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August 21, 1972
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Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-j5X1 Cl Ob Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Y 21 August 1972 SOVIET REPRESSION: A BREACH A TREATIES The most remarkable elements in the so-called "dissent" move- ment in the Soviet Union are its openness and its strict adherence to legality. The movement is dedicated merely to pursuading the Soviet leadership to permit the people of the Soviet Union the rights which their constitution provides for them. It is the extra-judicial method. of coercion which the Soviet leadership has been using with increasing frequency to silence the dissident movement that has increasingly alarmed Western public opinion. Even more alarming is the arbitrary way in which the Soviet leaders persistently breach international treaties and covenants which, as signatories, they have committed themselves to observe. As a, result of formal international agreements signed since the founding of the United Nations, human rights have taken on a legal significance that far overrides traditional concepts under which treatment of a country's nationals was a matter of sovereign discretion. To the extent that human rights and fundamental freedoms have become a legal obligation, they are no longer a matter which is strictly within the domestic jurisdiction of individual countries. First, the United Nations Charter commits member states to promoting "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion." Then by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and two international covenants adopted in 1968 -- one on civil and political rights and the other on economic, social, and cultural rights -- signatories "undertake to guarantee that the rights enunciated. . will be exercised without discrimination of any kind as to race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin. . . " Among the "rights enunciated" in the 1968 covenant on civil and political rights are: freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, the right to court hearings by a "competent, indepen- dent and impartial tribunal," freedom of movement and choice of residence at home or abroad, protection from "arbitrary. . . inter- ference with. . .privacy. . .home or correspondence. . .unlawful attacks on. . .honor and reputation," freedom of assembly, and the right to "seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers. . .through any media." All, ironically, are similar to rights provided by the Soviet constitution and all are rights denied the Soviet people by their leaders. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 P Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Most of the rest of finds it increasingly hard to side with the Soviet Union on a wide range of issues involving human rights and Soviet authorities may find it increasingly difficult to ignore adverse Western opinion. Within the Soviet Union, the situation is eerily reminiscent of the tensions that existed a hundred years ago. The basic conflict then, as now, was between an entrenched bureaucracy preoccupied with maintaining the status quo and an intelligentsia intent on pressuring the leadership for more civil rights and liberties. The biggest contrast between the nineteenth and twentieth century situations, however, should really give the Soviet leadership pause: thanks to the highest ever level of education in the USSR, millions of people can read and therefore are prone to think for themselves. In the paragraphs that follow are reviewed the most recent breaches of international conventions by Soviet authorities in their campaign to still voices of dissent throughout the land: The Buildup_of Repression In late July a protest letter signed by 52 Russians, including, the world renowned nuclear physicist Andrey Sakharov, called the arrest of civil rights leader Pyotr Yakir another step back to Stalinist methods. Then on 1 August Dr. Sakharov appealed, in an open letter to Soviet authorities, on behalf of art critic Viktor Fainburg and engineer Vladimir Borisov "who are dying" in a mental hospital in Leningrad where they have been undergoing forced treatment for more than three years despite a two-year old ruling by the Moscow Serbsky Institute that they no longer needed psychiatric treatment. These were brave, bold moves considering the warnings that the KGB had just given to Valeri Chalidze, cofounder with Dr. Sakharov of the unofficial Soviet Committee for Human Rights. Twice on 5 and 7 July Chalidze was called before a senior KGB official, the assistant director of the National Department of Investigation, to be told that his committee was guilty of "well-masked anti-Soviet" activity and to be threatened with "repression" --- which means arrest. Just before President Nixon visited Moscow last spring, Dr. Sakharov had expressed the hope that international detente would "encourage in our country the application of basic freedoms such as freedom of expression, freedom to emigrate, freedom of movement within the country, artistic and social freedom, and religious freedom." Just the opposite seems to be happening. The arrest on 21 June of Pyotr Yakir signaled an even harsher crackdown by the KGB in its anti-dissident campaign which began gathering momentum last January. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 V Approved For Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 The Case of Pyotr Yakir As the informal leader of the "Democratic Movement," Pyotr Yakir for the past decade has been the most courageously outspoken representative of the hitherto tolerated Soviet domestic reform movement. There were two reasons for his ability to remain a free man while others who felt as he does were sent to jail or insane asylums: his strict adherence to the letter of the law and the fact that he enjoyed international fame as the son of a highly popular, well-known general who was framed and executed by Stalin in.1937. Yakir's only "crime" is that he fervently believes that only by "informing people of what is going on in our country" (and about the illegal acts of the KGB)---only by making a return to Stalinist "secrecy" impossible, can a return to Stalinist terror be made impossible. The 49-year old Yakir practically grew up in the Stalinist forced labor camps. At age 14 he was swept up with his mother in the mass arrests of 1937, the year his father, Major-General Iona Yakir, was executed in Stalin's purge of the Red Army. His mother was "liquidated" later and Pyotr Yakir was released after 17 years during Khrushchev's anti-Stalin rehabilitation campaign. It is rare ---an.d therefore especially ominous---for the KGB to re-arrest a former inmate of a Stalinist concentration camp. Anthony Astrachan, in a 28 June Washington Post article on "The Yakir Case," cites a little-publicize letter that Yakir addressed. to the 24th Party Congress in which he warned of "a dangerous tendency toward the rebirth of Stalinist methods of Government." Yakir scored the Party for answering a "flood" of letters expressing loyal criticisms with "at best silence and at 'worst judicial and extra-judicial repression akin to the Stalinist anti-democratic style. . .Who would think of writing to the United Nations or appealing to world public opinion if his own leadership gave him a convincing answer to serious questions bothering serious people?" The Kremlin's ultimate answer was Pyotr Yakir's arrest. Should Yakir's case come to court, it will be the first political trial of such a, well-known dissident since Vladimir Bukovsky's one-day trial in January. Pyotr Yakir protested Bukovsky's arrest and trial and now (provided he is judged sane enough to stand trial and does not just disappear behind the walls of the Serbsky Psychiatric Institute) he may have to argue in his own defense that it is the authorities themselves who violate the Soviet constitution with their acts of suppression. Yakir apparently had a premonition that he might be arrested. Shortly before London Times correspondent David Bonavia was expelled from Moscow, Yakcir told him: "If they beat me, I will sa" anything. I know that from my former experience in the camps. But you will know it will not be the real me speaking. Another 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 P Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 thing, I shall never in any circumstances commit suicide. So you will know that if they say I have done away with myself, someone else will have done me in." The Campaign to Kill the Chronicle The political event that triggered the current harsh KGB crackdown was a Communist Party Central Committee decree reportedly issued some time in December 1971 ordering a halt to the publication of the Chronicle of Current Events, the unofficial journal that primarily reports the facts concerning civil rights violations by Soviet authorities. The intense KGB secret police campaign during the first seven months of 1972 has resulted in such widespread searches of dissidents' homes that they have become routine. This rapidly rising tide of KGB repression,'together with a heightened harrassment of non-Russian nationalities, has meant an intensification of the anti-intellectual smear campaign and increasing numbers of arrests and interrogations in Moscow, Lenin- grad, Sverdlovsk, Kharkov, Kiev, and in Siberia's Akadamgorodok (science city, where most of the USSR's advance research is carried out). The KGB campaign to eliminate the Chronicle is referred to by the secret police as "criminal case No. 24.' 1Tespite all the arrests, only one trial is known to have taken-place as of this writing. It was the trial in Leningrad of 26-year old astrophysicist Yuri Melnik who was sentenced 19 June to three years in a strict regime forced labor camp. Charged with "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda," Melnik pleaded guilty. A radio teletype machine had been found in his apartment at the time of his arrest. Pyotr Yakir, before he was arrested, said in a telephone interview that was published in the 4 June London Sunday-Telegraph that the campaign had succeeded in the Ukraine, where even t e families of those arrested are afraid to speak to each other. . . But they have not managed to silence Moscow." So far, however, the success of KGB action taken under the guise of "criminal case No. 24" is questionable. The Chronicle of Current Events thus far continues to publish practically on sc e ule, the two latest issues having appeared since Yakir's arrest. The Ukrainian Nationalists As Peter Reddaway writes in his latest book Uncensored Russia (American Heritage Press, 1972), it was the sentencing of intellectuals in 1965 and 1966 that provoked the rebirth of a vigorous and independent Ukrainian public opinion. The well-known book by Vycheslav Chornovil exposing KGB methods used during the mid-1960's purges, published in the West as The Chornovil Papers, recorded and analyzed the fates of these people. Ail equally well- known work by critic Ivan Dzyuba, Internationalism or Russi'fication? examined historically the issues w is a so c6hcerhC tem. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 By mid-1968, following the issuance of a challenging and provocative letter signed by 139 Ukrainian intellectuals protesting the conduct of political trials both in Moscow and in the Ukraine, a general campaign of intimidation was begun. Last winter and spring saw the arrest and in some cases the re-arrests of most of the outspoken members of the democratic movement in the Ukraine. The 25th issue of the Chronicle of Current Events, which was circulating in mid-July, reported over arrests in the Ukraine alone so far this year. Among the long-standing leaders of the latest revival of Ukrainian national consciousness now awaiting or undergoing trial are Vycheslav Chornovil, Ivan Dzyuba, Ivan Svitlychny and his sister Nadiya Svitlychna. Typical of the severity that can be expected. in the sentences meted out from these trials is that already given Danylo Shumuk, husband of Nadiya Svitlychna, who has been, condemned to 10 years of forced labor in a strict regime camp and 25 years in exile. Trumped up statements made by a Belgian student, Jaroslav Dobosch, and reported in the Kiev Pravda Ukrainy in early June are undoubtedly being used as evidence against those on trial. Dobosch was sent to the Ukraine by a right-wing emigre group, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, in order to contact some Ukrainian dissidents. He was arrested in January and held prisoner for five months. Instead of being tried he was made to give his. statements at a press conference from which Western newsmen were barred and was then expelled. As soon as he got home to Belgium, Dobosch publicly retracted his statements made under duress. A separate Ukrainian case involves two Canadian-born Ukrainians who were brought to the USSR as teenagers by their parents and who now, perhaps encouraged by the liberalization of Jewish emigration policies, are trying to get permission to emigrate to Canada. The two, Nadia Demidenko and Eugene Lenko, have Soviet-born spouses and children and all members of both families have applied for visas and consistently been refused. The Kremlin's Greatest Fear Probably the greatest single worry for the Soviet leadership is the nationalities problem and possibly also the effect that the Jewish emigration movement could have on other minorities. About 14,000 Jews were allowed to emigrate last year and about 30,000 to 40,000 are expected to leave this year. This Jewish success cannot but profoundly influence the non-Russian minorities who aspire to greater autonomy and the preservation of their national identities. In addition, the Jewish case might serve to inspire desires for emigration among Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, the Meskhetians or other displaced minorities. As the Chronicle of Current Events bears out, nationalist intellectuals ant eir supporters have recently become increas- ingly,outspoken. And in Lithuania since May this year, there 5 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 have been four instances of self-immolation in protest of "Russification." The armed forces and militia had to be brought in from outside to quell the three-day riots that broke out in Kaunas following the funeral of the first Lithuanian youth who made of himself a torch of protest. Last March 17,000 Roman Catholic Lithuanians petitioned United Nations Secretary General Waldheim to protest the religious discrimination that has been practiced against them since the Soviet Union absorbed Lithuania in 1940. The July riots in Kaunas, the most serious outbreak within the Soviet Union in recent years, were reported by dissident sources as being primarily motivated by nationalist feeling, but in Lithuania, nationalist and religious feeling most often overlap. The Lithuanian protest is particularly noteworthy because Lithuanians are a much smaller, weaker nation than Germans, Hungarians, Czechoslovaks, or Poles. Actually, Lithuania typifies the Baltic states which have never reconciled themselves to "Russification." From Latvia last year 17 Communist Party officials addressed a, letter to several leading communist parties including those of Yugoslavia, Romania, France, and Austria. The chief complaint in their 5,000 word letter was that the Soviet leaders are practicing "Great Russian Chauvinism" in seeking to force smaller ethnic groups such as Latvians, to assimilate with the Russians. It called on the foreign parties to use their influence with the Soviet leadership on behalf of all ethnic minorities in the Soviet Union. The Policy Liberalized, But - While permitting a mass exodus of Jews from the Soviet Union, the authorities have simultaneously meted out harsh punishment to those whom they will not let leave. Simultaneously, policy against the Zionist ferment in many of the country's Jewish com- munities has been hardened. Overall policy concerning Jewish immigration has been highly inconsistent, but on a case-to-case basis the authorities have been consistent in prohibiting from leaving either those who are too well known abroad or those whose talents are wanted at home. In Moscow, for example, astronomer Kronid Lyubarsky was arrested after he applied to emigrate. The well-known ballet dancer Valeri Panov lost his spot as one of the top stars with the Kirov Ballet after he applied last spring to emigrate to Israel. He has since been twice imprisoned on charges of "hooli- ganism," Panov has gained international prominence despite an official ban prohibiting him from going on any of the Kirov foreign tours. In London last June, Irina Markish appealed to Queen Elizabeth for help in obtaining an exit visa for her husband. Mrs. Markish had been granted a visa and had left the Soviet Union six months Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 earlier assuming her husband could follow. Instead, her husband David Markish, whose poet father was exterminated during the Stalinist post-war anti-Jewish purges, got his military call-up and was told he would never see his wife again. Mrs. Markish said her husband, also a poet and writer, had been told he could not leave the Soviet Union because his late father, Peretz Markish "had been famous and well-known abroad." Artist Nathan Feiingold was denied permission to emigrate on grounds that over 5 years ago, when he was working as a scientist, he had access to "secret" information. Viktor Perelman, top- ranking journalist with. Literary Gazette, lost his job and was expelled from both the Party an ourna fists' Union when he applied to emigrate to Israel. Officials told him his request was denied "because you have an intimate knowledge of the Soviet way of life." Then there is the alarming case of Vladimir Markman in Sverdlovsk who after having been accused of collaborating with the Nazis in World War II, was arrested and imprisoned. Markman had been dismissed in 1970 from his post with an economics institute in Sverdlovsk after publicly protesting the Jewish hijack trials in Leningrad. He applied to emigrate to Israel and was denied per- mission. Later, when his friend Valeri Kukui was sentenced in Sverdlovsk to three years imprisonment, Markman, a witness in the case, was so indignant over the way pre-trial evidence had been falsified in the court that he initiated an action against the judges. In April this year the press in Sverdlovsk accused Markman of having links with the Zionists who, it was asserted, had collaborated with the Nazis in the mass extermination of Jews. Markman publicly denied the allegation following which he was arrested and reportedly has been sentenced to three years imprisonment. The Journal of the International Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in the USSR notes in its Ju y issue that there is hardly any Soviet o icial or delegation leaving the USSR for foreign travel that is not at some time confronted with protests of one kind or another. against human rights violations in the Soviet Union. Such incidents occurred during Premier Kosygin's visit to Canada and during Foreign Minister Gromyko's visits to Paris, Luxemburg, The Hague, and Brussels, during the pilgrimage of 800 Soviet tourists to the tomb of Karl Marx in London, and during the performance in Paris of the Red Army Orchestra at the international music festival. Recent demonstrations have been held in front of Soviet embassies in Paris, Brussels, and London and before United Nations Headquarters in New York and UNESCO's Paris headquarters. Just during May, the magazine says, 23 different actions took place in Great Britain alone. In Frankfurt, the Bishops in exile of the Russian Orthodox Church issued a proclamation calling for freedom of worship for Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 their brethren in the USSR. From Rome, 33 leading European cultural figures including Ignatio Silone, Federico Fellini, Stephen Spender, and Iris Murdoch telegraphed Brezhnev to express concern over the fate of prominent author Vladimir Maksimov. In Brussels, the European Union of Young Christian Democrats protested at a press conference against religious persecutions in Lithuania and deportations to Siberia. In Paris, a group of intellectuals including Raymond Aron, Pierre Emmanuel, Julian Green and Armand Salacrou have created an international committee to denounce imprisonments in psychiatric hospitals and demand a retrial for Vladimir Bukovsky. Also from Paris a group of prominent French intellectuals including the Romanian-born playwright Eugene Ionesco and Nobel Prize winner Rene Cassin in June sent an "anguished appeal" to the Soviet leaders on behalf of imprisoned Vladimir Bukovsky. The group expressed its "indignation over the arbitrary and illegal verdict" passed on Bukovsky and asked "all democratic peoples to join in an expression of sympathy" for him. Among those signing were philosopher Gabriel Marcel, director of Paris daily Figaro, Louis-Gabriel Robinet, former defense minist8r and Socialist Party leader Jules Moch, and the internationally known conductor Roberto Benzi. Amnesty International, the non-political organization that concerns itself with political prisoners all over the world, has issued an appeal to supporters of civil liberties-to write the Soviet government on behalf of ex-Major General Pyotr Grigorenko and to call for his release from the psychiatric hospital where he is imprisoned. Grigorenko has been held since May 1969 as the result of his efforts to defend the rights of the Crimean Tatars. "As far as we know," Amnesty said in its June newsletter, "this is one of the longest continuous periods of confinement in a psychiatric hospital that a dissident in the USSR has ever undergone." The 26th issue of the Chronicle of Current Events which was circulating as of mid-July reported. that a government psychiatric panel had declared that Pyotr Grigorenko continues to need "medical care." It was Vladimir Bukovsky's courageous activities in defense of dissidents who are confined in psychiatric hospitals that brought him his latest imprisonment and the harshest sentence yet meted out to a political dissident --- a total 1Z. years in prison, forced labor, and exile. Early in 1971, Bukovsky sent to the West 150 pages of material concerning six political prisoners diagnosed by Soviet psychiatrists as mentally irres- ponsible. Bukovsky asked Western