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Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Secret Soviet Fisheries Agreements With Less Developed Countries State Dept. review completed Secret ER 77-10392 July 1977 Copy N ? 3 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Unauthorized Disclosure Subject to Criminal Sanctions Classified by 015319 Exempt from General D.closdfication Schedule of E.O. 11652, exemption category, sec. 55(1), (2), and (3) Automatically declassified on. date impossible to determine Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 ;JIDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Soviet Fisheries Agreements With Less Developed Countries Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Intelligence July 1977 Since the inception of its program in 1959 to extend fisheries aid to less developed countries, Moscow has signed agreements with 38 LDCs throughout the world. More recently Moscow has stepped up the establishment of joint fishing ventures in LDCs to gain additional advantages in using their territorial waters. The USSR has created 18 joint fishing companies in the last six years. Highlights of the Soviet program are as follows: ? Moscow's aid to fisheries is the largest program of its kind in the world. ? The Soviet program is designed to give the Soviet fleet access to the waters within the 200-mile limit of the LDCs and to procure shore services for the fleet. ? In exchange, the LDCs receive equipment, training and technical assistance, port and processing facilities and, in some cases, the first semblance of a domestic fishing industry. ? Typically Moscow receives at least half of the fish catch in joint ventures with LDCs. Soviet-LDC Fisheries Programs Among the major fishing nations, the USSR has the most widespread and largest program for assistance to fisheries in the LDCs. Since its first offer of assistance in 1959, the USSR has signed fisheries agreements with 38 countries through- out the Third World in a program designed to support the operations of Moscow's farflung fishing fleet-the largest in the world (see map next page). Although the Soviet commitment has involved less than US $230 million, the effort has expanded into a broad program of cooperation that yields faster and more enduring returns to the Soviets than those derived from most other Soviet aid efforts. (Details of the fisheries agreements appear in the table following the text.) Fisheries aid now reaches almost 90 percent of all Soviet aid clients along the African seacoast, two-thirds of those Middle East - South Asian clients that border on oceans, and an increasing number of Latin American recipients. The program has grown from a few small grants and credits in the early 1960s for developing the fishing industries of the LDCs into an aggressive search for joint ownership ventures that will give Moscow a management role and a share of the profits. Following a 1959 credit to Guinea for onshore storage facilities, the Soviets offered assistance to a chain of 18 countries along the coast of Africa. With an eye to exploiting their mutual interests and tapping Africa's rich sardine resources, Moscow was willing to offer everything from improved port facilities to trawlers and research and training for LDC crews. From the beginning the yield on its investment was high. The early Soviet aid initiative was geared largely to satisfying the requirements of the USSR's own fleet. The use of larger refrigerated vessels and factory ships extended the fleet's time at sea and made it more heavily dependent on support from other countries around the world. In exchange for small outlays to developing countries for fisheries aid, the Soviets were able to obtain services needed by their fleet. Aid Approved For Release 2002/06/11 S1RDP791300457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Seviet Fishing Areas, Fisheries, and Maritime Agreements with LDCs Areas curtently fished extensively by the Soviet Union Countries which have accepted Soviet offers of fisheries assistance Approved For Release 2002/06/11: CIA-RDP79B00457A00060U0600Q1-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11SECHLV-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 agreements provided grants or long-term credits that were repaid with LDC services, such as the use of repair facilities, refueling privileges, transfer of Soviet crews, transshipping the catch, and onshore processing. These agreements were concluded with willing LDCs adjacent to all major Soviet fishing areas, initially in the Atlantic and more recently in the Indian and South Pacific Oceans. The increase in Soviet interest in fisheries agreements coincided with substantial technical improvements in Soviet fishing operations. The use of LDC facilities enabled the USSR to extend its fleet's range and operating time by as much as 15 percent per season. By 1974, Moscow had established bunker- ing and transshipment points in almost every area fished by Soviet ships through fisheries agreements. In 1971, Moscow began to press LDCs to engage in joint ventures that would give the Soviets a voice in LDC domestic fishing opera- tions and more direct control of services. More recently Moscow has used joint ventures to circumvent LDC limits on foreign use of their waters. This became an especially critical consid- eration with the proliferation of national 200- mile maritime zones, because about 60 percent of the Soviet catch comes from within 200 miles of the coasts of other countries (see map next page). Joint ventures are intended to reduce the effects of the new limits by guaranteeing long-term access to LDC local waters (in some cases exclusive privileges) and a greater voice in LDC fisheries