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November 11, 2016
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September 1, 1972
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Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 25X1C10b Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 September 1972 TERRORISM AND THE FEDAYEEN Since mid-1970, elements of the fedayeen or Palestine guer- rilla movement have metamorphosed commandos dedicated to the over- throw of Israel into Marxist-Maoist-type terrorists. They are making a desperate attempt to survive in a disunited, uncoordinated, and crumbling movement. While once market places from Morocco to Saudi Arabia were plastered with posters proudly depicting the deeds of the fed.ayeen commandos, today the ruthless and violent actions by their terrorists evoke mainly fear. None but the most radical press or public is tempted to look upon the fedayeen terrorists or their followers as romantic folk-heroes or to view their violence as acts of patriotism. The Origins Palestinian guerrillas ffedayeen), organized in the early 1.950's to harass newly created Israel, seek to become a rallying point for Palestinian irredentism. Their fortunes and following were low until the 1967 six-day Arab-Israeli war. The fedayeen by their bold, but ultimately self-defeative, anti-Israeli exploits rekindled a spark of Arab self-respect and served to restore a sense of Arab honor. A range of competing guerrilla organizations emerged - each seeking to become the reflection of Palestinian will to fight. Eleven fedayeen organizations have survived, most of them members of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) founded in 1964 to coordinate fedayeen and Palestinian efforts. They may be categorized as follows: a. Instruments of Political Parties: Al Saiqa, founded and directe y t e Syrian let-wing aath Party; the Iraqi- controlled Arab Liberation Front; Al Ansar, the instrument of established Arab Communist parties. b. Fatah: Fatah poses as a basically "conservative" guerrilla organization devoid of political bias but in fact supports extreme guerrilla tactics through its front, the Black September Group. c. Ideologically Oriented Groups: These include the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) with a number of offshoots. Political extremists and revolution- aries, they consider the overthrow of conservative Arab regimes (Jordan and Saudi Arabia) as prerequisites for the liberation of Palestine. Their hostility to the U.S. and most Western countries is intense. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Terror Tactics and Foreign Connections The status of Palestinian fedayeen organizations is directly related to the level of tension in the Arab-Israel dispute: a decrease in tension leads to a decline in the prestige of and support for the fedayeen. The fedayeen organizations whose impact on Middle East affairs has been on the decline since their setback by the Jordanian Army during the 10-day conflict of September 1970, are seeking to rally their flagging fortunes. Their increasing links with other national revolutionary/terrorist groups and their continuing terrorist acts on an international level are intended to (a) compensate for their eroding influence, (b) move the resis- tance movement out of its doldrums and (c) keep the Arab-Israeli issue alive. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), believed to have the widest range of international links, is com- peting with other fedayeen groups and expanding its revolutionary activities at the international level. The only philosophical basis required to establish international connections is a common conviction in terrorism and violent revolution as the means to destroy the established order. The common bond among revolution- ary groups, therefore, can be reinforced with relative ease. In addition, the material gain from international revolutionary action is not overlooked by fedayeen leaders, many of whom exploit the Palestinian cause to bolster their personal prestige and fortunes. The Kamikaze attack on Israel's Lydda Airport last May by PFLP-trained members of the Japanese Red Army Faction, highlights the existing and growing international connections among revolution- ary terrorist organizations. Even before the Lydda Airport massacre, the Japanese Red Army Faction had been dealing with the fedayeen for at least two years. Other terrorist organizations, the Turkish Peoples' Liberation Army and the Eritrean Liberation Front in Ethiopia have also been in contact with Palestinian guerrilla organizations as have radical organizations of Western Europe and the Western Hemisphere. The Soviet Union and China are also involved. For both material and ideological reasons, and out of an increasing sense of desperation, the fedayeen are continually attempting to expand their contacts with foreign radical groups. The Red Army Faction (Sekigun-ha), a direct offshoot of Zengakuren, the extreme leftist Japanese student organization, is an underground organization that began its activities on the political and military levels in 1965. Violent revolution, in its view, is the "fundamental way of liberating people from exploitation and class domination domestically, and a means to combat imperialism on the international level." Links between the Red Army Faction and Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) became Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 evident in late 1970 with the arrest in Japan of PFLP members publicizing terror via a film on Palestinian guerrilla operations. During their stay in Japan PFLP members also made arrangements to train Red Army Faction members at PFLP bases in Lebanon. In addition, plans were made to exchange officials for instruction in. kidnapping and hijacking techniques and in producing sabotage devices. Beirut weekly Al Usbu Al Arabi reported last fall that when a PFLP leader visited Japan, The Red Army Faction "welcomed him by blowing up five police stations in Tokyo." Turkish Peoples' Liberation Arm . Although the Turkish Peoples' Liberation Army was not own as such until early 1972, militant leftist Turkish students were reportedly trained by the fedayeen as early as 1969. Training in such terrorist tactics as kidnapping, hijacking, guerrilla warfare, and preparation in the use of sabotage devices are provided by the fedayeen organi- zations under cover of Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and Syria. It is reliably -reported that urban guerrillas, in addition to being trained by PFLP and its breakaway faction Peoples' Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PDFLP), are equipped with arms smuggled from these and other fedayeen guerrilla organizations. Eritrean Liberation Front. The Eritrean Liberation Front, founded 1n 1959, began effective anti-Ethiopian terrorist acts in 1964. Following the June 1967 war, fedayeen organizations began to provide the Eritrean Liberation Front financial support, arms and passports for its attacks against the Ethiopian established order. Training in guerrilla warfare as well as facilities for radio broadcasting are made available to the Front by the fedayeen. West Europeans. In an attempt to gain the support of West European students, fedayeen organizations have recruited and provided travel to a Jordanian training camp for as many as 150 students. The project was administered through a London-based organization, "Friends of Palestine." Pro-fedayeen and anti- Israeli associations in France are usually headed by radical university professors or journalists. In England, student "revolutionaries" have joined Arab students in a group called the Palestine Solidarity Campaign. 'In the Netherlands, Dutch Communists have established a Netherlands-Palestine Committee; 'that sponsors lectures and pro-Palestinian demonstrations. Austrian left-wing students have formed the Action Committee for the Support of the Palestinian Resistance, to conduct anti-Israeli campaigns. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) claims links with the fedayeen; some fedayeen members allege to have attended IRA conferences in Northern Ireland. Further, the IRA has reportedly been promised arms in exchange for fedayeen-directed terrorist operations in Europe. The Baader-Meinhof group, a band of West German anarchists whose actions date back to 1963, declare them- selves as members of the Japanese-based Red Army Faction. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AO00200120001-1 Reportedly, Baader-Meinhof members received guerrilla warfare training in the Middle East from Palestinian guerrillas during the summer of 1970. Western Hemisphere. Before September 1970, members of the Sandinist National Li eration Front, a Communist dominated Nicaraguan terrorist organization, received guerrilla warfare training at a fedayeen training site in Jordan. Upon completion of their training and their return to Nicaragua, the Sandinists received Soviet and Chinese weapons which were later-confiscated by Nicaraguan security officials. In January 1972, a planned attempt by five Nicaraguan- based Arabs to recruit Nicaraguans for fedayeen training in guerrilla warfare also was aborted by Nicaraguan government officials. The Fedayeen, the Soviet Union and China The Soviets, in a quandary over the fedayeen, support the anti-Israeli "national liberation" movement but are sensitive to the potential damage to their image for being openly associated with fedayeen terror tactics. The Soviets therefore channel material support to the fedayeen through indirect and clandestine means and in the process gain some degree of control over the fedayeen guerrilla organizations. Fedayeen chieftain Yasser Arafat's mid- July 1972 visit to Moscow to solicit increased material support and at the same time strengthen his weakened leadership position in both Fatah and the Palestinian Liberation Organization, attests to the cordial relations between the Soviets and the fedayeen. As recently as May 1972, the World Marxist Review Quotes Pravda's endorsement of the Palestinian guerrillas as follows: "The Soviet public sides firmly with the Palestine Resistance Movement, which is a component of the Arab Peoples' National Liberation Movement." By supporting the fedayeen, the Soviets align themselves with a militant, anti-Israeli "national liberation" movement that is popular in the Arab world. At this stage of development, Soviet dealings with the fedayeen indicate Moscow's confidence in providing indirect and clandestine support to the fedayeen short of causing flash point tensions in the Middle East. In part, the Soviets' assistance to the fedayeen guerrillas is conditioned by the open support given them by China. Peking backs the fedayeen in public statements with vigor; material support, however, is provided with somewhat dampened enthusiasm. To date, China has provided guer- rilla warfare training to several hundred fedayeen activists and has made available to them unspecified amounts of military equip- ment. An article in the 20 July 1972 issue of Soviet Analyst entitled "The Soviet Involvement in Violence" by Brian Crozier, focuses on the dilemma the fedayeen poses for its communist supporters: Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AO00200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 "To the extent that the (Palestine) guerrillas are anti-Israeli, the Russians are inclined to support them; on the other hand, the groups have proved, on the whole, to be a greater menace to the Arab governments than to Israel itself, and to support them outright might be counter-productive in terms of Soviet relations with friendly countries, such as Egypt or Iraq. Moreover, the Palestinians have a record of unsuccess, with which the Russ,ans?do-not wish to be associated; and the wildest among them -- Dr. George Habbash's PFLP are not only boastful where the Russians would prefer discretion, but indulge in spectacular acts of violence with which, again, the Russians would prefer not be linked. . . "There has certainly been some Soviet aid to the PFLP, however, and to the more moderate Al Fatah, if only to be able to claim, if challenged, that th e Palestine liberation movement has not been left unaided. (Chinese aid to the PFLP is certainly greater than Russian.)" Uncertainties occasioned by Egypt's recent ouster of the Soviet Military Mission and the pledged merger of Egypt and Libya render the fedayeen increasingly vulnerable to manipulation not only by Moscow and Peking but by the self-serving leaders of the fedayeen guerrillas. Outlaws Among Their Own People Founded in 1956 and headed by Yasir Arafat, a Jerusalem-born Palestinian, Fatah gained control of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1969. Fatah, larger and more heavily, financed than all other fedayeen groups combined, claims to be without political bias and seeks the friendship of all Arab governments; it is supported by, such disparate tegimes as Saudi Arabia and Libya. Even though heavily financed, Fatah uses such terror tactics as hijacking and sabotage through its terrorist the "Black September Group," as an additional source of income. The "Black September Group" ?abes Fatah to credibly disclaim its alliance with assassinations, hijacking and other forms of terrorism., While Fatah presents itself as an organization of strugglers who battle in the front lines for their "occupied homeland" it is in fact involved in money-making schemes that are far removed from its original national revolutionary mission. Fatah's image as a moderate organization unencumbered by ideology is studiously promoted by its propaganda to permit Fatah to gain broad-based political acceptance, Sympathy for the Palestinian cause is translated into direct contributions from Arab states of varying political persuasion. In addition, a moderate image permits the Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 establishment of offices for fund raising throughout the world. Because of its dominant role in that organization, a Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) office is often merely a cover for a Fatah office. Nevertheless, despite this ostensibly Ymoderate image," the "Black September" terrorist organization remains directly associated with and under the control of Fatah. Publicly, Fatah denounces terrorists acts conducted outside the Middle East but in practice engages in hijacking, sabotage and political assassination as a source of income which to date has grossed more than $100 million. These funds are transferred to European bank accounts and later invested in business ventures that promise a good return. Some of the ventures involve legiti- mate investment in European stocks; others include the establish- ment of "action cells" of which several exist in West Germany and France. These "action cells" provide arms and explosives and serve as bases for recruiting and training terrorists. A favored fund raising technique is for Fatah representatives to accept "contracts" for such specialized assignments as: elimination of political opponents, kidnapping an exile, exploding a refinery, smuggling and hijacking. Such acts are carried out by the "Black September Group" whose operations are said to be planned and implemented by the heads of the Fatah intelligence unit. In addition to claiming responsibility for the tragedy at the Munich Olympics on 5 Septem- ber, the group has also claimed credit for the following actions since November 1971: the assassination of Jordanian Prime Minister Wasfi Tal in Cairo on 28 November 1971; an assassination attempt against the Jordanian Ambassador to London Zayd Al Rifa on 15 December 1971; the sabotage of the Struever Electronics factory in Hamburg on 5 February 1972; the murder of five Palestinians in Bruehl, Germany, on 6 February 1972; and the hijacking of a Sabena jet en route to Tel Aviv on 8 May 1972. As reported in the New York Times, 4 August 1972, a 21-year- old Arab woman accused of taking par in the hijacking of a Belgian airliner in May said that she had made several unsuccess- ful attempts to free herself from the grip of the Fatah guerrilla organization. She testified that she was warned by the fedayeen: "If you escape, we would kill you." The Palestinian News Agency, 5 August 1972, reported that Palestinian guerril as o t e lack September" terrorist organization blew up tanks at the Trieste oil--storage facility "in accordance with the Black September organization's policy of dealing blows to the enemies of the Palestinian revolution." Istanbul's leading daily newspaper, Cumhuriyet, reported on 14 June that guerrilla groups are involved in tthe drug traffic; that Fatah has penetrated Turkish smuggling rings, established Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 courier routes from Turkey to Lebanon and is expanding its contacts with overseas narcotic rings to finance its (Fatah's) guerrilla operations. Fatah involvement in narcotics is so flagrant that some of the half-kilo nylon bags of hashish pushed in Europe are labelled with pictures of an Arab guerrilla armed with the Kaleshnikov submachine gun (standard Soviet infantry rifle). It is ironic that Palestinians, used as pawns by Arab and other politicians for more than 50 years, are currently being used by the very fedayeen orginially organized to battle for their "occupied homeland." About 1.4 million Palestinians registered as refugees with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) survive on funds from UNRWA while Fatah, the largest and best financed exponent of the Palestinian cause, exploits Palestinian suffering to build an underworld empire that makes its own laws and seeks self-perpetuation as its prime objective. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AO00200120001-1 CPYRGHT M 111" IJ% ru"E A I H BLU00"W AIMED PT AA 3 GUEf:RILL,4S Behind the latest flare-up in the Middle East: Israel has had its fill of Pales- tinian raiders, is striking back harder than ever. BEIRUT, Lebanon lsracl sccuangly has reached the de- cision that now is the time to crush, ,[lice and for all, tiro 1'alestiniao guer- rillas who have long plagued its borders. in four days of ground, air and artil- h?rw? attacks, the Israelis struck sharply iu late February at. guerrilla bases in n:mrr Thcn, early in March, atten- %V!0 shifted to Syria-where Israeli air ..hikes raised columns of smoke above c?:tinps at which the Palestinians train fiir frontier raids. Lebanon and Syria are the only Arab nations on Israel's borders still harbor- ing the anti-Israeli commandos. Last year, in a virtual civil war, Jordan liqui- dated the guerrilla presence. Egypt has never permitted operations by the Pal- estinrilrls. A wirlor peril? Sivld,,n r?sc-:rlsltinn (of ,.Itti111 to ui,lly ctg it Wt flit' ~Hr'i!1{laa, however, raised the possibility of a wider conflict being set off in the Middle East. After Israeli air raids on guerrilla bases in Syria, planes of the Syrian Air Force attacked Israeli towns -the first such air strikes since the Mideast war of 1967. But the immediate impact of the Israeli action was this: The Palestinian guerrillas are deep in trouble in the two regions where they are still pernlillyd to operate. In Lvha ou, tho question wvas [thickly raised: Can the omitrw afford to continue arhnring Palestinian com- andos? Signs are multiplying that he Government has decided t cannot. The Israeli assault has nought ]ionic to the Leba- wr:,rl will no longer tolerate presence of commandos its borders, and will ?:?'d Lebanon directly respon- ible for any operations car-ed out from within Lebanon. The out- I ok for Lebanon is that more Lebanese ire likely to he killed, that Israel even- rally could occupy the southern part of he country. The problem is whether the Lebanese an find any way to rid themselves of he commandos-or neutralize them- without sparking a bloody conflict with- in Lebanon itself. The conflict might even lead to civil war. Bitter, frustrated. The 5,000 Pales- tinian commandos who have been holed up in the mountainous area of southeast- ern Lebanon are only the tip of the ice- berg of the Palestinian presence in this country. Altogether, there are 350,000 Palestinians in Lebanon-more than 15 per cent of the entire population. Of these, 85,000 live in refugee camps. Large numbers of them own weapons. Practically all of them are bitter, frustrated people who are capa- ble of irrational violence. Few observers doubt that, in a show- down, the Lebanese armed forces would be victorious over the commandos. But the result might destroy the very struc- ture of the Lebanese regime, which is built an if drliratv balance of a half- Mn?dr.m, half-Christian population. There is little doubt, however, that the Lebanese will try to contain the commandos, one way or another. os Lebanese regard the Palestinians as strangers in their country. Says one Bei- rut businessman: "If we could just get rid of those Palestinians, we would have no problems with Israel." Letting rid of them, on the other hand erntlrl lie a messy business. Many of the refugee camps are in the outskirts of the capital city of Beirut. Sonic observers fear that an aroused Pal. estinian population would be capable of isolating Beirut, at least temporarily, from its power, light and water supplies. There is also a tiny but tough minority of left-wing Lebanese who might give aid to the Palestinians in their attempts to resist any crackdown on the com- mandos. This is what could lead to Leba- nese fighting Lebanese. In the face of this, the Lebanese Cov- crnmen is moving cautiously h. i0, H" forts to contain the commandos. Its opening action was to send the Leba- nese Army into the guerrilla-held border territory, the first such occupation in two wears. Reaction in Syria. The Syrians also find the coniniando presence atwktward, and for years have hobbled them with restrictions. But as the noose tightened around the guerrillas in Lebanon, there was a resur- gence of commando activity on the Syrian border with Israel. And the Israeli reac- tion to that was air strikes at the guer- rilla encampments-which called forth retaliation by the Syrian Air Force. What seemed to stand out in all this was the new sense of determination in Israel's campaign. against the commandos. The Palestine guerrillas, many observ- ers believe, could now be in their final death struggle. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AO00200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP7 POY1~ b00200120001-1 WASHIN3TON POST CPYRGHT 1 June 1972 Arab Guerrillas Cull 3 Assassins Tan Las ti c People' By Lewis B. Simons wasldn?tmr Post start MIER ?.9'hey obeyed their orders. They were fantastic people." In an apartment on one of Beirut's main thoroughfares, Balsam Zayix, spokesman for the Popular Front for the Lib- eration of Palestine (PFLP), heaped delighted praise on the three Japanese terrorists Who ball turned Tel Aviv airport into a bloodbath Tues- day night. "They were trained by us here in the Arab world," Zayix said. The mission of the Japanese trio. he said, was "to raise the temperature" of Arab-Israeli hostility. "I fore- -tee that coming through Is- raeli reprisals-perhaps suc- t:, fttl tsraeli reprisals-and the Arab reaction to them," he said. "Our operation could mark a turning point." While the PFLP waited with anticipation for ' repri- sals, officials in Lebanon and other Arab nations wailed with apprehension. Special security cautions were taken at Beirut airport. And in Tokyo, the Jap- anese government and press reacted with shock and dis- gust. We can't believe it," most officials said. The government expressed its regret to Israel that Jap- anese nationals were in- volved in the attack. And Israeli Premier Golda 111cir told a special session of Parlianwnt that she did not regard the three gunmen as representatives of t h e i r country... The friendly rela- tions between Israel and Ja- pan will remain unhamper- ed " she said. As well as Tokyo police could determine initially, the three terrorists were nmem- bers of the United Red ,%rmy. an extremist, revolu- taonary organization. Together with a n o t h e r Japanese radical group, the United Red Army has been linked with the murders of it police and defense offi- cials since September, 19117. Earlier this year, 12 meni- Iitrs of the United Red Army Were discovered slain fly their eontratles in an intra- faetiun purge. in March, 1970, several "soldiers" of the group hi- jacked a Japanese Airlines plane to North Korea. Later, other "soldiers" went to Bei- rutto slake contact with the PFLP. Last October, police re- ported. an Arab member of the PFLP, identified as Ru- vashi Ghanen, went to Japan and met with members of the United Tied Army. The two groups issued jointly a hooklet entitled "Arab Guer- rill is and the World lied Army," Israel's National Police Agency said there were four known Japanese "ultra rad- icals" in Israel. One of them, Mrs. Fusako Shi- genobu, 25, is believed to be the official representative of the United Red Army to the PFLP. The PleLP dismissed any suggestions that the Pales- tinians, could not carry oft the bloody airport attack themselves and so had to turn to a Japanese suicide squad. "Let them say what they like," retorted Zayix. "Arabs from the occupied territories participated in this operation, too. Besides, the three Japanese_ were members of the' PFLP . . We have Irish members too." tile japill;Q69 d were a kamikaze unit. "They were not planning to kill themselves," he said. The man who apparently died by his own h a n d grenade, has been identified as Ken Torio, 23. His ac- complice who was found dead is identified as Jori Sugisaki, 23. '11he third man, DInisuke, Nanba, 23, was cap- tured. Japanese police said there was doubt that the names were real and that their passports were for- geries. 'layix's allusion to Irish members of the PFLP cur- roborated a recent state- ment by the militant Irish Republican Army saying that the IRA had relations with Al Fatah, the largest guerrilla element of the ?alistinians movement. The Front also claims members from other foreign countries throughout I.%u- rope, the United Stater, and Africa, headers of America's .Black Panther Party have said some of their members received training in Pales- tinian guerrilla camps. Black African liberation movements and the Syriau- based Erittean Liberation n1ovcment, which apcratcs in Northern I?tiopia, hate c.spvciailly St ('I) , lies trill) Ih,. r, rnnl . The Palestinians have used young women in love with guerrillas to carry weapons on international flights. Last year, an Israeli military court convicted an elderly French couple and two Moroccan sisters of at- tempting to smuggle explo- sive devices into Israel for use by the guerrillas. in addition to recruiting n .a" "maintains close relations with all the revolutionary movements of the world." But beneath this gran- diose view of worldwide rev- olutionary bro6lerhood, tile Front made clear that the raid by the three Japanese was a direct response to Is- rael's successful aborting of a guerrilla attempt to free imprisoned colleagues by hi- jacking a Belgian jetliner three weeks ago. The guerrillas were infur- iated by the "arrogant" way the Israelis have paraded their "invincibility" since then, Zayix said. Asked if the 11111,11 had any moral misgivings about the Japanese assault, Zayix replied: "None at all." He. said that the three ter- rorists were instructed to open fire not on the passen- gers of the Air France air- liner which brought them to Tel Aviv, but on those dis embarking from an El Al flight due to arrive 10 min- utes later, as well as their friends and relatives waiting to welcome them. "We were sure that 90 to 95 per cent of the people in the airport at the time the operation was due to take place would be Israelis or people of direct loyalty to Israel," he said. "Our purpose was to kill as many people as possible at the airport, Israelis, of course, but anyone else who was there. "There is a war going on In Palestine. People should know that. Why don't they go to Saigon?" Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 2l._ Approved For Release 1999/09/02GPCYR--i[ T'79-01194A000200120001-1 CPYRGHT NEW YORK TIMES 2 June 1972 CPYRGHT Anarchist Leaders Seized in Frankfurt) _ F. assemblage of leftist_anar_I The well-annotritert three-1 By DAVID BINDER BONN, June 1 -The state and federal police captured two ringleaders of a West German anarchist band in Frankfurt early today who are believed to have been responsible for a wave of bombings that killed four American soldiers and in- jured 30 persons last month. The two were Identified by the authorities as Andreas 'Baader, 29 years old, and Hof ger Meins, 30. Two other sus-f pects were seized but not Im- 'nmmediately identified and one was later released. The group is popularly known as the Baader-Meinhof gang. Baader and Meins had been sought in a countrywide drag- net along with, 17 other alleged gang members, including a for- ?mer journalist, Miss Ulrike Meinhof, 37, in connection with a series of terrorist actions dating from 1963, The Baader-Meinhof group had declared its participation in these bombings and other terrorist acts as members of ichists the Red Army Faction. story apartment house in north !This group preaches terror Frankfurt where today's action sT-"rmperia ism" as a {means of achieving "revolu- tion " Group Clashed with police They are believed in police ed groups in Italy, Japan and 'Meinhot and others reported- ly received weapons training in the Middle East from Pale- stinan guerrillas during the summer. of 1970 after Baader was freed from jail in Berlin by masked gunmen. He had been sentenced for setting fire to a Frankfurt department; store in 1968. Last year the group turned for a time to bank robbery, operating with fast cas and armed with automatic rifles, and amassing hundreds of thou- sands of marks. Then came a series of clashes with the po- lice that left at least three gang members and three patrol- men dead. THE ARAB WORLD WEEKLY 10 June 1972 ing and called on the suspects to leave their hideout, a garage on the property. "Come out, your means are limited but ours are unlimited," called an officer through a bullhorn, as recorded by West German tele- vision, When there was no response, Itear-gas grenades were fired Into the building from an; armored car in the courtyard.; The suspects began firing' with pistols and automatic rifles. Some of the bullets were! later found ti have been filedl down to dumdums. The police; fired a few ro. rids in return.' When the armored car started to ram the closed garage door the man identified as Holger Meins came out. He was stripped to his undershorts and led away. Then - out came Andreas Baader, shooting wildly with a .45-caliber pistol. Baader was hit in the right hip by a police bullet and he cried out twice. From a stretcher he called the police "pigs, pigs." With huge sideburns and bleached hair, he was scarcely identifi- Abl. 4b9 _P-,:-8 >zh^r,. thmt showed him with short dark hair. The two were later identi- fied by fingerprints. Like other members of the Fan under ar- Fest, L-_ interrogators. A red Porsche Targa outside the apartment was found to contain hand grenades and a large homemade bomb, police officials reported later. Other Cars Are Sought \Vest German authorities who, are overseeing the dragnet dis- closed the license numbers of five other cars being sought and warned that they might contain bombs. A bomb went off in a West Berlin apartment this afternoon and was also attributed to the terrorists. A bomb threat in Frankfurt this evening. re-ortedly by a cell of the Red Army Faction, !caused the police io s:rengthen jpatrols, close theaters and warn people to avoid the downtown I area. CPYRGHT FOREIGN ELEMENTS IN PALESTINIAN RESISTANCE The Kamikazi attack on Israel's Lydda Airport last Week, and the subsequent declaration by the Popular Front for the Liberation Af_Palestine (PFLP) claiming res- ponsibility for that attack, have raised a big question mark over the presence of fo- reign elements in the Palestinian resistance movement. Many journalists and news- paper correspondents were making strenuous efforts to find out how many and ho)v influential these foreign elements were. To their disappointment, they could find little or nothing at all to satisfy their curiosity. After the Lydda Airport incident, in which 26 were killed and more than 80 wound- ed, wild speculations spread throughout the international press about the presence of Japanese suicide squads in the Palestinian resistance movement. Some press reports put the figure at 400 men and women who had allegedly joined the PFLP in Lebanon. It later became clear that the entire Japanese community in Lebanon was less than 400. The PFLP, approached by a number of foreign journalists, would not reveal any information for obvious security and strategic reasons. However, on several occasions in the past, the Palestiinian resistance movement did publish pictures of non-Palestin- ian men and women wh6 were'said to be helping the movement in various ways: In the first place,the movement madenodenial of the fact that Arab nationals from various Ar- ab countries have joined the movement as fighters, medical officers, social workers etc. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 CPl(1RGHT 0200 Butpt9e i KP0in ?ja cular9fi asOal way's been dis7c9 eej19about t its coop 001 ion with foreigners even though there have been reports about its cooperation with extremist groups in foreign countries such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA), the Turkish Liberation Army, the Black Panthers in the United States, the Topamaros in Chile and the United Red Army in Japan. Although the PFLP has never confirmed officially that it had any links with these organizations, it is part of PFLP strategy to establish and deepen relations with the world revolutionary and anti-imperialist forces wherever they may be. The organization believes that "revolutionary violence at this stage is the only way to maintain the exist- ence of the Palestinian commando action and, consequently, the Palestine case." As PFLP leader Dr. George Habash declared in last March's congress of the organization, revolutionary violene means more than planting an explosive on a road, or blowing up a bridge or shelling an Israeli settlement 300 times without causing any real harm to it. Habash strongly emphasized the role of revolutionary violence at this stage for the strategic interests of the Palestinian revolution. The congress last March clearly defined the principles of revolutionary violence: 1- Avoiding large-scale military confrontations; 2- adopting the policy of hit-and-run whereby-surprise and swift strikes are made after which the organization's men would go into complete hiding; 3- choosing enemy targets which, when destroyed, would get the widest popular support among.the masses and, at the same time, would evoke no conflicting arguments about the legitimacy or the soundness of such operations; 4- adopting the most adequate security measures to protect the revolution and its men, cadres and leaderships against sabotage, repression and intelligence aimed at dest- roying the revolution; 5- raising the political, psychological and fighting qualifica- tions of the fighters; 6- making a profound and comprehensive acquaintence with all the principles and tactics of guerrilla warfare and learning from the experiences of other sh:,utrt; ling peoples. The PFLP is perhaps the only Palestinian commando organization with the widest international connections. Being an extremist Marxist organization it is believed to have set up links and ties with similar organizations in various other countries. The leader of PFLP, Dr. George Habash, has paid more than one visit to Far Eastern communist countries such as China and North Korea, and was last week re- ported to have started a visit to the Soviet Union (ostensibly for medical treatment). Since the 1967 .war in the Middle East, reports have been circulating all around saying that Communist Chinese arms and experts were being supplied to the PFLP as well as to its associate guerrilla group fighting the regime in the Sultanate of Oman'. The number of such experts has never been ascertained. But it is almost a confirmed fact that some Palestinian guerrillas, including PFLP men, have had military training in China and North Vietnam. As an atmosphere of fear, tension and anticipation prevailed in the Middle East and several world capitals last week, following the Lydda Airport incident, there were some speculations which said that the PFLP was studying plans to pay back the "debt"to the Japanese Red Army. How this was to be done was not in any, way clear. But, the speculations said, the PFLP, might carry out some suicidal action against the Japanese authorities on two counts; 1- If they continue harassing the families and relatives