psychiatrists to give their opinions as to whether the diagnoses were justified by the docu- mentary evidence he had compiled. Last spring, as one response to Bukovsky's plea, more than 80 French psychiatrists, psychologists, and other professional mental health specialists signed an appeal for "an international Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 commission of inquiry to work ceaselessly to shed all possible light on the contents of Bukovsky's documents." The appeal says in part that Soviet police-psychiatric practices "especially touches doctors who view any use of medical science by a political regime for purposes of coercion, cruelty, or even torture, instead of for therapeutic purposes, only as a serious misuse if not a real perversion." Another appeal sent last spring from Western Europe and addressed to Soviet President Podgorny deplored conditions in the USSR's mammoth forced labor camp system with its some two million or more inmates and called for an international inspection team. The appeal had 500 signatories including two Nobel award winners, Professor Rene Cassin, Nobel Prize for Peace, and Professor Andre Lvov who is a Corresponding Member of the'Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. Signatories also included many members of European Parliaments, entertainers such as Johnny Halliday, authors and poets such as Maurice Careme, journalists, 18 Trade Union leaders who took part in the June Brussels meeting of the "Assembly on European Security and Cooperation," members of Amnesty International, representatives of youth organizations, and officers of the "International Federation for the Rights of Man." This appeal called President Podgorny's attention to the ill treatment which political prisoners are protesting throughout the USSR. Exhausting labor, the absence or denial of medical care, insufficient food allowances, and the deprivation of family visits have reduced many prisoners to total despair. The signatories hope that President Podgorny will use his authority to humanize conditions in the corrective labor camps and prisons and to having them put under the control of the Supreme Soviet. They also call for authorization of visits to the Soviet Union by members of the World Health Organization, UN Commission on Human Rights, or the International Red Cross in order to inspect conditions in the forced labor camps. The Need for Western Support In an appeal for help from Western public opinion that he issued from Rome shortly after he was permitted to leave the Soviet Union, former Russian film director Yuri Shtein said: "I am not in any way calling for a cold war, let alone a hot one, nor even for any official interference in particular aspects of Soviet internal politics. But I am absolutely convinced that the voice of world public opinion has great significance today as regards defending the rights of Russia's 'dissenters,' and not only in defending their rights but, even more important, in preserving their lives. . .Now.when we see that the forces of reaction are not just perpetrating occasional excesses, but trying to launch a new offensive in my country, the burden of mutual responsibility lies on all people of good will. For, as the recent past has shown, the triumph of evil never remains isolated in one area, but contains an insidious danger for the peace and tranquility of Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 all the inhabitants of our single 'planet of people.'" Yuri Shtein is one of the small group of dissidents formerly active in the Soviet Democratic Movement who have recently been granted exit visas from the USSR --- actually, a form of exile. While most of the group had at one time or another requested and been denied exit visas, one of their members who is considered one of the USSR's finest poets, Iosif Brodsky, reportedly never asked for one. Rome has become the temporary haven for some of these new political exiles. Probably the most distinguished member of the group, the brilliant mathematician, philosopher and poet Alexander Esenin-Volpin was locked up in a mental hospital when lie first applied several years ago to leave the USSR. This time Volpin was given a 6-day deadline to be out of the country and was prohibited from bringing with him his bride of a few months. Artist Yuri Titov was allowed to leave with his family and 64 of his paintings but when the paintings were uncrated most had been irrepairably damaged by sulphuric acid. The emigre group issued a statement which denounced this as an act of political vandalism. Another in the group is author and orientalist Yuri Glazov who decried the despoiling of Titov's paintings as an act equally as barbarous as that of the madman who attacked Michelangelo's Pieta. Commenting on the Soviet decision to permit the emigration of himself and others in this group, Yuri Glazov said he was sure the authorities decided that exile to the West was the best way to handle dissidents since "putting them in camps only provokes more protests in Russia and outside." What impact their departure will have on the Democratic Movement at home is unclear. Certainly Soviet authorities are looking forward not only to an eventual diminishing of public interest in news about Volpin and others in the emigre group but also to what they hope will be the demoralizing effect of the group's departure on the dissident centers at home. On this latter point, Alexander Esenin-Volpin is highly optimistic. "The growth of public opinion in Russia," he said during an interview in Rome, "cannot be stopped: for every single individual leaving the Soviet Union, two new ones will come up. Our friends know that we had no choice but to-leave and that we shall continue our struggle as vigorously outside as we did inside the Soviet Union." The Rome correspondent for The Economist comments that the chances are that Mr. Volpin's prediction wi prove to be right. The struggle in the Soviet Union is nurtured by forces stronger than the leadership provided by a few individuals. While Lenin's activities in London and. Geneva 60 years ago did not topple the tsarist regime,. they were often invaluable to his comrades at home. What with modern communications, an increasingly alert Western public opinion, and a marked sensitivity to it on the part of the Soviet regime, the role of individuals such as Volpin Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 is bound to grow. In the end the Soviet leadership may well find this newest tactic of "getting rid of the troublemakers" more a mistake than a blessing. The Case of Vladimir Maksimov One of the first acts by the members of the Democratic Move- ment in exile in Rome on behalf of their comrades at home was to help Vladimir Maksimov, 40-year old author of a remarkable work that has been published in the West as "Sem'dney tvoreniya" (The Seven Days of Creation). An author whose works have been published officially in the past in the Soviet Union, Maksimov was one of the three or four dozen professional writers who signed a declaration protesting the 1968 trials of authors Gi.nzburg and Galanskov. For this he was given an official "warning" by the Writers' Union. The following year Maksimov joined six other Moscow writers to protest to the leadership of the Writers' Union the expulsion from the union of so great an author as Alexander Solzhenitsyn "by a group of obscure literateurs from Ryazan." Now Maksimov too is on the verge of being expelled from the Writers' Union for persistently refusing to denounce the Western publication of his novel which came out last year in Germany in Russian and is soon to appear in translation in some 8 countries. Peter Reddaway notes in The Times that The Seven Days of Creation is considered a ,masterpiece by critics. Vladimir Maksimov also played a part in the Democratic Movement by taking on Vladimir Bukovsky as his secretary during the time that Bukovsky was under threat of re-arrest and spoke out strongly in Bukovsky's defense before the latter's trial. For these acts, Maksimov is also now being threatened with intern- ment in a mental hospital. Thanks to the efforts of his friends in Rome, the cause of Vladimir Maksimov has been taken up by several prominent Italian authors including Ignazio Silone and Giancarlo Vigorelli. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01 194A000200130001-0 21 August 1972 SOVIET REPRESSION: The Victims In the Soviet Union, legal protest or manifestations of dis- agreement with official policy are more often than not squelched by extra-judicial means: dismissal from one's job with either resultant unemployment or ostracism from professions for which one has been trained; a summons for'inteligtion by the KGB; arrest or threat of arrest; imprisonment; sentencing to forced slave labor, to enforced exile, or to imprisonment in an institution for the insane; and, most recently, exile from one's country. Below are summarized the best known cases of individuals thus affected. since last January when the KGB began its current, massive wave of repression: In early August, Andrey Sakharov addressed an open letter to the Soviet Minister of Health concerning VLADIMIR BORISOV and Viktor Fainberg who, he said, "are dying in a Leningrad psyc iatric prison hospital" and "remain in solitary confinement, deprived of books and writing materials." Vladimir Borisov is an electrician and a member of the Action Group for the Defense of Civil Rights. From 1964 to 1968 he was in a psychiatric hospital prison in Leningrad. In May 1969, shortly after his release he signed the first dissident appeal addressed to the United Nations and a letter in defense of Pyotr Grigorenko. For these acts he was arrested, tried, found to be of unsound mind and recommitted to the Leningrad psychiatric prison. In spring of 1971 Borisov joined Viktor Fainberg in a hunger strike that lasted 81 days. Leningrad poet, IOSIF BRODSKY, considered the finest living Russian poet has left the Soviet Union under police pressure. Most connoisseurs of Russian literature consider Brodsky's poetry to be apolitical but he was a witness in the first political trial of literary figures, that of Sinyavsky and Daniel. In 1964 he was convicted of "parasitism" and served 18 months in a forced labor camp. After returning from a period of enforced Arctic exile, he spent 7 years writing and translating for unofficial periodicals in Leningrad. Although Jewish by Soviet definition, Brodsky has never shown interest in Jewish culture or of wishing to emigrate to Israel. Authorities reportedly threatened him with unspecified punishment if he did not accept an invitation from Israeli poets to visit them. On the day of his departure, Brodsky appealed to Leonid Brezhnev for the right to return and live out his creative life in his homeland. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01 194A000200130001-0 r Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 In January, following a one-day trial, VLADIMIR BUKOVSKY was ordered imprisoned for the fourth time in nine years. His was the harshest sentence yet given a Soviet dissident -- a total 12 years in prison, forced labor camp, and exile. Bukovsky's activities since his last release from prison in 1970 caused him to become one of the more prominent among the members of the Democratic Movement. They consisted of writing an open letter to Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis inviting him to intercede with Soviet authorities on behalf of the USSR's political prisoners and denouncing in a filmed interview later carried by CBS television ("Voices from the Russian Underground") the practice of putting political dissenters in mental hospitals -- a practice to which he had also been subjected. After he urgently appealed in March 1971 to Western psychiatrists to investigate Soviet practices he was arrested. During his one-day trial, Bukovsky told the court that he only regretted that he had done "so little" for freedom in the Soviet Union while he was last out of prison. Physicist VALERI CHALIDZE is a cofounder with fellow scientists, Sa rov and r~'[r.okhlebov of the unofficial Soviet Human Rights Committee. A man of great energy, Chalidze has written numerous treatises including "Class Analysis in Soviet Law" and analyses of the situation in Czechoslovakia and has edited several issues in manuscript form of Social Problems, the legal journal of the Human Rights Committee. In 1970 Chalidze wrote Czechoslovak Party Chief Gustav Husak warning against party and judicial repressions he feared might be taken against the leaders under Dubcek. On 16 August this year he again addressed an open letter to President Svoboda appealing for the pardon of Czechoslovak's sentenced during the July-August political trials in Prague. Chalidze called on Svoboda to "use his constitutional right of pardon." In July Chalidze was twice called in by the KGB to be accused of "masked anti-Soviet propaganda"'and to be threatened with arrest. VYCHESLAV CHORNOVIL was among several of the Ukrainians arrested in January in Lvov whose political trial may be imminent. A former TV journalist in his 30's, Chornovil was first arrested in 1967 after he had compiled and circulated as samizdat a documented account of KGB methods used in mass arrests of Ukrainian intellectuals in the mid-1960's. The manuscript was published in the West in 1968 as The Chornovil Papers. IVAN DZYUBA, literary critic and author of Internationalism or Russification?, was arrested in January in Lvov, His trial also may be imminent. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 A week or so before the arrests of Sinyavski and Daniel in Moscow, numerous young intellectuals had been arrested in the Ukraine. Dzyuba, together with VYCHESLAV CHORNOVIL staged a protest demonstration in a Kiev theater. In 1966 he spoke at Babi Yar, calling Soviet antisemitism "the fruit and satellite bf agelong slavery and lack of culture, the first and inevitable offspring of political despotism." His book, published in the West in 1969, is an examination of the Leninist policy on nationalities. In early August Andrey Sakharov wrote the Soviet Minister of Health concerning the fate of Vladimir Borisov and VIKTOR FAINBERG who, he said, "are dying in a Leningrad psychiatric pr si 'and "remain in solitary confinement, deprived of books and writing materials." Fainberg, a fine arts specialist, graduated from Leningrad University in 1968. On 25 August 1968 he was one of the seven young people who staged a sit- down demonstration at noon in Red Square to protest the sending of Soviet troops into Czechoslovakia. He was so badly beaten and knocked toothless in the course of being arrested that he was unable to stand trial. He was declared to be of unsound mind and sent to a Leningrad psychiatric prison where in the spring of 1971 he joined Vladimir Borisov in a hunger strike that lasted 81 days. YURI GLAZOV was permitted to leave the USSR this sprinafter reviously having his requests for an exit visa denied. Writer, historian, and prominent orientalist Glazov said in an interview in Rome, to where he emigrated, that he was sure that Soviet authorities "had decided that exile to the West was a better way to handle dissidents... Sending them to camps provokes more protests in Russia and outside." In 1968 Glazov was dismissed from his job at. the: Institute of the Peoples of Asia for having signed protest letters and an appeal to the Budapest conference of communist parties. In. March 1969, former Major General PYOTR GRIGORENKO circulated an appeal to Soviet citizens calling on a Soviet people, without doing anything rash or hasty, and by all legal methods, to bring about the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Czechoslovakia and the renunciation of interference in her internal affairs." Two months later Grigorenko was arrested in Tashkent for taking part in a demonstration in support of the Crimean 'I'~,tars. He was charged with "slandering" the Soviet Union and its social system. In October 1969, Grigorenko was committed to a mental hospital for observation and three months later was declared "insane" and hospitalized in Chernyakovsk for "treatment." The latest issue, circulating as of mid-July, of the Chronicle of Current Events reports that a psychiatric panel a1T d e-clare teat Grrigorenko continues to need additional "medical care. " Approved For Release 1999/09/02 :CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 In Odessa, NINA STROKATOVA, microbiologist and wife of one of the best known Ukrainian political prisoners, was tried May 14th and sentenced to four years' imprisonment in a strict regime forced labor camp. Her husband, SVYATOSLAV KARAVANSKY, who has been in prison continuously since 1944 except for a short period between 1960 and 1965, is a linguistic scholar and heterodox writer of political themes. Presently being held in the prison at Vladimir, Karavansky has contrived to keep on writing articles and poems, some of which have reached the West. He is due for release in 1979. Nina Strokatova's only crime has been activity undertaken in defense of her husband. BENJAMIN LEVICH, a 55-year old chemist, scholar. and member o t e Academy of Sciences of the USSR, is the highest-ranking Soviet scientist to have applied for a visa to Israel. After he applied last March, he was demoted and his son, a 24-year old astrophysicist was conscripted for military duty despite chronic physical disabilities and despite the normal exemption granted scientists with Ph.D.'s. At an unusual press conference held 15 August in Moscow, Levich read a statement signed by himself and 9 other scientists and scholars which protested Jewish emigration policy under which Jews were divided "according to their educational and intellectual level ...The higher the level, the more difficult it is to get a visa." This policy, according to the statement, threatened to turn Jews into "a new category of human beings.. .the slaves of the twentieth century." Author VLADIMIR MAKSIMOV is being threatened with internment in a mentalosptal. and is on the verge of being expelled from the Writers' Union for persistently refusing to denounce the Nbstern publication of his novel The Seven Days of Creation. The book, which is regarded by critics as a masterpiece was published in Germany last year in Russian and is soon to be in translation in several countries. The hospital threat provoked thirty-three leading European intellectuals to telegraph Brezhnev saying they are "deeply worried about the fate of Maksimov." Among signatories are Gunther Grass, Iris Murdoch, Federico Fellini, Stephen Spender and Angus Wilson. Eminent Soviet biochemist and gerontologist ZHORES MEDVEDEV was temporarily committed to a mental hospital two years ago because of his protests against the stultifying effect of Soviet bureaucracy on Russian scientific progress. Medvedev, who was freed from the insane asylum only after the intercession of scientists in the USSR and abroad, is the twin brother of Roy Medvedev, who has published a documentary history of the Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Stalinist purges as well as a book describing the persecution directed against his brother. Zhores Medvedev was taken into police custody on July 2 and forced to return to Moscow after being barred from the Ninth International Congress of Gerontology. Dr. Medvedev, pioneer in the study of the:-aging process, had been invited to deliver a paper at the meeting of gerontologists but the Soviet Organizing Committee eliminated him from the program. His disappearance caused consternation among more than 2,000 delegates from 43 countries. Scientists earlier had surmised that Dr. Medvedev had been forced to return home. One of them received a telegram from him expressing regret at not being able to have another meeting "because of earlier arrangements with Profess. R. Kidnaper." They took this to mean "Professional Russian Kidnaper" or the Secret Police. In Leningrad, Mr. YURI MELNIK, an astrophysicist in the Soviet space program, aged 26, was sentenced on June 19 to three years in a strict regime camp on charges of "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" to which he pleaded guilty. When the police arrested him in January they found a radio teletype machine in his flat. This is the first trial to be held in connection with "criminal case No. 24" a case which is intended to suppress the unauthorized journal The Chronicle of Current Events and which has led to widespread arrests and BULAT S. OKUDZHAVA first made a name for himself in the early 1960's as a composer of ballads written for guitar. His songs have a strongly revisionist tinge since they deal" with personal problems and are. open to inter- pretation as being anti-militarist. The Soviet press has accused Okudzhava of "harmful pacifism, of dilettantish attitudes," etc. In late June this year Okudzhava was expelled from the Communist Party for "conduct unbecoming Conununist writers" but was permitted to retain his membership in the Writers' Union. Okudzhava, some of whose works have appeared in the West, has steadfastly refused to condemn his "Political errors." As part of the pressure campaign against Okudzhava, his 18-year old son was conscripted for military duty before he could take his final examinations. VALERI PANOV lost his job as premier dancer with the Kirov 1 et a ter he applied last spring to emigrate to Israel. He has since been twice jailed on charges of 'hooliganism." Panov, the most highly decorated artist of the Soviet Union ever to ask to leave, was given a subtle warning. His head was shaved and he was confined in a cell with amputees and cripples. A letter smuggled out by a friend to Clive Barnes, New York Times drama and dance critic, said that Panov, as a cancer whose art Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 r Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 is tied up with the use of his body, "understood this malevolent message." The 33-year-old dancer, inactive since his dismissal from the Kdfov in April, also indicated that he expected to be assigned soon to menial labor under Soviet laws against "parast.ism." Either choice - menial labor or prison - would, in the opinion of his closest associates, destroy the career of one of the Soviet Union's most talented and highly decorated artists. Top ranking journalist VIKTOR PERELMAN lost his job with Literaturnaya Gazeta within hours after e ad applied for an exit visa. His request was turned down, the