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December 14, 2016
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May 12, 2003
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May 19, 1970
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Approved For Release 200 4c- P79BOl709A000600040007-6 S (S1 NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE WASHINGTON, D.C. 19 May 1970 MEMORANDUM FOR CHAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON IMAGERY REQUIREMENTS AND EXPLOITATION SUBJECT: CORONA Requirements REFERENCES: (a) Memo, Subj: Imagery Reconnaissance Require- ments, dtd 12 May 1969 w/3 Atchs) (b) Memo, Subj: Projected CORONA Satisfaction 25X1A of USIB Requirements, FY 1970 and 1971, dtd 14 August 1969 1w/ l Atch) (c) Draft Memo for USIB, Subj: Modification of CORONA Requirements, dtd 14 May 1970, w/1 Atch This memorandum comments on the most recent modification of the CORONA collection requirements, reference (c), prior to their submittal to USIB for approval. It has been noted that most of the NRO suggestions toward improving the CORONA collection requirements, reference (a), either have been acted upon by reference (c) and the latest require- ments, or have been overtaken by events and are no longer pertinent. Accordingly, the following comments concerning reference (c) are provided: a. The NRO recommends deletion of the 2.5-million- square-nautical-mile requirement, paragraph 5c. This requirement is covered by paragraph 6 which addresses mission-to-mission require- ments without a limitation of assignment of film. Since the 2. 5 million- mile requirement is not geographically defined, except as being outside the Bloc, there is no way of distinguishing between this requirement and the mission-to-mission, one-time current intelligence requirement. NRO review(s) completed. 25X1A 25X1A 25X1A 25X1 A 25X14 25X1A CONTROL N pproved For Release 2003114?4 404791301 709A00060004ffld67=!?` 2 COPIES EXCLUDED FROM AUTOMATIC REGRADING PAGE OF PAGES DOD DIRECTIVE 5200.10 DOES NOT APPLY Approved For Release 2003/06/04 : ,CIA-RDP79B01709A000600040007-6 TOP SECRET %WO 25X1A b. Since there is a fixed number of CORONA systems left in the program, a no-film-limit, mission-by-mission stated requirement (paragraph 6) does not present a system sizing or procure- ment problem. However, unless it is closely monitored, this kind of requirement can seriously impact satisfying the standing USIB search requirements. Reference (b) provides projected search requirements satisfaction levels based on a reduced CORONA launch rate and assumed 20 percent and 40 percent film allocations for mission-to-mission surveil- lance requirements. The 20 percent figure was based upon historical records prior to 1969. However, in 1969 this average rose to 30 percent for the year, excluding Missions 1050 and 1051. The first 1970 mission, Mission 1109, consumed approximately 35 percent of the film for one- time requirements, including the Middle East. c. The map attachment to reference (c) has technical errors. North Vietnam has been omitted. Mongolia was not previously a requirement; therefore, the area depicted in red has been added as a semiannual search requirement and the area in white has been added as an annual search requirement. 25X1A Assistant Deputy Director Satellite Operations Center 25X1A 25X1A TOP SECRET COPY I OF 2 COPIES EXCLUDED FROM AUTOMATIC REGRADING PAGE 2 OF 2 PAGES Approved For Release ? ?0` `3 dd?6X !'ft- lft~9B01709A000600040007-6 ,THE NRO STAFF r. T Approved F elease 21'63l06V4'0IA-RDP79BO A0006000400 (S) NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE WASHINGTON, D.C. W`^^ 14 August 1969 rJ a IvIEMORANDUM FOR CHAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON IMAGERY REQUIREMENTS AND EXPLOITATION REFERENCES: (a) USIB_ D-41. 