policies. Since half the LDCs with which Moscow has agreements claim 200-mile limits, the joint venture route appears to be the main thrust of current Soviet-LDC fisheries policies. A Small But Important Soviet Program Africa, where Moscow showed its earliest interest, remains the focal point of Soviet fisheries programs in the Third World. Not only has the USSR continued to concentrate fisheries as- sistance in Africa, it also has moved vigorously to buy its way into local enterprises. As a conse- quence of the growing ties, more than 15 percent of the Soviets' total catch in 1975 was landed off West Africa, compared with 3 percent in 1965. In the mid-1960s, the Soviets spread their operations and offered assistance to Middle East and South Asian countries that bordered the Red Soviet Assistance Extended to Less Developed Countries For Fisheries and Maritime Development 1959-31 March 1977 TOTAL' Africa 102.2 6.1 Algeria 4.5 3.0 Angola 1.5 NA Benin 0.5 0 Cape Verde Islands 0 NA Equatorial Guinea 0.5 NA Gambia 2.0 NA Ghana 11.2 0 Guinea 7.8 2.5 Guinea-Bissau 1.5 0 Kenya 2.0 0 Mauritania 7.0 0 Mauritius 6.5 0 Morocco 3.1 NA Mozambique 5.0 NA Senegal 4.4 0 Sierra Leone 5.0 0 Somalia 38.4 NA Sudan 0.4 0 Tanzania 0.9 0 Tunisia 0' 0.6 Middle East Egypt 16.5 16.6 Iron 9.3 1.5 Iraq 25.0 1.5 North Yemen 7.8 16.5 South Yemen 15.5 0 Syria South and East Asia Bangladesh 15.0 NA India 2.2 0 Indonesia 0.3 15.1 Malaysia 1.5 0 Maldives 0.1 0 Pakistan 3.6 0 Sri Lanka 3.0 0 Latin America Argentina 5.0 0 Chile' 17.0 0 Peru 2.5 0 Europe 0.5 Greece 0 7.7 Portugal NA In the cam of joint ventures, only the aid portion is Included here. Includes estimated valor of agreements, where data not available. Purely commercial fisheries transactions include Kuwait, the Philippines, Singapore, Spain, and Tunisia. ' Program discontinued. Sea and Indian Ocean. Egypt, North and South Yemen, India, Kuwait, and Pakistan all received offers of fisheries assistance during this period as 3 Approved For Release 2002/06/11SE FATRDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 200 Mile Maritime Zones ................ iT i 200 mile maritime zone 200 mile national claim expected later in 1977 200 mile national claim in force Approved For Release 2002/06/11: CIA-RDP79B00457A00060Q060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/1 %g&[#-RDP79B00457A000600060001 -1 Moscow moved its fleet into the Indian Ocean and required shore services and access to national fishing grounds. By the end of 1976, the Soviet catch in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean had doubled. Slowly, LDCs in the Western Hemis- phere that bordered on the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans became Soviet targets, and last year Soviet expansionism was carried to the western South Pacific. Offers of port construc- tion, training, and equipment were made to Western Samoa, Fiji, Tonga, and Papua New Guinea. Major Soviet fishing assistance has gone to Somalia ($38.4 million), Bangladesh ($15 mil- lion), Egypt ($16.5 million), Ghana ($11.2 mil- lion), Iraq ($25 million), and South Yemen ($15.5 million). The largest and most extensive agree- ments have been with Somalia. Its strategic location and the desire of the Soviets to obtain a base for their fishing and naval fleets between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean led to Moscow's initiatives in the early 1960s. Soviet agreement in 1963 to build a fish cannery and a port was followed by a joint venture in 1974 and Moscow's largest credit for fisheries aid ($33 million) in 1975. The 1975 agreement called for Soviet fishing boats and gear and equipment to outfit Table 2 Soviet Fisheries Agreements With Less Developed Countries 1976-31 March 1977 Value (million US$) Angola 1.5 Benin 0.5 Maldives 0.1 Mozambique 5.0 Provisions Technical assistance and training, supply equipment, and to establish joint fishing company. Probably to establish commercial joint ventures. Soviet assistance to local fisheries and training on board Soviet trawlers. Joint fishing venture, training and technical assistance, construction of refrigeration and port facilities. Joint fishing venture to operate in local waters. with maintenance and repair facilities, training, and formation of a joint company. Creating joint Tunisian, French, Soviet company with port facilities at Bizerte. several fishing bases on Somalia's coast. It also provided for improvement of the port at Berbera, including construction of processing plants, repair facilities, and schools for training crew and shore personnel. The USSR also supported the massive relocation of Somalian nomads to fishing centers. Recent Initiatives In the past 15 months, the USSR signed new fisheries agreements with seven LDCs-Angola, Benin, Maldives, Mozambique, the Philippines, Sierra Leone, and Tunisia-and committed at least $12 million of aid to them. All but one of the new accords created joint fishing ventures, continuing the pattern of the past several years. The new agreements also point up the increased regional diversification of Soviet fishing interests as Moscow continues to seek support for its fleet. New regulations that limit access to national waters have increased Soviet interest in joint ownership arrangements. The Soviets usually contribute 49 percent of the capital for an equivalent share in management and profits. Profits are paid by apportioning the catch-the LDC partner takes its share for local sale; the USSR takes the remainder, which is processed and exported for sale in Western markets or in Status of Soviet Joint Fishing Ventures With Less Developed Countries,' 31 March 1977 Agreement Signed Offer Under Negotiation Angola Argentina Benin Bangladesh Egypt Ecuador Ghana Gambia Guinea-Bissau Guyana Iraq Indonesia Mauritania Liberia Mauritius Malaysia Morocco Peru Mozambique Philippines Sierra Leone Singapore Spain Somalia South Yemen Sri Lanka Tunisia ' Includes joint ownership, which in some cams involves Soviet old to LDCs beyond Soviet equity partlcipotion. 