authorities told him, "because you have an intimate knowledge of the Soviet way of life." Ukrainian mathematician and philosopher LEONID PL:USIICH, one of the founding members of the Action Group for Civil Rights has signed numerous letters, petitions, and appeals to the United Nations. He has been one of the bolder and more outspoken protesters of political trials and arrests in the Ukraine and as a result subject to frequent searches and KGB interrogations. I1-vushch was arrested in Kiev last spring. ANDREY SAKHAROV, popularly known as the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, first warned in the mid-1960's of the criminal character of a possible nuclear war. After his remarkable essay of June 1968, "Thoughts on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom" was published in the West, he was dismissed from his post as Chief Consultant to the State Committee for Atomic Energy and returned to his own (Lebedev) institute where no security pass is needed. In 1970 he formed, with physicist colleagues Chalidze and Tverdokhlebov, the unofficial Soviet Human Rights Committee whose aim is to study the problems of rights and to help the authorities to introduce desirable reforms. One of a handful of Soviet intellectuals that the regime has been unable to coerce, in June Sakharov issued a new appeal calling on the Soviet leadership to liberalize Soviet society and protect the Soviet people from a resurgence of Stalinism. Included in Sakharov's proposals are the evolution, not the overthrow of socialism, the passage of a law to guarantee any Soviet Republic the right of secession, and the inadequate study given to the military-industrial complex in the Soviet Union and other Communist nations to be remedied. Sakharov's emphasis on law and legality reflects his role as the principal spokesman for Russia's dissident democratic movement whose supporters contend there is nothing wrong with Soviet laws as they are written Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 but that the Government has chosen to ignore or distort law to further personal ambitions and protect the privileges of the ruling class. The campaign to discredit world renowned author and Nobel Prize winner ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN gathered momentum last spring with the pu ication in iteraturnaya Gazeta of almost a full newspaper page of letters denouncing Solzheni.tsyn's "hatred" of the Bolshevik Revolution and trying to link him with anti-Soviet emigre groups. On 4 April Solzhenitsyn made his first personal and on-the-record statement to Western newsmen in almost 10 years. He said he had been systematically slandered since 1965 by an official propaganda campaign intended to "drive me-out of society or out of the country, throw me in a ditch or send me to Siberia, or have me dissolve in an alien fog." The 53-year old writer accused Soviet authorities of stupidity and shortsightedness, charging; that the Soviet Union is ruled today by "Force and Violence." Nevertheless, he said, creativity in Russian literature has not been extinguished and he looks towards the day when those who now slander him "will personally answer for this in court." In talking about his work, the author said that he feels: ".I am working for Russia, and Russia is helping me." Hp announced that more than 1 million dollars in royalties he has earned in the West are to be spent on "the general welfare of my country" under terms of a will he has written. Asked how it felt to be a celebrity in the West, the novelist answered: "I would prefer to be widely published in my own country!" He also said that he could live and work only in Russia. In mid-January this year, KGB raids in Lvov and Kiev resulted in the arrests of 13 Ukrainian 'intellectual dissidents, among them literary critic IVAN SVITLYCHNY. His sister, NADIYA SVITLYCHNYwas reported arrested on May. Both Svitlychny an is sister have long been active in the Ukrainian nationalist movement. Ivan Svitlychny was held in prison without trial from 1965 to 1966 and later subjected to KGB searches and interrogations. His sister Nadiya was dismissed from her job as a librarian in Kiev in 1969 because of a protest letter she signed. In the trials underway in Kiev as of mid-July, Nadiya's husband DANYLO SHUMUK has been sentenced to 10 years forced labor and 25 years exile. ALEXANDER ESENIN-VOLPIN, a brilliant logician and legal expert, has been a carless dissenter since Stalin's day:: in 1959 he sent abroad a philosophical treatise and a collection of his poems; in 1965 he was one of the founders of the now traditional Constitution Day demon- strations; in 1966 he wrote about the Sinyavsky-Daniel trial; and in 1967 he gave evidence at the trial of Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Vladimir Bukovsky. At intervals since 1949 he has been incarcerated in mental hospitals. Ultimately he was always released because of the pressure of high-powered colleagues and other intellectuals. In June this year the Soviet regime "granted" Mr. Volpin an exit visa; he was told that he had six days to settle his affairs and that he should leave Russia for good. He has taken up residence in Rome. YURI TITOV, architect and religious painter, was a supporter o the Action Group for the Defense of Civil Rights, active dissident and signer of protests including a letter sent in September 1969 to the World Council of Churches protesting the arrest and imprisonment of religious writer Anatoliy Levitin-Krasnov. In 1971 he was incarcerated in Moscow's Kashchenko Psychiatric Hospital. In June this year he wt ,-fdreed to ?m gr tee from the USSR. Permitted to leave Russia with his family and 64 of his paintings, Titov emigrated to Rome. Upon uncrating the paintings in Rome, he discovered they had been sprayed with sulphuric acid and were mo $ than h.if;:amaged. PYOTR YAKIR, historian, associate of Vladimir Bukovsky in the emocratic movement, and son of a popular general purged by Stalin in 1937, is one of the best known leaders of the protest movement in Russia today. In January the KGB seized some 3,000 documents, clippings and books from his apartment. Six months later Yakir was arrested and charged with "anti-constitutional activities." Yakir maintains that he fights for the de-Stalinization of Soviet society and that he does so within the letter of the law. On 9 July, 7 leading Soviet civil rights advocates protested the arrest of Yakir and demanded that he be freed on bail as Angela Davis was before her trial in California. Citing the Davis Case, which was widely reported in the Soviet press, Yakir's friends wrote: "Long before she was brought to trial on charges of being an accessory to murder, she was permitted bail and given a provisional release from prison." Western observers in Moscow say that if Yakir is brought to trial, it will be one of the most significant political trials since the days of Stalin. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 SOVIET REPRESSION: Index of Attachments "Page "Brezhnev, Yakir and The West," Soviet Analyst, 1 - 2 6 July 1972 "Soviet Rights Group Threatened by Police," Sunday Star, 30 July 1972 "KGB Warns Dissidents on Anti-Soviet Activity," Washington Post, 30 July 1972 "'Political Rebels Dying," The Guardian, 3 August 1972 "Physicist Challenges Kremlin," Charlotte Saikowski, Christian Science Monitor, 23 June 1972 "URSS: Une Societe en Danger de Mort," Andrei Sakharov, L'Express, 7-14 August 1972 "The Sakharov Memorandum," New York Times 8A-8C 18 August 1972 "The Yakir Case: Dissent vs Authority," Anthony Astrachan, Washington Post, 28 June 1972 "Soviets Tighten Disciplining of Dissidents," Paul Wohl Christian Science Monitor, 26 June 1972 "KGB Steps Up Its Campaign Against Dissidents," 11 Peter Reddaway, The Times, 13 June 1972 "Russians Launch Biggest Drive Against Internal 12 Dissent Since Death of Stalin," Peter Reddaway, The Times, 28 June 1972 "Lithuanian Troubles Jolt the Kremlin," Paul 13-14 Wohl, Christian Science Monitor, 30 June 1972 "Arrests by KGB Continue in Ukraine," Inter- 14-15 continental Press, 19 June 1972 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Page "Leninism and Nationality," Soviet Analyst, 15 30 July 1972 "Nationalism in the Soviet Union," Neue Zeurcher Zeitung, 2 April 1972 "Unrest Is Spurring Soviet to Meld Its 100 Nationalities," Theodore Shabad, New York Times, 31 July 1972 24-25 "Soviet Underground Urges Strikes to Raise Standards," New York Times, 20 June 1972 "Inside Russia: Rare Voices of Protest," Newsweek, 26 June 1972 "Ask Letters in Behalf of Pyotr Grigorenko," Intercontinental Press, 26 June 1972 "Un Appel de la Section Suisse de 'Amnesty International'," Revue de la Presse Suisse, 7 July 1972 "Call for Inquiry on Soviet Police-Psychiatry," 30-34 Intercontinental Press, 12 June 1972 "Jewish Emigration," Soviet Analyst, 22 June 34-35 1972 "Soviet Dancer Said to Despair," New York Times, 35-36 2 July 1972 "It Isn't Only Jews Russia Is Letting Go," The 36-37 Economist, 17 June 1972 "Russian Dissenter Appeals to the West," Peace 37-38 News, 23 June 1972 "Intrigue Enlivens Conference in Kiev," Washington Post, 9 July 1972 38-39 "In the Dark Ages of Psychiatry," The Economist, 39-40 8 Juiy 1972 "Notes from Soviet Asylums - The Bukovsky Papers," National Review, 9 June 1972 40-44 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : 2CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Page "The Kremlin vs Solzhenitsyn," Soviet Analyst, 44-46 27 April 1972 "Russians Against The Kremlin," Michael Bourdeaux 46-61 Elga Eliaser, David Floyd,. John Miller, Ronald Payne, Stephen Constant, four-part series: "Flights Into Israel," Sunday Telegraph 47-50 14 May 1972 "The Price They Pay for Protest," Sunday 50-54 Telegraph, 21 May 1972 "Martyrs of Religious Protest," Sunday 54-57 Telegraph, 28 May 1972 "Leaders Tell of Fight for Human Rights in 57-61 Russia," Sunday Telegraph, 4 June 1972 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 3 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 SOVIET ANALYST, London 6 July 1972 CPYRGHT -';,-rOZ12neif, air and., the West The arrest of Pyotr Yakir on 21 June 1972 may servo to illustrate clearly, and put beyond cavil, and misinterpretation, the current policies of.the Soviet leadership. We have drawn attention in past issues to the recent series of scattered arrests, certifications as insane, and so on, as part of a campaign of increasing rigour against the dissident and democratic elements in the Soviet Union. Yakir had hitherto been to some ' degree protected, in spite of his selfless devotion to civil liberty, by the fact that his very-name. symbolises both the Stalin terror which destroyed his famous father and the rehabilitations of the Khrushchev period, and that he has enjoyed some residual protection from Army and other figures with whose such arguments still carried weight. His arrest signifies, therefore, a further decision taken at the highest level (and we can be sure that his case was discussed in the Politburo itself) to demonstrate and extend the new and much harder Tine against liberal activity. As we wrote in SOVIET ANALYST No. 8, con- fusion had arisen in the'West about a new "soft line" which had supposedly triumphed in' the Kremlin. Above all, the recent agreements with' .the USA were seen as part and parcel of the defeat of a "hard line" general attitude among the leadership. We noted that the demotion of Shelest, widely misinterpreted in the West as a defeat for a "hard liner" internally as well as externally, in fact meant the removal of the man` who in his fief in the Ukraine had actually con-' ducted a policy Incomparably less oppressive towards, local dissidence than that in favour in Moscow. It must now be absolutely clear that,the line of Brezhnev and the Politburo majority is, one of seeking an element of truce with the West, and at the same time tightening the dictatorship within the USSR. There need have been. no surprise about this. As we noted in SOVIET ANALYST No. 1, the. speeches of Brezhnev and others, over the past years and right up to the present, have been full, of the strongest assurances that there could be no, "ideological truce", no rapprochement in prin- ciple, between the Soviet Union and the West that, on the contrary, the international struggle must continue unabated. Mr. Brian Crozier's con-, tribution to our current issue develops this point., It has often been believed in the West that summit meetings; treaties, trade and so forth,' would go with a general softening, even a" crumbling, of Soviet intransigence. This has never proved to be the 'case. And the leaders are being logical rather than not in turning especially strongly against the representatives of demo- cratic ideas while they themselves -are man- 'oeuvring for a truce. and for other benefits In the international field. In that field, they have now obtained certain advantages-(and paren- thetically, we may now feel that they have it. something from experience, and may revise i.i some extent estimates _of their incapacity based on that incompetent handling of international matters which left them faced with hostility from every direction). The dissident movement in Russia is not, in- deed, yet crushed. The new issue of the Chronicle' of Current Events has after all appeared in Moscow, though it seems clear that the KGB is now determined to stop it, and is more likely to succeed with every arrest. There are, important figures, with stronger defences in their reputat- ions and connections, in the political debit to be incurred by arresting them, than Yakir's. In part- icular, there is Alexander Solzenitsyn: though it may be possible largely to isolate him. And, on the other side, there is Academician Andrei Sakharov, the atomic physicist, and his associ- ates. Whether the authorities are prepared as yet to move against them remains to be seen; and it will no doubt partly depend on reactions to the Yakir case. Meanwhile, ' the "creeping Stalinism" which Yakir noted some years ago creeps steadily on. Every year, is, in, the words of the Soviet joke, "an average year,-worse than last year,. better than next". From the Western point of view,'we 'are once' again being shown the basic fact of modern inter- national politics: 'that the Soviet'Union remains' in "principle wholly irreconcilable. Truces and 1 CPYRGHT Annrnviprl Fnr Rplpacp 1 GGGfngfn7 - r1A_RfP7Q_nh1 QAAnnn9nn'I %nnnl _n arrangements- can be made. These are both necessary and useful. All the same, the fact re- mains that the USSR is, by its own volition, a siege polity. A stable and properly based world peacenot a Utopian condition of total fraternity, but a relationship at least no more hostile than those now prevailing among the non-Communist states-cannot arise until this condition of siege ends and there is a free influx and efflux of ideas -and travellers. When and if the Eur,pean Security Conference meets, the main aim of the Western negotiators must surely be to put the maximum pressure on the Russians to back up their verbal assurances of poaco and friendship by at least some beginning of such gonuino traffic, without which dotonte. means little in tho longer run. Doubtless the Russians are unlikoly, in their present mood, to accede. But at least it should be ensured that they do not treat such a conference simply as a free propaganda run for the old idea that all substantial concessions must be made by the West. The assault on Yakir is part of an offensive against the whole conception of free and peaceful debate on matters of principle, whether conducted across or within frontiers. The Western Governments should make it clear, both; to the Soviet leaders and to such of their own citizens who may have sunk prematurely into a "deep dream of peace", that'atrue detente, as against a condition'of vigilant truce,' Cannot be arrived at-while this'attitude`persists. SUNDAY STAR, Washington 30 July 1972 CPYRGHT KGB CRACKS DOWN Soviet Rights Group Threatened by Police MOSCOW (AP) - he Com- mea ns arrest. ve always written to "T JU ittee on Human protest he misuse of the law, unded 21 months ago by or to suggest improvement in ree prominent ph 3icists as the law " the 33-year-old phys- er icist sa d. "If I'm arrested for ? Vet ,M? _that, i means you can't do its ibuse by uthorities, may be the next that an more in this country. "ve been trying to help Valery N. Challdz a foun- the Soviet state, and now I'm is -Soviet. I er of the group, s d t polite in an ftold thit eel the situation isnworse than ficer summoned Tim twice it was year ago." us month, told Earl this year the KGB --, ittee had engaged in "well secret lice - began a con- asked ti vi certed rive to uproot dissent. nd threatened hi with "re- Hundre Is of persons have said tbia an effort to crush the under- ground Chronicle of Current Events, organ of the so-called Democratic Movement. On June 21, KGB detectives arrested historian Pyotr Yak- ir, one of the driving forces of the movement. He is in Mos-. cow's Lefortovo Prison await- ing trial on charges of "anti- Soviet agitation and propa- ganda." The committee was orga- nized in November 1970 by Chalidze and fellow physicists Andrei D. Sakharov, developer, of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, -sad Anrlrpi N_ TverdokhleboV. CPYRGHT R. Shafarevich became member, and Nobel Prize win- ning, novelist Alexander I. Sol zhenitsyn and writer and bal ladeer Alexander Galich were elected corresponding mem hers. "Our work is to continue th study of Soviet law and hel the Soviet authorities perfec the laws and judicial pros dure," Chalidze asserted. H said the committee's activit is aimed at creating a concep of the law as a separate entit not subject to political ex Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 2 o h m a Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 WASHINGTON POST CPYRGWJuly 1972 KGB Warns Dissidents 'fly Robert G. Kaiser Wa;.hinrtan Pos.t Foreign Service MOSCOW, July 29-A high- ranking KuB o icer as ac- cused the Soviet Committee for Human Rights of contrib- uting to anti-Soviet propo- ganda, a potentially serious ac- cusation against the group led by Andrei Sakharov, a distin- guished Soviet physicist. The KGB's warning came in a recent session with Valeri N. Chalidze, a young physicist and associate pf Sakharov's. Chalidze disclosed in an inter- view that the KGB questioned him twice, on July 5 and 7. Perhaps because of Sakh'ar- ov's renown as "the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb," the human rights committee has largely escaped official persecution since its founding in November 1970. But Chal- idze does not have Sakharov's international reputation. The committee has only four mem- bers, and its work has con- listed of public statements on Soviet laws and legal proceed- ings. Chalidze's two sessions with a senior KGB official, the as- sistant director of the Na- tional Department of Investi- gation, followed several months of apparently intensi- lied secret police crackdown n Anti-Soviez Activities on political dissidents. In an interview in his room in a communal Moscow apart, I ent Chalidze said he thought It at official pressure on dissi nts was increasing mark- tuation Worse le ly. "I feel that the situation is orse than it was a year ago," 1 said. On July 5 he was personally t ircatened with "repression," halidze said, which he inter- p eted as a threat of arrest. "The situation must be bad," said. "I have always writ- t n protests against the mis- e of the law, or suggesting i provements of the law. If I arrested for that it means u can't do that any more in t is country," he said. Sakharov has become In- c easingly outspoken of late. , I June he released a memo- ,- ndum to Communist Party 1 ader Leonid I. Brezhnev hich said in part: idden Cruelty' ,,Our society is infected with athy, hypocrisy, narrow- inded egoism, hidden ctu- to lecture next fall at New e ty. The majority of the rep- York University Law School. r sentatives of its highest stra- He said he would like to ac- t -the party and government cept this invitation, and hopes a ministrative apparatus, the Soviet authorities will allow ost successful strata of the :him to go. I teligensia-hang on terra- I Chalidze's phone has been cret privileges and are deeply indifferent to violations of human rights, to the interests of progress, and to the secu- rity of future mankind ...' Chalidze said he personally. had never engaged in direct' attacks on the Soviet system, but had concentrated instead on ways of strengthening the legal protection of human rights. He said he had been "deeply affected" by the arrest of Pyotr Yakir, a prominent dis- sident and son of a Soviet gen oral shot in Stalin's purges, who was picked up by the KGR last month. Chalidze said he had not re- ceived any mail from abroad for months, although he knows from people he has talked to by long-distance tele- phone that hundreds of let- ters, including many that were registered, have been sent to him. Awaiting Leber One letter lie is waiting for now, he said, is an Invitation CPYRGHT cut o c the first time during President Nixon's visit, when many polit- ical dissidents here found their phones suddenly out of order. Chalidze shares his phone with five other families in the communal apartment, so they lose service whenever, he does. "I don't know what. is worse," Chalidze said with a small grin, "an unpleasant in- terview with the KGB, or had relations with your neighbors in a communal apartment." In a communal flat, all the resi- dents share one kitchen and bathroom, and most families have only one room of their own. His young wife Vera, a granddaughter of Maxim Lit- vinov, Soviet minister of for- eign affairs during the 1930s, is unable to get work or a place in a university, though she has done very well on en- trance exams, he said. Chalidze had responsible work as a leader of several re- searchers in a physics labora- tory here, but a year ago, the laboratory stripped him of X11 responsibilities, and he quit. He now works in a small laboratory, but he is not en- gaged in important research. THE GUARDIAN, MANCHESTER 3 August 1972 PoIitiai , rebels s ing .. The Soviet nuclear phlsikist, Andrei Sakharov, leas said in a letter to the Russian Health Minister, Mr, Petrovsky, that two political dissidents are dying i solitary Confinemeft in a Leningrad mental hospital. Copies of &akinarov's letter, dated Tuc;:day. reached Western journailsts today.' The letter said Viktor Feinberg and Vladimir Borisov .,are dying in a