Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
April 27, 2000
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
May 31, 1952
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7.pdf2.37 MB
Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 2, NW is the sr's functional relationship to other areas politically, militarily economically and oul- turollr 3. Oat is the ohmmeter ot inte1Ugenoc from tho point of vim of Ifs on? 4, not is the obarootor ot Ocro nintelli ammo* on tho area? Ant Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 la OW Arial/IP Approved For Release 2007/10/23 : CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Atria= Intelligence 2* Foch oStb.t?.A eseneedo &Mt eu nerd tis$ with the area * funotices3. relationships, with Evrope exceed other area. In the cams of Preis& and Spanish the eloddle-,Artera area are elearl,y important also of a matter:a raters bats on balsas, of less mese from the point of view of Mariam eeurtty interests than. c?'estems turopla* 4t is the J127 accepted theory sonjestiee that* avow 04013.indivithita Wile* re*so atilt* modem& if anaUsta es* csnetries with chose tattoos their pest tratniee and aspartame-have tamillorisel It the grotastag of the countries in the Intelliessee organisttien awez. liesarrepreduess the sore importest :motional re Lt the eenntriee themselves, in terms of present ard projeated divisionsi producing intelligence accordieg to present etandards, these oorudderati-,essweld arta the eentisad asseeption tc the '',41tatara Divialate reepenability for lewAtrieon deperideneiel of the varv4us Etefficleart oteonial powers and for tin Comonetealth countt7 of *rah Africa* 3? 4t is assumed that. denpite the isportonso of both for Amsrlasa seeurity and the cosparatien peneity of Americas taxer. t them, the tntelligence :mission of CCX is still, net essentially Africa than for any other part of the mold, This is to the many Interesting problems which ea area promote* /ions necessarily focus on feta:Ago policy, defense policy; as internal politica and eoonoede affecting the stability a the Country or its teal on Cologonion. ItastAzIest trades am! ofltty ettrategic materials to the United ote rate, bale been the target, at of African intelligmes has for the Afrlese cola:lies is all stability of the area ere and lAist?ifeet trade are eomporatively tea items _ Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23 : CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 25X1 A. ? roved For Release 2007/10/23 : CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 41611?1111?11 MUM, INFONAATION Intelligence =Africa: Appeedix A 2 AFRICA is aria adSd, he Tt is aileyis as ono of is pair- t a varlet; Except by long sea ?wages and by air, It in relatively in- aoceseible to the rest of the world. 3j end large, its papulAtion is far mere primitive thwa that of any other major area, the great nedoritr living Ina pagen tribal soeletysod Ina basically non- monetary seenomr. A third characteristic is the extreme diversity of the populatiom besides 'owe three million people of European steak r.nd some half million Asians, there are about 240 million indigenous Atrial:0 at cultural levels ranging almost from the Stone Age to that of the Europeans. Five'4uropsan languages are widely spdnent ard there are literally buntreds or different native languages and dialects. A fourth dietinguiehing characteristic fellow* natumelil from the proceeding tees the entire wee is under Luropeen colonial rule exoept for Liberia. Ethiopia and Abet migOt be termed the transplanted Furimpant state of South Afrioa Furthermore the area is economically colonielas wallas peliticall,y so. Its oterpriseni its transportetlen facilities and even sone of its egrioulture have groan up in large part to meet the economic needs of the distant metropolitan countries rather then those cd'aninteveted dewlopresst of Africa Itself. 11, 3.4it (a) the area's reletionips with Western Europe are far MOT* r- . . A ; twith ny other ares, X the colmmtil territories the closeness of the tie IMAGO from regtrn to regiem, but in all casee the higher politieel institutions follow European patterns and basic policy is laid down in the Eurepeast capitals. Angola and Mbeashique are in a legal sense overseas provineee of metropolitan Portugal; 35 representatives from the French African tarritori,:s sit in the National amaentay in Paris. on the other hand, various perteof Britiab ftI Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 41:"ITY INFORNAPOW lama autononyi ominionoft, lr ed somberof t AMO closely pa tt cesarti have vari siting territories t external relations S. p,2 South or ted Africa, Ago 104sittains -Isonesalths het with notais owing to tee* and the The UN the part 0011 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved ForRelease2007/10/23 : CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 respective African territ plementing their Own eeonoarle otherwise unobtainable within their directly by means of the colonies' earningsin in Fox. example, in 1930 the area as a whole sold over 0 worth of goods to the United States (in addition to Ame piling purohases) and over 90 percent of this sun contributed to the dollar positions of Britain, France, Belgium and Portugal. Portugalls consistent role as creditor nation in the European Payments Union is due in large part to its African territories' favorable trade balance* with the other EPU members; while sterling, without the earnings of British colonial Africa and the Union of South Africa would be in a much, worse position than it now is. To preserve their awn preferred economic positions in their colonies all four European powers keep a fairly careful eye on the foreign economic relAions of the territories -.