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Document Creation Date: 
December 9, 2016
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May 29, 2001
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September 1, 1953
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Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800070004-2 .? SECIJRITY INFCRr ATI(?"u Favorable and Unfavorable References to the United States in Non-Communist Broadcasts 1 March -1 September 1953 Summary As nearly as can be determined from the inadequate and haphazard sample of opinion available in the FBIS Daily Reports, the subject which evoked by far the greatest approbation of the United States in non-Communist broad- casts during the past six months was President Eisenhower, particularly in respect to his address of 16 April; and that which evoked by far the strongest condemnation was Senator McCarthy and his activities. Other topics fre- quently mentioned, with references about equally divided between approval and disapproval, were Secretary Dulles, statements, especially in connection with his tour with Mr. Stassen, and the general topic of U.S. aid or Hinter- vention't abroad, The following chart and table illustrate the distribution of references from all countries combined, and comment from 17 individual countries is subsequently described. Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800070004-2 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79BO1737A000800070004-2 Favorable and Unfavorable References to the United States in Non communist Broadcasts 1 March -1 September 1953 TOTAL ALL COUNTRIES Eisenhower Statements, especially 16 April speech U.S.Aid or Interven- tion abroad Dulles Statements, especially tour with Stassen Food Offer to East Germany Rosenberg Case Senator McCarthy and Committee Activities Taf t t s "Go-it-alone" speech US~r Tariffs and Trade Policies Favorable Unfavorable S.rongg Mild Mild Strong Eisenhower Statements, especially 16 April speech 86 51 22 13 U. S. Aid or Intervention abroad 28 33 45 29 Dulles Statements, especially tour with Stassen 12 38 31 32 Food Offer to East Germany 3 2 4 0 Rosenberg Case 0 3 21 2 Senator McCarthy and Committee Activities 3 6 67 100 Taftts "Go-it-alone" speech 0 0 4 10 U.S. Tariffs and Trade Policies 0 0 11 7 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79BO1737A000800070004-2 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79BO1737A000800070004-2 SECRET'S' SECURITY INFORMATION Favorable and Unfavorable References to the United States in Non-Communist Broadcasts 1 March- 1 September 1953 1. the Sample Broadcast references to the United States reviewed were confined to those published in the FBIS Daily Report from March through August 1953, a sample too small and too haphazard to lend the results any precision as a chrono- graphy of U.S. prestige abroad. The sample is somewhat weighted, by the editorial criteria for publication, in favor of adverse. comment, and heavily weighted in favor of comment on current events as opposed to considered re- views of U.S. policy and actions. It may be noted that most of the material is not original radio comment, but press opinion disseminated by radio. It is not possible to chart any chronological trends on the basis of this material, but the generalizations contained in the Summary and in the fol- lowing discussion of individual countries are considered valid. 2. Great Britain Press reviews of the leading British newspapers and journals of opinion, as broadcast by the BBC, tend to show certain continuing sensitive points in the British attitude toward the United States. Senator McCarthy-his methods, activities and public statements-evoke the strongest condemnation. Anglo-American policy differences in regard to the Far East, especially the question of Communist China and its admission to the United Nations, rank next to the Wisconsin Senator as a source of British irritation toward things American. Thus, Senator Knowlandts suggestion that the United States withdraw from the United Nations if the Peking regime is admitted evoked much adverse press comment. President Eisenhower, on the other hand, was widely acclaimed for his 16 April speech to the American Society of Newspaper Editors in which he detailed a series of specific actions the Soviet Government could take to prove its peaceful intentions. From time to time, all segments of the British press show considerable concern about U.S. tariff and trade policies. 3. France The Paris radio broadcasts as a matter of policy extensive press reviews representing all shades of French political opinion. The Rosenberg case seems to have agitated French editorial opinion more than any other single American subject; the non-Communist Parisian and provincial press opposed their execution by a ratio of three to one, President Eisenhower's 16 April address was well received in France, judging from the warm approval expressed by French radio commentators and in radio press reviews. Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79BO1737A000800070004-2 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800070004-2 rSECURITY INFORMATION 4. Italy Monitored press reviews broadcast by Rome radio indicate that American actions which have some direct bearing upon Italy are most likely to affect Italian press attitudes toward the United States. A case in point is the annoyance of the press over the Yugoslav Military Mission's visit to Washington, Alleged U.S, "interference" in the Italian elec- tion campaign also caused some mild. reaction in non-Communist newspapers, President Eisenhower's 16 April speech received much favorable comment. 5. West Germany President Eisenhower's offer of food to the East German population was widely approved by West German radio commentators and press. The Social- ist press, however, expressed suspicion that the forthcoming Bundestag elections were a factor in the offer. The President's l6April speech was widely reported by the West German regional radios and received warm acclaim, Radio and press reaction to Senator McCarthy has been frequent, the bulk of it extremely unfavorable to the Senator. A speech by the late Senator Taft delivered in Ohio on 26 May advocating a possible "go- it-alone" policy for the United States drew some criticism by radio com- mentators who saw in it a recrudescence of American isolationism. The West German press seems to have divided along straight party lines in regard to the'U,S, invitation to Adenauer, the Socialists finding little that was good in the visit, 6. Spain The Madrid radio shows a certain ambivalence in its attitude toward the United States. Spanish radio commentators usually approve in a general way the avowed U.S. policy of discouraging Communist expansion, but often find much to criticize in the concrete application of that policy. They are especially fond of delving into history to point out what they consider past U.S. mistakes in dealing with Communists. U,S.