence:': (The Soviet.press has reported many :cases of parents bribing univer- sity officials to get their children admitted:) "Steady"romances aren't took com- mon,"'but there is an active social life. On holidays the school has its own ,"evenings," which `end with g -dance. And the kids gather at one -mother's apartments for parties-if they can -persuade someone's parents to allow it." "There are always some liberal par- ents'who are willing to let their places, be used.for parties, but. most parents don't like to see vodka on the table." The boys start experimenting with vodka at 13 or 14-by which age many.. of them already smoke. (There is po of- ficial propaganda against smoking-in 'the Soviet Union.) There's a school uniform, ? but that doesn't prevent, sartorial competition among the girls. "Only the dress is re- quired-they can wear ? different shoes, coats, stockings, pocketbooks. It's a big deal." Andwhat about ideals? What do 17- -year-olds at the physics school care about? "Physics--they've got physics in `their blood. They all have a pretty clear idea of what kind of work they'd like to do later on-research or practi-. cal work or whatever." . So, in the end, even these skeptical, cynical young people agree to play the -game by the established rules, The young don't see how the rules could be changed. _ A teacher of English in a Moscow in- stitute recounts her own discomfort at the 'sight of career-oriented students compromising their way toward good jobs and other benefits. - - "I asked one of them recently, `Aren't you ashamed of yourself?' And he said 'What do you mean? I'm build- ing a carder. I want to live, to LIVE'" "Nado . zhit," the Russians, say-you .have to live. And cynicism is certainly not the universal attribute- of this adolescent generation. Away from Moscow, out- side the narrow world of the intellec- tual elite, simple, patriotic -enthusiasm is at least as common. This is vividly evident at w giant giant industrial .project like the Kama River truck plant, where a work force approaching 100,000, mostly young people just out of school, is building the world's larg- est truck factory. These youngsters were lured to Kama, 600 miles east of Moscow, by Komsomol agitators who promised them, good living conditions eventu- ally and an exciting life immediately- building the country's top-priority in- dustrial plant with thousands of their contemporaries." They may covet atRolling Stones rec- ord or a pair of blue jeans, but these young Soviet citizens are also willing to respond to the state's exhortations, transplant their lives to a remo a new town, put uji with, overcrowded dormi- tory living for mangy years-all or the sake of what the propagandis s {call "building Communism." The question remains wheth r the Soviet Union -can.remain the nd of country it has been when anew Yener- ation that does not remember th Rev- olution, the 1930s, the war or oseph Stalin is-running the country. People 'born after the war have lived lives that are difficult to compare with their, ,parents'. Everything has been 'different . -and, as parents complain, easie -for e th ASHING'ION POST 19? June 1974 /Fourth of seven article CPYRG*T obert ( Kaiser. . washington Post roreiga aervi e MOSCOW-Volodya and Luba, both 10, are children of working-class families in Moscow. Volodya's family is a little more prosperous than most, so it took respon- sibility for their wedding. The expenses were considerable and in the end there had to be some a nomies. The new suit they wanted to b for the groom was skipped. (It would iave cost about 100 rubles, or nearly two-thirds of thls mother's monthly sale .) They :thought about-having a weddin party in a Moscow cafe, but at 10 rubles er guest this idea too had to. be droppe , They: decided to hold the par -.y in the two rooms of a communal apart ent that Volodya, his parents ' and sitter had ,shared for 15 years. , - There was so much work on the day of the wedding, preparing food for the party and getting both. families ready, that .Volodya's mother skipped the wedding ceremony. . While she stayed in the kite Len, pre-. paring salads and plates of old -hors .d'oeuvres,-the young people, the friends and a few representatives of he older generation set off for the Palace, of Wed- dings on Griboyedova Street. Volodya and Luba had gone ere three months earlier to apply to mairry. With other nervous, giggling young couples, they sat at one of the small wooden tables and filled . The burdens'of daily life fall. most heavily on women in Soviet society. They fulfill the historic woman's role "as cook, cleaner and shopper, they hold full-time jobs, and they serve on the front line of the struggle with So- viet shortages and merchandising. Women initiate the majority of divorce proceedings in this country- two- thirds of those in the city of Lenin- grad, for example. Marriages collapse In the Soviet Un- ion almost. as regularly as -in the di- vorce-happy United States. Thirty per cent of all divorces involve' "young" couples-presumably those under 30. Most of them already have children. The principal cause of Soviet di- vorces is not one of the sociological factors mentioned earlier in this arti- cle, but drunkenness. A. M. Chechot, a sociologist,' polled 1,000 men and women (500 couples) who were divorc- ing in `Leningrad. Of the 500 women polled, 210 said they left their hus- bands because they were drunks. A third ofthe 500 women said their men had beaten them. ' In the same sample, 104 of the women and 140 of the men said their spouses had been unfaithful. Chechot also found that the strains of everyday life contributed-_s ibstan tially to divorce. Twenty-two per cent to live together inclose quarters. The shortage of living apace ,cited as a ground for divorce ,b,y Under$oviet law every citizen: s right to 'divorce., When a mar ag turns s o u r , the partners can. dissol t almost as easily ag they "origi al made it. 