Leningrad psychiatric prison hospital" and ",remain in solitary confine- ment. Thgy are deprived of books and writing materials." Sakharov, one of the dcwclopers of the Soviet Ii- homh and a codounficr of the unofficial Committee on Human Ri~gh'tcs.told Petrovsky : " Without your intervention as well as the world pub'lic's, no force is capable of caving them." CPYRGHT Protest Feinberg, an art critic,- was sent to hospital after participating in a 1968 Red l Square demonstrat'ion? against l the invasion oaf CzeehoSIcrvakia. Borisov," an engineer, wrote 'a letter to the United N'atiAns protesting against politkal CPYRGHT arrests -in the Soviet Union. Dissident sources said both : staged an 80-day hunger strike in 1971 to protest against hasfiital conditions and the Soviet practice of dewtaining sane political dissenters in mental' hospitals. Sakharov's letter said they had ".held a nuluber of hunger strikes as a sign of protest' against prison administration arbitrariness." The letter said the two men were transferred in January to the Serbsky Psychiatric institute in Moscow for a three-month psychiatric examination. The Serbsky institute's com= mittee ruled in April that they were r no longer in need" o'f treatment, the letter said - but CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 23 June 1972 Stop repression, Q, .Kara warns astonishing ruling," overturned including two Canadian-born Embassy a?tcr spending their against the Soviet auithorities' CPYRGHT refusal to qet ahem leave the country with their famil/:s, said before they went into the embassy on Monday that they would stage a hunger strike. Today they were understood to have kept their word, and to have taken nothing but water since starting the sit-in. UPI and Reuter., f[Aw OWWN t "c gal e g s" 1 By Charlotte Saikowski Staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor A prominent Soviet scientist has ex- pressed alarm over what he sees as the growing trend of political and religious re- pression in this country. With a sense of deep urgency, Andrei D. Sakharov, the eminent nuclear physicist and dissident intellectual, has renewed his long. standing plea for a thorough democratiza- tion of Soviet society, which he terms "in- fected with apathy, hypocrisy, narrow- minded egoism, and hidden cruelty." Dr. Sakharov has asked Leonid I. Brezh- nev and other Soviet leaders to engage in a dialogue on a wide-ranging program of re- form to liberalize virtually every facet of Soviet life. These would spell greater po- litical and economic freedom at home and more flexible policies abroad, especially with respect to China. Emphasis on freedom He urges that the Soviet Union announce it will never be the first to use weapons of mass destruction and allow on-site inspec- tion. He also calls for creation of an inter- national council of experts to consider ques- tions of peace, disarmament, economic aid, human rights, and environment. "It seems to me now, to a greater degree than before," declares the vigorous civil- rights advocate in his first major statement. since 1970, "that the single true guarantee of the preservation of human values in the chaos of uncontrollable change ? and tragic shock is the freedom of the convictions of man, his moral striving for good." IAparoved For Release 1999/09/02 Dr. Sakharov's appeal and proposals, many of which are not new, are contained in a lengthy memorandum of March 5, 1971, which he sent to Mr. Brezhnev for consider- ation. They are amplified in an afterword to' the memorandum dated-June, 1972. Copies of both documents now have been made available to Western correspondents here. Dr. Sakharov states In the afterword that the memorandum "has remained with- out answer and I do not consider it my right to further postpone Its publication." Drunkenness deplored Publication would take place only In the West, of course, or in underground form. here. The 51-year-old physicist has 'consis- tently challenged the Soviet leadership, and although he advocates the evolution and not the overthrow -of socialism, his views are heretical from the Kremlin's standpoint. The majority of party and government bureaucrats, he charges in his latest incisive indictment of Soviet society, cling to "open and secret privileges" -and are indifferent to violations of human rights. Drunkenness has become "a national calamity." Education and health care are in a "deplorable state." No fundamental changes in the system have taken place since Stalin's time, writes. Professor Sakharov in the afterword, add- ing: "With hurt and alarm I am forced to note, in the wake of a largely illusory liberalism, the growth of restrictions on ideological freedom, of striving to suppress govern- ment-controlled information, of persecution for political and ideological reasons, of an Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001 YRGHT intentional exacerbation of nationality prob- lems." Proposals aired These trends, he says, have gained mo- mentum in the past 15 months, with a wave of political arrests, use of psychiatry for po- litical purposes, and new instances of reli- gious persecution, particularly in the Baltic states. Written in dry outline form, the detailed memorandum touches alL aspects of Soviet activity -- political, economic, legal, en- vironmental, medical - and is a kind of Sakharovian version of a state five-year plan. Many of the proposals have been aired by Dr. Sakharov over recent years, includ- ing amnesty for political prisoners, restora- tion of the rights of exiled peoples, freedom of information, further economic reform, elimination of the system of single-slate elections, and removal of internal passport regulations. Among the new proposals is one for an expansion of the private sector of agricul- ture, with more land and equipment allotted for garden plots. The scientist would also broaden opportunities for private initiative in the service sector, medical services, and petty trade - ideas which bring to mind the NEP reforms of Lenin's time. On the sensitive question of nationalism, Dr. Sakharov proposes passage of a law to guarantee any Soviet republic the right of secession. He believes, rightly or wrong- ly, that any movements now simmering for secession would weaken with further democ- ratization of the U.S.S.R. Several times the noted academician stresses the debilitating effect on Soviet life of the "system of privileges" in work, education, and consumption under which the political and administrative hierarchy functions. He advocates these be done away with. Dr. Sak:harov, who helped develop the Soviet hydrogen bomb, is especially con- cerned about militarization of the Soviet economy. He singles out the problem of limiting the arms race and notes the inade- quate study given to the military-industrial complex in the Soviet Union and other Com- munist nations. A concentration of resources on internal problems, he asserts, would make it possible to overcome the Soviet nation's backward- ness vis-a-vis the West and ensure its se- curity from possible troubles with China. World pact urged Taking note of the recent arms-control agreements, Dr. Sakharov expresses hope they "have not only a symbolic meaning but will also lead to a real drop in the arms race and to further steps which will soften the political climate in a world worn out with suffering." With respect to his proposed council of experts, which could be set up under United Nations auspices, Dr. Sakharov also calls for an international pact that would bind national governments to examine the coun- cil's recommendations. Professor Sakharov became widely known in the West with the publication there in 1968 of a long essay calling for "convergence" of the Soviet Union and the United States and touching on such questions as nuclear war, pollution, and hunger. He now reaffirms that rapprochement and changes in both Communist and capitalist societies are needed to avert the dangers of the atomic age. But his writings since 1968 seem to be concerned more with conditions in this coun- try, and the latest documents carry a greater sense of urgency, perhaps because the time- table which he set in 1968 for democratic evolution of Soviet society is so far from realization (and he admits his prognoses have become "more reserved"). Intriguing question The intriguing question, and one impos- sible to answer, is the extent to which Dr. Sakharov's views are shared by the Soviet intelligentsia. Only a small handful of other intellectuals have joined with him in his struggle for political liberties (he is cofounder of the unofficial Committee on Human Rights), but certainly many would welcome the more efficient and humane society which he espouses. Dr. Sakharov also calls on foreign leaders for "active help" in the struggle for human rights, but does not suggest what form such help might take. A quiet man, Dr. Sakharov has taken great care to operate in a strictly legal manner and without association with West- ern journalists, to whom he remains an ob- scure figure. Although the physicist's professional re- sponsibilities have been curtailed, he re- mains a member of the prestigious Acade- my of Sciences. Earlier this year authorities prevented him from attending a supposedly "open" trial of a political dissident, but he gen- erally has been left alone, presumably be- cause of his high standing in the scientific community. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 L'EXPRESS, Paris 7-14 August 1972 CPYRGHT 'r -y.. ouc Ut 01A 'old-ueat op sp; 03U3 a 9N par Andrei SAKHAROV Pere de la bombe H russe, membre de I'Academie des sciences d'U.R.S.S., cofondateur d'un comite officieux pour la defense des droits de I'homme, le Pr Andrei Sakharov est, a 51 ans, le plus illustre des critiques du regime sovietique. Sa notoriete I'a laisse, jusqu'a present, a I'abri des represailles. Deja fiche ? en 1968 a la suite de la diffusion clan- destine d'un manuscrit intitule ? Reflexions sur le progres, la coexistence pacifique et la liberte indi- viduelle. (L'Express du 26 aout 1968), M. Sakharov adressait a M. Leonid Brejnev, le 5 mars 1971, un ? memoire - proposant un vaste programme de reformes. ? On ne m'a jamais repondu, dit-il. Je n'ai vu d'autre recours que de le rendre public. En y joignant un post-scriptum. A Lequel vient de nous parvenir, date de juin 1972. Le voici. Une guerre thermonucleaire serait un crime. Les essais d'armes thermonucleaires dans ]'atmosphere en sont un. L'ayant compris, jai entrepris, voila dix ou douze ans, ]'action que je poursuis encore. Depuis lors, j'ai passe beaucoup de mes ides au crible. Particu- lierement on 1968, annee dont je consacrai les pre- miers mois a travailler a mes : Reflexions sur le pro- gres m, et dont les derniers mois retentirent pour nous tous du grondement des tanks dans Prague I'irreductible. La liberte pour l'homme de choisir ses idees Autant qu'alors, je salue les progres sociaux, culturels, economiques, accomplis chez nous depuis un demi- siecle. Sachant, neanmoins, que bien d'autres pays on ont fait autant, et qu'il y faut voir un reflet du progres mondial. Autant qu'alors, je pense que I'on ne peut surmonter les contradictions et les perils tragiques de notre ere qu'en rapprochant et en modifiant ensemble les structures capitalistes et socialistes. Chez les nations capitalistes, cc processus doit s'ac- compagner d'un renforcement de la protection des tra- vailleurs, et d'un affaiblissement du militarismo et de son influence politique. Chez les nations socialistes, iJ est essentiel de restreindre 1'economie militariste et l'ideologie messianique. Quant aux aspects les plus extremes du centralisme et du monopole bureaucra- tique du Parti, ii est vital de les reduire, autant dans le domaine economique que dans celui de I'ideologie et de la culture. Comme alors, la democratisation de la societe, le rlevcloppement de ]'information publique, la legalite, l'excrcice des droits csscnticls de I'homme me paraissent dune importance decisive. Comme alors, j'espcre quo le progres materiel poussera la societe a evolucr en cc sons, bien qu'aujourd'hui je reserve davantage mon pronostic. 11 m'apparait, plus encore qu'auparavant, quo pour preserver les valeurs humaines on depit du chaos et du choc des transformations qui echappent a notre controle, it nest qu'une seule garantie veritable : Is ]iberte pour I'homme de choisir ses Wes et de s'efforcer au bien. L'ivrognerie prend allure de calamite nationale Notre societe est malade d'apathie, d'hypocrisie, d'egoisme a courte vue, de cruaute cachee. La plus grande partie de sa couche superieure - 1'appareil administratif du Parti et du gouvernement, la fraction la plus favorisee de l'intelligentsia - s'accroche obsti- nement a ses privileges, secrets ou non, et se montre profondement indifferente aux violations des droits de 1'homme, aux besoins de progres, a la securite de l'hu- manite future. D'autres, au plus profond de leur ame, s'en preoccupent. Mais ils ne peuvent se permettre Ia moindre pensee libre, et ne peuvent que se torturer ]'esprit. L'ivrognerie prend allure de calamite nationale. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 C'est tin des sympt6mes de la degradation morale d'une societe qui sombre de plus en plus dans l'alcoolisme chroniquc. Pour quc le pays retrouve son ame, it faut eliminer ces conditions qui poussent les gees a dhypocrisie et au conformisme, qui creent chez eux l'insatisfaction, le desenchantement, ]'impuissance. 11 faut assurer a chacun, dans les faits et non dans les mots, des chances egales de travail, d'education, de culture. 11 faut 61i- miner le systeme des privileges dans tons les secteurs de ]a consommation. Unc liberte ideologique totale est essenticile, autant qu'une reforme radicale de fedu- cation et que ]'abolition de la persecution ideologique sous toutes ses formes. La-dessus reposent beaucoup des propositions offertes dans mon memoire. Celui-ci pose, notamment, un probleme : l'ameiio- ration do la condition materiellc, et de l.'independance, des deux groupes les plus nombreux et les plus impor- tants de ]'intelligentsia : les enseignants et les medecins. La condition deplorable de ]'education et de la sante publiqucs es( soigneusement dissimulee aux strangers. Mais ells ne peut rester cachee a cetuc qui veulent voir. La gratuite de l'h6pital et de l'kcole nest qu'une illusion economique dans une societe ou le gouver- nement s'appropric, et repartit, tons les surplus acquis. La sante et l'education refletent, de fagon particu- licrcment. pernicicuse, la structure hierarchique de nos classes sociales ct le systeme des privileges. Au peuple ne s'ouvrcnt que des h6pitaux delabrCs, des ecoles oil le professeur, pauvre et opprime lui-mane, dispense un enseignement entache d'hypocrisie convention- nelle, repandant parmi la generation montante ]'esprit d'indifference aux valcurs artistiques, scientifiques et morales. Pour guerir cette societe, it faut, tout specialement, mettrc tin terme aux persecutions politiques sous leurs formes judiciaires, psychiatriques, et toutes celles que favoriscnt une bureaucratic bigote et l'intervention d'un gouvernement totalitaire dans la vie des citoyens : pri- vation d'emploi, exclusion de ]'enseignement superieur, refus de permis de residence, freinage a l'avance- ment, etc. Les milieux dirigeants n'ont pas repondu a ]a renais- sance morale du peuplo et de ]'intelligentsia, qui s'etait amorcee une fois freinses les manifestations les plus extremes du terrorisme aveugle de Staline. Aucune mutation fondamentale n'a touche les structures de base, sociales et ideologiques, de M.R.S.S. L'inquietude et lc chagrin me poussent an contraire a souligner - Bans le sillage de cette a liberalisation s illusoire - 1'effort aeon, qui restreint la liberte des idees et de ]'information, qui muitiplie les persecutions politiques et ideologiques, qui exacerbe, tout expr&s, les problemcs des minorites nationales. Les quinze mois ecoules depuis quc j'ai soumis mon a memoire n ont apporte des prcuvcs, nouvelles et inquictantcs, de ('aggravation do ecs courants. Nous avons aussi notre complexe militaro-industriel Une vague d'arrestations politiques dans les premiers mois de 1972 appa.rait particulierement alarmante. Beaucoup ont cu lieu en Ukraine. D'autres a Moscou, a Leningrad et ailleurs. L'usage quc I'on fait de la psychiatric a des fins politiques est absolument into- lerable, et comporte pour la societe des consequences extraordinairement dangereuses. Protestations et decla- rations ahondent a cc sujet. Mais Piotr Grigorenko, Vladimir Gershuni et bien d'autres sont toujours enfer- mes dares des cliniques-prisons. De Victor Feinberg et de Vladimir Borisov, on ne salt rien (1). 11 est d'autres cas, recents, tel le poste Luponos, en Ukraine. La persecution, l'ecrasement de la religion se pour- suivent depuis des decennies, avec une cruaute opi- niiitre. C'est la une atteinte aux droits de 1'homme par- ticulierement lourde de consequences. La liberte de religion est partie integrante de la liberte intellectuelle en general. Les derniers mois en ont vu, malheurcu- sement, de nouve[les violations. Notamment dans les Republiques baltes et ailleurs. Je ne m'attarderai pas, dans cc post-scriptum, sur d'importants prohlemes abordes Bans le n memoire et dins d'autres documents quc j'ai puhlies - sous forme de Iettres ouvertes a des membres du Presidium du Soviet supreme - traitant de la liberte d'emigra- tion, ou de ]a discrimination a i'encontre des Tatars de Crimee, evoquee dans une lettre au ministre de l'Inte- rieur. Je ne m'appesantirai pas non plus sur la plupart des problemes internationaux dont le c memoire i- faisait etat. Je me contenterai de parler ice de la course aux armements. La militarisation de ]'economic jouc profondement sur la politique, interieure et etrangere, viole la demo- cratic, la loi, le droit a I'information, et menace In paix. On a etudie de pres l'influence du complexe militaro-industriel sur la politique americaine. Son r6le en U.R.S.S. et dans d'autres pays socialistes est moms connu. Une voix venue du monde U socialists II faut pourtant souligner - c'est essentiel - que le pourcentage des depenses militaires par rapport au revenu national n'est nelle part aussi Cleve qu'en U.R.S.S. : plus de 40 %. Quand la mefiance regne, le probleme du contr6le prend un relief particulier. J'ecris cela peu apres la signature d'accords importants sur la limitation des missiles antimissiles et des fusses strategiques. On vou- drait croire que les chefs politiques et les dirigeants des complexes militaro-industriels, en U.R.S.S. et aux Etats-Unis, se sentent responsables devant 1'humanite. On voudrait croire que ces accords n'ont pas sculement valour symbolique, mais qu'ils freincront vraiment la course aux armements et conduiront a d'autres mesures qui adouciraient le climat politique d'un monde epuise par ]a souffrance. J'en appelle non sculement a mes lecteurs sovisti- ques, mais aussi a ceux qui me lisent a 1'etranger, dans 1'espoir qu'ils contribueront activement a cette lutte pour les droits de I'homme. J'espere aussi que ma voix, venue du monde socialists, aidera a mieux tirer la legon de 1'Histoire de ces dernieres decennies. (1) Par lettre ouverte du 1" aofit a M. Boris Petrovsky, ministre de la Sante, Ic Pr Sakharov a annonce que MM. Feinberg et Borisov ? etaient au seuil de la mort s CPYRGHT a l'hi pital psychiatrique de Leningrad ou ils sons tions politiques en U.R.S.S.*. Prives de livres. empechcs enfermcs depuis plus de trois ans. Le critique d'art Victor d'ecrire, its ont fait plusieurs grZves de la faim. Scion Feinberg a cte arrete, le 25 aout 1968, pour avoir mani- le Pr Sakharov, une commission medicale, en avril, les a feste sur la place Rouge contre ('invasion de In Tcheco- reconnus rains d'esprit. Une decision judiciaire les a slovaquic. L'ingcnieur Vladimir Borisov avait signe une maintenus a I'hopital. petition aux Nations unies protestant contre les arresta- Approved For Release 1999/09/02: CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 8 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 NEW YORIC TIMES 18 August 1972 CPYRGHT The Sakharov Memorandum Andrei D. Sakharov consider it Impera- tive to request that the following suggestions be considered by the com- petent authorities. r In my view, the time was ripe long ago for dealing with the question of a general amnesty to political pris- oners; including persons convicted by reason of their religion, per- sons confined to psychiatric in- stitutions, persons convicted of at- tempting to cross the border, po- litical prisoners given additional sentences for attempting to escape from a camp, or of spreading propa- ganda in a camp. It is essential to take steps to insure extensive, factual publicity of the proceedings in all trials, especially those of a political nature. I consider psychiatric punishment for reasons of a political, ideological or religious nature intolerable. It is essential to pass a law defending the rights of persons subjected to forced psychiatric hospitalization; also, to adopt ,resolutions and the necessary legislative refinements for the defense of the rights of persons presumed to be mentally disturbed In connection with prosecutions' on political charges. ? Concerning open public disclosure, free exchange of information and free- dom of conviction, It is essential that a draft law concerning the press and other means of mass communication be submitted for consideration by the general public. ? Concerning nationality problems and the problem of departure from our country, it is essential to pass resolutions and laws fully restoring the rights of the peoples resettled under Stalin and to pass laws ensur- ing the free and unimpeded exercise by citizens of their right to leave the country and to return to it freely. ? Concerning international problems, it is essential to take the initiative and Atari W. M @Q "firm bQ e"16ase tart w F to employ weapons of mass destruc- tion (nuclear, chemical, bacteriolog- ical or incendiary). It Is essential to permit inspection teams on our tern-, tory for effective control of disarma- ment. It is essential to alter our political position in the Middle East and in Vietnam, vigorously striving-through the United Nations and diplomatic channels -for the earliest possible peaceful settlement under conditions of a compromise. 