Indian and Pakistani Defense Industries and Requirements

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November 9, 2016
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July 22, 1998
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March 26, 1969
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Approved For Release4/O08il,~CI1,B00972Agp0100480002-7 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of Intelligence 26 March 1969 INTELLIGENCE MEMORANDUM Indian and Pakistani Defense Industries and Requirements 1. INDIA a. Production -- India has expanded and modernized defense plants inherited from the colo- nial period and is now largely self-sufficient in infantry weapons and ammunition. Otherwise, the Indians are still almost entirely dependent on foreign sources and technology, although plants have been set up to manufacture some key items under license. These plants remain dependent upon imports for at least 30 percent of their inputs. The situation by service is as follows: (1) Ground Weapons In addition to establishing plants for producing infantry weapons, ammunition, and vehicles ranging in size from jeeps to 5-ton trucks, India has also set up a plant to manufacture tanks under license from the UK. Orig- inal plans called for the production of 350 tanks by 1970, but to date only slightly more than 100 have been pro- duced. India hoped to utilize the tanks as replacements for the imported Soviet medium tanks. The plant still relies on the UK for components, even though production has been underway since 1966. Heavy and special-purpose military vehicles are all imported. Approved For Release 1999/09/08 P79B00972A000100480002-7 Approved For Release ;GIA-Rbl79B00972A000100480002-7 (2) Aircraft India is producing under license two types of fighter aircraft: the MIG-21 Fishbed, which was developed in the USSR; and the Gnat, which was developed in the UK. In addition, helicopters are being produced under French license. Gnat production will be phased out in 1970, but MIG-21 production will continue probably until 1975. The MIG-21 manu- facturing project has slipped by two years or more forcing India to buy addi- tional MIG-21s from the USSR. All of India's other require- ments for military aircraft must be filled from imports. Hope that indigenous HF-24 fighter-bomber production might fill some requirements has pretty well vanished. India has imported Hunters from the UK and SU-7s from the USSR to meet its needs. (3) Naval Weapons India has a limited capability to build naval vessels. Through a li- censing agreement with the UK, India is scheduled to build three Leander-class frigates at Bombay. Although initial Indian plans called for construction of the first of these ships by 1971, it is unlikely to be completed by that time. Major portions of the ship armament must be imported. and its All other major combatant ships must be purchased abroad. b. Weapons Mix and Age -- India's weap- ons inventory is a heterogeneous mix, largely im- ported or produced under foreign license. Weapons origins represent the world's major arms-producing countries. Much of the inventory is obsolete. Approved For Release 1999/ 0 72A000100480002-7 Approved For Release /0O9/08- CI-A-RDP79B00972A000100480002-7 (1) Ground Force Equipment Prior to 1962 most of India's small arms were of British manufacture or design. Much of the earlier equip- ment dates from World War II. Current production, which appears adequate to meet requirements, is based largely on modifications of British designs. Prior to 1965, the UK was the major source of India's armor. The Vijayanta tank is produced under British license. France had been a close second in the supply of armor. Holdings of British and French armor date largely from the 1950s. Procurement of armor since 1964 has been primarily from the USSR and Czechoslovakia. Following the Chinese Communist attack on India in 1962, the US provided India with large quantities of ground force equipment as grant aid, mainly in support of mountain/infantry divisions. US military aid was discontinued at the time of the Indo-Pakistani War in 1965. In 1967 India contracted to purchase the SS-11 antitank missile from France. (2) Air Force Equipment The bulk of India's older air force inventory consists of British and French fighters and bombers which were procured during the 1950s and early 1960s. The USSR has been the major source of fighter aircraft since 1963. Most have been MIG-21s procured directly or produced under license. SU-7 Fitter fighter-bomber aircraft have been pur- chased. Approved For Release 1999'O9 A-R"DP79B0.0972A000100480002-7 . - Approved For Releas' 79 B00972A000100480002-7 Agreements signed with the USSR in the early 1960s provided for the pro- curement of surface-to-air missiles and air-to-air missiles. India also has a license to produce the K-13 air-to-air missile. (3) Naval Forces Equipment Most of the ships in the Indian navy are of British origin and World War II vintage. In 1965 India turned to the USSR for naval procurement and signed an agree- ment to purchase at least three submarines, a depot ship, five Petya-class escort patrols, and seven lesser ships. c. Requirements -- During the next few years India will remain dependent upon imports of precision components and sub-assemblies to support domestic manufacture of military equipment including fighter aircraft, tanks and trucks. India will be totally dependent upon imports to replace its obsolescent force of Canberra bombers. Attempts already have been made to purchase TU-16 Badger bombers from the USSR. The requirement for helicopters will probably increase greatly if India implements a proposal for improving its mobile capability against insurgent groups. Limited domestic production is unlikely to fill this requirement. Additional naval ships are likely to be required if India expands its role in the Indian Ocean. India will continue to be dependent upon the USSR but will seek to limit the extent of this dependence through greater self-sufficiency and by purchasing arms wherever they are available. Approved For Release 19.I 0.8: ]A-RbP791900972A000100480002-7 Approved For Rele /09 0$.: dUA } 79B009~4000100480002-7 2. PAKISTAN a. Production -- Pakistan has only one operational defense plant. Current production is limited to small arms, ammunition, and antitank guided missiles. A second plant is under con- struction with Chinese Communist aid. It will produce similar items but will not eliminate de- pendence upon imports for ground force requirements. Pakistan has no capability for aircraft or ship construction. b. Weapons Mix and Age -- The Pakistani weapons inventory indicates a much greater reliance upon a single foreign source of supply for a given time period. Until independence in 1947, most Pakistani arms were of British origin. These were of World War II vintage and many are still in the inventory. From the early 1950s through 1965, the US was almost the exclusive supplier of air and ground force equipment. Following the US ban on exporting lethal military equipment to Pakistan in 1965, Pakistan turned to other sources for war material. (1) Ground Force Equipment Much of the ground force equip- ment provided by the US and the UK was of World War I-I vintage. Limited quantities of more modern equipment have been purchased in Western Europe. Since 1965, Pakistan has received medium tanks, trucks, and other ground force equipment--from small arms to 122mm howitzers--from Communist China. (2) Air Force Equipment Between 1956 and 1958, the US supplied Pakistan with F-86 Sabrejets and B-57 bombers. F-104 jet fighters were provided between 1961. and 1965. After Approved For Release Ii4-RDP79B00972A000100480002-7 Approved For Release.a'999/09/08 : CIA-RDP D00972AQ00100480002-7 1965 Pakistan obtained MIG-19 Farmer fighter aircraft and a few IL-28 Beagle bombers from Communist China, and Mirage III fighter-bombers from France. (3) Naval Equipment ---------------- The UK is the source of most of the Pakistani ships. They are largely of World War II vintage. A submarine is on loan from the US and midget sub- marines have been purchased from Italy. c. Requirements -- Pakistan will remain dependent upon imports for almost all of its arms requirements. Priority?will be given to the pro- curement of modern aircraft and armor. Arms will be procured wherever they are available. Although the USSR is moving into Pakistan as an arms supplier, military procurement from Communist China probably will continue. Approved For Releasc19 8 ~. CIA-RDP79B00972A000100480002-7 ~y~IYar~9,99 'e' n,