of Japanese nationals in the employ of the Palestinian commando movement; 2- if they go ahead to pay compensation to Israel for the human and material losses inflicted as a result of ,the Kamikazi attack on Tel Aviv Airport last week, or even if they supplied the Tsra,elis with information considered to be deterimental to the Pa- lestinian resistance movement. First Contact. According to a report in Beirut's wide-circulation weekly AL USBU AL ARABI this week, the first contact between the PFLP and the Japanese Un- ited RAI)pmm&fomReas 6 9GV0WQ2 a O f f Z%-Rlk1e~9d.A919~11a9Qg1itl6elf." 4 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 The ground on which this contact was made, according to the report, was purely ideological. It was obvious to both sides, said the report, that the "essence" of their struggle against the forces of imperialism, reaction and exploitation was-the same. The two sides also agreedion a definition of "the genuine forces of the international rev- olution." These forces included; "the socialist camp, the labor forces and toiling masses in the capitalist countries,' and the national. liberation movements." .Last autumn, the weekly said, a PFLP leader visited Japan and the Red Army "welcomed him by blowing up five police stations in Tokyo." The weekly defined the Red Army as being "an underground extremist organization that commenced its activi- ties on the political and military levels in 1965." It believes in the armed struggle as "the fundamental way of liberating peoples from exploitation and class domination domestically, and a means to combat imperialism on the international level." AL USBU reported that Dr, Habash had called on the Red Army to participate "practically" in the Palestinian struggle in order to materialize the strong relation- ship between the two sides. It added that a number of Red Army members have since joined the PFLP and received training in PFLP camps in the Jordanian Ghnr fva1lovl The Red Army has also helped the Palestinian resistance movement, through its relations with the PFLP, to establish some presence in Japan, mainly in the field of information. A few months ago, according to AL USBU, adocumentary film was shown in Japan and some Arab countries projecting cooperation between the PFLP and the Red Army. Within the framework of this cooperation, said the weekly, several Japanese nationals lived with the Palestinian refugees in the camps and helped in medical and social work. The weekly quoted a PFLP spokesman as saying after the Lydda Airport incident that the operation there was "the beginning of a new phase in military operations ag- ainst the Israeli enemy. The purpose of these operations is to get the resistance move- ment rout of its present stagnation. We did not start this operation in order to' stop af- ter completing it. On the contrary, we will continue the struggle in accordance with a new plan dictated by the requirements of the situation." In fact, security men in various countries were busy last week trying' to foil an- other Kamikazi operation which was allegedly being planned by a Japanese who had been involved in the Lydda Airport operation, in which two Japanese were killed and a third captured by Israeli authorities. Security precautions were increased on the Israeli embassy in-Tokyo and on Jap- anese officials after reports circulated 'saying that the fourth man was planning to carry out another Kamikazi operation. Kazo Okamoto, who was captured by the Israelis, had reportedly told his interrogators that more commando operations would be launched until the 10th of June. Japanese authorities declared last week that they were checking their files of some seven million persons to find fingerprints that match those of the lone Japanese. surviver, Okamoto (24). In the meantime, the authorities said they were trying to learn the identity of the mysterious woman who is believed to be the fourth person involved in the Lydda opera- tion. She was to have- acted aI :s liaison for the Arab commandos and to have contacted the three Japanese activistsdn Rome where she allegedly gave them their passports and weapons before they flew' to Tel Aviv. Three Women. At least three Japanese women were reported to be with the PFLP. They are Fusako Shigenobu (26), Mariko Nakanu (29) and Dr. Takako Nobuhara (31). They are said to be in Lebanon. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 or Re 200 Br. obutlara wa s repQS J 9o have0ret rnA DPap n last OO?OOhe s21 al- legedly approached some radical students during her visit before she returned to Leb- anon. She, and Nlariko Nakano, both of whom worked together in the Palestine refugee center in Osaka, western Japan, left Japan in April 1971 for Beirut, press reports said last weelc. The doctor took medical equipment from the Japan-Arab society for the Red Crescent Hospital in Beirut. Press reports said Dr. Nobuhara became acquainted with Miss Shigenobu, the one- time Red Army activist, took interest in the PFLP movement and quit the hospital last December. She reportedly joined the PFLP commandos in south Lebanon. Miss Shig- enobu has been with the Palestine .commandos since 1970. She is suspected of having worked to establish routes for Japanese radicals and sympathizers to travel to the Middle East. The older brother, Takeshi Okamoto (26) of Kazo Okamoto, the lone commando surviver of the Tel Aviv incident, was among nine hijackers of a Japanese airliner to North Korea in March, 1970. Takeshi apparently influenced Kazo to join the activist 'novem ent . Nakano Interviewed. Meanwhile, Miss Mariko Nakano, a Japanese nurse working it Al Quds ~lerusalern Fic~spital at Hazmieh, near Beirut, was interviewed by reporter. ; ;t the }lrttop+i' i ~- `f r? !; , Nakano denied she had anything to do with -the- Lydda Airport incident, but paid that ,the "Kamikazi spirit is- sweeping the Middle East." She made no secret of her admira- tion for the three Japanese Who carried out the Lydda. operation. "They have my cong- ratulations. It has made my Palestinian brothers happy," she said. She added, "They were revolutionaries and I support revolution. For me, revolution has no country. What is wrong with fighting imperialism in Tokyo or Tel Aviv? It is all the same." Mis* Nakano said she has been in Lebanon only ten months. "I am a nurse," she said, adding, "I treat the sick, women and dhildren. I am at the side of the Palestinian people for humanitarian ! reasons.:", She denied she was..the mysterious w'omanrcode-named "Jun", who is suspected of having been the liaison between the Japanese Red Army and the PFLP. She said she had no knowledge of such a person and denied she was acquainted with any of the three Japanese who carried out, the Iyy'cda operation. "I am poor; but amongst the Palestinians I am happy," she said. "I have freedom here which I did not enjoy in Japan." Since the': Lydda airport attack, her parents and relatives were harassed by Japanese Authorities. "Poor mama, poor papa t It was not, their fault," she said., l'{akano was'non-Committal about her future plans, but hoped she might one day return to Japan. "But there is so much yet to be done for world revolution, and so much more to do with my Palestinian comrades," she said. GERMAN OFFER.' On June 8th, Beirut's independent daily AL NAHAR.parried a front-page story claiming that a German "terrorist extremist", wanted, and later arrested, by the West German authorities had been in Lebanon early this year when he held contacts with Palestinian commandos (specific organization not identified) and offered them his services' in carrying 'out terrorist operations against Israel and Is- raeli targets throughout the world. The man was identified as 29-year-old Andreas Baadar, allegedly the head of a radical group that aims at dealing blows to?!'imperialist targetsieven if Germany burns down." He later was joined by another revolutionary extremist called "Aurli'ch Mein Koff", and their group came to be known as "Baadar-Meinhoff" group. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 6~ CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Annraverl Far Release 1999109109 - (IA-Rr1P7Q-01194AO00900190001-1 13aadar was reported to have entered Lebanon on a forged passport, thus mis- leading Lebanese authorities. He held several meetings with Palestinian commando leaders, but no agreement was reached. AL NAHAR said that some of his offers were "very attractive", but the commando leaders found loopholes in them. They also feared the consequences of letting Baadar into their plans and operations. The German authorities, according to the paper, had put up an award of 420,000 Lebanese pounds for the arrest of Baadar, who had carried out a series of terrorist operations in Germany since 1968, and was, therefore, considered as "an extremely dangerous outlaw." After what has been described as the "biggest jean-hunt in Germany since the Second World War, " Baadar was arrested and is now awaiting his trial. His colleague is sti'l at large. German newspapers claim that Baadar had-relations with the Japan- ese Red Army to which the three Kamizakjs who attacked Lydda Airport last week belonged. TTig ECONOMIST JULY 8, t972 Palestine Bond Street gang? Britain's part in co-sponsoring last week's Security Council resolution- which " condemned " the recent Israeli raids into Lebanon, while only " deplor- ing " the guerrilla attacks that led to them-has detonated an Israeli reac- tion. The Israeli government was angered by the resolution, particularly by the clause which called for it, albeit in convoluted phrasing, to return the Syrian officers captured during the pre- vious week. Hence, one must. assume, Israel's decision to embarrass the British Government by challenging Britain's supposed decision to allow the guer- rillas' Palestine Liberation Organisation to set up an office in London--although the Israelis had already been informed that under British law and tradition neither decision nor permission was involved. The Government has indeed been embarrassed, with members of parlia- ment on both sides protesting at the thought of a terrorist nest in the centre of London. In Parliament on Monday Mr Joseph Godber, Minister of State at the Foreign Office, reiterated what Sir Alec Douglas-Home had replied to Mr Abba Eban last week : there are no means of preventing anyone establishing such an office so long as it operates within the framework of British law. This means that a FLU office, like the other offices in Britain which are or have been attached to a wide variety of political movements, can provide information or lobby any- is amm"R but cannot operate as a guerrilla base for planning terrorism or training terrorists. The dCt3.,rtinn ran he a fine one and there is no doubt that the activities of a PLO office, when established, will be closely scrutinised. So too, as Mr Godber assured Mr Callaghan, the shadow Home Secre- tary, will its personnel. The most likely head of the new office will be Mr Said Hammami, a PLO representative who has been in London for about a year attached to the Arab League information office. With his own office and stall', Mr llaniniami's job will be extended but will remain, he insists, for information only. . A PLO office has existed more or less quietly in New York since 1965. The quiet was broken last year when the office was raided, and its chief beaten up, by militant Jews. There is also an office in Geneva but in most European capitals information about the Palestinians and their cause is disseminated, if at all, by the Arab League and its PLO representatives. It may be these who were meant by the resolution passed last week by the political committee of the Council of Europe, which called on the council's 17 members (who include Switzerland and Britain) to close w ra their PLO offices. Israel's desire to prevent the propa- gation of more efficient information about the Palestine guerrilla rnove- ment(as pi-ec.,.,t crantyr 2nd rvrn ernre confused than the movement itself) is understandable, although it comes rather curiously from Mr Menahem Regin, the leader of the Jewish guerrilla organisation which fought both Arabs and Britons in the last years of the British mandate. The past being the past, Mr Begin was correctly given a visa for his recent visit to London. The Palestine guerrillas being very much part of the present, it is question- able whether their leader, Mr Yasser Arafat, should receive similar hospi- tality if, as rumoured, he applies for a visa to open the London office. As chairman of the PLO's executive com- mittee, Mr Arafat is, in theory at least, ultimately responsible for all acts of violence by the guerrilla groups which belong to the organisation. But it is improbable that Mr Arafat will make the attempt. The informa- tion office can do its work as well, and in fact a good deal better, without the hullabaloo of a controversial opening. And Palestinians in London, pointing o the rock-bottom state of the for- to' tunes of the guerrilla movement, say starkly that Mr Arafat has, or should have, a great many more important things to do than ceremonial openings. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 7 Approved For Release I 999/09W2Y k--kDP79-011 SUMQ 6120001-1 EVENING STAR AND DAILY NEWS 14 July 1972 orist Li World According to the intelligence forts v NEI if they By TAD SZULC officials, the k;:Iiilg of 26 by- r New York Times News Scnke Slanders at Tel Aviv airport nation, Agency and other Western in- tcllifirnc' F'rviccs reportedly have traced numerous connec- lions between the Japanese wrrorist "Red Army," a Pal- r tinian guerrilla organization, the Uruguayan Tupamaros, the Irish Republican Army and a number of other revolu- tionary movements. intelligence officials here ay that an international revo- lutionary organization has de- xeloped from contacts between the Japanese terrorists, the i'opular Front for the Libera- lion of Palestine and the other groups, among them the Turk- kh "People's Liberation Army" and the Italian "Red fhigade." Officials said that a central office was established in Zu- rich, Switzerland, late last year and that agents and "safe houses" were main- tained in Beirut, Lebanon, and other Middle Eastern coup-' tries, in a number of European cities and in Tokyo. rousts of the "Red Army, in concert with the Marxist- oriented Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, was the first known instance of such international cooperation between guerrilla groups. The intelligence officials said there was evidence of in- creasing clandestine contacts among many separate groups. Representatives of some of the guerrilla groups conferred secretly with officials of the Irish Republican Army in Dublin between May 26 and 28, according to the intelligence officials. Each of the underground groups represented in the new international organization has carried out guerrilla actions such as kidnapings, killings of officials and bank robberies, in the country in which it is based. The intellience officials said that many of the revolu- tionary leaders appeared to ..u u8t .x;72 k Hinted were coordinated inter- of the Popular Front and IN Japanese terror- ists, the int iligence officials said, they ha reached an''ac- tion" agree ent late In 1970, after a serf s of bilackings of airliners by Palestinian com- mandos. As a res It of the agree- ment, they said, a training camp for Ja anese revolution- aries was stablished near Beirut, in J uary 1971 by an unidentified apanese woman and by Lell Khaled, a mem- ber of a pal tinian comman- do team th sought to hijack an Israeli frliner between London and ew York in Sep- tember,1970 Miss Kha ed was released by British a thorities in Octo- ber 1970 i exchange for a group of Ar bs imprisoned in West Germ y. The intelli ence officials not- ed that Miss haled's compan- ion, _ who w killed In the at- tempted hijacking, was Patr rick Arguello, an American o Puerto Rican parentage and member of an American group sympathizing with the Pales- tinians' cause. In November 1971, a Poputth Front delegation reportedly visited Tokyo secretly, leaving behind a liaison agent with the "Red Army." Subsequently, the officials said, a number of Japanese terrorists, including those who were to participate in the Tel Aviv airport killings, were sen t to a training camp of the Popular Front in Baalek. Leb- anon. The intelligence officials not- ed that the surviving Japanese terrorist from the airport mas- sacre, Kozo Okamato, testified at his current trial in Israel that he received a fake pass- port in Frankfurt and then joined his two companions in Rome for the trip to Tel Aviv. They said this confirmed re- ports that the guerrillas had well-organized supporters in a numhar of F.nrnp ae n nA ttala CPYRGHT 0-11 0 r gterr Cairo last weekend's sabotage at the Trieste p11, pipeline terminal in Italy has reactivated the debate about uses of Arab oil as a political weapon against the United States and Israel. Palestinian guerrillas of the "Black Sep- tember" group claimed the burning inferno of African and Mideast crude oil bound for Italy, Austria, and West Germany as part of its "revolutionary policy" of attacking the interests of Israel's frieHd? and allies. There was visible concern among Arab as well as Western governments and oil circles. The highly professional sabotage of the Trieste terminal of the 300-mile-long Trans- alpine pipeline hit one of West Europe's main oiI-supply arteries, completed'just before the Arab-Israeli war of 1067. The pipeline was owned by a group of some of the largest firms that are customers for Arab oil, including Esso, Shell, Mobil 011, Relief for Rotterdam The pipeline was built to relieve the heavy load on t.hc other main West European tanker terminal at Rotterdam. Oil sources here say most of the crude-oil supplies pumped through the pipe come from areas west of the closed Suez Canal: mainly Nigeria, Algeria, and Libya, with which Egypt Aug. 2 announced its intention to form a total union by September, 1973. Some of the crude oil also came from the Persian Gulf area. Such sabotage acts, Egyptian officials say, were not meant by Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat when in an interview with Newsweek magazine he recently predicted "A long, hot autumn for U.S. interests." Confirmation that Black September - the group that assassinated former Jordanian Prime Minister Wasfi Tell here last Novem? company. EN1e ~ vE '~ ~ ~ se 1999/ 8 sm7nM,WvFDHZ*:Q49 94"-022 0120001-1 