- insisting, for example, that e13.United States government aid programa:, be channeled through the metropolitan capitals h other major areas of the verld Africa outh of the Sahara has comparatively few economic relations. Trade with the Soviet orbit is negligible. Oil is supplied to snob of the continent by Western cow. Penies from Persian Gulf sources, but colonial Afrioa's oil require- ments are very small. In the past year or two Japan has been making rapid strides to win back its prewar African markets for cheap con-, umer goods. Bow little all this non-European trade adds up to, however, is evident from a few illustrative figures. Nigeria for example, in 1951 sent about BO percent of its exports to Western Europe, about 14 percent to,the.United Staten, and only 6 percent to all the rest of the world. BezamItque, situated though it is on the Indian Ocean, sent in 3.950 only 0 percent of its exports to Asian countries on the Indian (bean, as against 57 percent going to western Europe, 6 percent to the United States and a residual 29 percent going mainly to nearby African countries, (Nesambique's imports were even more heavily weighted in favor of Western Europe and against the Indian Ocean area.) The Union of SouthAfrioal exporting heavily to neighboring African colonies, nevertheless sent 66 percent of its exports to Western Europe tn 1951 and only about 4 percent to India and the middle East. Afx. 3 of com- ties and in de. =denary took (d) prally, the nant non-indigenous influence throughout the area is tka of Western Europe with the single except on of American influence in Liberia. In each of the colonial territories the language of the metcnolitan power is the medium for all higher education, for government adudnistration above the local level, and for the more im- portant commercial transactions. With a few exceptions, such as the schools maintained by the immigrant Indian commity in British East Africa, all education beyond that provided by the traditional initiatory rites of the native tribe is Western-organized, springing from the initiative either of European and Ame4can missionary enterprise or of the colonial governments themselves. e French territorial governments net Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 PICT Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 SECURITY INFORMATION A. .roved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 IET 8 CA) 0 rralfilek 3440. 0 -0 Ann Portssitosse (14 &Ina* txtilonios Eta bleak Orton* Moils V 30,0 I sh Colonies 0 0 84) Union of 3outh 8 Attica 01 2.1 Prowl & pad* North Af'riest 76 2 and. Approved For Release 2007/10/23 L-1-00090008000VZ?L1-086LdCll-V10 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 AMITY INFORMATION 3 through 30 April 1952. The nine branches of t OOI rag divisions have been WWI as the categoriee for listing re es to other areas, and the two further categories of "United one and "Other African" have been added to record any remaining refer ewes to externs' bodiee other than the United States. It is be? lieved that analysis of the half dozen Ourrent Intelligence Review articles Which have treated Africa south of the %bare would show a similarly Strong ooncentration on Western Europe as the other area of the world most involved; but such 4R analysis would perhaps be less objective than one based primarily an 0O110 intolli nee intake for an arbitrarily selected period Probl c rmw mit one of stead . Clearly, of the area. other re ing is parts of rich in strategic minerals, have never been and the full exploitation even of the already robably Aependent on further investigations of f tropleal diseases and the soeinlogical prob incentives in a primitive tribal society.. Lard utili+ nation questions, food problems, transportation surveys, local ad. ministration studies, race relations in regions of three and even four separate racial communities, and the general problem of the gradual accession of backward and dependent peoples to political responsibility .0- all those are subjects of indirect but real sig. niacin*, for' American security interests. It does not necessarily follow, however, that it is OCIa mission to deal with these questions to any significnti,y greater extent than OOI has in the past. Some are clearly topics for the universities, others for the research organizations of state or other government agencies. The mission of the CUI regional divisions is necessarily of a more summary sort, even on so critical anima as the Soviet orbit, where the detailed research is by commas consent left to ORR Osssrally speaking, intelligence produotion throughout the regional divisions has focused on UTO following main pointes (a) 0overnme.t foreign policy (b) Ooverna,nt defense policy (0) Government economic policy, part (1) the general economic stabi f the ares or United cope for expanding von in terri of the territory Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23 : CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 SECURITY NINIATNIN A and (2) a &nal Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 SECURITY INFORMATION vonsine the oisAls tearonocut woven* shawl great),,y fro OM it is not ties product', on figives the,. Merl. Browses boor to total ion*bum sonteolvolated by the United 3tatoo to t Li W47 eland:tad inforoctiono of uranium* occoial consideretImet time of other CU ?Memo Aeries p* 7 0010 grestkir iziereeksed demand on Attlee3 nacos it is dettood in the vicinity of African atm intensity eerutiny which for the no loos essential cells of VeneseaskA. Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 c.:.1.411111 p? $ SECURITY MOWN I Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 '9141111441c SOWN BWORMATMN A SECRET Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 dttrApipar Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 SECURITY INFORMATION It be noted thst the demands o ded to severance ot erased entonoW rt h Arries, important reeour control* except in e irench Cerceean Algeria* but no other pert of renteed ty the Worth tlantie ":re itAte Wit air basso ttes there, ot runisis* but the ?ranch hese se far er the country. The kay naval tKISO is Prend4 are elosIxbuil4inE 41) Vara ant in ths Mediterranean area, ground troops La the area* ollow the practice of usinc se, 0:L.),Trirt Approved For Release 2007/10/23 :_CIA7RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 a ... Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Vortfl frica,pv, 3 of the back to Cairo tor world is unqueett political aspirations of creasing diatoly stratogie reason, than for its frioa tha general criteria of Xi's main f Appendix A* one finds thet here* as in U fordo,. polity and defense polity ars :uropetn conetitute the largeet s end economic developmenta. Communises in French North Afriea than elseehere on etittdd ttoountered in various ','elet t'Urcp zI ticoun tone or 7an4.test trade* *ad of the of str Uni'ed States and its allies* are almost negligible howl* the tjrong cultural affinity bottom Trench end !,!panish large regions of the Middle Mast ie rafter cot ,ptrallaisel of the tinhars, It oomplicates the int-Oat:met Problem in For on thing* thiesuitural band Amcourtges and strenkthene mallet agitation agAinet the French...controlled governumats and mast therefore be taken fullr into account in any ostimts * stability, The limitations or the ?zelem faith in in-- Leal orientation are* however, strongly suggested ty Awivit Union of large regions whore the population is uoslen as In French and ipanish NOrth tfrict, ch this .kralo cultural tie complicates the intelligenoe in influencing independent Moslem states to adopt ranee and its allies, For excawle* the rodent move on before the UN tecurity ;;ouncil dhplomtt!,t by fuming it to choose_.ounlielybettsten gonizing the Moslem states; and evaluations of ease, both in the Verlem states und elsewhere in the world, aosordingly bocwe significant currant intelligence, (Tao situa- tion was ineidentally responsible for a large proportion of the items on North Africa enumerated lathe table between pp, 4 and 5 of Appendix A an in the Current Intelligence est between I January mid 30 Vril 4r reoponoible she for the faat that over two...andsothalf time* as mantv reference* were noted to tonstemlntspwAs countries Al to those in Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 A problem on Pio ettitudee unfrion to bring the mmbarresse4 the Unit antagonising Prance national rogations to 41rett Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Pahtilif INFMATIOP North ,friesj ;4 4 the Eastern, Utditerranten and Indian Ocean orate) n th,I.a septet of North -frioan intelligence productiessa however, there would be no significant advantage in havinr North :,friou and tht 1:osleg. states in the sane intelli? renot arts, sin** thy restliona of Lestern %Urossan stat4s to -:unitian and moreetandevel? art just aa Important considerations For 4terican forairn polity. In the l'irticular Tunisian case referred to, it sat evident:lr ?ranee's rtestion which was deadest. ln general, it ia eafest to stemma that the no,nre of the Mnited Aatte se=rity Interest in an arta neseseargy conditiow I t nature of uCIIs intelligence interest. A the present timo the primary 7nited ::tutts ateurity intertst An this arts is the NATO and other '-sotorn 1LLrboots there; corx3apoitrg1, Xi's interest in the area must focus iiij on the factors likely to make these bates available or ones's-I1e:1*. These factors are admittedly everting sorts and strengths. Popular nationalist feeling is ones tnd it uould certain seem to be ci responsibility to wateh far aAr indieltiona that it *y be approaching the point whore, as in 7ypt now, it ccall rAse tho question of whether -:;satera military 14-1WC7 ZVVO still. four operable. the present and immediate future* botewor. It la altar that the main ttaLmr &fretting the availability or French North -Yrict,albbas, is to he rowevi in tioesrommatal offices in ?aria a feetor which CIcannot hrndle alth xaximun L'fattivenees if it is separated from other French policy conaiderations. l'iowever strong tile nortm African area's cultural relations vitk Arab etltees therefore, whatever its future political 4evolopment .Allt be, for the prectleal preblessofeurrent Intelligente the drat 47,t7,1 !v4r; rrl-r,4nrily 4 .atern :law,zan =Ai:dna 4iddie ::actern coAtext. a Thet enumeration ran not mAthematisally exact* since tG 1 psrdent checkers of the 9orth ,frinun items got slightly varying results. theogh not differing as to the gener4 proportions involved. , Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 25X1 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800050001-7