0 Is is essential to work out a clear and consistent program for further democratization and liberalization and to take a number of steps which are top priority and not to be post- poned. This must be done in the interest of economic and technologi- cal progress; in the interest of gradu- ally overcoming our backwardness in comparison with the advanced .capitalist countries and our isolation from them; in the interest of the well- being of wide sections of the popula- tion; in the interest of the internal stability and the external security of our country. The development of our country is proceeding under conditions of considerable difficulties in our rela- tions with China. We are faced with serious internal problems in the areas of economics and the well-being of the population, economic and techno- logical progress, culture and ideology. The following problems should be noted: aggravation of the nationality problem; complications in relations be- tween the party-government apparatus and the intelligentsia, and in their relations with the basic mass of workers who find themselves in a rela- tively poorer position as far as living standards and economic situation go and in relation to job promotion and cultural growth, and who experience in a number of cases a feeling of disenchantment with "big talk" and the privileged group of "bosses," a group which for the most part often ' includes the Intelligentsia in the eyes The state sets as its fundamental goal the protection and the guarantee of the basic rights of its citizens. The defense of the rights of man is the highest of all goals. All acts of governmental institutions are wholly based on laws which are stable and known to the citizenry. Observance of the laws is obligatory for all citizens, institutions and organizations. Open publicity facilitates public con- trol of the legality, equity and effec. tiveness of the system as a whole, favors the scientific democratic char- acter of the administrative system, and contributes to the progress, well- being and security of the country. The nation's basic energy is directed toward harmonious internal develop- ment with effective utilization of labor and natural resources. This is the foundation of its strength and pros- pe:Sy. Messianism is foreign to this society, as' are delusions about the uniqueness and exclusive virtues of its own syss tem. and the negation of the system of others. The basic problem to foreign policy is that of relations with China. While offering the Chinese people the option of economic, technical and cultural aid, fraternal cooperation and joint move- ' ment along the democratic path- always keeping open the possibility for the development of relations in that direction-it is essential at the same time to show special concern for' insuring the security of our country, to avoid all other possible foreign and domestic entanglements, and to carry out our own plans for the develop- ment of Siberia, taking the above- mentioned factor into account. It is essential to strive for non- intervention in the internal affairs of other Socialist states and for mutual economic assistance. It is essential to take the initiative in creating (within the framework of the U.N.?) a new international consul- tative agency-an international coun- cil of experts on problems of peace, Ehm q~,~y; NLAalttta...e-, c viav,a?v %L .. ....v`y 6_ "I 194A60 f~1 0"f the rights YO? :;'IAA-0b CPYRGHT Iarante ing the of man, and on the protection of the natural environment-staffed by highly qualified and disinterested per- sons. In the area of personnel cadres and administration, it is essential to make decisions requiring greater public dis- closure on the work of governmen- tal agencies at all levels, within the limits allowed by the national interest. Matters of special importance include review of the tradition of dealing with problems of personnel policy behind closed doors; extension of open and effective public verification of the selection of cadres and extension of the electivity and actual removal from office in cases of incompetence of managers at all levels. I also have in mind the usual demand in demo. cratic programs for the elimination of the system of elections where the number of candidates does not exceed the number of posts, i.e., the elimi- nation of "elections without choice." should be taken to facilitate an ex- pansion of agricultural production on the personal plots of kolkhoz farmers, workers on sovkhozes, and individual peasants; revision of the tax policy, expansion of the tracts of land in this sector, revision of the system for pro- vision to this sector of modern and specially designed agricultural equip- ,.nent and fertilizers. Finally, we should expand the pos- sioilities and advantages for private in'.tiative in the sphere of services, hey lth care, retail trade and education. Vie question of. the gradual aboli- tion of the passport system must be examined, since it is a great hindrance to th't development of the country's produ~?tive forces and a violation- of the rights of citizens-especially the inhabit:!nts of rural areas. ? In the sphere of information ex- change, ciolture, science, and freedom of convictions, it is essential to en- courage freedom of convictions, the spirit of inquiry, and concern for ef- fectiveness..t is essential to discon- tinue the jamming of foreign radio transmissions, expand imports of for- e'gn literature, join the international system for pro. ecting authors' copy- rights, and facilit zte international tour- ism-in order to overcome the isola- tion which is ruir:ous to our develop- ment. It is essential to make decisions en- the passing o a s, surfing the actual separation of church right to secede would have great do- -1 A_;f;rnnr_A from state, and actual (i.e., guaranteed juridically, materially, and administra- tively) freedom of conscience and' worship. It is essential to take another look at those aspects of the relations be- tween the governmental-party appa- ratus and art, literature, the theater, and educational agencies, which act to the detriment of the development of culture in our country. ? In the social' sphere, it is essential to examine the question of the feasi- bility of abolishing capital punishment. It is essential to consider the feasi- - bility of establishing a public watch- dog agency which would have the goal of ruling out the possibility of the use of physical force (beating, expo- sure to hunger and cold) on persons detained, arrested, under investiga- tion, or convicted. There must be radical Improvement ,in the quality of education. More extensive measures must be taken in combating alcoholism. It is essential to step up measures in the fight against noise and the poisoning of the air and water, in the fight against erosion, the salination of the soil, and its poisoning by chemi- cals. Concerning reform of the system of health care we must: expand the net- work of polyclinics and hospitals re- quiring payment of fees; increase the role of physicians, registered nurses, and practical nurses in private prac- tice; increase the wages of medical workers at all levels; reform the phar- maceutical industry; increase the gen- eral availability of modern medication and remedies; introduction of closed- circuit X-ray television installations. In the sphere or law it is essential to eliminate overt and covert forms of discrimination for one's convictions and for characteristics of nationality. operation of socialist nations is of a very complete and all-ambracing char- acter and will undoubtedly be intensi- fied even further under conditions of mutual nonintervention by the socialist states in each others internal affairs. For these reasons, consideration of this question does not strike me as hazardous. If, at one point or another, the pres- entation of this memorandum Is un- necessarily categorical in character, it is because of the demands of brevity. The problems facing our country are Intimately related to certain aspects of the worldwide crisis of the 20th cen- tury: the crisis in international secu- rity, the loss of stability in social de- velopment, the ideological dead-end and disenchantment with the ideals of the recent past, nationalism, the dan- J ger of dehumanization. By virtue of our country's special position In the world, a constructive solution of our problems-a solution at once cautious, flexible, and decisive-would be of great significance for all mankind. Signature, A. SAKHAROV. .5 March, 1971 ? This "memorandum" was sent to the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party on Match 5, 1971. It has remained un- answered. I do not consider it my right to postpone its publication. This postscript is written in June 1972. It is essential to consider the ques- tion of the ratification, by the Su- preme Soviet U.S.S.R., of the Cove- nant on Human Rights adopted by the 21st Session of the U.N. General As- sembly, and of adhering to the optional protocol to that declaration. In the sphere of relations with na- tional republics, our country has pro- claimed the right of nations to self- determination, up to and including secession. The right of the union republics to secede is proclaimed by the Consti- tution of the U.S.S.R. In fact, the mere discussion of such questions often pro- vokes prosecution. In my opinion, a juridical analysis of the problem and as a confirmation of the antiimperialist and antichauvinist nature of our pol- icy. it seems quite plain that none of the secessionist tendencies in any re- public of the U.S.S.R. has a mass character and that they will undoubt- edly weaken in time, as a result of the further democratization of the U.S.S.R. On the other hand, it is quite certain that any republic which, for whatever reasons, secedes from the U.S.S.R. by peaceful constitutional means will fully reserve its ties with the socialist commonwealth of nations.. In such a case, the economic interests and defense capacity of the socialist camp would not suffer, since the co- s before I cannot help but value the great salu- tary changes (social, cultural, eco- nomic), which have taken place in our country over the last fifty years, tak- ing into account, however, the fact that similar changes have taken place Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : IBA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A0002001300OP8RGHT in many countries, and that they reflect a development of worldwide progress. Our society is Infected with apathy, hypocrisy, narrow-minded egotism, hiddden cruelty. The majority of the representatives of its highest stratum -the party and government adminis- trative apparatus, the most successful. strata of the intelligentsia-hang on tenaciously to their open and secret privileges and are deeply indifferent to violations of human rights, to the interests of progress, to the security of future mankind. Others, in the depths of their souls, are concerned, but cannot allow themselves the slightest free! thinking and are doomed to tortuous conflict within. themselves. For the spiritual recovery of the country those conditions must be elim- inated which. push people toward hy- pocrisy and accommodation, which create in them a feeling of helpless- ness, dissatisfaction and disenchant- ment. Complete Ideological freedom Is essential, a complete end to all forms of persecution for convictions. With hurt and alarm I am forced to note, in the wake of illusory liber- alism, the growth of restrictions on ideological freedom, of striving to sup- press Information not controlled by the government, of persecution for political and ideological reasons of an exacerbation of national problems. problems. The wave of political arrests in the first months of 1972 are particularly alarming. In the Ukraine numerous arrests took place. Arrests took place as well in Moscow, In Leningrad and in other regions of the country. Public attention In those months was drawn to the trials of Bukovsky In Moscow, Strokatova in Odessa, and others. The use of psychiatry for political purposes is extraordinarily dangerous in its consequences for society and completely intoiergbie. Numerous pro- tests and statements on this question are known. The persecution and destruction of religion has been conducted with per- sistence and cruelty over the course of decades--doubtless one of the most serious In Its consequences for the violations of human rights In our country. I,write this postscript soon after the signing of important agreements on the limitation of A.B.M. and strategic rockets. One wants to believe in a feeling of responsibility before man- ` kind on the part of the political rulers and officials of the military-industrial complexes of the United States and the U.S.S.R. One wants to believe that these agreements have not only a sym- bolic meaning, but will also a real lessening In the arms race and to further steps which will soften the political climate in a world worn out with suffering. In conclusion I think it essential to stress the importance which I attach to the proposal on organization of an international consultative organ of the international council of experts with the right to make recommendations whose consideration would be obliga- tory for the national governments. I consider that proposal to be realistic, on condition that it receive the broad . International support which I am requesting. I appeal not only to Soviet, but also to foreign readers, hoping for their active help in the struggle for human rights. I hope also that my voice from "inside" the socialist world will in some measure improve comprehension of the historical experience of the last. few decades. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 CPYRGHT WASNT1VGi~'3 POST, -28 June 1972 KGB Harasses, Then Arrests Russian Liberal The Yakir Case: Dissent vs. Authority By 1ttd1tnny .Astrachan times that only respect for the memory of might revive exile to foreign ianas- as it JUUICLdL dl"u VA U R-,UUMA"L ...l,.....v=- 1 . ._- ...Mich he alled t the Stalinist anti- c o dem it l i A,.A sa aulc AIVOp a s, year in an open letter to the Presidium ox will, but a number of dissidents nave- re- others In psych _ , _ .. f c f ohs demotions and losses of bli o on ess pu c b h e jo s. party, "why anti-Stalinism is equated with the emigration of Soviet Jews to rsraef, T anti-Sovietism. Until. now the difference be- poet losif Brodsky was recently told to emi- "To answer criticism with persecution- Lli15 spect for my father's memory." Israel from people he did not know, but that ing to the United Nations, or appealing to" ....":. 1-loraltin If hi s A rmy w,.,........ - .. YaKir's father was Iona Yakir, whom Stalin executed in 1937 The foreign observer is often bcwilderedt`` ...gave him a convincing answer to serious . .. . .. h_ 1.1 t . i....- b thers -erlous peop1t?? ?., _ _. h ti S s o s o es o suc ques ons as part of his purge or ncu ~AAA,y ...... .,,ate A,., Judging by photographs and the recollec- lengths to repress dissenters who are un . The Kremlin's nltinlate answer to such', tions of those who knew him, Iona Yakir likely ever to change the Soviet system-r criticism was Yakii"s arrest. Since January, . . . .. __ e_... d: it have been frying to sunnress A ?f , so sun e the are ?fne son oL a .1ew1.SiL inev, the elder Yakir organized a Bolshevik Yakir saw his prime function as spread- samizdat (self-publishing) leaflet charging he and other dis- the Soviet leaders with economic sins. But 1970 ti h I f , on. n orma e ing in guerrilla band in the Ukraine when t . .- _. ....t He was then 21. aidenft gathered In the Moscow woods so in the vast. Yakir has signed his names to the Po.ies. in tozu, 11G vc. A .A.. .. _ of the important Ukrainian military dis- what was going on here. Millions of people creasing repression may be the price that. 1........ th;,. II_ h e had to nay to get - - ... . ., - - - --`-_d any g -- n v nd y at age or 4i, r akin was the Ukraine-where streets are named after rest, every dismissal. We see In this our most meet President Nixon at the summit de- lati of the war in . . .. . _`'__ - --. lc -.- "`_ p esca on was hi h ho . c stayed in camp for 17 years. That record, as to the Soviet Union in itussian by Radio Liu- as Russians call Life jr, prisoll, w . - --.A- foreign __".. The tr ;oe of America and the RRC. He th ou h his explosive thought nrocesses.his - r g Iiev hat M c i t o.. .,_. os n s corresponden anthnrities. although they harassed him, ist secrecy impossible. he was helping to sion as a historian, his hard drinking and his his frequent prow- d8a11104 ...J,.U....., -.. ---- -letter to the Party Congress, which .1_t TT.- a and dnen;te his nnen activity Yakir's . , when he started to apologize for dragging -in keeping the world informed of those in- W.a A3. wauc,,r A. ! ,,. ?~ . -?? ???~ ?? ?-, - me out of my way to mecL ^u~l}QU,1G w,Al, ?au leveed the leadnrchin mnrP direetiv_ _._ _ _ ? Whelminn re. luctance. On June 21, the KGB arrested ency towaru Lee rCULrul or oLa1==,1AL 1tICL?vue chem's "Tevye the iviuicman, resliieirL L11 Yakir, now 49, on charges under Article 70 Of government has become apparent, he survival despite his apotheosis in "Fiddler' wrntp. "and a tendency toward the rehabili- - t,-? "+ -il;ng at fhe thnii ht that the, of the icussian PiepuuJ .,A.......? tation of Stalin hilmself-one of the biggest - - itation nr nrnnaeanda _ Tsar Knight be readying a thunderbolt for _ ,.:ha ""a g t0 commit pd5 LLeUW .r s a o one of its interro? against the st q1~ 9K scig, t*fi and technical intelligentsia." He ~E~~ ~sl'a~Seaikl l O/02i@tGQFh/~'4?4f 4 6 f1-link .that you are: the said pure 0 _ ,_. part and government offices in the nevi- h,.:-9 ui.. W re his hoira_" y e a Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 26 June 1972 CPYRGHT Soviets'tigedis~iplhuing htri:' : ofdisside nts Even as hard line toward West softens ' , By Paul Wohl Written for The Chrtsttou Sckace Monitor Softening of Soviet policy 'toward the West is going hand In hand with tightening. of discipline in the U.S.S.R. Pravda on June 18 had nothing but scorn for presidential adviser Henry A. Kissin- ger's .one-time hope that "a democracy of the Western -type" might take root in the Soviet Union. The Idea of an ultimate convergence of the two antagonistic eco- nomic and social systems is being sharply rejected. Secret police have fanned out to search and arrest suspected dissidents, members of Prof. Andrei D. Sakharov's small civil-rights committee, non-Russian nationalists, and even the embarrassing ultra-Stalinist ?aid- liners. Delinquency added Some dissidents who hitherto had enjoyed protection because of family connections or special qualifications now also are being handled roughly. On June 20, state security agents searched the apartment of historian Pyotr Yakir, a prominent member of the civil-rights com- mittee. Previously the outspoken Mr. Yakir had enjoyed virtual immunity because of his famous father, Gen. Yona Yakir, a tragic victim of Stalin's great purge. This time Pyotr Yakir was arrested. ' The pretext for the continuous investiga? tion of suspects is always "anti-Soviet agi. tation and propaganda," but delinquency also Is being mentioned as a reason for Minister of the Interior Nikolai A. Shehe- lokov announced tougher measures against criminality and hooliganism in the April Issue of the Central Committee's bi-weekly Partinaya Zhizn (Party Life). -Demonstra- tors invariably are referred to as hooligans in official terminology. . Many Western broadcasts are jammed. Tourist luggage and, even more, the luggage of Soviets returning from missions, is being Intensely searched for forbidden publican tions. Evangelic Baptists and the smaller churches suffer greater harassment than in former years. After the admission that "be- lievers" were discovered in the Army, Maj.' Gen. E. Dvoryansky in "Kommunist of the Armed Forces" of February let go with a long article entitled: "Atheist propaganda must take the offensive." Even the Rieman Catholic Church has been sharply retrenched in Catholic Lithu- ania and the Ukraine, although Moscow for a while treated the Roman 'clergy with, velvet gloves because of the Vatican's influ? ence in Western Europe. . Now that the Vatican has supported the idea of a European security conference and general policy at home has toughened, such, diplomatic considerations have been dis- carded. New approach A movement is on to organize and super vise leisure time and to cram more and, more Marxism-Leninism down people's throats, combined with refutations and de. nunciations of Western ideologies. Literature and the arts are being handled more strictly than in years. But here there is a new approach. Hopeless dissidents, who the Soviets feel can neither be reformed nor' wholly silenced, are being allowed or prompted to leave for the West. This recently happened to mathematician` and poet Alexander Yesenin-Volpin, the son' of the famous Russian poet. Sergei Yesenin. who committed suicide in 1925 and Is said' to be General Secretary Leonid I. Brezh nev's favorite poet. - ' Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 10 CPYRGHT y .t e and somewhat eccentric man who has But, like the late poet, Boris Pasternak, he of admirers of his father's poetry. Now the' regime has granted an exit visa to Mr. Yesenin-Volpin, who has act up residence in Rome. Others now in Rome are the movie dt. rector, Yury Shtein, a member of Professor' Sakharov's civil-rights committee; the, writer and linguist' Yury Glazov, and the. religious painter, Yury Titov. The mt]ch maligned Jewish poet, Joseph Brodsky,' has been allowed to emigrate and is en route to the United States. Exit. offer rejected taken part in every major protest'actioni against the regime, was repeatedly arrested and confined to lunatic asylums. Ultimately he always was released be-. cause of the pressure of the intellectuals and CPYRGHT 'NE TIMES, London CPYRGHT 13 June 1972 KGB steps up its campaign against dissidents By Peter Reddaway sions produced by Presid t Nixon's visit, the latest inform - tion from the Soviet Union su - gests that the Government is n t letting up in its campaign o suppress dissenting individuals a groups at home. The campai n has been gathering momenta since the new year, and after t President's departure seems to to moving into higher gear. The most important politic I case coneertis the unauthori d Moscow journal A Chronicle of Current Events. Begun in Janus , it involves alleged crimes and r Article 70 of the criminal cod,. This article penalizes " anti-Sovi t agitation and propaganda " a rd carnes a maximum p~:nalty of 12 years of prison and exile. So far the KGB have arrest Mr Kronid Lyubarsky, the astro - omer, in Moscow ; Mr Vatsl Sevruk, the philosopher, in V - nius ; Mr Leonid Plyushch, cybernetician. in Kiev ; and ;s r Yury Melnik in Leningrad. B3t dozens of searches of flats a d hundreds of interrogations ha e .been taking place in these citi , as well as in Novosibirsk and t e Ukrainian town of Uman. Mr Plytt?shch is a notable e in the Democratic Movement" having belonged to the Moscos - based Action Group for the D - fence of Human Rights since i inception in 1969. This grow , informally led by Mr Pyotr Yak' , ,the historian, recently appealed o the authorities for Mr Plyushcl s release. . pppears to a triad ofhavii Soviet policy also O N s }y ,ferm en tlonfi in mtft F' 'tlt@vveo t f A fiaiZ w Nobel-Prize winner Alexander Solzhenitsyn of the population will accept its tough Copt Is said to have been asked by officials of the' munist law-and-order course. two-and-a-half meet for allog liberate anti -S In the wester Sverdlovsk the :ample, Mr Yuly engraver who had uiry to leave for years' imprison- ly spreading " de- iet fabrications ". Siberian city of is the alarntiii,g sted on April 29. now aged 34, did rvice in the late his military s 1950s in the in remarks to him the regiment, A him. Instantly clear that at worked as an however, he signing a pro Then, ",he Valery Kukui imprisonment, witness in the .nant about th evidence had court that he . On April 3 ing Sverdlovsk in the presence of r Markman struck it the atmosphere among the offi- M, r Markman Svcrdlovsk's Insti- onal Economy and engineer. In 1970, rad. his friend Mr ase, was so indig- way his pretrial been falsified in refused, asserting that he could live and work only in Russia. The granting of exit visas to especially inconvenient dissidents is not altogether new, in 1966 the writer Valeri Tarsis, a scur- rilous and irrepressible critic of commu- nism, was given an exit visa. The practice of exiling inconvenient op- ponents or prompting them to leave was introduced by Lenin and lasted a few years under Stalin, who had Leon Trotsky re- moved from the country against his will. This practice apparently also is. behind' the granting of exit visas to a,fairly large' number of Russian Jews who were particu-. larly insistent on getting out. In the case of the Jews, concern for Western public opinion also played a part. With some of the worst protesters out of the way the regime may feel that the rest Mr Markman had rebutted this article with two friends, Mr Mark Levin and Mr Leonid Zabelishen- sky, Mr Levin was soon con- scripted and Mr Zabclishensky, like Mr Markman, arrested. Mr Marknian's arrest has pro- voked widespread protests. From Lithuania. for example. 