5 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 STRDP791300457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/gj1: CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Soviet Fishing Vessels Supplied to Third World Countries, by Class VAt~szet class teq~)overall ~ zzst?7r=i :exiYc3t- T7 o-~r.~ -rx:i~irk x a, F: M-no none MIS 6 Approved For Release 2002/0% ')?f' CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/1tEdJ*-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 the USSR. Equipment is usually of Russian origin and leased or purchased by the joint company. It is jointly manned and used for training, research, and fishing. Soviet personnel instruct and provide technical know-how. In addition, Soviet credits sometimes are extended to cover part of the LDC share. The Soviets first joint fishing ventures with Egypt and with Sri Lanka occurred in 1971. Since then, Moscow has established 18 such companies with LDCs and has offered to participate in at least nine others. The amount of direct Soviet aid to these companies, beyond the Soviet participating share, is generally small, although in some cases the USSR provides free training and equipment. Moscow sometimes helps to develop port and processing facilities, in addition to its ownership share, to be paid off in reciprocal services to the Soviet fleet. Some joint ventures (such as those with Singapore, Spain, and the Philippines) are straight commercial enterprises, designed to arrange, via private brokers, ship-chandling for Soviet fishing ships and, in some cases, to help process, freeze, and market the Soviet fleet's catch. No Soviet development assistance is known to have been extended to fishing industries of countries in which the Soviets have engaged in commercial enterprises, but the USSR obtains required fleet services in these countries. A unique joint company, Fransov, was estab- lished by the Soviet Ministry of the Fish Industry and a French fishing engineering firm in 1975 to act as an agent for the Soviet fishing fleet. Fransov was to obtain fishing rights in territorial waters of certain countries, such as Sierra Leone and Tunisia, where access would otherwise have been closed. Moscow also has used Fransov to market the Soviet fleet's catch from the waters of Angola, Mozambique, and Somalia. It has regis- tered Russian trawlers in LDCs and may manage construction of Soviet onshore facilities in several countries. Assessment Soviet assistance often has had a greater impact than the small financial outlays would suggest. Soviet expertise and high-level technology at least initially have been well received by cooperating countries. An estimated 800 Soviet technicians were in less developed countries in 1976 conduct- ing research, training local personnel, and con- structing and managing port facilities. About 300 trainees from LDCs went to the USSR for training. Soviet assistance often has meant the establish- ment of domestic fishing industries in LDCs for the first time with important spin-offs in increased employment and improved domestic diet. The movement to joint ventures has proven even more lucrative for both parties. Beyond the capital input, Soviet know-how for exploiting fish resources and Soviet management have given LDCs almost immediate returns from the new industry. Almost all countries that have received Soviet fisheries assistance, and especially those that have engaged in joint operations with the Russians, have increased their catch by signifi- cant amounts in a short time. Benefits to the Soviets far outweigh the small outlays they make for direct assistance or participation in joint companies. Access to foreign coastal waters is by far the most important return at present. Participation in local companies also provides the Soviet fishing fleet with greater flexibility and shore facilities and privileges. Its ownership-management responsi- bilities give Moscow a voice in LDC fisheries decisions. We expect the Soviets to continue to pursue and to consolidate their gains in this vital area. 7 Approved For Release 2002/06/1' .S A-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 200210%IgAETCIA-RDP79BOO457A000600060001-1 Africa Algeria Equatorial Guinea Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 1968 Included under an October 1963 $100 million line of credit: 18 trawlers; port construction after feasibility studies; fisheries training for Algerians; and oceanographic research as- sistance. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) 1976 Agreement to provide assistance and training on Soviet ships in exchange for exclusive fishing rights within Angola's 200-mile fishing zone. 1977 Protocol, signed during first session of Soviet- Angolan fishery commission, to establish joint fishing operations, supply Angola with 10 trawlers, give 12 percent of fish to Angola, provide training, and supply equipment and materials for Angola's fishing industry. 1977 A fishing agreement was signed in January 1977, but details of the accord are unknown. The agreement probably includes assistance in construction of shore facilities and creation of joint venture. 1973 The USSR agreed to provide fish from the catch and to train Equatorial Guinean person- nel on Soviet trawlers in exchange for fishing rights in territorial waters and the use of Luba port facility. 1975 Agreement to construct port facilities in Gambia, to provide training and fishing ships for the Gambian fleet. 