15/79 (COMOR D-48/115, dated 16 Sept 1966), approved 8 Nov 1966 SUBJECT: Projected CORONA Satisfaction of USIB FY 1970 and 1971 (b) USIB D-46.4/27 (COMIREX D-13.16/3, 4 Feb 1969), approved 27 Feb 1969 (c) USIB D-46.9/19 (COMIREX D-16.2/1, dated 11 Apr 1969), noted 23 Apr 1969 CORONA photography. Projections of expected CORONA satisfaction of USIB requirements for FY 1970 and FY 1971 are presented and explained in the attachment to this memorandum. It is the result blending the findings of studies independently performed by CIA/OSP and in-house by the This analysis is operationally oriented and shows the trade-offs available by flying STB or UTB at varying altitudes under three opera- tional philosophies. The subject of reduced resolution with increasing alt tude is absent from this paper, since its effect on intelligence content is best answered by those representing the consumers who exploit Deputy Director for Satellite Operations Attachment rojected CORONA Satisfaction Levels 25X1A 25X1A App&&Xd Aor Release 20031 14 ALA .I P79B01709A00060004d3007-6 F c EXCLUDED FROM. AUTOMATIC REGRADING DOD D I R E C T I V E 5 D0.10 DOES '.v: APPLY Approv Jor Relea 00 1 CIA-RDP791l0 709A00060004000 PROJECTED CORONA SATISFACTION LEVELS FIVE MISSIONS PER YEAR Problem. This analysis addresses the problem of satisfying USIB require- ments for CORONA under the dual handicaps of a launch rate reduction to five per year during fiscal years 1970 and 1971 and the possibility that ultra-thin-base (UTB) film will not become flight-qualified in the CORONA payload. Background. The expected satisfaction levels generated by this analysis are an amalgamation of the results of three separate studies, two performed by CIA/OSP and the third by NRO/SOC. The first CIA/OSP study is an October 1968 computer simulation wherein climatology was applied to each access of the search areas to provide an expected search satisfaction level for any desired number of days on orbit per period without regard to the amount of film available. The second CIA/OSP study is a July 1969 parametric analysis of CORONA history which, under varying conditions of film type and perigee altitude, presents the expected semiannual search satisfaction in terms of the portion of each year's film which is expended against that requirement. The INTRO/SOC study was presented to the DNRO in late May 1969 and is a mission-oriented approach, also based on CORONA history, r. which each of the remaining CORONA payloads was flight-planned under various flight conditions in as real-life a manner as possible. Seasonally adjusted climatology in terms of probability of 90-100 per- cent cloud-free CORONA photography was employed, as was the inter- reaction of the five basic CORONA requirements in their demand for each mission's film. 25X1A ATTACHMENT _ 11 CONT J 2 ved For Release 20'{{, 6(/Q CIA3RDP79B01709A00060,Qp,40097-6,2 $ 63 C.~.1 ~. PAGE 1 OF 7 ...;ES EXCLUDED iAi)M AUfO'1+.11 HEC ADING Approved Faelease 20p6EbG;IYRDP79B0174f0006000400 25X1A Each of the studies provide some measure of expected CORONA performance not available from the other two, yet each generally agree on the semiannual search satisfaction level which can be expected. Thus, the following presents the combined data and shows the trade- offs between the various requirements which are available during a five-mission year. A note of caution is required in interpreting the average semi- annual search satisfaction projections presented here. They are based on as many as nine years of daily weather observations in the Communist countries, but this is no guarantee that a mission launched this November will actually encounter the weather which history says should be expected. The semiannual search satisfactions are expressed in terms of annual averages and the tolerance limits or confidence level attendant to those satisfactions are about plus or minus 7 percent, mainly due to the vagaries of weather. For example, a prediction of 67 percent average semiannual search satisfaction for UTB missions flown at 85-nautical-mile perigees means that some average satisfaction within the range of 60 percent to 74 percent can confidently be expected. Additionally, CORONA history also demonstrates that the monthly satisfaction levels for semiannual search will fluctuate within about plus or minus 15 percent of the average level for that year. Unusual and unpredictable requirements such as those levied against Mission 1051 in May of this year will also significantly affect satisfaction levels projected into the future. Expected Satisfaction. The USIB requirements for CORONA are well established and have been recently reviewed and confirmed. The difficulty of satisfying the five specific CORONA requirements is reviewed in the following paragraphs, being treated in light of the present stage of the 6-year-old CORONA program. They are considered in the order of increasing difficulty to satisfy. 25X1A 25X1A CONirii?