-USSR collaboration in World War II is frequently assailed, American willingness to sign a Korean truce was interpreted as weakness toward Communism; Syngman Rhee's resolute stand was strongly approved. The execution of the Rosenbergs was widely applauded by the press and radio and seems to have enhanced the prestige of American justice in Spanish eyes. 7. eden Stockholm radio comment on American affairs is found principally in radio reviews of the Swedish press, From time to time, the press has taken issue with the U.S. stand concerning admission of Communist China to the United Nations. There has also been a certain amount of oblique criticism of the American position on East-West trade. Senator McCarthy has been the object of much unfavorable comment in the Swedish newspapers, especially as a result of Mr. Matthews'-remarks in dune concerning alleged Communist influence among the U.S, Protestant clergy, SECRET Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800070004-2 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800070004-2 8. Greece Athens radio commentaries and radio-disseminated newspaper editorials and press reviews are usually very pro-American. U.S. economic and military aid rendered to Greece are the most frequent subject of favorable comment. There is occasional adverse criticism of some particular phase of American policy. 9. Aus 'a In the Austrian press excerpts available Senator McCarthy stands out as the one American who consistently evokes strong reactions. While the Senator is not without his Austrian defenders, the overwhelming majority of the comment is highly unfavorable to him. American economic aid, while occasionally praised by some newspapers and radio commentators, is often bitterly assailed by others, especially the Socialist press. The latter sees in such aid a positive hindrance for developing an independent Austrian economy. There are frequent petulant outbursts against the con- tinued military occupation of the country and the lack of a treaty. While most of this annoyance is directed at the Soviet Union, the three Western occupying Powers. get some share of the blame. There is no evidence in the sample that the current Soviet "peace offensive" in regard to Austria has had any effect, good or bad, on.Austrian attitudes toward the United States. 10, Ecypt The Cairo radio has long reflected the customary antipathy of the Arab States toward the United States as a result of American support for the State of Israel. On the basis of monitored material, it is not possible to determine if this antipathy has increased or lessened since 1 March 1953. The Middle East tour of Secretary Dulles and Mr. Stassen occasioned considerably more adverse criticism than favorable comment, judging from Egyptian radio commentaries and press reviews. Some Egyptian commentators, on the other hand, see in the United States a possible intermediary for reaching an eventual understanding with the British in the Suez dispute. 11. Turkey The Turkish radio reflects the friendly attitude of the Turkish Government toward the United States. Unlike Cairo, the Ankara radio warmly welcomed the Dulles-Stassen Middle East tour. The U.S. conduct of the Korean war, the armistice negotiations, and the subsequent truce were well supported by the Turkish press and radio. The 16 April speech of President Eisen- hower also drew much favorable comment. 12. dia Much of the Indian antagonism toward the United States, as expressed in radio commentaries and press reviews, stems from the basic Indian disagree- ment with American Far Eastern policy. There has been sharp criticism of U.S. conduct of the Korean war, especially American backing of Syngman Rhee. The U.S. refusal to recognize the Peking Government, continued American VCSnr.T Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79B01737A000800070004-2 r- 7T Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79BO1737A000800070004-2 support for Chiang Kai-shek, and above all the adamant U.S. stand against admission of Communist China to the United Nations provide unending sub- ject matter for Indian editorial writers. Indian press and radio opinion particularly resents the U.S. failure to approve Nehru's "middle course" policy. 13. Japan and the Philippines Incidental references to the United States encountered in reportorial items from Tokyo and Manila show nothing that can be considered praise or blame concretely and deliberately expressed as valid indigenous opinion. The Japanese press does show varying degrees of sensitivity toward the United States in regard to such matters as U.S. bases in Japan, the former Military Occupation, and some of the provisions of the treaties with the United States. In the Philippines, the main cause for concern has been whether the United States will continue its aid and whether there will be a revision of the Bell Trade Act of 1916. These points are becoming issues in the current political campaign. 11. In, o ze6ia Jakarta radio commentaries indicate that the Indonesians strongly resented the American refusal to back the Indonesian proposal for a rubber "buffer pool" and stabilized prices at the International Study Group Conference in Copenhagen in May. There have also, been unfavorable references to alleged U.S. support of the Chinese Nationalist guerrilla forces in Burma. On a few occasions the Jakarta radio has hinted that Indonesian security is her own business and not that of the United States. 15. Argentina, Brazil, Chile Although the sample from Latin America is comparatively small, certain factors affecting attitudes toward the United States are discernible, Buenos Aires radio commentators and press frequently inveigh against U.S. "imperialism" and American foreign policy in general. Argentine opinion expressed.in broadcasts is particularly irritated by the American press handling of Argentine news. Brazilian press and radio comment unfavorable to the United States is generally less vehement than Argentine. One frequent Brazilian complaint is the small amount of American aid devoted to Latin America compared with other areas of the world. However, Dr. Milton Eisenhower's visit was generally well received by both Brazil and Argentina. Judging from Santiago radio commentary and press reviews, Chile's un- satisfactory negotiations with the United States concerning the price of copper is an outstanding factor contributing to ill will. k.9 Approved For Release 2007/10/23: CIA-RDP79BO1737A000800070004-2