20 Vilnius Jews sent a telegram to the authorities demanding " his immediate release and an end to the humiliations and hooliganism perpetrated against him and his family ". A similar telegram was sent by nine other Jews from Lithuania's second city, Kaunas. and a group of Mr Markman's friends who have been allowed to emigrate addressed a strongly worded "Appeal to World Public Opinion " froth Israel. In the Ukraine, meanwhile, a different sort of political trial is in preparation. Long-standing leaders of the revival of Ukrainian national consciousness-Vyaches- clan"'actin,. lay Chornovil, Ivan Svitlychny, Mr Maksimov has also played 'a Yevhen Sverstyuk and Ivan part i in the "Dom loyiinc.r.?atie Move- dissen- Dzyuba and Miss Nadiya Svi- ter, By em;plo,3ting the tlychna-are among those ter, Mr VAadimiur fhis asky, as a secretary to his arrest, and arrested. by, speak prior itp strongly in his It is now clear that the state- defence before his trial, Mr Mak- ments of a Belgian student, Mr slmov revealed -him, ,elf to the Jaroslav Dobosch, as reported in lut.horiti s; as more than just a the Kiev paper Pravda Ukrainy on heterodox writer. Pairtly for this June 3, will be used against them. reason, no doubt, be is now being Mr Dobosch was sent to the threatened with internment in a Ukraine to contact some of them mental hospital by a right-wing dmigrd group, the '],he threat has just provoked 33 Organization of Ukrainian leading European cultural figures Nationalists (OUN), was detained to send a telegram to Mr Bre7h- Ihis yCar the Even- five months. Instead of being worried about the fate of the accustd Mr Mark- ttied, he made his statement", to",, outstanding Russian author Vladi'- g links With the press conference not attended by mi,r Maksi:mov'". Among the si;g~- h AA hxc~- Cs~e,~ at r~ ry~tprp~ p{tether Grass, iris N4W tht rcrcTe n t ` ,900621{tfktn r +rico cilini. StC- intense pressure on two of Rus- sia's most talented authors. Mr Btulat O.kudzhavva, it wsd:lt-known balladeer and novelist, some of whose works have appeared in the West, has steadfastly refined to " condemn his political crrors " and has just been capclled from the Communist Party. In addition. his 161-car-old son has hec.n can- scripted into the Army before he could take his final school exarni- nxati:onis. Secondly, a friend of Mr Okttd- xhwava's, the novelist Mr Vladimir Maksiniov, is the victim of an even more intense campaign. Tie is on the verge of expulsion from the writers' union for persistently refusing to denounce the Western publication of his novel The Seven Days of Creation. This book, regarded as a n1 stcrpiccc by ori.tics, came out last year in Germany in Russian; and will appear in some eight countries in ,11 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 THE TIMES, London CPYRGHT 28 June 1972 Russians launch biggest. drive against internal dissent since death.of Stalin By 'Peter Reddaway with Miss Strokatova's case. But mittee of his technical college and.,; 'Shukhevych, who was im- also the methods use to teach, The large number of - p o i nca e of 14 in 1948 as Marxism: Boned at the a g p trials and arrests now going on in th son of an Ukrainian under-! Also in Sverdlovsk a big polro ed in d wur ,elems K' uuu /cadet an ,tlca/1rlal toua place trom t-uvtu.- the authorize have launched their 1 8, has yet, to stand trial. : her 10 to 13 last year, as a result;j internal di biest delve ae in t sen- in n in Leningrad Mr YurY Melnik, of which seven people were Stalin of sent since the death 1953 a astrophysicist aged'26, was son- tenced by the regional court toy t - A fA th .b s ri d. f b twe n .wo and flvo . J o on - une ree ear pe o o e e to It LtVUvIGI agllatiuu 71uu FlU1 o r+n el nut oeienuani Wa3 rurclur 'wider .picture is darificd only by nda " to which he lea d t s g p committed to a mental hospital, `5 hi h h i i i f c a ormat on w extens ve n rocent)y reached the West, much of ilty. When the police arrested even though an in-patient examina h in Janua the found a radio ti th in the Svcrd-` a ti l ry y on as ng man It from outlying areas far from t etype machine in his flat. 'lovsk Regional Forensic-Psychiatric' Moscow. I E In Odessa,.on the Black Sea, for example. the trial took place be- tween May 14 and May 19 of Miss Nina Strokatova, a microbiologist, rainian writer. Charged with " anti- Soviet agitation and propaanda five years respectively in stric regime labour camps. Miss Strokatova is the wile o one of the best known Ukrainia ppolitical prisoners, Mr Svyalnsla I~aravansky, who has bec!n m cept for a short break between 191 and 1965. He is a linguistics s, 1101,11 alit) heterodox writer on r~h,lra theme,.. At prescrill licit 11:z I!, prison at Vladimir, %%hr,r hr ha contrived to -a-rile an rnems. some nt 4,, 111 Ch have reache tht Wevt, he is thic for release i 141,). 1 Air Raravanskv'~ wife has on (,n,nr,nuisnt. 'rho paper asserte that " dc-,pitc having known for trice h,m to erase his anti-Sovic a~.tivlty, 1.111 in fact encouraged thi act,vit- 1+v hem conduct ". corn silt vra% dismissed from he Inctitiilr and Own. in Decembe arrested. I wr cearchcs were Barrie o,tt, nnr at the $IM to which sh eras mm'ing in the C'anrasian tow of Nalehik. anti another at the Ma she 1ca?, leaving in ndcsca Shortly after this, in Marsh, M Yury Shukhcvych was arrcued i Nalchik. evidently in cortnexio y: This is the first trial to be head Unit had tound Alm menta i connexion with "criminal case healthy. After this, however, aj 24 " a case which is apparently two-month examination in' Pro- i ended to suppress the unauthor- fessor D. R, Lunts's well-known: i d journal The Chronicle of section of the Serbsky Institute in`, rrenr Events and which has led Moscow reversed the decision and! t widespread arrests and intcrro- produced a diagnosis of schizo- lions. Since the case began, three phrcnia. I , i ucs of the Chronicle have The defendants were charged' a peared, striking evidence that with anti-Soviet agitation and it suppression will not be easy. propaganda. and also with forming The latest, No 25, began to an anti-Soviet organization. The,'. c rculate in Moscow last Thurs- investigation of the cast lasted eight d y. after a longer period than "months and was conducted by a u ual---- sonic seven weeks-had KGB team under Lieutenant-,', e psed between the date marked' Colonel P. T. Smolikov not only o i it, which indicates the final in Sverdlovsk, but also in Gorky,. it ne limit for the news carried, Krasnoyarsk and the Par Eastern a d the actual day of issue. city of Khabarovsk. The names of 4n Saratov, on the middle Volga, the defendants are not yet known. t e local paper Ko nmunisr has Sverdlovsk is also the scene of r ported on measures taken against a trial which is expected to start' 2 people for various sorts of un? in the next few days and which a thorized literary activity. ? has already provoked widespread Six of them-Mr V. Strelnikov, opposition among Jews in the a factory administrator, Mr H. Soviet Union and abroad. ampoisky, an artist, Mr Yu. The defendant, Mr Vladimir' Idyrev, a librarian, Mr V. Nul- Markman. has been charged, like 1 an. a teacher, Mr A. Kattsc and Mr Reshctnik. under artidc 190.1 r M. Belokrys, both musicians of the Criminal Code and is att. - are accused of tape-recording engineer who earlier applied to p ogrammes broadcast on the BBC: leave for Israel. He is also a friend t c Voice of America and Radio, of Mr Valery Kukui, a Jew sen- ee Europe. They are ab,o tenced lam year to three years a user) of systematically reproduc- under the same article. i g and circulating somi:dar works Also imminent is the trial in: Alexander Solzhenitsyn and Moscow of Mr Ilya Cilezer, her dissenting writers. " From another Jew who had applied to go- t secret hiding-place dozens of to Israel. Mr Crlezer. a biologist,, a ti-Soviet materials were confis- aged 35. lectured formerly at Mos c ted." The paper does not clearly cow University, and is the author , i dicate whether or not they have of a book on the morphology of,' t been brow ht to trial. the brain, published in the Soviet.. in Sverdlovsk, an industrial city Union, America and East Germany. st of the Urals, a lecturer in Finally. while the authorities arc: alectical materialism, Mr Anatoly imprisoning many dissenters and eshettrik, aged 35, was recently encouraging---though not yet fore- 's nteneed to two years in an ing--.others to emigrate. they con dinary regime_ camp. He bad tinue, to intern others in mental';. 12 Approved For. Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 30 June 1972 Lithuanian troubles jolt the Kremlin By Paul Wohl Recent events in Lithuania have hit the .Soviet Union where it hurts most. They have cast doubt on the assumed loyalty of non- .Russian citizens to the ideal of "a single family of peoples, monolithically united in the multinational Soviet state," as Presi- dent Podgorny defined it in the latest issue of Kommunist. Nationalist stirrings in the Soviet Union are not new. There have been the demands of Jews to emigrate and the underground writings of. Ukrainians. But the Lithuanian disturbances mark the first time that non- Russian nationalists have taken to the streets of a. major city to demand Indepen- dence for their republic. The demonstrations were sparked by the self-immolation of a 20-year-old student, Roman Kalanta, who set hir tself on fire crying "Freedom for Lithuania." The news of his action spread rapidly through his hometown: of Kaunas, Lithuania's second largest city. For two days after his funeral, on May 1$, several thousand youths shouting "Free- dom!" find "Freedom for Lithuania!" swept through the city hurling stones at the mili- tia and starting fires. On the second day strikes bloke out. The big new synthetic fiber factory, the pride of Communist Lithuania, had a sit-down. Eventually the'Army was called out. Sev- eral hundred rioters were arrested. Some days later. another youth burned himself to death in a town near Vilna, the capital of Lithuania. In 1970 there were several cases of individ- ual Lithuanians trying to break away from .Soviet rule. In October, 1970, Pranas S. Brazinkas and his son successfully hijacked a plane to Turkey. On Nov. 9, 1970, Vitantas Simokaitis, a mechanic, failed in an at- tempt to hijack a plane to Sweden with his pregnant wife; he was sentenced to 15 years 'in a corrective labor camp. The most dramatic case of all was that of the radio operator Simas Kudirka, who leaped from a Soviet trawler to a close-by U.S. Coast Guard vessel and was returned to the custody of his shipmates. Kudirka is a famous name in Lithuania's history. In the 1870's, when Czarist oppres- sion was at its height, a Dr. V. Kudirka published an underground journal, called CPYRGHT Varpas, The Bell,; the counterpart of thd. great Russian liberal Alexander Herzen's underground journal Kolokol, which also means The Bell. In May, 1971, Simas Kudirka stood trial before the Lithuanian supreme court in Vilna. Large extracts from his defense? speech reached the underground press. Speaking in Lithuanian to Lithuanian judges (something that would not have been possible under the Czars), he said: "I remember, when I studied in Vilnius (Lithuanian for Vilna). Instead of the two prisons which were there under the Ger- mans, there were seven under Soviet rule and they were overfilled until 1955. Already in 1960, waves of Lithuanians with their young went to concentration camps.... The death of Stalin saved my people from physi?, cal extermination.'. , , P "Now we are destined to die a much, slower death - assimilation." When sentenced to 10 years' hard labor, Simas Kudirka was surprised. He had ex- pected to be shot. Instead of asking for. clemency, as the presiding judge had sug- gested to him, Kudirka cried: "All I de- mand is an independent Lithuania, one that is not occupied by any army and that has a free democratic system of elections." A few' months after the Kudirka trial, the priest Juzes Zdekkis also put up a spirited defense in which Lithuanian patriotism and devotion to the Roman Catholic Church blended. Other trials against priests fol- lowed, More and more restrictions were. imposed on the clergy. Economic causes have nothing to do with Lithuania's nationalist mood. Economically Lithuanians in recent years have done fairly .well. Russification and the influx of Rus- sians have been much slower there than in,the other Baltic republics. Underlying the deep anti-Russian senti- ments of a large part of the Lithuanian pop- ulation are two factors: the country's tragic history of. repression under the Czars and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. After World War I Lithuania gained a short-lived independence. Then, in 1941, the country was incorporated into the U.S.S.R. Tens of thousands of anti-Communist Lith- uanians Immediately were deported. After that came the Nazis leaving 300,000, mainly' Jewish victims in their wake. When the victorious Soviets returned, they were greeted by Lithuania's quite numer- ous Communists as liberators. But once in power, Russians and Lithuanian Commu- nists started to terrorize the rest of the pop- ulation. Lithuanian emigres believe that be tween 1944 and 1952 some 400,000 of their countrymen were killed or exiled to Siberia. Today Lithuanian Communists and Soviet INTERCONTINENTAL PRESS 19 June 1972 officials are deeply disturbed about the nationalist, anti-Russian mood of the popu- lation. While they have not slackened in their struggle against Roman Catholic and other religious influence, they are seeking to win over the nationalists to their cause. This may explain the unexpectedly mild I verdict against Kudirka. With preparations for the 50th anniversary .of the U.S.S.R., in full swing, the recent de- velopments in Lithuania represent a severe jolt for the Kremlin. -0 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Arrests by KGB Continue in Ukraine By Ted Harding The toll of victims of bureaucratic repression In the Ukraine continues to mount. Since the Central Commit- tee decision last December 30 to put an end to the production and circu- lation of underground periodicals, repression in the Ukraine has been severe. In mid-January, the KGB (secret police) arrested well over 100 Ukrain- ians in an attempt to silence the most militant voices of opposition. (See Intercontinental Press, April 10, 1972.) Show trials of some of the dissenters are scheduled to begin sometime this summer. A new departure from the tradi- tional Stalinist slanders of the Ukrain- ian opposition movement involves at- tempts to link that movement with China. In addition to the charge of "slandering" the Soviet state, three of the hundred or so arrested -Vyache- slav Chornovil, Evheny Sverstiuk, and Ivan Svitllchny-have also been accused of conspiring with a Belgian .student tourist, Y. Dobosh, for the purpose of spreading "anti-Soviet pro- paganda." Dobosh was arrested around the same time as the others and charged with being an agent of an emigre nationalist organization. The full meaning of Dobosh's ar- rest was revealed in. an article in the Ukrainian press entitled "An Infamous Alliance" (Radianska ' Ukraina, Feb- ruary 26). This article documents China's developing dialogue with Ukrainian emigre nationalist organi- zations and. states that Dobosh's "enemy activity." was indirectly finan- ced by the Chinese; through Dobosh, it links the Ukrainian dissidents with { Mao's "anti-Leninist . . . overt and malicious anti-Sovietism." Protest in the Ukraine against the mid-January wave of repression was immediate and widespread. This pro- test, according to the latest reports from the Ukraine, brought on yet another repressive wave as approx- imately fifty persons, primarily stu- dents, were arrested In Lvov ant Ivano-Frankovsk for coming to the defense of the victims of the previous arrests. Dissident sources also report that the KGB is continuing to carry out an unusually widespread campaign of arrests, interrogations, and searches of persons suspected of active oppo- sition. Ivan Dzyuba, author of the book Internationalism or Russifieation?, has been arrested. Dzyuba was born into a peasant family in a village in the Donbass coal-mining region of the Ukraine in 1931, and became a prominent literary critic. He did much to encourage new trends in Ukrain- ian literature. In September 1965, a week or so before the arrests of Sin staged a protest In the "Ukraina" cin- ema In Kiev. He also spoke at Babi Yar In 1966, calling anti-Semitism "the fruit and satellite of agelong slav- ery and lack of culture, the first and Inevitable offspring of political despot ism," and he condemned anti-Semitic campaigns. His book Is an examina- tion of the Leninist policy on nation- alities and its subsequent betrayal by the Stalinist bureaucracy. His arrest comes after years of harassment by the secret police. Nadia Svitllchna, sister of Ivan Svitlichny, a prominent literary critic and one of the best-known dissidents In the Ukraine, was arrested on May 19, according to a report In the Brit- ish press. Nadia Svitlichna, who is around 30 years old, was sacked from 'her job as a librarian in Kiev In 1969 for signing documents pleading 'for greater freedom. As part of the extended crackdown on those suspected of "anti-Soviet" activity, Dr. Vyacheslav Gluzman, a Kiev psychiatrist, has also been ar- rested. Gluzman is a close friend of Ukrainian author Viktor Nekrasov, who was recently interrogated by the secret police. Leonid Plyushch, mathematician and, founding member of the Initiative Group for the Defense of Civil Rights yavsky and Daniel, numerous arrests In the USSR, has been detained by of young Intellectuals took place in the police. Plyushch was suspected of the Ukraine. On September 4 Dzyuba, involvement in the production and dis together with V. Chornovil and I. Stus, tribution of uncensored samizdat ma Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0CPYRGHT terial, including the bimonthly Chron- icle of Current Events. Whether the arrests will deter other dissidents from continuing their activ- ity is doubtful. Commenting on the circular effect of police repression, Valentyn Moroz declared during his trial: "Our society has entered a stage of development when repressions pro- duce results diametrically opposed to your (the KGB's) intentions.... The movement has acquired the potential SOVIET ANALYST, London 20 July 1972 to produce new leaders to replace those removed by you.... Is it possible that you do not compre- hend that you will soon be dealing with social movements of massive proportions?" CPYRGHT The pat few years have seen the emergence in the Soviet Union of dissident criticism of not merely Stalin and his acolytes, but of Lenin him- setf. While in the West a certain sentimentalising of the founder of the Soviet Union is fairly wide- sprc::rl -- even in such institutions as UNESCO-- 111V more critical-minded Russians are increasincjty inclined to stress his responsibility for the whole one-party, burenucratic obscurantist state. Mor' recently, even his reputation as a political r;tratecjist is being called in question. A thoughtful Soviet official, in convcrsation'with p Western dip- lomat a f^,w weeks ago, interestingly developed the viaw that soma of Lenin's supposedly major. constitutions have after all proved fn:lacious- p:articularly in the field of nationality policy. The third self-immolation by a young Lithuan- ian in protc;st a{Vtinst the Soviet occupation has once nrjnin been widely reported in the Western press. l=urthor similar information continu's to come to-more recently, a report of a demon- stration by students of the Tallinn Polytechnical Institute, in Esthonia, which is at present under- going police investigation. Meapwhile at least two regularly circulating undergroundamizdat peri- odicals are reported in Esthonia-one of them representing