1960 Fisheries agreement, under $40 million credit extended August 1960, for construction a fishing complex at Tema, including port and processing facilities, cold storage and ice plant, a workshop to produce fishing gear, and several fish processing plants. 1963-64 Protocol to 1960 agreement for: temporary facilities for floating dock; training 100 Ghanians in fishing techniques; equipment for fisheries school; and joint research studies. Soviets are fishing Angolan waters with Angolans on board Soviet trawlers. Five Soviet technicians assigned to Angolan re- search ship. In 1976, 20,000 tons of frozen fish given without charge to Angola and 30,000 tons to be given in 1977. TheSoviets use Luba as a base for their fishing (0.5) fleet, but the USSR has provided little assistance. Second phase of fisheries survey completed in (2.0) 1976. Soviet technicians are studying port construction. Negotiations on implementation are continuing. Work suspended after 1966 coup. Drydock 11.2 facilities, completed by Ghana in 1967. Presently, 30 Soviet fisheries technicians are in Ghana assisting the Ghanian firm Mankoagze Fish Company and in construction of the Tema fishing port. 8 Approved For Release 2002/0694QRfICIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 :SQtRERDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) Africa (Continued) Ghana 1976 Protocol signed in June 1976 to increase Soviet participation in Ghanian fisheries and to create a joint Soviet-Ghanian company for the production and processing of tuna. Guinea 1959 A cold storage plant at Conakry allocated under a $35 million line of credit. 1966 Under a $13 million 1962 line of credit, aid allocated for 10 fishing seiners, 3-year techni- cal training in the USSR for 60 students, and a dock for fishing boat repair at Conakry. 1969 1973 1974 Guinea- Bissau 1975 Completed by mid-1963 and expanded in 2.3 1968. Technical training also provided. Four seiners delivered in 1966; six canceled. 4.0 Soviet and Guinean personnel operated boats. Fifty Soviet technicians currently in country to assist in fisheries. The USSR is now Guinea's larget supplier of fish. Six Soviet trawlers supplied 6,000 tons of fish in 1976. Soviet research ship is currently operating off coast. Protocol signed to renew 1966 accord as well as to establish a leasing arrangement for Soviet trawlers. Grant for oceanographic research center at Conakry. Protocol calling for a hydrographic ship to be permanently assigned to Conakry as well as construction of service and repair facilities for the ship. Agreement for joint commerical ventures. Soviets to supply refrigerated trawlers and 90 percent of the personnel. Possible installation of an ice factory and refrigeration facility in Bafata. Kenya 1964 Under a $44 million line of credit the USSR agreed to construct a fish cannery and other facilities. Mauritania 1973 Agreement included Soviet training of Mauri- tanian personnel and fisheries research in coastal waters. Planning for center was started in 1976. 1.5 Center is expected to be operational in 1979. The joint venture, Estrela-do-mar, is in opera- 1.5 tion with as many as 20 trawlers fishing the coastal waters. Guinea-Bissau is disenchanted by the relatively small Soviet investment in local infrastructure and training. Guinea- Bissau has also noted dismay at the Soviet rapid exploitation of Guinea-Bissau's fishery resources. Forty Soviet ships operate in Mauritania's 3- (7.0) to 10-mile territorial zone for sole purpose of supplying fish to local industry in Nouadhibou. Fifteen Soviet trawlers operate in Mauritanian waters beyond 10-mile zone without fee. Feasibility studies are being completed for $5 million research center. Center is to be in operation in two years. Each trawler operat- ing for the joint company must employ crew of Approved For Release 2002/06/11 $ECRDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/0, 'x. CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 Africa (Continued) Mauritania 1973 1975 Protocol under 1973 agreement for a fish processing complex, research facility, Soviet ships, and a joint fishing company; 250 Mauritanians to be included in enterprise. 1976 Protocol calling for continued implementation of 1973 agreement was signed in May. Fish processing complex to include a cannery and refrigeration plant at port of Nouadhibou. Mauritius 1970 Credit for two trawlers, marine equipment, and services of Soviet fishery specialists. 1974 Agreement signed in 1974 and renewed in 1976 to replace 1970 accord included a joint fishing company which would conduct research and supply local markets with 60 tons of fish a year as a grant. Ten trainees to study in USSR each year. Morocco 1973 Fisheries research on Soviet ships under UNDP-FAO program, training of specialists in USSR, and creation of training center in Morocco. Joint company to be organized to operate leased Soviet ships in Moroccan coastal waters and to construct and operate a fish processing plant and refrigeration ware- house. Mozambique 1976 Agreement includes a joint venture, training and technical assistance to local fishing industry, and the construction of refrigeration and port facilities. Senegal 1965 Credit for tuna fishing complex, including 10 fishing boats, a fish cannery, workshop and repair facilities, and cold storage plants. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) five Mauritanian. To dote no progress in emplementing joint venture, although 25 Mauritanians are training in the USSR and two Soviet trawlers (reportedly in poor repair) have been transferred to Nouakchott. Early in 1976 research ship Aelita operating in (1.5) Mauritius territorial waters. Five Soviet re- search technicians in Mauritius. Feasibility studies completed for joint venture. (3.1) Morocco rejected Soviet proposals for imple- mentation suggested by joint commission early in 1975. An estimated 25 Soviet fisheries technicians are in Morocco. Joint fishing venture to operate eight boats 5.0 with mixed crews beginning in late 1977, while 14 Soviet trawlers operate duty free in Mozambique waters. Research ship Aelita was in Mozambique waters until late 1976. The first Soviet trawlers to be used in the joint venture are scheduled to arrive by June 1977. Fisheries survey completed in 1972. In 1973 all 4.4 10 tuna boats had been delivered. In August 1976, the fishing agreement was suspended. The plant, cannery, and cold storage facility had been canceled after a 1966 feasibility study, and the credit was reduced from $6.9 million. Approved For Release 2002/06/'9 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/06/11 Sf?fRDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 Africa (Continued) 1968 Protocol for study of deep-sea fish resources. 1971 Protocol for joint fishery survey and Soviet training program. Sierra Leone 1976 Agreement signed in Freetown to provide for joint studies of fishing resources, port construc- tion, training, and organizing a joint venture. 1977 Protocol signed for continued cooperation in the construction of fishing harbors, training Sierra Leone fishermen, and facilities for maintenance and repair. Somalia 1963 In a protocol to a 1961 line of credit, the USSR agreed to provide equipment for constructing a fish cannery with annual capacity of 6 million cans at Las Koreh. 1974 Joint deep-sea fishing venture to run 10 years, to use 12 Soviet-built trawlers. 1975 Agreement includes $14 million in grants; the remainder in soft loans; to train 2,200 personnel; to supply 400 boats ($4 million); fishing gear worth $800,000; onshore port and processing facilities costing $9 million; repair facilities and a training school for supervisory personnel. Sudan 1961 Tanzania 1966 Tunisia 1976 Survey of fish potentials of the Red Sea and Nile River. Fish cannery to be established at Jebel Aulia. Protocol under a $20 million credit for marine equipment, to construct a fish drying plant at Kigoma, and four cold storage plants. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) In August 1976, Moscow offered a 10-year 5.0 guarantee of up to $4 million for six refrigerated warehouses, an icemaking plant, and a fish cannery in Sierra Leone. Implemen- tation is to be handled by a joint French- Soviet company, Fransov. Soviet research ship Prognoz in Sierra Leone waters in September 1976 under the auspices of the May agree- ment. Plant completed in 1970. 4.2 In operation. (1.2) Forty trawlers delivered. Local training in- 33.0 cludes fish processing technology in 40 cooper- atives set up along the coast. Fishing bases probably have been established at three locations on Somali coast. An estimated 200 Soviet fisheries technicians present in Somalia in 1976. Survey completed in 1964. Cannery feasibility 0.4 report prepared in 1965, but no subsequent activity. Marine equipment delivered. Cold storage and 0.9 fish drying plants canceled. Soviet research ship Professor Mesyatsev was in Tanzanian waters in mid-1976 conducting surveys for UNFAO. Agreement calls for joint Tunisian, French, NA negl Soviet fishing company to be formed to develop fishing industry in Tunisian waters. 11 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : 9hDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 SECRET Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 1964 Agreement included: Soviet ships for deep-sea fishing and research; Soviet technical and research assistance; training Egyptian person- nel; and assistance in developing a fishing center at Ras Benas on the Red Sea. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) Ten trawlers delivered. Research studies con- 15.0 tinuing. 1967 Mixed Soviet-Egyptian commission increased the number of Egyptians receiving fisheries training in the USSR from 200 to 300. 1969 The USSR agreed to train an additional 110 Egyptians. 1971 Agreement at seventh mixed commission meeting to provide Egypt with 12,000 tons of fish annually, to undertake a joint fisheries survey, and to assist in developing Lake Nasser. Joint fishing venture authorized. 1972 Soviets to provide additional equipment and technical assistance, to train 22 additional Egyptians in the USSR, to construct a wharf on the Red Sea, and to conduct another fisheries survey. 1973 Soviet ships to aid Egyptians fishing off African coast with fuel, fishing tackle, and fish processing equipment, and to deliver frozen fish to Alexandria from areas of joint fishing operations. Survey completed. Survey and training completed. Despite abrogation of Friendship Treaty in March 1976, joint venture is still operating. 1975 Joint commission provided for further Egyp- tian training in the USSR, and trawling equipment for deep-sea operations. 1963 Agreement for Soviet assistance in developing Caspian Sea resources, including equipment for large fish hatchery, marine resource survey, reclamation work, and technical as- sistance. 1966 As part of a $17 million trade credit, USSR agreed to assist in port expansion and to construct a cold storage plant. Of the 432 trainees sent to the USSR over the 10-year period since the 1964 agreement, 323 had returned by 1975. As of 31 December 1976, an estimated 60 technicians were in Egypt. First section of hatchery and cold storage (2.0) plant completed. in 1969. Port equipment has been arriving periodically since 1968. 