CPYRGHT would be regarded here as proof that Palestinian guerrilla acts may conflict with :drab governmental as well as Western intei't'sts, 'lilaer meant considered However, more pacific means of using oil as a pressure device to compel the United States to soften its support for Israel are under discussion, l';eonomy ministers of Egypt, Syria, and !.elusion are to meet here Aug. 20 to consider feasibility Studies on the subject, commts- Atine t by the Arab League's Economic Council last November, King Faisal of Saudi Arab la last week exasperated Arab partisans of oil action against Washington. He opposed it in an interview published in the Cairo newspaper Al?Mussawar, King Faisal was quoted as saying there is "no use in reviving such a call at present" since Arab oil, he maintained, would not be a critical import for the United States until 1985. .He recalled that the late President Nasser had opposed political use of oil at the last Arab summit conference in Morocco in December, 1969, because it "impared the economies of the Arab countries." t i 12 August 1972 nrcotics are usually associated with hippies and social misfits who Ilse them as an escape from reality. King Faisal's rejection followed a month after a Saudi royal cabinet warning of July 10. Participation urged The Saudi Government urged Western oil firms to fulfill Arab demands for participa- tion (part ownership),by producer-govern- ments to the companies. It said a positive response in the participa. tion talks, being conducted on behalf of the Persian Gulf-area members of OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Coung tries) was desirable if the companies wished "not to forfeit their key position in the oil industry as a consequence of their position at the production stage." Oil experts interpreted this as a hint of, possible government take-overs of produc?. tion operations, as have already occurred in Iraq, Algeria, and Libya, If the participation talks finally break down. Iran, one of the world's and OPEC's biggest producers, has, however, indicated it would not follow the Arab policy. It has been negotiating new accords with the Western oil consortium without regard to the participa- tion issue. CPYRGHT K 111 9% zihs use v ug, TO Pri i control n overthrow o governments. Use of narcotics for political of years ago in the turbulent youngsters were gathered to- gether, introduced to drugs, turned into addicts and set , loose to murder their sponsor's To deaden their conscience, to give them courage enough to face certain death if caught, these young men were primed with massive doses of hashish. Since these young men kill d e under the influence of hashish,, they were called "Hashishirill, and in time the word has become part of the English language as "assassin." KILLERS PRIMEi) The idea of.priming killers with drugs has recently been revived, ? and hashish o iu , p m, morphine and refine, heroin mangos teal in vast quantities pathy, and later recruit them being used to buy arms (or, the arc e Ifii is nowe was And mr..,,amu Thwern of Arab guerrilla organisa- The narcotics pipeline origi- Most of the Turkish :inarch tions as well as of an impor- natcs in Turkey, where the chists were familiar with smug taut source. of funds for libe- opium poppy has traditionallygling routes, knew the regions ration grumps been a lucrative cash crop. where poppy growers wcr The leading Istanbul daily Cumhuriyct, in its issue of June 14, carried a special report from Beirut which flatly stated it was well known that in many countries today hired militants used hashish to boost their courage before they at- tempted robbcry--or murder. ge ng persona y: ,,,rvtmu aim ciasning wi[n the makes it clear that use of tough Turkish drug laws, the The crude morphine base hashish, morphine and other Arab guerillas make use of collected by Turkish sympa- narcotics for political purposes ? Turkish anarchists. thisers is sent into Lebanon is far more widespread than IDEAL COURIERS either by fishing boats or in the past. Many of these anarchists across the land frontier. A The Arab leading police chief tlis had to leave Turkey in a charge of the crude 'opium ucrrilla p II,banon, a Muslim who hurry with the political police base" and sell it to interna- openly in sympathy with the ? on, their heels. The Arab Arab struggle in Palestine, Querrillas'wouldwelcomethem_ clonal drug rings in Beirut Recently Turkey outlawed willing to do illegal deals, had the growing of the o ium p?l~f'y, the advantage of Turkish as and imposed stilt penalties fora mother tongue-and were smuggling, but even when far- blindly courageous. mers are . given generous Apart from using some o compensations, an extensive the drugs to boost the courage illegal opium market persists of their would he assassins, because of the fantastic profits. the Arab guerrillas have found narcotics an I excellent. wayo tti Instead of ll part of the regal r 01 u s and c a in Paicsline., F6 r i e J 10~'~ fIZ; .01?x`9- "4WMI hb~ _l .. CPYRGHTApproved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 OvIET ARMS Large quantities of the ovict-built Kalishnikov sub- achincgun and Katyusha ockcts (these can be carried asily by guerrillas and have range of -seven to eight ilomcters) arc bought from nenth'. of ier hand, makes regular all over the world and there is he Russians. Phosphorus ere- trips all over Europe as alnothing wrong with pushing: ades, bombs and other' The guerrilla organisations drug courier. sales through pictures of guar- realised the dangers and tried f capons o Soviet origin also The guerrilla groups are ind their way into guerrilla to put a stop to this "sampling"' not at all ashamed of involve- .;fu rmouries. but recent reports show that not in all the drug traffic. - men t Ne addiction is speading like wild- id k aWk r s e as s ward fire among the Palestinian semi-refined morphine is highly cal is and since the ? final fedayin. regarded by narcotic rings in cal is conducted through Europe and it also has quite a ebanese "cutouts" neither The Cumhuriyet report lists high reputation with the ussians nor Arabs are in the a number of guerrilla groups European urban guerrilla icture if something should go involvcdc inr the drug traffic. groups, who buy fair amounts >, tong....,. Lebanese Intelligence is well ware of (tic drug traffic. It also nows all about the purchase clandestine arms by the rab guerrillas. It prefers, however, to turn blind eve since the political tuation in the Lebanon is cry delicately balanced and t is Government does not want t oublc with the pro-Palcstinian gmcnt of the population. LOOKED Though at first the guerrillas egarded narcotics merely as he quickest and most con- enient way to gather funds, hey soon noticed that some oft heir couriers were showing symptoms of drug-use. the alias Ahmed Bel Hassan. According to Curihuriyet, There is a fatal attraction Secondary leaders of the the guerrillas themselves see about drugs; and even those Rasd group include Avni El nothing wrong in Hasa~i Sala- chosen after careful screening Hilu, Abu Sakir, Abu Said and mah bragging about his hashish for courier duty found them- Abu Fatah; they usually confine operations. They maintain selves diverting smalramounts their operations to Beirut. that hashish is an accepted of the drugs for their own use- Hassan Salamah, on the symbol with young and getting hooked perma- l ', anarchists mass inicmgcncc ano terror his friends. unit of Al Fatah, whose .main NO COMPUNCTION work is to penetrate Turkish smuggling rings, organise sour- So indifferent arc the Arabs ces of supply, establish courier about involvement in the routes from Turkey to the drug trade, that some of the Lebanon, and to cultivate con- half-kilo nylon bags of hashish tacts with overseas narcotic they unload in Europe carry pictures of an Arab guerrilla rings to finance Al-Fa(ah's armed with the Kalishnikov military ofcrations. ,daub-pub The head of the Rasd project 1 'addiction the increase in drug is Abu Hassan (real name addiction has so alarmed the Hassan Salamah), a shadowy world, and so many of the figure who has widc-ranging .liberators themselves are turn- contacts in the region and ing into addicts that saner possesses two diplomatic pass- Arab elements consider this ports issued by Algeria, one labelling of drug packets with under the name of Abdul pictures of Arab guerrillas Kadar Madani, the other under ' deplorable bad taste. rillas. END OF THE LINE Nevertheless, such views represent only a minority opi- nion, and the more sober' Arabs feel the, should *et out of the drug traffic, pointing out that trading in human misery by peddling drugs is sure to destroy much of the sympathy ,that exists towards the Pales- tine struggle. While the guerrillas continue to debate the issue, both Turkey and Iran have taken stern measures to stop the drug traffic at its source. In Iran the death penalty has been imposed-and carried out-against drug peddlars, while in Turkey. border patrols have ? been stepped up and farmers quietly warned that unless they stop illegal culti- vation of opium they will be '?. in serious trbuble. With enforcement fairly lax in the past opium producers were too dazzled by easy =; profits to bother about the moral aspects of their trade. Things are likely to be very different from now on. Despite the great influence wielded by the Arab drug traffickers, Turkey and other opium growing countries at last seem determined to root out the drug evil once and for all. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Eoreigfl ?.Report. Published by The Economist Newspaper Limited ?: 25 St. James's Street, London, SWIA IHG 1259 16 August, 1972 The - black hand of Black - September .' CPYRGHT There are signs that the Israeli intelligence service is-getting worried about the score- card of the most recent 'of the Palestine guerrilla movements -'the Black September organisation, which has claimed responsibility for the Triest oil terminal sabotage of 4 August. The first significant exploit of the Black September terrorists was the assassination of the Jordanian prime minister, Wasfi Tal, in Cairo in*November, 1971. The following month they ,attempted to assassinate the Jordanian ambassador' to London. On February the group says it blew up a natural gas plant,in Ravenstein, Holland; and on the same day shot and killed five Jordanians in Bruehl, near Cologne. On 8 February, again according to its own claims, the,13lack September movcmcnt detonated explosions at business premises near Hamburg, and on 22 February it sabotaged oil pipelines. All these targets allegedly had had some links'with the Israelis. In May the organisa- tion unsuccessfully attempted to hijack 'a Sabena airliner at Lydda airport; of the four hijackers, two were killed by the Israelis. Previously believed to be operating without central direction, the Black September organisation is. now reliably reported to be under the control of Fatah, the principal Palestinian guerrilla movement. All Black September, information is 'printed. and distributed by the Fatah office in Beirut, and access to the movement can be obtained only through Fatah channels. The. question of the role of. the guerrilla movements is known to have been on the agenda of tiic recent talks in Benghazi, between Presidents Sadat of Egypt and Q,addafi of Libya-Egypt has been financing Fatah in recent years to a greater degree than is popularly supposed; and for some time Egyptian direction of its activities has been substantial. From now on there will be Libyan money to back the Cairo control. This means that the threat from the Black September movement will increase; it will probably - though this is arguable - be under more effective central control, and wil l undoubtedly have an increased, supply of funds. At the moment, the other guerrilla movements, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PDFLP) and,the Popular Revolutionary Front'for the Liberation of Palestine (PRFLP) are keeping their heads down. It is now virtually certain that the assassination of Ghhaassaiss Kanafani, the spokesman for the "PFLP, on 8 July in Beirut, was the "Work of-Israeli intelligence agents - in retaliation for the Lydda airport massacre of 30 May. Since then the leaders of these three Palestinian movements have gone underground, until the Israeli threat of direct reprisal has eased. Saiqa, the Syrian-based guerrilla move- ment, has now virtually lost its quasi-official Syrian protection, which is in 'keeping with the relatively moderate new policy *of President Assad. The 'probability is that Saiqa will soon come under more direct Fatah control. But it is not only the Israelis who are watching these developments, or probable developments, with anxious interest. King Hussein of Jordan' and King Faisal of Saudi Arabia are disturbed by the increased control that Egypt and Libya exert over the most radical and fanatical of the guerrilla movements. pproved For Release 1999/09/0,?i: CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 CPYRGHT world are fast reasserting themselves. But Jordan is already embarked upon a counter-stratagem. The Jordanians have been providing, with some eagerness, police and intelligence training for the security forces of the Gulf emirates; and they and the Saudis arc giving similar assistance to the opposition `liberation' movement that is currently harassing the marxist government of South Yemen:. Recent evidence has confirmed that, Jordanian `mercenaries' are involved in this obscure conflict. With the withdrawal of the normal British forces from the -'region and the recent expulsion of. the Russians from Egypt, the atavistic forces of'conlictiwithin the Arab' NEW YORK TIMES 25 August 1972 Nihilism-Turkish Style By C. L. SULZBERGER ISTANBUL, Turkey-Turkey's urban guerrillas seem to have philosophical tits , with nineteenth-century Russian nihilism. Their goal is purely destruc tive--to bring down the lumbering Turkish social structure. The principal laboratory where they learn violent techniques is the Middle' East. Terrorists from the three extrem- ist branches-Turkish People's Libera- tion Army (T.P.L.A.), Turkish People's Liberation Front (T.P.L.F.), and Turkish People's Liberation Party (T.P.L.P.)- have known connections with two far- out -Arab guerrilla groups based In Lebanon and Syria. These are the People's Front for the Liberation of Palestine (P.F.L.P.), a- small but disciplined outfit which has specialized in hijacking international airlihers, and its breakaway faction,' the 'People's Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (P.D.F.L.P.), which claims to be more Maoist than Mao. if all this sounds like some weird word game, one should not forget that the anagrams are written In blood, and, although the Turkish guerrillas prob- ably number less than a hundred ac- tivists with only three or four hundred active sympathizers and a few thou- sand passive supporters, they managed to throw a deep scare into this country. The reasons are manifold. To start with, the Turks are tough and Turkish nihilists have done some unusually nasty things: kidnapping American sol-. diers, British and Canadian radar tech- niQians; murdering an Israeli consul general; burning one of Istanbul's most splendid edifices; sinking two ships, and so forth. CPYRGHT CPYRGHT The apparent ea, ps ar as can -Tftmmdd, is to bling dawn the Gavefft- ment, prompt an open military take- ovdr and thereby cause a public reac- .tion sympathetic to the guerrillas. All that is an opium-dreamer's Turkish de- light and opium farming Is now banned. ?Ih the late nineteen-sixties revolu Nnlia literature was allowed to an- pear for the first time and discontented students found it possible to study-in' Turkish-such textbooks n violence as Carlos Marighella's treatise on the ur ban guerrilla. Leftist university schol- ars both here and In the large Turkish colony of workers in West Germany literally accepted the technical possi- bilities thus offered and also, inci- dentally, were encouraged by Bizim Radyo, a Turkish language broadcast- ing station in East Germany. A nucleus of professional terrorists was trained here and In Lebanon and Syria, and equipped with arms smug- gled from the Palestine guerrillas all across the Bulgarian border. Last month fourteen Turkish revolutionaries were caught on the Syrian frontier. When ,i they were expelled from that country Ankara was tactfully notified. There has been an effort to link the tiny urban guerrilla movement with the large and restless Kurdish minority in southern and eastern Turkey and com- mittees of so-called Maoist or New Left 'Turkish agitators have also been es-.. tablished in West German cities. ' Nevertheless, although Turkish stu dents and many professors have been: actively discontented for years, and al-' though there is growing frustration at' the,lack of adequate jobs for new in- tellectuals and technicians, the nihilists. seem to have been thwarted., Three T.P.L.A. leaders. were, hanged this year., !Udtfulb Several. IX.L.r. and U___ killed i' te,;+H leave _ curity forces. And an effort to enlist the support of junior military officers (mainly reserve and mostly in the air force) was smashed. The present unrest originated with a leftist body established among students' less than a decade ago and called devgene, or -revolutionary youth." Prior to last year's Intervention by the armed forces and establishment of mar- tial law, a reign of terror had begun to! creep through Turkish- cities. Some prosperous men even sent their families abroad. But public confidence now seems to have been restored and -the security forces believe the small but vigorous terrorist organizations have been de- capitated. Moreover, police analysis' has disclosed that the urban guerrillas' here have less extensive connections abroad than had sometimes been ru mored; that, for example, there is no reason to link them with the Uruguayan Tupamaros or the I.R.A. The explosions that have been rock- Ing Turkey seem to have been limited but the factors within the Turkish social structure that ignited these explosions have yet to be improved. The country has by no means advanced enough economically, educationally, or politi ,tally in the half-century since Ataturk's revolution assumed full control. In addition to'a generation gap so immense that it preventsr even the sem- blance of a dialogue between old and young, there is still, a cultural gap which prevents even the pretense of consensus on any major