an "'Esthonlan National Front". In the Ukraine, too, recent draconic measures seem to have stiffened, rather then weakened, the resistance. These are among the many indications that, as we have noted in previous issues Leninist rrntionality polio has, not succeeded in recon- ciling the subject people. The duration and extent of the post-war guerilla fighting in the Baltic countries, some- times ignored or even denied in Western pro- gressive literature, can incidbntally, be docu- mented from Soviet sources. For example, the Lithuanian Communist paper Tiesa (18 Novem- ber, 1967) mentions guerilla groups still in action in 1952, and other: descriptions of the tighting*are to be found over the last decade in many other local organs, such as Cina (29 September, 1953, 15 January, 1962, 17 November, 1964, 2 Novem- ber, 1966), and Zvaigzne (No..20, 1960); and in the official History of the Latvian SSR, Riga, 1953, Vol. 3, page 596. It is arguable, in fact, that Lenin's whole scheme for a federation, by which the smaller nations would supposedly gain all the national satisfaction they required, was a faulty one, and that Rosa Luxemburg's preference for a com- pletely internationalised proletarian state would have been a better manoeuvre, For up to a point, the Leninist policy permitted a marginal con- tinuity of national cultures and feelings. Its fail- ure, after 50 years (or half that time in the Baltic states), may suggest that a frankly unitary and assimilationist policy could have produced better results from the Communist point of view. It is at least conceivable that the Ukraine and Byeio russia in particular could by now have boon Russianised. In fact, Lenin's notion of using national feelings against his enemies may only have paid off here and there, and in the short run. In this connection one may note a similar area in which Lenin's thought was presentad as ol world strategical brilliance-the rcvolutionising of China as a weapon against the rear of the Wu,t. T. too, the Soviet official mentioned abovcr ironrc,rlly noted, does not ;room to bo turninrj rtrrl: a?. c r poctod. (Nor, to a los sor dufjroo, do :arnilurr c;ak ul.r tions about E41YPt seoni, (tti WO fjo to I)rG:r,, to ho giving the re(luirod rosuli:;). In fact a whole set of policies going b-nck over half a century, and basic to the whole Sovrear or more and has probably cost him tb CYni?1'8te, Orr sn mane and so complex O.V.LR., the office rssuuig visas, the :all his money-and has faced up to that it is a wonder any Jew ever sue- would-be emigrant needs three refer- the har moneyt, n shll has do p to coeds in +n.akin, an application, let ences from his place of employment- antee that he will leave Russia. Some alone in leavin tile. country, tluestinncd from his immediate superior, from the families have waited for years. Others at a Press conference in Paris in 19(36 trade union secretary and from the have met with a flat refusal. to say what hope there was for .lowish Communist party man. Among the reasons or excuses families divided by the cold war The sna; here is that none of these offered for refusing permission to emi- bet een Russia and the West to be officials is under any legal obligation to grate are: that the person is of military, reunited, the Soviet Prime Minister provide a reference. Indeed, it is their age and capable of serving in the Alexei Kosygin declared: duty to discourage a person from emi- Israeli Army; that the situation in the "If any families want to meet grating, which to the Communist mind Middle East is unsettled; that the appli- to;ether or want to leave the Soviet is an act of treachery. This impasse cant has technical or scientific qualifi- Union, the road is open for them and can be overcome only by personal per- cations that the Soviet State cannot there is no problem here at all." suasion or the use of influence or spare; that he has had recent access to The reality is very different from bribery. secret information. the "open road " Kosygin talked of. To these purely technical obstacles This latter reason is given for refus- Soviet officials are fond of declaring is added a campaign of harassment. ing to allow, for example, a group of 14 that Jews en'o-y~the, s Tss to Once he has made his lication Jewish scientists from Moscow to leave eeinein~ r-tw ono~e naae~wnnnnnna~nfro n CPYRGHT for Israel, ev ~~c~i~;Yi a Q~n Pe ar~i~u pc . - v o were ~ eau ceased to be engaged on anything that Union, nearly 20 years after the death s~iirl ex,trlly what the K.C..13. heel tol[~ could be called ~sccret-a very wide of Stalin, still persists in cutting off most tier-m to say. It was shameful. I went classification fn Russia. of its citizens from the outside world. there as a journalist and was so inclig- It is clear that they are :not being The aim of this political quarantine is to 'leant that I got up anct started to speak held simply because the Soviea Govern- prevent Russians from catching a doso about dissent. I wanted to sPe-ak out moot cannot spare them or fears they of tlemocracy. 1'he Jews in the nature .for the national conscience of the Jews may betray vital secrets to Israel or the ! of things, and particularly today when but they ti+~ould not hear me. West. Wbat the Kremlin fr.ars is the ]rwerful lobbies on their behalf havo "When the mcctinK ended I orga- mass exodus of Jev+?ish scientists which been created in the. outside world, are in niscd a Press conference there in ~ha would inevitably follow if the road to regular contact with the. West. synagogue. Western newspaper Qior- - Isracl were as open as Mr. Kosygin In the second place Soviet Jews form 'respondents were present and my words said it tvas. Jews occupying good posi- a powerful intellectual minority in were recorded and published. tions in industry and rrsrarci~r are loth science, scholarship and the arts. Even : ~' Four militiamen came into the to apply to emigrate when their appy- the ones who feel completely integrated ;synagogue and arrested mc. ThcY held cation may mean simply tho less of a in Soviet life arc aware of the need for me for only a few hours and I believe job, much unpleasantness and no reform. and greater liberty within the ;.that my release was due to t;he fact certainty of leaving Russia. system they support. j that the arrest had taken place under' Recently the authorities have In Israel we talked to a wide variety ;the eyes of Western witnesses." devised another trick for keeping the of immigrants from the Soviet Union. Despite this experience the Pro? scientists -back. Many of therm, young Their stories of their own and other fessor, the kind of quirt, determined men and on the reserve, have been people's life and sufTcring tell more man that you might find at C)xtord or served with call-up papers. If ihcy about .present-day Russra than the Lancaster as weld as at Moscow Uni- cpnrt ftir duty and do t:hcir two millions of words pumped by State ycrsity, book part next day at a sit-in n~ontlts' training, they will then he propaganda machines. otitside the otiices of ]i.A. Iitrdc~.nko, deprived of exit vi as for another couple The most eloquent spokesman for the Soviet public prosecutor. In Moscow . of years, on the Grounds that they have the Exodus, and indeed for the "demo- ; a sit-in is not at all the comfortable had accesfi to military mfarrnation. Con- critic .movement " in Russia, ins Pro? -piece of folklore it has became in Lon- scquerttly some, of them are no+v in frssor Mikhail Zand, a tall, intense don or Washington. Tognthcr with 38 ~ hiding to aVOid ref"elpt Of t11C papers? intellcctrial, with a high forehead and other Muscovites he was arrastcrl, The Pespi#e all these obstacles the thrnwn-back grcving hair. professor and seven others ware sent number of applicants for emigration is Now a Professor of Oriental Studies to prison for 15 days on the standard,y in excess of 100,000. If the and an expert in ancient Persian Russian dharge of "hooliganism". At road r+?cre really "open," it would be scholarship, Mikhail Zand teaches and Petrovka 38, the Moscow police head- man,y times greater, translates at the Hebrew University in quarters, he went on hunger strike as There are, :nevertheless, Soviet .Icrusalem and by Israeli standards a protest gesture for 13 days. citizens the Government is glad to see lives well. 1n the peace of a Tel ilviv "Then they forcibly fed me, and the back of-the. so-called "trouble- oRicr: h~ .looks hack over the years of this was torture. The K.G.Ii, doctor makers," those svho have contributed terror which swept over so many Jewish who fed me said quite cynically: 'Pro? to the, general movement for reform compatriots in the Soviet Union. hahl,y you will die. You will he. ihrnwn within the Soviet Union which has ~~ My father, who was also an ace- out as a nsciess dc#:ail of Uhc machino grown up' in the last few ,years. This demic was arrested in the great Stalin and we shall say that it was an acci- agitation, -which so irritates and per- ' dent tlr~n' of 1937 nd w hi p , a e never saw m plexes the, Kremlin, groups together again, although of course he was re- "I replied: `Now I can see that if:.~ lli t t ki d f diff gen s o in e n erent many habilitated after his death like so man is not obligatory for even a Soviet. people who are trying' to achieve for Russians." y prison physician to have a conscience'." themselves. independent thought and Zand des rte this, graduated bell- Under a threat of a further sentence action in an oppressive society. ]iantl,y fi om Moscow UniversitY? But his of up to three years they released the Cr~~-~C'/? ~~Y ~dUl~~ ctim. latcde degree was. not enough to survivor. IIe went three days later to t.7 tip override the disadvantage of his father another sit-in, this time at the S+apreme having been branded as an "enemy of Soviet, and he spoke to some ~Vrstern (LiLt~lOYb~t~~ the people" though he had worked for tourists, which is thou#;ht to be a hein- (' A J h Id tl M In the ranks of the reformers who have suffered for their efforts a;nd beliefs are mangy Jetivs, for example Yuli ,ommuntsm. s a ew c con not ous o once to oscow, get the kind of university job he "My home was watched constantly, wanted. The double brand kept him in and rather obviously, by the Ik,G.13. My a series of minor posts. wife heard from a nei>;hbour in our Daniel,. Alexander Ginzburg and Pavel Returning to the capital under Litvinov. Many mvrc Jews arc to be Khruschcv, Zanti started to dream of found among the ranks of "second Israel. " My father and I chose different level'" reformers who backed up the ways, for he had been an ardent leaders at demonstrations but who have Communist and an anti-7ionist." He was sn far escaped the full +vcight of K.G.TI, soon in trouble for joining an illegal rnpressimt. Ont; prominent Israeli Jewish ~elpnrt where. Muscovite Jews claims Ihat between ''l0 and 30 per cent. ]earned 1{cbrew. He, also displeased the of reformers in the Soviet l;lnion aro authorities by signing petitions against in fact Jews. The Jewish contribution censorship and by speaking out against to this movement takes two forms. the prosecution of Alexander Ginzburg, for visas to Israel by Zionists who want'Sdvict tntdert;rou.nd in the late 'Sixties. Eventually, jobless and depressed nothing to do with Soviet affairs has a : 7,and further irritated the ht'Cn1lIR Zand got an exit visa for himself anc~ side effect: .the movement shocked the establishment by writing Jewish;y his family a year ago. "four days later Russian authorities because it set an and in December, 1969, by writing a they summoned me to the passport office example which other prote:;ters now document called "The Jewish Problem responsible for exit visas. In the place follow in a different way. in the Soviet Union." of the office chief sat Leonid 3~uzmich, ,.., .... - - of course ~g~P-~~~rFb~l#~~IZ'aset'~99~Og~Q~z ?@I'A1i~~~~'9h6N1 their campaign fv t e cosmopo rtanorttaniscd a meetin>* at the oscow block of hats who ha(1 1)(`('Fl a ~atcmhrr of the Soviet Embassy staff in London, thrown out for spying in 1963, that `this is what we call psychological pressure supervision.' "Because of my activities I lead lost my job, and now the police. called me in to ask why I had no joh. In this Orwellian situation (I had read Orwell in a smuggled edition) it became obvious t told me that ~~yy~ ~ ~qp~ uel Mar- conict'.atr`d hc~tir sf c o3'~m~y~~~s~fc~11'c~f~t~ti~'~ro ~Fls-ifi~iQ~~lt~~r~4~~~~~v~t Union the dissident movement. there get along well with their neigh- they fear less the atom bomb "' You know, Mikhail Zand, the want bourn. None the spoke with had any itself than the truth of the tvorcl " Semitism ti t a i b l to get you out of the tiovict Union but the have had complaints from prole- tarians-your behaviour ~s not grt~d. You have had visits from people tsho want ,your advice about how to get out. You are in contact with foreigners to pct information ouE of the Soviet Union , " 1Tr, had already paid for visas for himself, iris wife and ttvo children, sister, ntothcr and niece. The money was never returned. While a wave of protest from t}ir, outsirlc worlil' burst aver the Soviets about this one case they tried to gr.t him thrown out of his flat in a journalists' co-operative. " When I evcntuaily left less than a year agn it was exacti,y like' the Ministry ref Truth operation in ' J984' because they banned all my written work and even struck out quotations from my work in other books. It was as if for the Soviet Union I did not exist." ` Car~?u p~io~i' irz the ea~~tltt~~ l~it~gdom Th%s expert witness now in Israel sums up the aim of the Jewish move- ment as being a return to the historic home. " We have fought alongside Soviet friends, but their aim is to try. and change the system within their country, our goat is to get aut. For me it was a dilemma whether or not to lc.avc because I knew that if I went I would never sec my friends in the Soviet dissident movcmettt again, though I might hope to sec my Jewish friends later in Israel. We each ga our~own way, though from the Soviet point of view it is the Jews who are setting a bad, example to the others." Very different aro Uhe Georgian Jews wlio Iravc Uheir southern Repub- lie of the Soviet Union to go back to the land of nhcir fathers. They are Wrote like peasants, but They share the same Jewish f'celing. Over ~thc past I8 Rnont'hs Georgians accounted for ~halE of the total of arrivals of Soviet Jews in Israel. At a very jolly gat+hering at a flail in a su'Lurb of Jerusalem we ariet Georgian families established in Israel. With the appro- priatcl,v named Raphic Balva (~hc served in the R.A.F. during the war) as a trans- lator we talked to the Georgians, who proposed toasts in Georgian brandy and offered little dis}ies of chicken and salad. Two girls, their dark eyes big with wonder, shad arrived only 24 'hours before. Lai3a Papiasltvili, aged 14, and E7er 11-year-old sister, +had came from Kutaisi. Georgia's scrond city, to join . n - ou a nts a serious comp Thcv da, however, have an idealised it with an carlhly rr?huhlic of hravrtt. For this reason thrt moll religious are ~}l0C'lred to fin+l what thc,y consider evidence of worldly corruption. An official reported that some ladies had come to him to denounce Israelis who failed to wear proper clothes and even worse did not pray at the. appointed time. "These people, should Uc put in prison,'" they told him. Others com- pplain about permissiveness in Israel. If you enter into something very close to the Kingdom of Heaven how can it be that there are pornography in the bookshops and lewd posters outside cinemas ? Tvcry Soviet Jetiv in Israel has a story Ro tell about phis old life. abut for sheer persistence in face of difFiculty it would be difficult to beat the case of Rzra Riscnik, a Latvian watchmaker from Riga. Peering at the innards of a watch in his little ,Terusalem shop ho said, " I ryas always a 'lionist even before the world war and I finally got permission from the P,r?itish authorities in Palestine to go there to live. " Unfortunately the certifi- cate arrived at Uhe beginning of September, 1J39, and already the Germans and the Russians were on Uhe march." Instead of going to zion he was taken to a labour camp in Sihcria. "'I'hcrc in 19 k2 I got a letter front the Itritish embassy in iL'foscoty saving that I could ~o rn Palestine. I showed the letter to a K.G.B. man in the camp whom I knew and he said I would get into trouJ~le if I showed it to anyone else but that I should keep it." It took Riscnik 33 years to get to Israel. And even at the last moment Ile almost failed, for the K.G.B. wrote to him saying that before leaving he must give evid- ence at the trial of two friends in Riga charged with " antiSoviet activities." Joseph Keeler, abushy-eye- brotvcd Yiddish poet, bom- . (;I'LIT1.C of tt.SLTt(j'j)~l.OlLC t Soviet Jews in Israel hear many st.orics of frustration front fl?i~nds ]eft behind. Earlier this ,year Vladimir Slcpak, a Soviet Jett7sh elec- tronics expert, was told that ItE could not go because he knew about the electronics of Moscow's air defence system. lie lost his job, as most people do, when she made his application and was then threatened by the K.G.B. with internment in a labour came on the charge of being an .idler. He had to work sharpening knives in a Mos- cow factory. Another case Coin CS frnm Kharkov in the Ukraine, tvhcrc 120,000 .Tetvs live. There bhc I{.G.I3. has been preparing a trial of Solomon Grtnbcrg, an eiiginccr, and C~nstatitine Skobtinsky, a student, both charged with anti-Soviet .activities. Both were ordered to give an undertaking that they would stop talking to Israeli friends on the telephone-for that was the extent of their antiSoviet activities. The police searched their homes and tools away Hebrew language text books and petitions to Soviet leaders asking for permission to leave. A student in the same city named Isaac 5hlaferntan ltad his visa revoked after being given permission to leave. He -was told that he could leave only if he agreed to testify in court against the .other two accused. The master mind of the campaign in Kharkov is Colonel Poliakov of the K.G.B., well known .for his intensive anti-Jewish propa- ganda on television and in the Press. This is typical of the kind of local initiative which makes it so dillicult to assess the impact of central Soviet policy towards the Jews. Conditions vary enormously from place to place. S. K. Abramov, who heads the Israeli Committee which looks after immigrants, told in Georgia than invmost parts of the Jnion. They shot they most TasI?kent, where there is a soviet un;onA~t~'~v`~~"~or~elease 1999~'16~'~~`~'l~h F~~~~~9~~~194A0~~200130p0a~1~ Oion, had barded the Soviet authorities with mare than 400 appeals, petitions and applications before hr, finally a;ot a visa to leave. Note a librarian at the 1:Tehrew University. he says " I so far made h s way to tas rec. U tmtsan s o ?g ? t s , a r , srac . ~Isracf. tDften the tfow starts since t?he cttd of World War Fanov was taking a a-outhte Such a fm?tunate man is morning class in l\-larc~t his lcs? after a test case such as the II-Romania. The cable read ~ Mikhail Kalik, a trendy soviet. Ukraine okte note under way. simply: " Otkazali. Wolf." son teas invaded try more than film maker tvith a strong-,lowed If some are ailrnved to move ( Refused. Wolf. ) It si ni6ed `3h0 of the staff", whr screamed brown face. and a Napoleon-style " g altusc at him for dccidin to then marry others apply at that Wolf Gitelmann, 4I, a lease Russia- g hairc9tt. tvho now lives at .Mevas- once. fear and hope endlessly journalist working for Molda- On April 6, the ballet com- serer lion. on the hills aI_Tlost intct7ningle anion , rovincial vian Radio, had been refused ~ '+ny's trade union held ameet- in sight of .icrusalcnt, with his Jewish poltulafion~.p In Ilcn-r a visa to emi;erate to Israel,; n>; and ~mrcd to dismiss Fanov howpbusincss pervades theabun-- dltclicY, B,yclorussia, fear :, after trying for more than ;from his post. gaiow; there are film posters on triumphed. Wltcn fine .Tety two years. On i?'iarch 9 a letter appeared a wall and a signed piT~ure of applied for a visa the rest of in the ~Ycst recallint; those Taus' Kim Novak. Over the snfa is a the ,Teta~ish contntunit ttit?nctl ~ sians who had taken the lead snapshot of Kalik's friend Sol- V DCi'.12CC1' 8 tU01'fZ in the pact few years to expos~ on him anti his family. "Why ~ >, ing Soviet injustices. It was zhenitsyn and two other friends prajudirc 'the safety of u5 ail OiLt Oif tZl1'l~ written from Moscow and who were the originals of two by such foolishness? " they charaotens in Solzhenitsyn'a said Gitclmann'S case is a family a the Westtfor their best-selling novel "The First L?'tsetvhore there is no limit tragedy arising from his C?irole.' On May I)av .yet reformist activities: Yuri another of Kalik's artistic to the ingenuity shown in daughter's love affair with a Glazov, a linguist, Yuri Stein, a Moscow circle arrived dmvn the finding excuses to leave. A young Je.w sentenced to two film producer, Yuri Titov, an im~ntigrant route to join ham. Moscow 3ecv wrote to the Years' impri'so~nment last year artist, Atexander Volpin, a authorities saying that he had for "anti-Soviet, pro-Zionist mathematician and son of rho Mikhail liupcrman, a Musco- heard that there were good activity." After ~ftte trial the nin,oand Vladintit?t Gershoviche. oat hcl~utifut' hfondcs model wtho I[ebrety schools in Biro- daughter promptly applied to The ex ressed their- soli- held the joint titles of Miss bidzhan, ~ so-called autono- go to Israel, and at once lost dariayy with "the victims of Moscow and Miss RTnssia, arr. mows region for Jews created her job at a polytechnic recent repressions and our most now his neighbours. Her arrival institute. Wolf _ Gitclmatln rofound concern at the turn is one in the oye for t?he Soviet by Stalin as a sop to Zionism, P and he would like to go and also decided that Ile would which 'tbe internal political "rag trade," for she often work Uhere. leave, but Moldavian Radio ~shect may fake." What hap- travel4ed on behalf of Soviet The authorities replied that checkmated rhim by deol'aring Penrd to theut is Illustrative of fashion houses to display clothes that he -had been engaged in the new Soviet a~tproaoh to such in Western countries. there was no such establish- " troublcmalccrs?' Ir was not tmtil after tltr mcnt in this desolate Siberian secret work. Within three weeks of the deaHt of Stalin that Mikhail area. "In 'that case" re lied Gitclmann went tb Moscow utter appcarin Gla>:ov and Kalik was allowed to leave a P 'th the t; w 'h t ts case to pursue the Muscovite Jew, " I would- Stein tisere handed exit visas, fo+-ced labour camp after a four- ]ike to ap}~ty for permission to MiniStn y of Ra~[~io, and wwOn i FAr them the lure of the home- year sentence for "terrorism ,go to Israel." from fihem acceptance of the land of Israel has Iittle or no and anti ;Soviet activities." The A ~'ew in the Soviet Union fact that 'his job Ita~l not been appeal ? they admit to climbing prison camp came as a kind of cannot conceal his Jewish- secret at all. 1t did not help. on the bandwagon of the Jewish post.