12 Approved For Release 2002/0W44E3CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11S'ERDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959--31 March 1977 Year Character of Assistance Middle East (Continued) Iran 1971 Protocol for fisheries survey of Persian Gulf. 1973 Agreement for six additional fish hatcheries on the Caspian. Iraq 1969 Agreement to construct processing plants, refrigeration facilities, training and marketing centers. 1970 Protocol allocated aid to develop marketing facilities and two technical training centers from a $137.5 million 1959 credit. 1972 USSR agreed to build cold storage plants and a port in Umm Qasr. Iraq will rent two Soviet fishing boats, and 50 Iraqis will study fisheries in the USSR in 1973. 1973 Mixed commission agreed to set up a Soviet- Iraqi fishing company with six Soviet trawlers. Soviets to train Iraqi technicians in servicing deep-sea ships. USSR agreed to aid construc- tion of additional trawlers and refrigeration ships and to establish a fisheries research center in Basra. 1965 North Yemen 1964 1971 1974 South Yemen '1969 Agreement signed for Soviet assistance in developing fisheries industry, including port and cold storage facilities and ship construc- tion. Fisheries and related projects, including two repair shops, seven fishing boats, processing facilities, and technical training. Protocol for construction of fish processing facilities and technical training. Protocol calling for further expansion of Hodeidah facilities. Agreement included credit for research, mari- time equipment, construction of a training center, a fishing boat, and feasibility studies for conning and cold storage facilities. Also included grant aid for two completely equipped seiners. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) Completed. Construction underway. Estimated 25 Soviet 1.6 technicians are working on project. Completed. 5.0 Soviet-Iraqi fishing company Rafidan is in 12.0 operation with six Soviet ships, with initial capitalization of $34 million. Two more refrigerated trawlers are expected to be delivered to the company by mid-1977. Workshop and cold storage plant at Hodeidah 7.8 completed, fishing boats delivered. A small number of Soviet advisers are present at Hodeidah port supervising construction of fish processing facilities. Seiners, engine, and nets delivered in 1970. 6.0 Training center established. Cannery design completed in 1971 and the Soviets agreed to supply an oil and flour unit. Surveys for six cold storage plants completed. Three fishing boats delivered as ordered under 1972 protocol. 13 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/0%1J ETCIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 Protocol for Soviet supply of three fishing boats. 1974 Agreement for creation of joint company and expansion of port facilities. 1976 Protocol for Soviet construction of fish cannery, port facilities, and supply of five fishing trawlers. South and East Asia Bangladesh 1972 USSR grant for 10 fishing boats, port refrigeration facilities, and training center at Chittagong and Soviet fisheries technicians. India 1966 Deep-sea fisheries assistance to include use of two Soviet trawlers and construction of a shipyard for fishing ships. Indonesia 1964 Agreement under a 1956 credit to establish fishing complex that would include processing facilities and trawlers. Malaysia 1974 Agreement calling for Soviet fisheries as- sistance, port construction, and a possible joint venture. Maldives 1976 Agreement concluded in November for Soviet assistance to local fisheries and training on board Soviet trawlers. Pakistan 1965 Soviet trawlers to be purchased under No- vember line of credit. 1968 Agreed to conduct oceanographic research, design a fishing port, and train fishermen. Philippines 1976 Agreement calls for joint fishing venture to operate in Philippine waters. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) Five trawlers valued at $7.8 million were 9.5 delivered to Aden under the 1976 protocol-- two medium-sized trawlers delivered in De- cember 1976 and three small boats in March 1977. Boats delivered. Cold storage plants partially (15.0) completed. Training center completed. An estimated 25 Soviet fisheries technicians in country. An estimated 30 Soviet fisheries technicians in 2.2 country. One trawler delivered in 1965. Agreement 0.3 suspended in 1966. Four Soviet experts studied land facilities in 2.0 1968. In January 1969, three Soviet trawlers used to train fisheries personnel and conduct a two-year fishing survey. Survey completed. Joint company Filsov has undergone reorgani- negl 2 zation since its creation in May 1976. President Marcos was known to be dissatisfied with agreement between the USSR and private Philippine interests in July 1976. During first quarter 1977, no implementation noted. 14 Approved For Release 2002/OEMgREtIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 SdiTRDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 South and East Asia (Continued) Singapore 1975 Agreed to create joint company, construct Singapore's first, fully integrated seafood processing and storage complex, and provide local market with seafood and fishmeal. Sri Lanka 1971 Fisheries agreement includes technical training and development of a training center, joint fisheries operations, and possible future sale or rental of Soviet fishing ships. Argentina 1974 Fisheries assistance agreement for: joint re- search and exploration program; training for Argentine fishermen; construction, moderniza- tion or adaptation of fishing port south of 42nd parallel; and setting up a joint fishing company. Chile 1968 Following surveys by Soviet fisheries experts, USSR agreed to establish a fishing port and a crabmeat plant under a 1967 line of credit. 