~.N-.: Approved For Release 2093 t fDP79B01709A00060Q OOQ ~,r 2 Ey a f', y r 1 2 %CLUDLO i- . MATIC REG RA DING PACE JQC DOH ~f, :'JE _~...;A DOES NOT APPLY Approved For Release-2 00 /Q6/Q4:= -RDP79BO1709A0006000400 a. Mapping, Charting and Geodesy. ;25X1 A Over 75 percent of the coverage requirement for the primary instrument has been satisfied and the remainder is in climato- logically unfavorable areas. MC &G photography will, under any launch rate or altitude condition, be attempted on every occasion that favor- able weather is forecasted, and the small amount of film thus expended will have no appreciable effect on the satisfaction levels of the other CORONA requirements. b. High-Priority Areas for One-Time Search and Surveillance. Film expenditures against the high-priority areas (HPA's) and targets assigned by the ICRS on a mission-by-mission basis have, over the past 2 years, averaged 20 percent of each mission's film. Projections of CORONA satisfaction recently presented to the COMIREX, the DNRO, and the Executive Committee have employed the basic assump- tion that the current intelligence and special search and surveillance needs expressed by each mission's high-priority list will continue to be an important part of CORONA tasking and, thus, in the nominal cases presented, 20 percent of each future mission's film has been reserved for this purpose. A trade-off is available between HPA usage and[the most difficult to satisfy requirement fort semiannual search. If no film were allocated for HPA's and the 20 percent thus"saved" were expended against' the semiannual search areas, an increase of about 5 percent in average semiannual search satisfaction could be expected. This holds true for any combination of UTB/STB films at perigee altitudes from 85 to 100 nautical miles in a five-mission year. An opposite trade-off, that of increasing the emphasis on HPA's to 40 percent of each mission's film, would result in lowering expected semiannual search satisfaction by about 10 percent. ILLEGIB c. Outside-the-Bloc Annual Search. The outside-the-Bloc requirement for 2. 5 million square _ nautical miles of cloud-free photography annually can be met with UTB film at any perigee under consideration and with STB film aboard a 100- 25X1A= nautical-mile mission. ATTACHM _Z' T Approved For Release 2Oi/06/04 . ,Glb-RDP79BO1709A0006QQ04(#007-6_ Y;W 9A0006000400 Approved*dr Release 316+: IA-RDP79B ILLEGIB Bloc if semiannual search coverage is to be protected, and that can only be obtained during the summer mission(s) when in-Bloc clima- tology is poor and relatively few good weather accesses are available in the search areas. one million square nautical miles of cloud-free coverage outside-the A trade-off is available here also in that the outside- the-Bloc coverage can be suppressed in order to provide Lam- increase of about 6 percent in average semiannual search satisfaction. STB film at 85 nautical miles will provide only about d. In-Bloc Annual Search. herein. The extreme measure of completely ignoring the annual search requirement and applying that film to semiannual search would only improve its satisfaction by about 5 or 6 percent. The annual search requirement of 75 percent per year can be satisfied under any film and perigee combination considered e. In-Bloc Semiannual Search. Semiannual search is the CORONA requirement most difficult to satisfy and is also the most sensitive to a reduction in gross ground coverage capability- -this capability is directly influenced by a reduced launch rate, the UTB film question, and perigee altitude. Historically, CORONA satisfaction of this requirement has been in the range between 60 and 70 percent more often than it has been at any level outside that band. The average satisfaction in FY 68 was 64 percent and in FY 69 it was 71 percent. Two months during the past two years saw the 80 percent requirement level met or surpassed and both were directly attributable to the serendipitous Mission 1106 in February 1969. The semiannual search satisfaction which can be expected from a five-mission year will vary with the operational philosophy employed to best satisfy the basic USIB requirements for CORONA and the mission-to-mission guidance which is received. Previous projections were based on the conditions that: 25X1A 25X1A CCNTRO' Approved For Relea ,,ZPQ3 6fO*TCIA-RDP79BO1709AOgQ60 - DD F, EXCLUDED FROM ..RDING PAGE_`r ___._ Or7,__r-.: DOD DIRECTIVL 5