-graduate course after ha ness. Like all other town- He and his daughter are still exodus simply to get out of the ,left university in 19SI. in Russia. Soviet Union. Today they wait Kalik's film "Following the dtvellers, he has tv carry an it 'has become that quietly in Rome for permission Sun " (there is a poster in his identity card which includes to ga to the United States. an entry '..far his nationality, for several reasons t+he Soviet room of the export version) They expect lh~at they wild he enjoyed some success in rho and if bath his parents were authorities - the I{.G.IL, inincd by Yuri Titov, who has West but got him into trouble Jewish ire is shown as Police and bureaucracy- also received his exit visa. Itut at hmne. "Jewish."` Only if he is the have dug ~Cheir heels in over for rliffc,-rnt reasons, Volpin anT~ ; son of a mixed marriage flocs allowing particuTa.r Jews to Cershovich arc unlikely ever to The film tvas.about the prob- ~ set foot on the read to Israel. }sour. Russia. A week after the lems of Soviet youth "+nd their he have 'the ri.,ht at I~he age pud,lication of the letter Volpin aspirations Io follow the son in of lfi to choose whether he There is Ube case of Valery was coldest to the K.G.R, head- search of hfc-a kind of Musco? wishes to he desrrihed as Pano?v, 33, one oaf Russian vite "Easy Bider," Ire did Jewi~lt or as ltclont;ing to leadin ballet dancers. Fanov quarlcrs in Moscow and told : another film on a similar theme " g What is all this about you com- the nationality of his non- was once the principal dancer plaining in a letter p+tblished which the authorities rr.Fused to Jewish Arent:. t4~ith the Leningrad Kirov abroad that you are not aldotved show at all for lt3 months, and n it was at this ofnt that Kalik In view o(' rile discrimina- ballet, and fbr has services to fo ]cave the Soviet Union ? Why, decided there was no future far tion t bleb t:hcY know their culture won~a State prize a'nd '~jcase nov away and ut loco him in Ntoscow. child will', suffer as a Jew, became an honoured arbis?t proper application." p Kalik then applied for a visa many parents in such a posi- oaf fire Soviet Uttiori. Volpin's friends in Rome, in to Israel, and of. course lost his tion urge their child to opt Rut while the- Kirov Ballet ref(u~lar touch with him by tole- job and his position in the Film for a di[[crcnt nationality. enmpany has Poured many phone, report that the visa has Makers' Union: He had to live There is 'official encourage- countries, inehtding Britain, and since been granted. But, ironic- on money from other Jews. meat also, because every time won considerable acclaim for its ally, Volpin, a persistent, out- An international groua of film a Jr.w chooses not to be ,technique, the Kenius of Fanov spoken criiir, of Soviet policies, people who admired hts wrtrk labelled Jewish it ;is a ste on has been rccot;ntscd .only within does not want to leave Russia. , mode appeals on his behalf. P -the Soviet Union..For 1'anov bas Otto Premtnger, Kim Novak and the read to assimilating the oat been abroad since 19fi7, The scapegoat for the letter is Jcwislt population. 'when he went with fhe eampanv Gershovich,s6, mathematician, Arthur Miller were the leadin~+ The Chuncil Fnr Soviet to the United Sfiates and by all twirc inlcrncd in an insane spirits in phis movome>tit, which Jewry, wii~h its headquarters accounts unwisely. "spoke out of asylum, a Iie.d Square protester 'he believes helped to Savo him t+.~rn " about conditions in rho over the Sovir_t invasion of from arrest. Finally the visa in a Tel lwiv Sllburb, shares -r ,_ _ CZechOSlovalcia. anrj inhlrcc for Came. tion of Soviet .tews in their In 197], aware that a dancer's struggle to leave, Russia, life is cruelly stfiort, he joined month a rabic was the ~+lnyus ballet company as a director. to i?larch this ,year, rcrcived at the or,ganisat,ion's having decided to emigrate to offices. 1't was Sent from Israel, he asked for a reference. Kishinev, the capital of Mol- .His decision had the effect of ' a o bshell p davia, the S vtc..t re a f bordering' a ~iV '~OP~~tSc@rsl CPYRGHT t,drJ ivr IIIS aCUVILIeS. tie nay i rot ea+71Cr nlm WOI'K a Frare' cen to?d -that he will never get (fud State trod awaeded Kalik a a visa because. his wife was Medal of Honour. This same once engaged on "secret work." 'medal- he now pasted back to The bleak ftr~ture of brave the authorities. "tt was a fair men like I:his is hcarirending swap-a dreary old medah in, to those who do get. away and .return for a visa of honour. ... ., ..., .. ....,.5 ,.. ,,.~,nr, ~- x.v.. vun?7 ,cnuuu~ ..~.., c.., al~~ cfGppF-l~'~R~9-~1~49+~4{~~20~1f~~0~~ring alwut what CPYRGHT Appro loves and personalises one kind to Paradise' #or that is what it of Russia as well as one kinit? is in lsrael.l' ~~~~;~~~~~h~ 9f~'~~/02 : ~~`~~1~~~~e~~2~ 0130001-0 CPYRGHT SUNDAY TELEGRAPH, London 2$ May 1972 RUSSIANS AGAINST THE KRE[+7LIN-3 Martyrs of Religious Protest ~'o Siberia for saying prayers a ~ home --account of a secret Soviet trial :.1V.~ovement bac1~ to the +C`hurch ORItiIN'G in a Siberian labour' in social and culture activities, they m~- l~ou :~ ne an ornariis~tid ltia h pho an 1 is ca;~zn this 5un,1:,}' r,.on~i~ig are fivo middle-aged Baptists, a man and a woman. They were sent there as a punishment for the grave offence of handing out Bibles and teaching the Lord's Prayer to Russian children. Their action and the punishment it brought stand token for an important element in the protest movement in Russia today and the way the State reacts to it. Religious dissidence has its oxrn martyrs and its own under- ground propagation of the faith through samzzrlat or self-pubhcation. Every Soviet believer has the consti- tutional rigl'it to organise and take part in religious warship. For good measure the Government has signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948, article 18 of which runs: "Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom .. . to manifest his religion or belief in teachin ;, practice, worship and obser- van~a_" have ebeen arrested for preaching ythe by- German ~and~ Britishu influences. JIts and distribute literature? " ~~ Gospel. Particularly during the past 12 simple Bible Christianity appeals "Yes, and I gave it to everybody, years a bitter and little-publicised anti- strongly to w,~1'kers and to people in replied Georgi, who had already refused religious campaign has been conducted labour camps, and its reformist wing in to accept help from defence gpunsel by the State. Its special target has been Particular has long been in trouble with on the grounds that "Truth does not the Baptist Church, with perhaps three authority. In the past decade no fewer need any defence." million members, -but it also oppresses than 600 Baptists have been imprisoned Judge: "Where is it printed? " the Russian Orthodox Church, the and nearly 200 are still inside. Georgi: "Praise God, I don't know." Roman Catholics, and sects such as The trial of Georgi Zheltonozhko ~~ Why did you do this? " Jehovah's Witnesses. In spite of the per- and Nadya Troshchenko lasted three secutions there are still three and a half days. Georgi was charged with receiv- ' "According to Lenin's decree on. million Catholics, and the Orthodox ing and distributing "Bibles; New Testa- religion, citizens are permitted not only Church claims to have as many as s0 ments and other spiritual literature to believe, but also to confess their million adherents. thereby trampling on Soviet laws," anc~ frith -and propagate it.. Lenin granted The churches in Russia are tolerated with holding prayer meetings at his freedom, he didn't limit it; the same only within strict limits. The law bans home. is true of bhe United~~Nations conven- religious organisations from taking part It is highly likely_ that_the literature tion on human rights. Approved For Release 1999/09/02": CIA-RDP79-01194A000200130001-0 not do charitable work, and they- ar= .clandestine press has been producing forbidden to organise biblical, literary or Bibles, hymn books and magazines. This. social. groups. They cannot set up play- has been one of the most daring and grounds for children, and they may not effective ways of protest by the break- even organise church outins. ,away Baptists. The movement's illegal On the one hand the State " guaran- journal "Fraternal Leaflet " made its tees freedom of wors.lip; it also under- ~ first annearance in 1965 and was hand-. writes freedom a. anti-religious propa- ganda. .And under this heading good party members are encouraged to knock religion as hard as they can. i down the illegal printing works. The two Baptists now serving sent- ence in Siberia were only recently but on trial in the small Western Ukrainian town of Nikolaev. The trial was held in secret, 'but another Baptist illegally took notes of what was said in court and the transcript was smuggled out of the Soviet Union. This document is the source far the story which follows. Georgi Zheltonozhko and Nadya Troshchenko were two factory workers, converted to the Baptist faith, whose fervour led them to break with the " official "and recognised Baptist Church a~~i join the Initsia,tivnin,i, alt ac~ion kroup of reformist evangelical Pahtists. last year it has been offset printed, and.. To the annoyance of the Government some .40,000 New Testaments and hymn books have been run off and circulated to Baptists throughout the Soviet Union. It is the movement's way of replying to' the Government's refusal to print reli- gious works for them, or give them per-' mission to do it themselves. It was for receiving this "illegal " literature from Georgi that Nadya Trosh- chenko found herself in court: It was further alleged that she had read New Testament stories and poems to child- ren, and that she had made them kneel in prayer. At the beginning of the trial tha Approved For Release 1999/09/02 :CIA-RDP79-01194A0002001300011aPYRGHT 1`Ie complained to the judge about the coarse behaviour of .Soviet officials who broke up a prayer meetiing he had organised. Same were drunk, and they insulted the believers and called them a rabble. " 1'ou tell us to preach only in a house of ~a-ayer. The Lord says: ' Go znto all the ti+~orld and preach the Gospel '." Judge: "The Gospels ware written a long time ago, they can change like our .Caws according to eir- cumstances. The Bible was written for those times; today the author would have written something ? different." At this point the prose- cutor intervened. " If I read my Romans right I find at 1;3.2 it says `Obey the authorities '." Georgi : "The answer to that is 1lphesians 6.12- ` We are not contending against flesh and blood but against the principalities, against the ptxr?+>rs, against the world rulers of this present darkness.' We are fulfilling the law of Christ, the Gospel which says ` Who should we obey, man or God?'; the leaser yields to the greater. I submit to God; to whom do you submit?" Nad a Troshc:henko was formal~y charged at this point with gathering child- ren together, reading the New Testament and poems to them, and teaching them prayers. The judge asked, ` Do you plead guilty?" Nadya : " No ! Christ said `Suffer the little children to came unto me'." Judge: "Children can choose for themselves -after the age of i8, but you are brainwashing school- children of 11 or 12 years old." Nadya: "But before they have: to choose their own path they should be taught both sides. No parents can abandon their children to ruin and death." Judge: "Did. you "read the New Testament to child- ren and do you intend to continue to do so?" Approved Nadya : "Yes, in the presence of their parents. As for t11e future, I hope I needn't read the New Testament to them any more..I hope they will read it to me." A 12-,year-old boy called as a wi;t- " confessed " to kneeling with Nadya and to saying the Lord's Prayer. I-ie was asked to repeat the words of the prayer before the court, which he did. He then burst itlto tears and was sent outside. Finally Georgi.was.given an oppor- tunity to speak rn his o~vn defence. "You are trying me for my faith and not for breaking the taw," the said. Catholic and Protestant. First, many Christians are denied any possibility of worshipping legally, because there are vast areas where the Soviet authorities refuse to license churches. Serond, the present leadership of the Churches is not strong enough in resisting the State's control of church life. Both these points have been consist- ently made by Russian Christians far more than a decade. Years before Soviet Jews began addressing the outside world, Russian Christians were putting their case for religious freedom logic- alIy, coolly and with a wealth of docu- mented fact. " Our faith cannot be contained only The Russian Baptists began to write in a church building. Faith witihout letters of protest in 1960 when Khrus- works rs dead, as a body is dead with- out the spirit." chev inspired the most vigorous anti- He accused the authorities of not religious campaign since the early allowing children to be brought up in 1930s. They have indeed been protest- s Christian spirit. "You start educat- ing against persecution for their reli- in.g children into Communist move- g1OUS beliefs for nearly 100 ,years. Their ments? We have to train our children history has made them resilient and, too. because wlhen they grow up it m-ay has left them with a keen rnrmory of he too late to tell them about God. I the strength of evangelical Christianity lost 27 years before b?in converted, in the world outside.. and I don't want t0 see them da the Their numbers grew in adversity to ~,,,,~ ? an estimated three million in the late _ ____ ___ _ ? Nadya also defended herself. "In '""""`"' """ -....__ __ the laws on religion." she said, " it is when r the Government t beg~n 5 ctlos,nlg forbidden to speak the ward of Gad churches, imprisoning religious leaders except: in church and it is forbidden to and generally putting intolerable pees- teach children. .That means that faith sure upon young people who showed . itself is prohibited. A Communist needs even a passing interest in the Christian the party rule book and a Christian faith These churchmen appealed in turn needs bhe New Testament and spiritual to the leaders of their own denomina- literature. The Bitile is tolerated in tion, the State authorities, their co-reli- our Country, yet you cannot buy one Monists-outside the country acid finally in a shop. 'to the United Nations and other iiiterna- In conclusion she said: "Our Lord.: 'Clonal bodies. Their case was that they teaches us to love everyone, not to and countless other believers tvi.,hed to hate.' Whatever sentence you give us' be loyal to their country, but were being I will pray that the Lord may open forced to act illebafly, because the your eyes.' Soviet authorities would not license reli- Georgi Zheltonozhko was sent to a' pious worship for thousands of Christian labour camp for three years. Nadya groups all over the Soviet Union. Where Troshnhenko got 18 months for teach- registration was granted this meant sub-, %ng the Bible to children. mitting to a surveillance which was un- "What about our children-should .acceptable. Countless people couCd not we inspire in them a love of the Church enjoy even that minimal degree of reli- or not ? Yes ... " Alexander Solzhenit- pious freedom which., the Soviet consti- syn, winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize for tution was supposed to guarantee. Literature, made this defiant assertion in The violent reaction of the State his Lenten letter to Patriarch Pimen,' against these protests was perhaps pre- head of the Russian Orthodox Church, dictable. The reaction from the Moscow' which was published in The Sunday Baptist Church leadership and the lack ?Telectraph. on April 9. of it from the Church in general was Many people seem surprised to hear more surprising. such en a.ffirmatian of the Christian. faith The Baptist leadership in Russia had from one of the Soviet Union's outstand- already compromised itself in the eyes ing personalities S4 years after the State' of many believers by accepting a "letter adopted a policy of atheism, But Solzhe- of instruction " from the State which nitsyn had made his Christian sympa- went beyond the law ip the restrictions shies known years ago, and thousands on evangelism and work with young of other Russians have been writing and people. signing such letters for more than a decade. Surprising)y the All-Unifln Council Solzhenitsyn made two points which of Evangelical Christians and Baptists' reinforce the protests of many other ruled that ` an elder presbyter must of and remember the ) wa b l ear a re e c For Releas~"~9~~/~~~'~I~Ft~~'7~94a~-UOA~r~kB'i~e30fl014'~k service: nova-. CPYRGHT says is not td~R~'lQv,~E~ F?4i; about four: million, who ` dom if basic human rights were came under Sciviet rule with curtailed. Throughout ihe late titc annexation of the Western I9GOs he organised protests, on Ukraine in 1333, has been behalf of young Russrans equally repressed. They have arrested far political offences SIUNDAY TELEGRAPH, London 4 June 1972 RUSSIANS AGAINST THE KREMLIN-4 Leaders Tell of Fight for I~.unan Rights in Russia `~ HEY came at nine o'clock in the mornin;; and startE=d looking for things and taking them. away. They even took a parcel I received from Landon a month ago. It con- tained Some woollen pullovers and a pair of trouse:rs." Pyot~r' Yakir, leader of the Action Group far the Def+~nce of Civil Rights,. was describin a visit from the Soviet Union'is secret. police, the >t:.G.B. We ham teIephaned him in Moscow, and, chile Leonid F~reahnev, the Soviet leader, talked to :President Nixon, Yakir. was telling us about the reform move- tYaent in Russia-conscious all the time .Because 91"fp~F~v?+edrF+2fr 4~ts~x/~991Q ~tQ~=~Pt7:~'~94A~OlQA2~~~3O(11t4~tA~s, Yakir is CPYRGHT ances'w~hile the United States President ,civil rights workers are. sl:ruy;;ling: was in town, K.Cl.l3. loon had carried out numerous search and arre;a operations in MQSCOW. At Yakir's place they had been thorough. "Theyy take away ev[;ryfhing w^ri~tten. o?n. a typew~rite~r," he= said. "They seize all book's pul~lis~hed abroad. fihey are after typewriters, tape-recorders and cameras. on May G, seventeeh such searches were carried out ,in Ntnseow alone, Then they phntoraphed the walls >of my .flat. I ;have a lot of icons, in my home. _ ? ~ - > In Si;alin's day, of: course, it; would not have .been passible .to'conduct snob Orthodox or the Catho]ic fi?anie? aired in sarnixdat. 1t was, of work, but as they owe an olio- course, only a question of time ;: glance to Rome they are hi5hiy before Levitin's protests were suspect to the Kremlin. Their stifled. Last ,year he began a ' thre'e;year sentence in a tabour churches and schools have camp for "anti -Soviet" either passed into Orthodox activities. hands or been closed, but the Church continues to flourish 7k" underground: To witness an Easter lituzgy in Other religious minorities such the Russian Orthodox Church is : as the Seventh-Day Adventists, to experience a spiritual reality yob's Witnesses have also suf- fered badly during the recur- ring anti-religious campaigns, particularly during the "black years " of the Khruschev era. T4tese soots are treated as noth? ing more or Less than fanatirtil underground political move? menu. But they survive. One of the most colourful characters in the Christian wing aF tiro protest movement in Russia is Anatoli Levitin, a teacher attd literary scholar. Since 1959 L evi~tin has been a frr;t,+pnt and bold contributor #o satn.i~dat on religious themes, an+t particularly against viola- tuns of religious freedom. He has s okea out against constant inter~crence by the authorities in the life of the Church aad against the unch~eclced power of p , elders appointed by the State..more and more, as the faithful His special target has been the li ht their candles and pass the Orthodox Church hierarchy ,dame from one to another. itself for gwetly acquiescing to c..,,.. ..a;,..e Each one is a porn of light - Because, of h~i~s background P,ygtr Yakir, vwlio is 47, holds a special placd in bhe Russian reform movement. His, father, General Ionia Yakir, was one of, Russia's top m5litary Ieaders in thef 19s"Os, and was swept aw 1 ?~ in Stalitt'g. great purge brforP Wa,1'l. War II-- shot as a ` "German spy " aloi-isI with- thousanel~s of other officers:. . Yakir, hi~m~self, sttill only 14, spent tth~e next 14 years in and. out of prison camps. His mo~Ytei?, slightly'less picky, got 18 years. He was re~habil~ita~ted in 1956 when de-Stalinisation was faslrrion- able and he has since worked as an hiStnrian in tYie Academy. of Science in tvhidt renders the question "Can rcli~ian sur~irc in liussia ? " purcl,y academic.' 1'hc procession of clergy and deacons walks around the church, looking for the body of Christ. Nol tindine him, they fling open the door of the: darkened church and ack v,~he~re he is. "lIe is not here. He is risen - K?aristos voskres 1 " ` comes back the answex. A few voices inside the church : take up the call - Kiaristos voskres et first murmuring as though in disbelief. Then more and more voices .loin in, until: it becomes a triumphant shout. The choirs reaffirm the news in i jubilation. As the volume swells, so the light in the church becomes brighter. First, only a single.; then twn-then oint of light U 1111:) LILT: l4l:f:--. \/11 lll[A1 N'1/ll:il 11 face is -the affirmation of Faith..: achieved through suffering. For them resurrection is not some- thin~ t0 be argued about, it is a ~: reality here and now, the most positive caperience of their hues. CPYRGHT ? ~ees r o .PSSe ~,-~t b e In us ? - ~ . g broaden the' ~ii v Soviet histnrvAp~orot?d'lfari#ReJl~a~!e ~ 9~(la'9 S~'' 194,E 0 ~ '~ 0 he wants to clear bhe rig~ts an r~ed~~s u~a~~~ s~ggle_fdr -basic human rights, and ov