national issue. Until this is bridged, nihilism of one or .another sort will remain endemic. Approved For Release 1999/09/0212 CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 'Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 CPYRGHT NEW YORK TIMES 6 September 1972 Attack at Olympics Guerrillas, in Cairo, Take Responsibility for Attack CAIRO, Sept. 5 (Reuters) An Arab guerrilla organization called Black September claimed responsibility today for the attack on Israeli athletes' quar- ters at the Olympic Village in Munich.' The group, in a statement handed to foreign journalists, demanded the release of Arab guerrillas held by Israel and threatened to "liquidate" the Israelis held hostage in Munich if West Germans tried to storm their position in the Olympic quarters. The organization's statement, on four mimeographed pages headed "Communique of the Operation in Munich," was dis. tributed to news agency offices. The statement said that "our revolutionary forces" were "tak- ing over, right now, the Israeli house at the Olympic Village in Munich." It said, "All members of the Israeli delegation in the house are under armed arrest." List of Demands About six words were cut out of the paper at the begin- Ing of the next sentence, which read. "We demand of the Israeli military authorities In occupied Palestine to comply strictly with the following " . A list of demands was then given, calling for the release of Arab guerrillas held in Israel. The statement also warned against what it called "tricky maneuvers or delaying tactics of any sort." If the Israeli au thorities used any, they "will pay then for their arrogance and their disregard for human rights and lives, as well," the statement added. The second part of the state- ment termed Israel "an Ameri- scan client state" and said she posed a permanent threat to the people of the Middle East. Method of Release Specified CAIRO, Sept. 5 (Agence France-Presse)-The document said to have been distributed by the Black September guer- rilla organization said that the released prisoners were to board any 'non-Israeli plane and fly to any Arab capital other than Amman, Jordan, or Beirut, Leb- anon. After' their safe arrival, it said, negotiations could begin with West German authorities for the release of the Israeli NEW YORK TIMES 6 September 1972 Fedayeen Fulfill '71 Vow- By Major Raids Abroad harry Israel and gle," a member of the aArabl commando Central Committee declared a year ago in Amman, Jordan, and since then the com- mandos have staged a succes- ion of major attacks outside' ordanian soil. In their statements, the vari- us guerrilla spokesmen have ong been saying that they ere using violence tb drama- ize their grievance9,` and to her support ,ers. The guerrillas' ultimate ai Is to bring about the disman fling of Israel somehow. They argue that it was unjustly esta4lished on land that rightly Black September was so named symbolize the plight of the Palestinian guerrillas, sup- pressed by King Iiussein of Jordan in September, 1970. The group first appeared last No- vember when four of its inert, assassinated the Jordanian Pre- Mier, Wasfi Tal, in Cairo. The group also claimed rely sponsibility for an attempt on the life of a former Jordanian 6tnhaccarrnr in Innrinn thn cah- otaging earlier this year of a factory in West Germany that, manufactured electric gencr? ators for the Israeli Air Force,' and the blowing up of the oil' `complex at Trieste, Italy, in August. Black September's activities have evoked mixed Arab reac- tions-disannroval from most governments and support from some Palestinians and othct Arabs. Arabs appeared today to be' !stunned by the action in Munich. Their immediate reac-, 4ion was dismay. Lebanon indicated disap= proval when the. Government radio made no mention of t.hC developments in Munich. Other. Arab radios reported the at" :tack without comment. Lebanese wondered whether Israelis would find an excuse for an attack in Lebanon. They noted that the guerrillas herd had kept their promise made irt, .June to freeze all operation$ 'against Israel from Lebanon.. The Lebanese-Israeli bores der has been quiet since i.iten, This followed Israeli land an4, air attacks on guerrilla b:isc `and villages in southern Lcbai non. ganization had come into ex- istence in July, 1971 and had Issued a statement at tho time saying it would mount a "scorched-earth" policy against the Jordanian regime of. King Hussein. But soon afterward, a Jor, danian Government spokesman charged that Black September was really only "a mask used by. Fatah to hide its treacher- ous schemes." Al Fatah is tho main guerrilla reani7ntinn u no Arab commando group claimed responsibility for the next major guerrilla inci dent, the hijacking of a Luft- hnncn j?mhi, j tB~ie'G7TttTt'T desolate capital of Southern Yemen, last February. The West German Govern-' ment was reported to h ave paid Arabs* freed them on bail of $2,300 a $5-million ransom to the Before the' 1967 Arab=Israeli' each. Arab gunmen who took over war, the fledgling Palestinian 'Scorched -Earth'- the plane, which had carried guerrilla movement went about At the timme of the assasina- more than o phew to S !a. its business largely behind Is- eluding a son of the late ena racli lines. But since then, and tion, informants in Beirut, for Robert' F. Kennedy, hostages and the departure of September will tolerate no com- promise, it said. No Surprise in Beirut The Black September' guerrilla, organization's claim of respon sibility for the attack on Israeli athletes in Munich came as no Arabs have been expecting the radical group to retaliate for Israelis' storming of a hi-, jacked Belgian Sabena jetliner to the Tel Aviv airport, last May. Black September guerrillas I had hijacked the plane with 100 persons aboard to Tel Aviv Iciise 0 guerrillas held in Israeli pris- ons. Israeli soldiers disguised as airline servicemen attacked the plane, killed two male hi- jackers and captured the two Arab women helping them. Black September vowed ven-, geance- Late in May, three Japanese terrorists acting on behalf of, the Popular Front for the Lib-. eration of Palestine, a Marxist group, attacked the Tel Aviv airport with machine guns, kill ,ing 28 persons and wounding' ;72. The Black September organi- zation is made up of about 200' young guerrillas who were members of Al Fatah, the main guerrilla organization. Some ob- servers believe Black Septem- ber is a secret Fatah arm, oper- ated by Fatah's intelligence unit shice Me a an Army of - fehsives against the com- mandos in 1970 and 1971,.the guerrillas, or fe4aycen, have often found it more expeditious to mount their raids abroad. It was the 1970 crackdown that gave rise to the name of the shadowy Black September organization. In a statement issued in Cairo yesterday, the. :group claimed responsibility for the attacks on the Israeli Olym- pic team in Munich. estinians assassinated the Jar danian Premier, Wasfi Tal, at Cairo's most luxurious hotel,; the Sheraton. and when th, y were arrested they said the. were members of the Black Sep.' tember group. Last February,` e anon, re orted that th r- Approved For-Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-o' 19.4AO0020012( 01-1 25X1C10b Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 September 1972 NEOCOLONIALISM ARRIVES IN LATIN AMERICA "Cuba will always be true to the revolutionary movement. We put loyalty to the Soviet Union above everything else."* With these words, enunciated in Moscow on 4 July of this year, Fidel Castro Ruz became the first Latin American leader to pledge allegiance to a_European power since Bolivar and San Martin cast off Old World rule. Ironically, Castro owes his rise to power to the strong spirit of independence of his fellow countrymep.. But,. after 1:3 years of revolution increasingly patterned on the Soviet model, Castro had so thoroughly shattered Cuba's economy, its political viability and the morale of the people that he saw as his only recourse to turn over to Moscow complete responsibility for Cuba's political and economic future. The final, formal act in the Sovietization of Cuba came at the 26th session of Comecon, an economic grouping of primarily East European states that make up the Soviet dominated Warsaw Pact Bloc, held in Moscow from 10 to 12 July. At this meeting, Cuba, which had been content to attend past sessions as an observer, ostensibly "requested" and, by Soviet diktat, was "unanimously" granted full membership in the group. As a member of Comecon, Cuba has "voluntarily" placed itself in the "Socialist Commonwealth", subject to the Brezhnev Doctrine which limits the sovereignty of states and provides the ideological rationale for Kremlin interference in the internal political affairs of member states. Soviet media coverage of the event noted that Cuba was the "first country in Latin America to take part in socialist integration," A Pravda editorial said proudly that "states of three continents are now members of Comecon." Comecon, also known as the Council for Mutual Economic Assis- tance (CMEA), is made up of Bulgaria, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary and Mongolia, which lies on the Asian border of the USSR, as well as the Soviet Union and now, Cuba. Yugoslavia attends Comecon meetings as an observer; however, since Tito managed to free Yugoslavia from the manacles of "Soviet state capitalism" in 1948, he has been careful to keep the extent of his *Krasnaya Zvezda(Red Star),, 5 July 1972, (The daily newspaper of the Soviet -Minist'ry' of National Defense.) Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 economic dealings with Comecon well below the level considered dangerous to Yugoslavia's autonomy. The reduction of Cuba to the status of a Soviet colony began in earnest in early 1968, when Castro, faced with the realities of mounting economic and morale problems caused by his erratic and irresponsible leadership, agreed to terms for massive Soviet economic and technical support in exchange for his open espousal of Moscow's ideological supremacy and an increase in his support for Kremlin foreign policies. As a result, Castro, once considered an independent revolutionary and for several years a major pro- ponent of "separate - national - roads to socialism," shocked the more liberal elements of the socialist world by endorsing the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Four years of carefully doled Soviet aid only managed to keep the Cuban economy on a bare subsistence level while it drove Castro into deeper economic dependence on Moscow and increased his political bondage to the Kremlin. By early this year the total Cuban debt to the USSR had risen to over 4 billion dollars and according to unofficial but reliable estimates this figure of indebtedness has been increasing at the rate of nearly 2 million dollars per day. When it became clear that the key sugar harvest for this year would barely top 4 million tons, making it one of the poorest harvests in recent Cuban history and disastrously below the 10 million tons which Castro had staked "the honor of the revolution" on attaining by 1970, both Havana and Moscow became alarmed. The Soviet solution, which Castro could resist only by admitting his failure to the Cuban people and giving up his position of power, called for placing the Cuban economy completely in the hands of Soviet planners and managers for the foreseeable future. Bringing Cuba into Comecon would not only provide a thin ideological face- saving veneer for Castro when the full extent of Moscow's role in Cuba became evident, but it would also provide the basis for the Kremlin's having its East European "partners" share in the ever- rising costs of maintaining Cuba while the Soviets continued to reap all of the political benefits. To lay the groundwork for Cuba's entry into Comecon, Castro made an extensive "good-will" tour of the six East Europe Comecon member states and the Soviet Union itself. The eight-week journey, lasting from 17 May until 6 July, marked the first time Castro had visited this area since 1964. Included in the tour were as many public appearances and meetings with national leaders as could be squeezed into the schedule. Short speeches, press conferences, interviews and communiques were everyday occurrences. The themes highlighted by Castro throughout were unrestrained praise for Soviet policies and a call for greater solidarity of the socialist community under Moscow's 'magnanimous" leadership. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 The trip came at a time when Soviet pressures for greater integration and consolidation of its hold over Eastern Europe were intensifying while nationalist-minded East European leaders were seeking a variety of unobtrusive means for loosening Moscow's reins. Such timing led many in East Europe, where experience has taught the people to be wary of the Kremlin, to conclude that the trip was conceived and directed in its entirety by Moscow. Castro, nevertheless, played the role of the innocent and grateful Third World beneficiary of Soviet munificence, much to the chagrin and dismay of his hosts, especially in Romania, Hungary and Poland. In Czechoslovakia, where trials of the patriots and intellectuals involved in the "Prague Spring" were in progress, Castro "proudly" accepted an award for "the position taken by the Cuban Communist Party in connection with the international assist- ance of the Warsaw Pact countries in 1968." Quite appropriately the award was presented by the Soviet-installed leader of Czecho- slovakia, Gustav Husak, who remarked, "Your position was a great help then and still is today." In accepting the award Castro responded, "The position we took on the events in Czechoslovakia in 1968-69 is perfectly normal, because we are allergic to any manifestation of liberalism or deviationism._. Shortly after his return to Cuba, and just two weeks after Cuba's entry into Comecon, Castro delivered his traditional speech to the Cuban people on the anniversary of the 26th of July movement. He assured them that the trip was a great success and that Cuba would only benefit from its new status in Comecon. He obviously assumed that the Cuban people knew little about the realities of Comecon and the true status of the subjugated East European states that make up this body. Ironically, he used much of his speech to lecture other Latin American countries and their leaders on the meaning of "true sovereignty," "real freedom,11 I 'in- dependence" and "national self-respect." In marked contrast, these are the very subjects he feared to mention in the dozens of public utterances he made throughout Eastern Europe, where they are as cherished by the peoples of these captive nations as they are by the free Latin Americans. The Cuban people should be aware of what East Europeans really feel about Comecon. While the press in Albania failed to mention Cuba's admission to Comecon, it did report the following on 17 July: "CAA (Comecon) held its 26th session in Moscow last week. While the Soviet leaders continue to publicize its benefits and prospects for the future to member states, such propaganda cannot obscure the bitter reality concealed behind the activity of this bloc, As time goes on it becomes ever clearer that CMEA Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 and its many organs are only instruments used by Moscow to plunder the other members of this neo- colonialist-type entity in the most highly organized manner possible." What is the significance for the other Latin American countries of Cuba's new status as a full-fledged vassal of Soviet neo- colonialism? How can the other Latins deal with Castro's pledge to "put loyalty to the Soviet Union above everything else?" Cuban policies in Latin America, which, since 1968, had been gradually changing to conform with Soviet policies in this area, would now be planned, coordinated and financed in Moscow. Many observers have noted a superficial easing of Cuban policies since 1968; a shift from outright Cuban support for the most radical and violent left-wing revolutionary movements to what appears to be a more moderate stance involving open Cuban support of responsible revolutionary leaders. Such a view can be not only misleading but extremely dangerous for Latin America in the future, for Havana will now be manipulated in the much more subtle and sophisticated ways characteristic of its Soviet master. It must also be remembered that ,a goodly portion of Cuba's 4 billion dollar debt to the USSR represent's indirect Soviet funding of Latin American revolutionary movements. Old, experienced communists such as Yugoslavia's Tito and China's Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai, learned long ago that the wily Kremlin politicians, much like their Tsarist imperialist pre- decessors, are more interested in extending their own power, and the power of the Russian Empire, than they are in altruistically supporting revolutions designed to improve the lot of the masses. Soviet Latin American policy has been characterized for a number of years by what appears on the surface to be a good deal of flexibility and moderation. In reality, however, it has been marked by a cynical duality which combines diplomatic niceties and carefully doled foreign aid and open displays of friendship along with clandestine intrigue and subversion calculated in the long run to extend Soviet political influence throughout the area. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Soviet hegemony over east^rn Europe. That is why even those. Comecon integration projects under discussion in Moscow last week which can be justi- fir-l in terms of economic rationality have a sinister ring for the more inde- pendent-.minded east Europeans. The- main news from last week's meeting of this supposedly economic organisation was political. The entry of Cuba as a full member is dictated no doubt by Russia's desire to keep a closer watch on Dr Castro. There is also die near-entry into membership of Jugoslavia, which has recently found itself obliged-mainly through its lack of success in western markets-to enter into closer co-operation with Come- con. Politics, not economics, is still king in eastern Europe. . Hanging over all Comecon members is the growing political problem of how to react to the' enlargement of the common market. Rumania has approached Brussels in the hope of being included in Europe's generalised preference scheme. Jugoslavia has a trade agreement ivith the common market, which is currently being re.