1971 Agreement calls for; building one or more fishing ports with complementary industrial installations; training Chilean fishermen on Soviet ships; creating training center for middle-level fisheries technicians; and renting Soviet fishing ships. Peru 1971 Agreement provides: aid for constructing a fisheries complex in Paita; training Peruvians at Soviet fisheries institutes; and joint fisheries research. 1972 Protocol to begin construction of Paita port and to train 30 Peruvians on Soviet research ship. Europe Portugal 1976 Protocol signed for continued fisheries re- search surveys and Soviet assistance at Paita. 1975 Agreement for Soviet equipment to outfit fishing ships and Soviet training for Portu- guese personnel. Aid Extended (million Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) Joint venture in operation. Processing facility negl2 to be built at Jurong for $4.5 million with construction to begin in 1977. Oceanographic research survey began in (3.0) February 1972. Soviet technicians arrived in June 1973 to assist in setting up training center. In 1975, the USSR granted 20 scholarships for training Sri Lankan personnel. Preliminary oceanographic studies completed. (5.0) In late 1976 Soviets reopened discussions on projects, offering Soviet technical assistance and financing. No progress. Commission on Soviet-Peruvian fisheriies co- 2.5 operation formed in 1972. First and second stage of Paita complex completed in 1975. Port equipment was installed at Paita in November 1976. 15 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 S`IRDP791300457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/0..11 CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 SEET' Table 4 (Continued) Soviet Assistance to Fishing Industries in Less Developed Countries, 1959-31 March 1977 Aid Extended (million Year Character of Assistance Status as of 31 March 1977 US$) Europe (Continued) Spain 1971 Agreement to create a joint company, Sovi- Sovispan is in operation: it wholesales, freezes, negl 2 span, operating in Canary Islands. and packs products caught by Soviet fleet in Atlantic. ' Parentheses indicate an estimated value of aid extended. 2 Agreement to establish joint ventures probably called for negligible Soviet aid or was a cash contract. 16 Approved For Release 2002/0&1M 1CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : 6'ARRDP79B00457A000600060001-1 The author of this paper is Developing Nations Division, Of ice o Eco- nomic Research. Comments and queries ar 25X1 A welcome and should he directed to 25X1A 25X1A ~~17 Approved For Release 2002/06/11: gCIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Secret Secret Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 25X1A Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 ADMINISTRATIVE - INTERNAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 7 July 1977 MEMORANDUM FOR: Chief, Distribution Section, P&PD/OL FROM: Chief, Registry and Dissemination Branch, PPG Dissemination of OER Report, LR 77--10392 (Job 425-759-77), Soviet :,gen war; a,ss Developed Countries , Attached is the dissemination list for subject report. Copies # 1 through # 35 will be picked up or forwarded to PPG/R&D, Room 7G07, Hq. Please notify when you receive STATINTL the remaining copies for distribution. When a report has an ELITE, the elite copies must be disseminated before standard distribution is made. STATINTL Attachment: a/ s Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 ADMINISTRATIVE - INTERNAL USE ONLY STATINTL Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Next 9 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 (COPY) prod E M 0 I N D U ~IIase dR02/06/11: CIA-RDP79B00457A00060006 The Honorable Harold H. Saunders Director Bureau of Intelligence and Research Department of State Attached is your personal copy of our memorandum, "Soviet Fisheries Agree- ments with Less Developed Countries," ER 77-10392, SECRET. STATINTL "Director of Economic Research Central Intelligence Agency Allproved For Release 2002/06/11: CIA-RDP79B 57,QQ0/060 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 fi 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 17 18 111 20 2f 22 23 24 25 26 1 27 1 28 29 30 3113713313413 7-1 37 38 39 4 L1L LL1 L 1_ _l iI L__LL L_L._ 1A l I I l _ _ I l l l 1I__LLIJ_L J_L11 1~L1 _LL_1_ i I i~ I Ile i 4J JLs __1 j1_?1 & 1 I 1s~ 1 11 AA-LI_L1J-L_ ~41 Vic _i Iii I I_ L III -1_L I I L1._ll I I LLi J -I-A-L- .11 L1 _1_I_1 Li _1_. _I_LL L1_LL I I I _I _L _1 I I l l LL L -1 AA- -m I I I IILLL L_L_LL_ I _11 _LLLL -11-L~ _J l III _LLL I__ ~~ _1 I _Ll _ -LA _I-L L I 1__.l_ L1_LLL1__ LL 1 L1 -tit-1-LL L~ I -LLll___ _ - Ll _l._ 1- LL __LL_1 _L It, 1_L_1__ _LJ _ LLLL_L A_L_ L1_ I.1-J.1J_ L._l~ 1-J I _L I t 1-L I__ 1 1 LLLLI _LLL_ 1 I t I _1L L__L-1-- -1.1_ I ~ i LLl _LL1__ I I I I L_.I _ LJL LLL LLLI___I_I ILL Ll_1 L i _L L L L1_1L-_1- L1_LLLL I L_ LLL I 1_L1~LLL1_~ FORM OBSOLETE PREVIOUS EDITIONS 9.70 2246 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 `~' SENDER WIL!- CHECK CLASSIFICATION TOP AND BOTTOM A ~ 200 /O6tAaFi~4 OFFICIAL ROUTING SLIP TO NAME AND ADDRESS DATE INITIALS I Chief, D/D 2 DD/OER 3 D/OER x Y, EO/ER 7,10 s ASA/ER 6 DSA/ER ACTION 1-61RECT REPLY PREPARE REPLY APPROVAL _ DISPATCH RECOMMENDATION COMMENT FILE RETURN CONCURRENCE INFORMATION SIGNATURE Remarks t 7 PPG/R&D 6 - ],2 & 3: Any additions or deletion to the attached suggested elite dissem? FOLD HERE TO RETURN TO SENDER FROM: NAME. ADDRESS AND PHONE NO. DATE D _LCjA-RDp7qB0 AD 6') UNCLASSIFIED FORM NO, 237 Use previous editions I-a7 STATINTL STATINTL Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 SENDER WILL CHECK CLASSIFICATION TOP AND BOTTOM A pr ~s ~_-~r~r~>r>e OFFICIAL ROUTING SLIP TO NAME AN DDRE DATE INITIALS I I Chief, D/D !IT!II 2 DD/OER _ 3 D/OER 4 EO/ER 5 ASA/ER t ACTION DIRECT REPLY PREPARE REPLY APPROVAL DISPATCH RECOMMENDATION COMMENT FILE RETURN CONCURRENCE I INFORMATION SIGNATURE Remarks : 7 PPG/R&D 6 - ],2 & 3: Any additions or deletion to the attached suggested elite dissem? FOLD HERE TO RETURN TO SENDER FROM: NAME, ADDRESS AND PHONE NO. DATE D A/ER 2-I06/4.