'When there are no children, bhe co ple can make a joint application f r vorce to their neighborhood or 5:0 ;Mice, wait three months, ,pey w5ti' Tile ,eaclf and receive a:pieco of. so emnizing the dissolution" of" ei union. It is, situp a matter of P per 5work is Inhere are-childrena 'th prose ur F.is slightly more comp ficate'6 "rhe par eats must appear before coup elo who makes an attempt, usuallya .pr forma attempt, to persuade them no to divorce. If theypersist$ the ;p per work goes forward If one of the spouses is relucta t t divorce, or if there Is ?a dispute over ..custody or the distribution'' of j' in .property, a court fight is +poss ble `They are rare. A reluctant partner ca only postpone, not prevent the div ree -Except in extraordinary circumsta ices mothers get custody of the children. "I went into the record office o Tuesday, it was noon, I looked at the clock," one recent divorcee recounted. "I had a letter from Yuri [her ex husband] agreeing to everything. I gave the man the papers. He said, Do you have any questions- for me T I shrugged-no. He said, 'You can pick up your document in the clerk's of- fice! That's all there was to it. I walked out a free woman. It was our WASHINGTON POST clock" 20 June 1974 NEXT: Women .rmdnmi life oviet Lie~ute Toward Famil Sf thd Fifth of seven articles CPYRGF*TRobert G. Kaiser A .1 Washington Post Poreien service :"'MOSCOW-Imagine ' a Soviet apartment: Four women sit around a table. periodically tossing down slugs of :-avodka. They are playing cards- loizdly-and telling war stories-more Loudly still. A man, the husbaud.nf one of them. enters wearing an apron, car- rying a tray full of hot-cups-of tea. With nervous, jerky gestures he tries to clear empty vodka- bottles off the ta- ble and serve the tea. The women start -complaining to him about the food, the dirty table. He, shrugs his shoulders. Finally the guests decide it is time to go,, home. The husband fetches their coats anii-hoots. When her pals are gone the man's wife 'throws her arms around him drunkenly. '''Don't touch me!" he shouts. She responds indignantly. "Whatsa matter, doncha think I can drink? drink on my own money, you for her husband and dren. good know . " wife As always merry-she always Speaking of money, 'ihe_,husband and's life smiles and makes es her husband complains, give -hinT' enough housekeeping money-t0' o the interfere in her husband's busin ss shopping. She.bruslieshim aside ... talks, and in general is mostly silent " -audience watching 'a group of comedi- -ans'acting it out, this scene is hysteri- cally implausible. The theater rocks with laughter. The audience obviously loves the mirror image of Soviet fam- ily life that the comedians create. Reality, as one of the comedians ex- plains in an introduction to the skit, is /different: Papa comes home from work and - reads the paper. Mama comes home from work and goes shopping. makes supper, does the laundry and ironing, and helps the children with their homework. Sometimes, papa helps out after dinnerrby turning on the television set.- - In Russia, "A good wife doesn't let her husband help her keep house. She 'keeps it clean herself, sews and weaves 111011C WELP th L" . - 16th a century; when this' prescript on for a good wife was written in he "domostroi" or `rules of the house- hold" -that were then accepted by church and state. Though conte pe- raryRussian society has little In c m- mon with the 15th century, the in lu- ence of the domostroi is still eviden Yet. mama's role has grown a.or- A RUSSIAN LIFETIM Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 mously, although she continues to act as a servant of the rest of the family. In the 16th century, papa was the lord of the manor, but today he is much less imposing, and much less influen-, tial. A woman who allows her husband 6 loaf around the apartment while she does all 4 he housework is also-in rhany families-the pillar of family life and the chief decision-maker. --?` The Russian family is one of the in- stitutions that Russians love most about their- country. In its ideal form, the family is a fortress of love and mu tual protection whose walls shield all within from an uncertain outside world. Though reality May seldon} live up to these grand intentions, sentimen- tal Russians (and that means virtually all of them) often overlook the family's failures and romanticize its accom- plishments. Modern Soviet society does not chal- lenge traditional family relationships the way the fast-paced societies of the industraliized West do. There is no sign of the hedonistic lifestyle here: No`' amusement industry to fill leisure time, no cult of youth and beauty, no consumer industry for children or cemeteries for pets. The Soviet popula- tionis relatively stable and immobile. Parents have time for-children, and children for parents. Soviet sociolo- gists',claim that comparative surveys of Russian and Western families show that a mother or father here is likely to devote more of her or his week to the children than does a Western par- ent. There are fewer distractions ' at least in the evening and on weekends, and perhaps-as many Russians would insist-a greater desire'to share the child's life. "Sometimes it's silly," one mother recently admitted. "We sit around in our apartment-me, my husband, my parents, maybe an aunt and uncle- and everybody is looking at Kolya [age 8). 'What's new with you, Kolya?' 'How's life, Kolya?' `What's happening in school, Kolya?'