-negotiated. Poland and Ijungai would like to get larger quotas for their textile exports to the community but obviously cannot until Comecon has sorted out the recognition problem. But in a year when the Ten are jointly preparing their approach to the Euro- pean security conference, and when the Brussels commission is expected to take over the future common commercial policy of the Ten towards eaftern Europe, there is an increasing fear that Russia will use the issue of rec gni.. tion of the EEC to bludgeon its Come- con partners further into line. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 September 1972 THE VIETNAM WAR: SWEDEN'S PROXY TARGET Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme used the occasion of the Socialist International Congress in Vienna (26-29 June) to return to one of his favorite themes: American intervention in Vietnam. At a time when many of his fellow European socialists have acknow- ledged the fact of the massive North Vietnamese invasion of the South, Mr. Palme has persisted in characterizing the American presence as a continuation of French colonialism and asked the Socialist International Congress to take a stand against American "intervention." The Prime Minister's moral indignation was boundless: "We are socialists; we are on the side of the poor, the downtrodden." The Palme government's latest propaganda offensive against the United States began on 17 May when Education Minister Carlsson joined a march on the U.S. Embassy sponsored by the Swedish Vietnam Committee. Speaking to the demonstrators, Carlsson condemned the American role in Vietnam as "only one" instance of U.S. efforts to dominate other countries. On 23 May Foreign Minister Wickman told the Swedish parliament that the North Vietnamese invasion of the South, was simply another example of cooperation between liberation movements, whereas U.S. intervention was directed against all the Vietnamese people. And in mid-June Swedish Ambassador to North Vietnam Oeberg claimed that U.S. bombing of the North had severely damaged dikes and dams and could cause massive flooding during the rainy season. Since most Swedes are pre-occupied, at the moment, with more parochial. problems, such as unemployment, inflation and higher taxes, the government's sudden re-obsession with the fate of a Southeast Asian nation is difficult to understand. Could it possibly relate to something more than the "humanitarian concern," Mr. Palme is so fond of emphasizing? In the 1970 elections, Palme's Social Democratic party lost its absolute majority in parliament, when many of its left-wing supporters turned to the communists. The government is currently experiencing a severe mid-term slump- Sweden has been slow to recover from last year's economic recession: consumer prices rose approximately seven percent between May 1971 and May 1972; unemployment remains high. Last winter Swedish housewives demon- strated against the soaring price of food and the government is worried that there may be new demonstrations. Unable as yet to resolve his domestic problems, and faced with new elections in 1973, Palme has turned with obvious relief to the Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Vietnam issue which is popular with the young and disaffected elements of his electorate. His use of the Socialist International forum to placate the Swedish left was noted by other participants in the meeting. Responding to the Swedish Prime Minister's remarks, German Chancellor Willy Brandt noted "anti-Americanism is often an excuse for our own failings."' The congress, for its part, did not condemn the U.S. role in Southeast Asia. Palme subsequently admitted that the Swedish Social Democratic position on Vietnam is not always appreciated. TERRORISM AND THE SOVIET UNION In a series of two articles, The Soviet Involvement in Violence, appearing in the July 19 issues o the ortnig tly owlet alyst, Brian Crozier, Director of the London-based Institute or the Study of Conflict, examines the extent of Soviet sponsorship of terrorism and guerrilla warfare on one hand while, on the other, it assiduously cultivates an image of detente and peaceful co-existence -- which image also provides cover for the continuing subversive activities of the KGB and GRU. The documented evidence of Soviet-supplied materiel,`furids and'to revolutionaries in Western Europe, the Arab world and Near East, Africa and Latin America at the same time as the Soviets exhibit a popular front, constitutional non-revolutionary image, can serve as a take-off for careful examination of Soviet motivation. Attached are reprints of the articles from the Soviet Analyst. To facilitate exploitation of these articles in Latin America , an unofficial Spanish translation of them is also attached (for selected areas only). DISILLUSIONED WITH SOVIET OIL TECHNICIANS The Nigerian press reflects disillusionment with the recent Moscow/Lagos agreement which calls for Soviet technicians to assist in Nigerian oil production. An article in the 19 July issue of Renaissance, an official daily newspaper of the Nigerian government, questions the wisdom of seeking Soviet oil technology experts when in fact the Soviets have no major oil discoveries to their credit despite more than 15 years of drilling in such countries as Egypt, Iran, Syria, Morocco and India. "In oil technology as is generally known, the West is far ahead of the East. It is not a question of ideology. That-is why questions are bound to-be,asked whether the government in making its leap eastward, got the best possible advice." The article also cites Jidda's Al Madina, which quotes Egypt's former Deputy Premier and oil minister ud Younes as noting that "the reputation of the Soviet Union in matters Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 of oil technology is not very good." Reference is also made to the World Oil Congress held in Moscow in June 1971 as a "dazzling show... (that)-may convince gullible unsophisticates that topflight Soviet oil technology, of which the Russians have a certain amount, is available for export under aid projects. But the facts and past experience show that the USSR needs all its best help for itself, not for foreign countries.," Arab countries are not the only ones being short-changed by Soviet technology. In February 1971, India abandoned its off-shore explorations in the Gulf of Cambay because of inadequate Soviet equipment. "India's heavy reliance on Soviet equipment and technical assistance for the past 15 years has slowed exploration for crude oil the country needs..,. Soviet exploration techniques are at least ten years behind Western industry." "Iussia's Drilling Hit by Equipment Problems," an article that appeared in the author-. itative monthly magazine World Petroleum, is also referred to: "Spare parts were lacking aria Te_ 1gn was recognized by the Soviets themselves to be obsolete, backward and inefficient." The concluding theme of the Renaissance article is that the Soviets' limited experience in computer technology will hamper progress in a rapidly modernizing oil industry. As far back as 1963 Western exploitation had benefited from digital seismic technology which by 1966 was being used in Libya. It wasn't until 1969 that the first computerized digital seismic unit was available to the USSR. The required accuracy for locating Libyan petroleum reserves, currently being attempted by Soviet technicians in Tripoli, "will inevitably be impaired by a shortfall in computer technique. It is the same story in Iraq as in Egypt and elsewhere of ineffective Soviet oil 'help' often extended for political motives." Another setback in the Soviets' drive to expand their influence in Africa is reported in the 20 July 1972 edition of the oil trade journal Platts Oilgram. In mid-July, the Libyan government denied entrance to a .large delegation of Soviet oil experts on "technical grounds." The article indicates that the Libyan government may be reconsidering the agreements signed by Premier Jallud in Moscow in early 1972 for Soviet assistance in oil production. The Libyans, as the Nigerians, are probably aware of limited Soviet expertise in petroleum technology, It is noteworthy that Iraq, Moscow's most loyal friend in the Middle East, turned to France to market, oil and continues to seek European help in oil pro- duction, Some sources indicate that Libya's refusal to accept Soviet technicians is partially based on an Egyptian report that intelligence officers were among the "technicians." Through this often used guise, the Kremlin hoped to offset recent Libyan demands for the reduction of personnel at the Soviet Embassy in 'Tripoli, Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 IF AT FIRST YOU DON'T SUCCEED Moscow is busy corralling its front organizations for a series of youth meetings where European security will be the major topic. The Soviets seem undaunted by the spectacular failure of the Assembly for Peace and Security in Europe (ARPO) which met in Brussels in early June, That conference was the first of a series of international non-governmental gatherings aimed at keeping up pressures on West European governments to accept the Soviet precepts of European Security. Despite the meager results of ARPO, the Soviets are still touting these youth gatherings, claiming ARPO gave youth in particular an opportunity to participate in peace deliberations. The first such gathering is the European Youth Security Conference in Helsinki (August 26-30), supported by the World Federation of Democratic Youth. Moscow claims that more than 100 youth festivals, conferences and meetings will take place this year, some of which are in preparation for the Tenth World Youth Festival, scheduled for late July 1973 in East Berlin. The Festival's Preparatory Meeting will be in East Berlin in October; Moscow has already announced that its traveling saleswoman-astronaut, Valentina Nikolayevna- Tereshkova, will be among the Soviet members in attendance. A "World Meeting of Working Youth" will fallow in Moscow in November; its theme will be "youth condemns imperialism." It is doubtful that these meetings will achieve the desired propaganda impact but it is obvious that the Soviets are willing to take the gamble and are expending considerable time and money in cultivating youth groups from abroad. On 7 August the Soviet government newspaper I_~zvestiy voiced loud complaint over a new Chinese atlas, accusing Peking of re- heating the Sino-Soviet border controversy. The new Chinese book called The Peace Atlas claims more than 900,000 square miles of Soviet-influenced territory for China which Moscow says is an "absurd demand." Izvestiya described the new Chinese atlas as aimed at "fanning hostility between the Soviet and Chinese peoples, educating the population of China in the spirit of hatred for other peoples... particularly neighboring peoples-in the spirit of revising the borders of China with adjacent countries." Izvestiya goes on to say that China, with which the Soviet Union shares a 4,300 mile border, claims in its new atlas Mongolia, most of the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan, and parts of the Republics of Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 ' Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Turkmenia,.Uzbekistan,,and Siberia,, (An English translation of the Izvestiya article is attached.) JAPAN OBJECTS TO SOVIET TERRITORIAL CLAIMS Soviet pique over "Mao's Geography" ties in well with the matter of Japan's Northern Territories which the Soviet Union usurped during the closing days of World War II...the main difference in the cases being that the Pacific islands under dis- pute are by tradition Japanese, while the Soviet territories claimed by Mao's atlas are not by tradition Chinese. Japanese Foreign Minister Ohira and the Soviet ambassador to Japan, Oleg Troyanovsky, are about to begin preliminary discussions designed to lead eventually to the conclusion of a Soviet-Japanese peace treaty. Soviet refusal to comply with Japanese insistence on the return of the Northern Territories continues to be the major irritant in existing Japanese-Soviet tensions. Most recently, this was attested to by Japan's strongly negative reaction to the latest hints (surfaced via Victor Louis) that the USSR "might be willing to rent or lease" to Japan the islands under dispute. The islands lie just off the northernmost Japanese island of Hokkaido and just south of the Kuril Island Chain, which was handed over to the Soviets under terms of the Yalta Agreement and has since been incorporated into the RSFSR. The disputed islands, referred to as the Northern Territories are the islands of Shikotan, Etorofu, Kunashiri and the Habomai archipelago. Shikotan and the Habomais are the islands to which Japan has the best claim as they are neither geographically nor geologically part of the Kuril Chain but like the Kurils have been under Japanese dominion since 1798. Japan claims Etorofu and Kunashiri as the northern extension of Hokkaido; the Soviets claim them as the southernmost part of the Kurils and thus as covered under the Yalta Agreement. However, they too have been continuously under Japanese dominion since 1798 and have been traditional Japanese fishing grounds for centuries. Precedent for disputing the fallacy of the Soviet definition of the Northern Territories as part of the Kuril Chain dates back to the Nineteenth Century. A treaty of amity of 1855 established the Russo-Japanese border on a line running between Etorofu Island (Japanese) and Urrupu Island (Russian) thus recog- nizing the legality of a Japanese presence in the Northern Territories. The Kuril-Sakhalin exchange of 1875 defined the Kuril Island Chain as starting at its southern tip with Urrupu and as not including the Northern Territories,. No leader of Imperial Russia or the Soviet Union ever questioned this definition before. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Obviously more important to the Soviet Union than historic precedent is what the USSR sees as the strategic value of the Northern Territories. Together with the Soviet Union's ownership of the Kuril Chain, the Soviet presence in the Northern Territories practically guarantees the USSR control over access to the Sea of Okhotsk and plays a major role in Soviet antisubmarine activities. These activities are centered at the large military base that the Soviets have built on the northernmost island in the Northern Territories, Etorofu. Maintaining this toehold may take on even added significance in Moscow's eyes as relations between Japan and China warm up. When it was pointed out to the Soviets last spring that the reversion of Okinawa from the U.S. to Japan should set a precedent for the reversion of the Northern Territories, another fallacious Soviet argument was heard as Ambassador Troyanovsky told the Japanese press: "Keeping aside any historical or legal comment, I would like to call just one matter to everyone's attention. One million Japanese live on Okinawa; but for 25 years only Russians have been living on the southern Kurils" (meaning the Northern Territories). Undeniably so, but only because the Soviet occupying forces evicted some 16,000 Japanese from the Northern Territories while the Americans allowed the residents of Okinawa to stay in place. Fallacious arguments and precedents aside, as the preliminary peace discussions open this month, the determining factor may well be one of economics. The Soviet Union, eager for Japanese aid in developing its resources in Siberia and the far eastern provinces, will undoubtedly use the Northern Territories issue to try to get liberal terms on potential future Japanese investments. Prime Minister Tanaka, however, has already declared Tokyo's intention to take an all-or-nothing position on the return of the islands. In fact, the Japanese government will be willing to wait several years if need be in order to conclude a treaty on its own terms. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 . Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 SOVIET ANALYST, London 6 July 1972 CPYRGHT r The Soviet involvement in, oIIice by Brian Crozier Director, Institute for the Study of `Conflict, London 'The proposition that the. Soviet Union is still involved in the sponsorship of revolutionary violence tends, nowadays, to be greeted with in- credulity. The new image of Russia, carefully cultivated over the past decade or more, is that of a super-Power impelled by traditional imperial drives, capable, it is true, of unfortunate lapses such as the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, but not, after all, guilty of major outrages like Vietnam.. Of course, not all people accept this now image of reassuring normality, but many leader writers, television commentators and _politicians do accept it, as they accept other popular fallacies such as the notion that the Cold War Is over, the "normality" of Communist parties (for example the Italian) or the reality of the detente now being offered by Mr. Brezhnev. The fact is, however, that the Russians'are in- volved in sponsoring terrorism or guerrilla war in many countries and in varying degrees. Where and to what degree it is the purpose of this article The lot of the analyst was enviably simpler in Stalin's day, and especially during the last eight years of his life from the end of the Second World War when Moscow was the unchallenged centre of authority of the world Communist move- ment. During those years? the capacity of the Russians to stir up trouble in distant places (for instance in South-East Asia) was so patent, the hostility of the Western Communist parties and their commitment to revolutionary violence so evident, that the Western Powers sank their differences and formed a defensive alliance in the interests of survival. I am not here concerned in any detail with the causes of the altered image of the Soviet Union and of the great majority of the Communist parties that are still, broadly speaking, aligned with Moscow.' The roots of change are well known: Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin and recog- nition that in some circumstances it might now be possible for the "people" to attain power by con- stitutional, even parliamentary, means; Togliatti's polycentrism; the Sino-Soviet split. was erratic; and, during his last two years in power (after the humiliating confrontation with President Kennedy in the Carribean), L-icertain and oven timid.' There were signs of a declining involvement in undo-China, and in the promotion of revolution in parts of Africa. Some curious heresies were perpetrated. such as the confer- ment of the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" en IVdJJUr and Stnibt;iia, and the forging of "fraternal (inks" with the ruling political organisations of the United Arab Re- public and Algeria. With Khrushchev out of the way, the Brezhnev. Kosygin team moved swiftly to restore the mom- entum of Russia's drive throughout the world. As Professor Erickson pointed out (SOVIET ANALYST, Vol. 1, No. 4), a vast expansion of the Soviet nuculear armament programme was initiated. But the complementary activities should not be overlooked. In December 1964, the Russians invited the National Front for the Liber- ation of South Vietnam to set up a permanent office in Moscow. The curious thing was that Khrushchev had not seen fit to do so, as the NFLSV already had offices in Peking, Algiers, Jakarta, Prague, East Berlin and Havana. Soviet help to Left-wing Congolese rebels was resumed. In February 1965, Kosygin led a high-powered delegation to Hanoi and initiated a massive military aid programme to North Vietnam; the consequence today being. that about 90 per cent of the heavy and modern war material being used by the North Vietnamese in its invasion of the South is of Soviet origin. The Soviet Union's expansionist drive through- out the world is indeed in full flood, and Russian involvement in support of revolutionary violence must be seen in this context, as an important element but by no means the only one or even the most important. Illusory comfort has been derived by Western wishful-thinkers from the dissensions within the International Communist Movement, the Chinese challenge to Soviet auth- ority, the obstinate adventurism of Fidel Castro, and above all from Brezhnev's readiness to meet Herr Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik half way with treaties and arrangements, his offer of a detente In Europe and a European Security Treaty and More directly relevant is the change in Soviet his decision to spell out the rules of super-Power tactics and techniques since the removal of co-existence with President Nixon. Khrushchev A9PMVf& FeovReIelasec'69aWO9/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 duct of foreign affairs and of relations between the Soviet Communist Party and lesser parties QPYRGHT None of this affects the realities o e Suviut o e extent expansions ilovbd ov'aRel e" 9WIO9/02 : CF 7t9L1q 94JsP0OW2ft 000 It revo- ' lutionary violence, then Soviet sponsorship wi It as it has always been-to incorporate as many countries of the world as possible into the Soviet system. Indeed, the Nixon-Brezhnev agreements provide the perfect umbrella for the espionage and subversive activities of the KGB, and its military counterpart the GRU; throughout the world. For .'peaceful co-existence" (as both the Chinese and the Russians agreed under the World Communist Declaration of 1960) means "the intensification" of the international class struggle, and the Soviet support for "national liberation" movements has been reaffirmed on many cccasions. This Soviet commitment needs, however, to be critically ex- amined. At one level, it is a propaganda commit- ment: the Russians wish it to be known that they are committed to "national liberation", because their revolutionary credentials are under challenge from Peking and from the proliferating groups, either new or revived, which together constitute the New Left. And since a verbal commitment may be insufficent, they do provide arms, money and training to numerous revolutionary groups. But this does not necessarily imply a naive belief in the chances of ultimate success of terrorists and guerrillas specially in the rural insurrections ideologically favoured by Peking. Still, however, they cannot afford to be "out of it": if the Chinese, or the Cubans assist violent revolution- aries, then the Russians must also do so, at least in selected cases. This is the phenomenon I call "competitive subversion". The Soviet commitment to revolutionary violence should be seen in the context of Soviet strategy and of developments over the past four years. It has become clearer than ever that an important objective in this strategy is the est- ablishment of client-States far from the borders of the USSR. The first was Cuba, which fell into Russia's lap almost by accident. Next came Egypt, as a deferred consequence of the ,"Czech" arms deal of 1955, and of the Soviet decision to build the High Dam at Aswan after John Foster Dulles had declined to finance it. Latterly, the process has been accelerated, with the conclusion of treaties with Egypt and India last year, Soviet support for India in its war with Pakistan, with the consequent extension of Soviet influence to Bangladesh; the new treaty with Iraq (signed in April this year); and the powerful Soviet military assistance to North Vietnam, which is consistent with a Soviet policy objective of encouraging the emergence of a greater Vietnam (with Laos and Cambodia, together with South Vietnam, all under North Vietnamese control) as yet another client-State, this time on the southern border of China. A possible further candidate for client- State status is President Atllende's Chile, in which the well-organised local Communist Party, adopt- ing Moscow's favoured "constitutional road" to I h... dchieve 1 ufiice 1n d'(:vaii-iull yovern- be forthcoming-either secretly, or semi-overtly. The other objectives include: the "Finlandisation" of Western Europe, prior to its incorporation into the Soviet system; the isolation of the United States; control over Middle East oil and the denial of economic resources in that area and in Africa to the Chinese. European and North American acceptance of a detente on Soviet terms is an important element in this total picture, together with the achievement of rough nuclear parity with the United States and the rapid expansion of Soviet naval power in the Mediterranean and latterly in the Indian Ocean. Detente gives am- munition to those American politicians who wish the United States to withdraw its forces from Europe. In the meantime, Soviet efforts to weaken capitalism, to undermine the confidence of Western governments, and to destroy the stability of non-communist Slates-1-on-,a selective basis continues unremittingly. The Soviet attitude towards the non-communist extremist groups of the Left in many countries is conditioned by their ability, as assessed in Moscow, to further Russian objectives. For several years, Moscow treated the New Left with contempt or derision. But the events of 1968 are now seen to have provoked an agonized recon- sideration in Moscow. That spring, President election; Prague enjoyed its brief moment of euphoric freedom from Soviet control; and in Paris, the riotous students came within an inch of removing General de Gaulle from power. All three of these events were triumphs, however short- lived, for the New Left. The Russian policy- planners took note and drew the consequences. Ideally, they favour the constitutional road to power through united front or popular front tactics, as happened in Chile in 1970, and as may well happen one day in Italy or France. This does not rule out clandestine support for the more violent revolutionaries. This new and more soph- isticated approach is a case of "heads we win, tails you lose". Revolutionary violence has in fact been denounced by the Communist parties of Italy, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay and Chile. Such parties pose as the champions of order, and as candidates for government. But to the extent that terrorism and guerrilla tactics weaken the State and present Communist parties with their "constitutional" opportunity, they are worth supporting. puwe . ment. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 :CIA-RDP79-01194A0002Q0120001-1 CPYRGHT Let us turn o t e In th RA 1,4,41 s? E destine nature of many such activities rules out comprehensive evidence. But there are sufficient indications to prove the point. In South and East Aria, the Russians are by and large content to leave the support of revolutionary violence to the Chinese. The apparent exception is Vietnam, but Soviet aid to the North Vietnamese is given on a State-to-State basis, and direct Soviet support for the Viet Cong has been minimal. e ast, Africa and Latin-America, Soviet involvement with extremists has been far more extensive. There has also been some se'ective involvement in Western countries, in- cluding the United Kingdom and the United States. Details of these activities will be published in a concluding article. To be continued. SOVIET ANALYST, London 20 July 1972 The Soviet involvement in violence II by Briars Crozier Director, Institute for the Study of Conflict, London (exclusive to Soviet Analyst) attitude towards revolutionary violence in general terms. Let us now be more specific. Western Europe The main concentration of the Soviet effort is on espionage, both military and industrial, and the mass expulsion of KGB agents from Britain in September, 1971 drew attention to the scale of Russian activities in this field. :I am not here con- cerned with spying, as such, or with subversion- of which there is a great deal. As regards revolu- tionary violence, there are indications, as yet in- ufficiently precise, that the Russians are trying to penetrate Maoist and Trotskyist extremist groups in France, Belgium and Italy. It would-be sur- rising if they were not making a similar effort n the United Kingdom, but with what success is of publicly known. The most striking sign of Soviet involvement in violence was the seizure of #30,000 consignment of Czech arms at Schiphol irport, Amsterdam, last October. Two points, ere of special interest. One is that the arms --Om dcs.;. cd for the nen_Marvist Pro\'icionel ing of the Irish Republican Army-a striking onfirmation of the theory that the Russians are repared to help non-Marxist terrorists while aintaining normal diplomatic relations with the ost country and preaching the "constitutional" oad to power. The second point is that, although he Provisionals' arms deal was with the Czech overnment agency, Omnipol, it could not have een concluded without the knowledge and as- of the KGB. II CPYRGHT Arab world and Near East The Palestine terrorists and guerrillas face the Russians with a dilemma. To the extent that the guerrillas are anti-Israeli, the Russians are in- clined to support them; on the other hand, the groups have proved, on the whole, to be a greater menace to the Arab governments than to Israel itself, and to support them outright might be counter-productive in terms of Soviet relations with friendly countries, such as Egypt or Iraq Moreover, the Palestinians have a record of un- success, with which the Russians do not with to be associated: and the wildest among them- Dr George Habbash's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)-are not only boastful where the Russians would prefer discretion, but indulge in spectacular acts of violence with which, again, the Russians would prefer not to be linked. Thus in September, 1970, after the PFLP had hijacked and destroyed four international air-liners, two Soviet lawyers condemned the incident in an article in Literaturnaya Gazeta. There has certainly been some Soviet aid to the PFLP, however, and to the more moderate Al Fatah, if only to be able to claim, if challenged, that the Palestine liperation movement has not been left unaided. (Chinese aid to the PFLP is certainly greater than Russian.) Here, as else- where, the Russians have shown some distaste for giving aid to groups which they do not control and which, moreover, seem determined to go their own way. They have tried to meet this situ- ation by fostering the creation (in February, 1970) of Quwwat al-Ansar (Partisan Fcrccs) by the pro-Soviet Communist Parties of Lebanon, Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : (iAj i[ 9DO1 k-i0@0200420001 '1 how- 3 ever not of Palestinians but of "volunteers"" from GHT the co:::i Ott ns n attics o z~~ o t`~vakia In addit,on. Soviet be i1r,oreZ!- ~Lr t1~1 ~j7 Up1s~ ~~~ 2 g 'S '~r~ QQQ2, r'620001! 1num- toughs well in Jordan agraarst K 1119 Huasoi1r's bers through the Organisation for Africon Unity forces; but it was left out of the United Palestine and the Conference of Nationalist Organisations of Liberation Army set up under Yassir Arafat's the Portuguese Colonies. readership in November, 1970. In Oman, where Chinese-backed guerrillas of the Popular Front for the Liberation of ..the Oc- cupied Arabian Gulf (PFLOAG) have been fight- ing the Sultan's forces in the Dhofar area with some success, the Russians seem to have de- cided to complete with Peking. A PFLOAG dele- gation visited Moscow and East Berlin last autumn and returned with claims (which the Russians have not denied) that Soviet assistance would soon be doubled-a claim reminiscent of the percentage increases from an unknown base during Stalin's five-year plans. Encouragingly, however, a Soviet camera team has shot a film of the Dhofar rebellion entitled "Hot Winds of Free- dom", which has won a prize. In the non-Arab Middle East, too, there is Soviet involvement in revolutionary violence both directly and through intermediaries. East Ger- many is host to the banned Iranian Communist Party (as the Shah himself complained a year ago) and serves as a contact point for meetings between Soviet agents and the leaders of the violent Dev Genc (Revolutionary Youth) organi- sation and its Turkish People's Liberation Army (TPLP). The TPLP has received arms from Bul- garia, perhaps the most assiduous of Russia's satellites ir. the provision of aid to terrorists. Latin America More is known about Soviet involvement in Latin America than elsewhere, largely because of the disclosures of high-ranking Cuban Intelligence defectors An unwilling and unpredictable satel- lite, Fidel Castro thvartFJ Soviet efforts to take over the Cubar. Communist Party from within b/ gaoling the pro-Soviet Anibal Escalante early in 1968 and purging the Party of its Moscow-lean- ing "micro-faction". The Russians turned to dir- ect pressure, including the threat to cut off all economic aid unless Castro stopped criticising the Soviet Union and launching plans for guerrilla actions in many countries without consulting Moscow. Shortly after the expulsion of the "micro-faction", Castro was compelled to sign a secret agreement binding himself to support the Soviet line. So much was known through the revelations of Orlando Castro Hidalgo, a top defector who has since told his own story. A more recent high- ranking defector, whose name has not yet been revealed, has been adding fascinating touches to the picture. At issue is Soviet control dyer Fidel Castro's revolutionary adventures. The Russians were not amused when "Che" Guevara's attempt to sir revolution in Bolivia ended in fiasco and his own death in 1967. They were determined not to find themselves footing the bill for more dis- astrous Cuban enterprises. Africa Sino-Soviet competition is at its fiercest in east and southern Africa. An earlier phase of almost indiscriminate Soviet subversion ended with the overthrow, in February, 1966, of the Nkrurnah regime in Ghana, to which Moscow was deeply committed. Nowadays, Soviet assistance tends to go mainly to movements ."struggling" against regimes that can be labelled "neo-colonialist", "imperialist", "feudal" or "racist". In contrast to Soviet practice in most other areas, the Russians give much publicity to their aid to such move- ments as the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), which is based in Zambia with aim of "liberating" Rhodesia; the Front for the Libera- tion of Mozambique (FRELIMO ); and the South- West African People's Organisation (SWAPO). The many claims of assistance appearing in the Soviet press are, however, couched in general terms, avoiding details. It is known that at any given moment, several hundred Africans-mainl' from Rhodesia, South and South-West Afrrcn and the Portuguese terri- tories-are undergoing training in terrorist tactics i^ Soviet camns, the largest being at Simferopol After prolonged pressure, the KGB's men in Havana forced Fidel's brother, Raul Castro, in 1970, to get rid of all anti-Soviet personnel in 'the Cuban Directorate General of Intelligence ( DGI ), including its chief, Pineiro Losada. As Minister of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, Major Castro has theoretical control (subject, now, to Soviet approval) over the DGI. The purge of the DGI was not, however, the end of the story. Under Fidel Castro's protection, Pineiro Losada and the anti-Soviet staff dismissed from the DGI, set up a new organisation, the Directorate of National LiLaration (DLN). An unprecedented situation has resulted. The Russians are prepared to finance DGI operations thjt have their approval: these include training in Chile for units of the National Liberation Army of Bolivia, and also for guerrillas of the Chilean Movement of the Revolutionary Left (M I R) . These training activities take place in Chile be- cause President Allende agreed last year to allow the Cubans to use their embassy in Santiago as their main centre for revolutionary operations in South America. (Spy for Fidel: E. A. Seemann Publishing, Miami, 1970). in the Ap> ved,Fo sRe1L-asLb'l'9999 /Q'2 :4CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 Aproved For Release 1999/09/02 Fidel* Castro s DLN, however, has plans for operations in many countries for which there is neither Soviet approval nor money. A Soviet near- streang!ehold on the Cuban economy is exer- cised through the joint Cuban-Soviet Economic Commission and the Moscow Narodny Bank in Havana. To finance non-approved revolutionary ventures, therc.fore, Fidel Castro has had to take what he can from Cuban-controlled internal revenues and foreign trade--inadeaua,.e sources for an ambitious man. Now, according to the de- fector. he has turned to an unexpected source for financial and military id: North Korea, which has emerged over the past eighteen months as a major new subversive centre. Under a trianrlular deal, Chile recognised North Korea, which opened an embassy in Santiago; a North Korean guerrilla training mission, stationed in Cuba since '1970, was thus enabled to transfer to Chile and set up new training camps. The Chilean involved in