-1-; CIA DP 17 Jun T, D045 0 A CONFIDENTIAL SECRET 0060001-1 0060001-1 STATINTL FORM No. 237 Use previous editions * xru5GPO: 1976 - 202-953 1-67 Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Next 6 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 N _ `rte ~~ . ~~~ Gf S: J/p~~ ~~~ /~'~i C~ 15 .~ /~ '~' _ _ _ T-24 91 72 E I A7 27 PAGE Z 1 /,A r_- NC' 7 40 49 ) z7 TO K: 13 1912E OC T 77 C,ti~rc vf"~ j,~, R i31625EE UCT 77 FM U SM IS S I ON U SN AT 0 TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC 6519 INFO RUFHKK/ALL NATO GAP ITALS RUcHMO/AMEMBA5SY MOSCOW 4499 RU OSSAA/US LO SACLANT NORFOLK VA RUDOkRA/USNMR SHAPE BE aT 25X1A C 0 N F I D E N T I A L SECTION'01 02 USNATO 09672 BRUSSELS ALSO US_EC+ PARIS ALSO USOECD E.U. 11652: GDS TAGS: E'WwT, EEi,T - EFIS, NATO, U'P SUBUECT: ECONADS: PREPARATION FOR DECEMBER 15-:6 REINFORCED MEETING ON SOVIET SHIPPING AND FISHING FLEETS 1. ECO NA DS CHAIRMAN HAS CI RC Li 'LATED MEMORANDUM (ED/EC /77/78) RE C'UES Ti NG NAT 1ONAL CO NT RI 3U TI ONS IN ADVANCE Or DECEMBER 15-16 REINFORCED MEETING 0N SOVIET MERCHANT AND FISHING FLEETS, IDEALLY BY NUV EX BE R 15 TO FACILITATE TRANSLATION AND DISSEMINATION, (THE CLOSER TO THAT DATE MATERIAL IS RECEIVED) THE GREATER WI LL BE CO JFLI "TING DEMANDS OF NATO FACILITIES DEDICATED TO PREPARATIONS FOR THE DECEMBER 6-9 DPC AND NAC MI N1. STERIALS,) 2. MEMO 0 N 7E 5 DIRECTORATE IS PARTICULARLY INTERESTED IN THE FOLLOWING DATA: BEGIN TEXT: (1) MERCHANT NAVY. -- (1) RECENT GROWTH OF THE SOVIET MERCHANT FLEET. AND ORDERS ?- FOR NEw VESSELS UNDERWAv FY TYPE OF SHIP, WITH SPE- C IAL REFERENCE TO UNIT LOAD SHIPS ( WHERE FOSS IBLE, IT WOULD BE VERY USEFUL TO OBTAIN STATISTICAL DATA ON -? T I-E FOL LC WING TYPES OF S-4 IP5: .?- (A) Ft'LL "0NTAINERS HIPS -- C A (0) RO- PG S HIPS; -- ( D) BARGE C AR RI ER S; -- (E) FULL GENERAL CARGO VESSELS. ) - - ( 2 ) EXTENT c CROSS TRADE AND OF BILATERAL SOVI-T-ALLI- ANCE NAT.ONAL TRADE OTH. UDDER THE SOVIET FLAG. -(3) EVOLUTION IN SOVIET ATTITUDES ON THE CONFERENCES, -- E5P TALLY AS REGARDS TH_ NORTH ALANTI C. -- (4) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TARIFFS A=(PLIED BY SOVIET ?? MERCn4NT FLEET. C 0 N F.I D E N T I A L Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 CAD-LE SEC t)ISSEM 8Y--,APPr1DW ADVANCE COPY ISSUED)SLOTTED ACTION UNIT T 2.49172 Ei A727 00600060001-1 REPRODUCTION BY OTHER TH STATE MESSAGE 708:13.19122 OCT 77 25X1 C --(5) SIEE CF THE TRANS-SIBEERIAN LAND BRIDGE SERVICE. (b) ACTIVITIES O7 SOVIET RIVER TRAFFIC UNDER A THIRD ?- FLAG. tI I) FISHING FLEET -- (:) THE BASIC SOURCE- BOOKS USED BY THE DIRECTORATE ARE THE UN FISHERIES YEARBOOK AND THE LLOYD'S REGISTER OF SHIPPING FOR CATCH AND FLEET TONNAGE RESPECTIVELY. -- ANY SUGGESTIONS ON BETTER SOURCES? -- (2) AS NOTE: IN THE PAST, DISCREPANCIES HAVE OCCURED, I L L BE TWEEN DATA PRESEN- T _ D i N THE ABOVE PUBLICATIONS AND T HOSE PUBLI SHED -- I N THE NATO COUNTRIES YEAPBOOKS. WE -WC ULD APPRECIA - -- T_ RECEIVING OFFICIAL FIGURES RELATING -- TO ALL ALLIED COUNTRIES FOR FLEET TONNAGE (GROSS -- REGISTERED TONS)--AND A BREAKDOhN FOR MAJOR VESSEL -- CATIG0R !ES--AND FOR THE FISH CATCH, INCLUDING AND -- EXCLUDING ACsUATIC MAMMALS, --(3) PR DJ CT IV ITY CALCULAT ION FOR 71E S 0 V IET FISH ING -- FL=ET (E.G, TDNS OF CATC~i PER TON OF VESSELS, TONS -- OF CATCH PER EMPLOYEE) ARE A MAJOR CONCERN OF THE DIRECTC-ATE. WE WOULD LIKE TO RECEIVE IDEAS ON ANY -- POSSIBLE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FROM THE NATIONAL -? EXPERTS. IN PARTICULAR, DO THEY AGREE WITH THE -- PROCEDURE WE HAVE FOLLOh'ED IN THE LAST PAPER ISSUED BY NATO (C-M(77)397? RESEARCH INTO AE RD FL UT: ALTHOUGH A SEPARATE RESEARCH SECTOR MEMBERS MAY WELL FIND IT USEFUL T0. REDUEST THEIR -CAPITALS TD PFCVIDE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE UTILISA- TION OF AEROFLOT AS A MAJOR FREIGHT MEDIUM WITHIN THE USSR. THE ONLY INPUT TO DATE IS A VALUABLE CONTRIBUTION BY THE UK O F JUNE 1977t. AC/127-WP/521 (NATO SECRET) . END TE XT . Cr Cr N r I E N T I A L Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 CABLE SEC ^ISSEM BY T 24 9172 25X1 C PER TOTAL COPIES RUN BY Approved For Rel ase 290?\/0~J1'~ : C,IA=RPP7~9900451A 00600060??Aia4C)UCTION BY OTHER TH I \ A ISSUING OFFICE IS PROHIBrTI 03 TOR: 1319122 OCT 77 STATE MESSAGE N e4 C D N I E N T I A L Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 CARTE SEC DISSEM BY PER Approved For PERSON/UNIT NOTIFIED ADVANCE COPY ISSUED/SLOTTED ACTION UNIT I RF. FILE N F ACTION 0 T 249177 EIA732 TOTAL COPIES RUN BY se,,29O2/06111,: CIA-RDP7,9BPO457A 0060006OOG* 'kDUCTION BY OTHER TH I I L ISSUING OFFICE IS PROHIBITL ST AT E ME SS AGE BY AT 2 ' ~+-c=-- Pt G ;E TCR:13_913E OCT 77 R 13 16 254 01" T 77 Fri JSMISS I ON: LS'~AT 0 TO RUEHC /SECST AT E kASHDC 6520 INFO RU" HKK/ALL NATO CAS' IT ALS RUE~MO/AMEMBASSY M0SG0W 452? RU CE SA A/ US LO SA CL ANT N0 RF 0L K VA RUD0RPA/USNMR S!'.AP E BE ET C 0 N F' I D E N T I A L SECTION C2 OF 22 USNAT 0 09872 WE w'OULD APPRECIATE RECEIVING 20 COPIES FOR CIRCULATION TO ECCNA DS. 5. WHILE WE REA LIEE TX0 MONTHS REMA IN BE?F0;E THE MEETING ITSELF, WE W OULD APPRECIATE INDICATION OF LIKELY US EXPERT PART IC 1P AT IUN, DATA UN TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS, HOTEL PRE - FERENCES, AND CONFIRMATION OF NATO SECURITY CLEARANCE COULD FO.LLOk IN CUE COURSE, 6. ACTION RECUESTEC: INFOR MA TID1% /GUIDANCE AS NOTED APC VE, GLITMAN C 0 N F I D E N T I A L Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 STATINTL Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/06/11 : CIA-RDP79B00457A000600060001-1