-That's all you hear for hours at a time." - At the opposite extreme' is the story told in a woman's letter to the radio program "Man and Society," perhaps the nearest Soviet equivalent to a per- sonaladvice column. : Aly. life has been a nightmare," the woman wrote from Magadan, a remote -corner of Eastern Siberia not far from Alaska. "I got married in 1946, and hoped to raise a happy family .. " Her first son was born in 1947, and- "perhais to celebrate this event"-her husband took a drink of vodka that was his` downfall. A lifetime of drink ing followed. "Our family survived ;.extreme material difficulties, since .,more than half our income was spent pn .,vodka." ?' Finally, after 21 years of marriage, she and, her three children decided to throw him out of the house. To get away from him completely they went to Magadan. Papa stayed in the indus- trial city where they'd lived, still drinking.'He remarried, then divorced, then moved in with another woman. Several years ago he had a stroke, which left him paralyzed. Learning of this, mother and children decided to invite him back. "He getting better now," the woman wrote. "He's back at work, and- most important, he isn't drinking any spir- its. But life has already passed us by. Ne can't repeat our youth . . ." Alcoholism is a perpetual epidemic in this society. There are no published statistics on the consumption of vod- ka or the prevalence of alcoholism, but evidence. of it can be seen on the streets of any village or town. Per- haps 40 per cent of all divorces are caused by drunkenness, according to sociologists' research. Ygdka and- wine play an important role in Soviet family life. What does an ordinary worker's family do to cele-. brate a birthday or a big event? "Buy a bottle of vodka," is the most common reply. An enormous Russian woman who works as a janitor confided that she would need 20 [half pint] bottles for the four-day May Day weekend. Family celebrations are likely to happen at home. Millions of Soviets- very likely the vast majority - never go to a restaurant. (Restaurants are nei- ther good nor common. In Moscow, .the best-served city in the country, there are 127 of them-or one for every 55,000 inhabitants.) The Russian "table" for a big occasion is another of the things Russians love most about their country. Besides vodka, it will be piled high wih a dozen different "zakuski" (hors d'oeuvres), from canned sprats in oil to elaborate Caucasian chicken in walnut sauce. The company can easily spend an hour or two over these, washing them down with the toasts that in- evitably accompany the consumption of alcohol. A soup may follow the zakuski, and a piece of meat, or perhaps a duck, will -follow the soup. Mama and grandma serve and clear the dishes- none of which match each other-and yell at the young people to eat more of everything. Three generations crowd around the table, many sitting on stools, because there are never enough ,chairs, and all crowded, because the ta- ble is always too -small. The men tell jokes and give toasts, the girls gossip and tease. There is no cocktail hour, no coffee in the drawing room afterward (there's no drawing room), and somehow, it is usually more fun than any dinner party in Washington or London. If Soviet society lacks the distrac- tions from family life typical of West- ern countries, it has substitute distrac- tions of its own. The most important of these is the requirement that able-bod- ied women, particularly in the city, hold a full-time job. For some traditionalists, this is as outrage. Alexander I. Solzhenitsyn, the author, stated the conservative view of women at work in his recently-pub- lished open letter - to the Soviet leaders: "How can one fail to feel shame and compassion at the sight of our-women. carrying heavy barrows of stones for paving the street. ? Whim we con- .template such scenes, what more is there to say, what doubt can there pos- sibly be? Who would hesitate to aban- don the financing of South American revolutionaries to free- our women from this bondage?" Old women doing hard physical la- bor are an embarrassment to many So. viet officials, but the general notion that women should work is not. "The state's interest presupposes only one decision," Elena Ivanova, a senior edi- tor of the government newspaper lz- vestia said recently. "The country needs hands for work, including wom- To a large extent, women -agree. In surveys, half or more of the working women questioned regularly say that they work for the satisfaction and en- joyment, not just for the money. Mrs. Ivanova points out that 60 per cent of the college graduates in the country are women. "Do they want to sit at home and waste their qualifications?" she asked. "Of course not." Polls show that the higher a woman's level of edu- cation, the more she wants to work, re- gardless of the number of children she has. - The compromises available to an American- middle-class woman who wants to raise a family and pursue a ca- reer are not available here. The Soviet economy is rigid, and Soviet institu- tions live by a stern rule book. They do not believe in women taking 10 years off, or starting a career at 35, or working part-time. Either you work, or you don't. The inflexibility of the syltem puts a psychological strain on women. As one sociologist observed recently, Soviet women may start life on an equal foot- ing with males, study, begin work and marry on the basis of equality, but suddenly lose their equality with the arrival of a child, if not earlier. In Russian families - a child is the mother's business, whether or not her job, her housework and shopping al- ready fill her time. A working woman with a child in this society has an enor- mous amount of work-3D hours a week. according to one survey, on top of a work week that averages 45 hours including transportation to and from the job. If she finds a place for her baby in a nursery or kindergarten, a Soviet woman is still on call in case of illness. Day care centers won't keep a sick baby, for fear others will catch the III- ness, so the mother must take care of her child at home. (She is given some paid leave from work for this purpose). Work discipline is lax in most Soviet factories and offices. Many women manage to do errands on office time. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000100600001-9 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT "A woman si