these arrangements was the extreme left-wing secretary-general of Allende's own Socialist party, Senator Carlos Altamirano, who flew to Pyongyang a year ago from Moscow in Kim 11 Sung's luxurious Presi- dential aircraft. On 30 June, 1971, on his return to Santiago, Altamirano briefed a plenum ul the Socialist party on his visit, having returned with a North Korean offer to train the Chilean Socialist pars-military forces, not to be confused with the larger forces of the MIR, with which they are in rivalry. The present situation is thus incredibly con- fused, and Allende's recent cabinet crisis, in which he dismissed the non-party left-wing extre- mist, Pedro Vuskovic, as' Minister of the Economy, has merely added to the confusion. Once again, the Russians are seen to be playing a dual role: on the one hand, supporting the cautious but disciplined Moscow-line Chilean Communist Party (a member of the ruling Popu- lar Unity coalition) which supports the govern- ment's "constitutional" take-over of the econ- omy and denounces the MIR and its land seizures NEW YORK TIMES 8 August 1972 CPYRGHT MOSCOW, Aug. 7--The So- viet Government newspaper Iz- vestia today issued a lengthy, tiara-bitting attack on a new Chinese atlas, accusing Peking of making "absurd demands" on Moscow by laying claim to 600,000 square r* gr(ki ilftl territory. The Soviet position was not in CLAe R sou; on e other DPh79 01194A0002001t20 t 1has sanctioned the Cuban DGI's training of MIR guerrillas. The North Koreans, for their part, des- pite assurances that they would in no way com- pete with the KGB-DGI programme, are helping t, t:le ut;iulisi t:7,t1t111i5l5, With tite ap- proval of Fidel Castro and his autonomous Direc- torate of Liberation. The only sufferers in this free-for-all are the Chileans. For there is a fundamental difference between the North Korean and the Cuban ap- proach to revolutionary violcncc.. The Cubans and other Latin Americans hitherto have supported a gradual policy of bombings, bank robberies and assassinations, avoiding a direct confrontation with local security forces, but sapping the will of governments. The North Koreans, howevc.r, preach more aggressive tartir:s: immediate and large-scale acts of sabotage (the blowing up of railway lines, bridges, telecommunications instal- lations and military barracks) to force the armed forces into premature. action. Harassment by fast-moving guerrillas, and ultimately the decima- tion of the military, are supposed to ensue. Both the MIR and the left-wing Socialists are com- mitted to creating an "irreversible" revolutionary State. But the Socialists, with North Korean backing, want to go further still by cordoning off the southern third of Chile and setting up a "Revolutionary Republic of South Chile", re- gardless of what happens to Allende's Com- munist backed experiment in the cities. Chile is where competitive subversion has gone mad. And thus, over a greater part of the world's surface we note a Soviet involvement-of vary- ing overtness-in the preparation or encourage- rnent of violent action against a whole range of authorities. We should not, perhaps, be misled by the comparative immunity of those areas which are for the time being exempt from these atten- tions. For that is clearly a matter of tactics, rather than principle, and there seems little reason to regard it as permanent. Q-COW ASS IS ChINESE O AIbAS Attack Read as Sign of New impasse on Border Talks new but its publication was taken as a proihable indication of a renewed deadlock in the Chinese-Soviet border talks that have been going on since clash- es between the two Communist Chinese on the border issue against China. since the latest round of hor- Any progress in the border der talks began March 20. The talks, believed to be taking Soviet Communist party lead-i place in the foreign-embassy er, tennid I. Brezhnev, indi- quarter of Pekinh has been sated publicly at that time that, kept secret, though from time Moscow was making a new of-' to time during the last three a ~Q ~p ~ ~tt `r~T7ln ill' `OV~~O i 6Rarr '~5~cro~n! lv b 20 ~ T go is have repot a he a se c of a set the first major attack on the, cow has muted its polemics 5 tiement. The ,An A s tla Glared, is aimed at "fanning between tilit h y os les, educating and Soviet p p the population of China in the it of hatred for other peo- i r sp ples--particularly neighboring s-in the spirit of rev- lr }~rop .ising i.he borders of China with adiacent countries" IZVESTIYA, Moscow 8 August 1972 CPYRGHT tb al t S viet-Chinese lease 1Ki#i;F? and legal bases, asked why China was claiming territory .'where Soviet people are liv- ing" and answered rhetorically: "Is it not in order to.fabricate a 'territorial problem' which would complicate the course of relations between neighbors for many years?" "GEOGRAPHY MAOIST STYLE" Article by G. Apalin [Text] In Peking the state publishing house "Dlru to a new "World Atlas." It appears to be a harmless giving widespread circulation geographic puionm howeOne verisioveerco re met with astonishment. Chinese o propaganda far exceeds the framework sgrashy. Looking at it, resorts to any tricks to "justify" and to impose--this time in geographical wrapping --its great-power view of the world and its interpretation the events andrsituation in any given country, an interpretation frequently very different of affairs. The pages of the "Atlas" are imbued with disdain for individual states political and histories and with great-power arrogance: Peking is establishing p l but it contacts with Malaysia and stresses its desire to expand trade with Singapore, acts as though these two countries are not independent states. The authors of the "Atlas" are entirely unable to reconcile themselves to Malaysia's official title, t calling it by its former name of "Malaya" and thereby letting it be undderstood thain material on is being talked they do not recognize its state identity. such a way that it is not immediately p f some country. about--an independent state or a part o The Peking leaders have frequently tried to create the impression that they have changed their attitude toward Burma. They have announced their intention of normalizing contacts with this country, which reached an acute state as a result of Chinese intervention in Rangoon's internal affairs in 1967. Nevertheless, Peking has given no assurances that it does not intend to intervene in the future or that it will refuse to support antigovernment forces in Burma. Following this line, the ofethesetforcesss" authors of the "Atlas" heiriimmagination)eof admiration for (which exist purely in against the Burmese Revolutionary Council. The history of Mongolia's struggle for its national liberation is treated disrespect- fully, to put it mildly. Peking would like to force the Chinese people to forget that d since the first days of its existence the MongoliiaieP file's RevofutionarytPartyeanf the Mongolian People's Republic have pursued a p the Chinese working people for a new life an? that the aid which the Soviet people granted the Chinese people passed through Mongolia. The PRC leadership p ofisChinesclear.y e quite unable to forgive the Mongolian people for throwing off the yoke colonialism 60 years ago. According to the assertion of the authors of the "Atlas," the liberation of Mongolia from the yoke of the Chinese emperors in 1911 was, it turns out, not the result of the long struggle of the Mongolian people but the consequence anti- of 1921 historical victory of deleted the revolution Russia." The merely of the "incitement people 's Tsarist imperialist, from the imperrialist, an history of Mongolia. ted the interpretatidn 9-01194om&62QQ* 1 tti~terly disappointed at emg unable to reach some resolution of the border dispute and decided to present China to Soviet readers once again as hopelessly intran- sigent on this Issue. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-0.1194A000200120001-1 CPY IT . .Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1 The Chinese leadership has tried by all means to foment dissension in the relations of the socialist community countries and to undermine the results of their joint efforts in the international arena. In reality the Chinese leadership's antagonism to the foreign policy of the socialist countries underscores its collusion with the imperialist reactionary forces. This is because it has taken a stand.which is incompatible with the objective of strengthening peace and security--stands which are the concern of all peoples, including the Chinese people. / MYSL I POLITY$A Article Moscow in Mandarin to China 1600 GMT 9 Aug 72 B (Text] Recently, MYSL I POLITYKA, a Polish monthly magazine, published a lengthy article on the Chinese leaders' changes in policy toward the Soviet Union and other socialist countries from 1949 to the present. The article discussed the two historical periods of the PRC: the period in'whieh the Chinese leadership pursued a policy of promoting friendly relations and cooperation with socia;ist countries; and the period in which the Chinese leadership followed An anti-Soviet road and tried to create splits in the socialist community.. The entire section on Mongolia reconfirms the correctness of the assessment made by Comrade Yu. Tsedenbal at the international conference of communist and workers parties in 1969: "The Mongolian People's Republic, as one of'-the countries which borders on China, bears the direct brunt of the action of the Mao Tse'tung antisocialist political group and is`subjected to its hostile attacks in the most varied directions..., The anti-Mongolian policy and actions of the Mao Tse-tung group are based on its great- power, chauvinist claims to our country inherited from the Chinese militarists and the Chiang Kai-shekists. ;t'is well known that in an interview with a groin of Japanese socialists. Mao.Tse-tung made one of his regular statements about his intention to annex Mongolia to China no later than 1964." Pursuing the current Peking doctrines, the authors of the "Atlas" do not want to acknowledge the existence of the socialist system. It is true that they mention that in Asia after World War II China, Korea, and Vietnam achieved victories in the popular revolution and the anti-aimperialist struggle and followed a socialist path, while in Europe the majority of.edntral and southeastern European states broke'away from the capitalist system and embarked upon the socialist path. However, it transpires from the subsequent 1;ext.that only China in Asia and Albania in Europe are the "great beacons of socialism?" The compilers of the "Atlas" have somehow forgotten to mention the emergence and development: of the first socialist state in Latin America--Cuba. Peking's current aspiration to oounterpose some countries to others and to engender mutual distrust in them by any means is also expressed in the "Atlas." Misinformation and various provocative versions abort the socialist countries, their history, the nature of foreign economic contacts and so forth are stealthily fed to its readers. In the "Europe" section the publisheris of the "Atlas" also attack the nature of mutual. relations between the CEMA countries. For a long time there has-been no reaction from Peking to the important measures of the socialist CEMA states to further strengthen and improve their cooperation. The "Atlas" has apparently tried to compensate for the period of "restraint." In this publication Chinese propaganda attempts to denigrate CEMA activity to the maximum possible extent. Socialist economic integration, the coordination of national economic plans, and production cooperation and specialization among the fraternal countries are clearly not to the Peking leadership's liking. In their attempts to discredit the socialist countries$ cooperation the compiler la" s Approved For Release '~99f/0 ~I~-7-~ia'~b0120001-1 induAPprQV"cFtMRe4esserI9ff/09IOZ!e AAREYP 9-rOj?I9IrAV Q)r Ate..r,aAit the henefits of he Boo a o fails to provide either information about the stanaaru uL plla 1.a.,o_. ---- _ _ w,_ a.,* in i el r y to, see through this trick, since the correct statistic" would ent hical publication. r e e ap w g og fantasies of the Peking compilers of,the r~ ressed sympathy for the aspiration of a number of capitalist states to he learl ex T c y p E e st urop a??`-? o-- extend the "Common Market" and for the economic integration or e01, bl n e i v..-.. ., ......0- - -- a ,, o no s quotation marks, as happens when it`.is a question of the socialist countries. Even control from the two superpowers,"' Inc&defitally, this geopolitioal concept, devoid f all tif i o tmo of class content and adapted to Pekingis hegemonistie aims, is the le the sections of the "Atlas." struggle agaLn"T, ULM JUV .. ,,.._-. r. Petrinh-ls new geographical "research" abounds in obvious s L e 0-4-4. Ir-i t o ie tio c ?? exaggerations and slander and. is extremely hostile to our country. it is a dui ears st fe s w y ed in the pa of all the anti-Soviet material which Chinese propaganda has ` u i the peoples" of the whole world and other similar rubbish is all here. t this is not the only striking thing about the sections of the "Atlas" devoted to B u authors of the new geographical research try to "substantiate" the Chinese Leaaerohip?ai Lw._..i L._w.? territorial claims to 1,5 million square KLLOmGLOL?a pL ac,-~~. ..~-- Dissertations on the "unequal treaties" between Russia and China on border questions .-..I . and an aspiration to raise doubts as to the border between the uoon auu 6uc r+w. The "arguments" cited here are drawn from official statements of the Chinese leader- . _ _ _ ... -_L4 _ f en enmi 4-Y toward the Soviet o p snip puollblrju wild/, 1A.V -g - Union and expansionist aspirations in its foreign policy, it made illegal territorial' let- S ov claims on our country and went as far as to organize armed conflicts onwthe- l f M'..? acn o 13 June 1969 statements, showed most exhaustively the complete6 shape historically and is registered in Russian-Chinese treaty aooumen.t". r,.,meA4ately after the Great October Socialist Revolution all unequal and secret sa is t Russ hi h had c s trea ties w - - -- ublic of the Soviets solemnly declared its renunciation of the The Re p spheres:of influence of Tsarist China and of exterritorlaL and eprnsular I . hi ese eo i le and the govern- the C n p p ments of North and South China listed the treaties which the Soviet Government regarded t as unequal. The abrogation of unequal treaties was legally drawn up in an agreemen bli c. on general principles for settling questions between the. USSR and the Chinese Repu dated 31 May 1929? Neither the 1919 address nor .the 1924 agreement between the Soviet Union and the Chinese! ies establishing the e ~ i ~j t}e Lnax ,,~~ line IPb IjdI foN oft 0 ?~nd gr e c ds''~V been no question of their annulment or review. 8 CPYRGHT ! Not a single document of the Soy7.1'rtt state or the statements made by Lenin puts the treaties on the border with China in the category of "unequal" or subject to review. V.I. Lenin never at any time cast doubt on the border between the USSR and China. This question was clear to the Chinese revolutionaries who,,relying on Soviet aid and support, waged a struggle for the national and social liberation of-the Chinese people. It is not out of place to mention that both the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party and.sebsequently the PRC Government frequently stressed that after the October Revolution the Soviet state built its relations with China on the basis of equality and respect for the sovereign rights of the Chinese people. Mao Tse-tung noted in 1945 at the Seventh CCP Congress that "the Soviet Union was the first to renounce the unequal treaties and to conclude new, equal treaties with China." Mao Tse-tung also spoke about this,in Moscow on 16 December 1949. In accordance with the 14 February 1950 treaty on friendship,_alliance and mutual aid between the USSR and the PRC, both sides pledged lto'build their relationships proceeding' from the principles of "mutual respect for state sovereignty and territorial integrity." Everything would seem clear. ',..Why then have the Chinese powers used the publication of the "World Atlas" to make a new attempt to cast doubt on the historically formed and legally established border between the USSR and the PRC and claim territory in which Soviet people live and which-is a part of the USSR? It is perhaps to manufacture a "territorial problem" which would complicate relations between neighbors for many years to come? The PRC is in fact that only big state whose leadership i&tisiiig territorial disputes with Its neighbors in the north, south, east and west. However, those who make absurd demands from the USSR and cast doubt on the Soviet Union's possession [prinalezhnoat] of certain sectors of territory should bear in mind the Soviet people's attitude to these claims. In their aspiration to impose Maoist political concepts on the reader, the authors of the "Atlas" frequently prove to be out of tune with geography itself. They have declared the Soviet Union to be only a "European country." But, as always happens in these cases, the authors of the "Atlas" have difficulty in making both fiends meet. .Having called the Soviet Union only a "European power," they start to list the countries it borders on, and it turns out that of the 12 countries with which the USSR has land borders, six are Asian states, while with one of them along--China--- the length of the border is nearly'7,500 kilometers. Once again, it is clearly_-mot fortuitous that the "Atlas" does not mention that two-thirds of USSR territory is in Asia. The USSR's position as a European-Asian bountry certainly does not suit the Peking politicians and geographers! Indeed, the denial of this truth conceals intentions which are far from geographical. Taking all this into account, it can be said that it is not an "atlas of peace" but an "atlas of enmity" which has been published in Peking. [pun on the Russian word "mir" which means either "world or "peace"] The people who issue such publica- tions pursue the aim of fanning enmity between the Chinese and Soviet peoples and educating the Chinese population in a spirit of hatred for other peoples, particularly neighbors and in a spirit of the revision of Chipa's borders with contiguous countries. It is a dangerous trend fraught with serious.oonsequenoes. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : Cl\-RDP79-01194A000200120001-1