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December 9, 2016
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October 26, 1998
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September 1, 1955
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Approved For Release 2001/08/14: CIA-RDP79R0089OA000800010014-3 BEST COPY AVAILABLE Approved For Release 2001/08/14: CIA-RDP79R0089OA000800010014-3 Approved For Release 2001108/1 Septem'~?er 1955 SOVIET INTaRF.STS IN ANTARCTICA sq.-mi. Antarctic continent, perfian-ently ice-covered,,, barren and hostile, has been an area of limited inter =3t to the world sE' `a pourers since its discovery in 012 =ej tior to t1 ' genera. lack of interest include explorers, some scientists (particularly geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists and oceanographers), and the maritime nations ( notably ) wh ^se whaling fleets have cruised the' forbidding Antarctic coast regularly since ( in 1955, . factory ships and catchers, "' flyring the flags of _... nations, "harvested te~e~rf?Iwhale in Antarctic waters). A. Other exceptions to this lack of interest, whose motivations range from national pride, through geographic propincl'iity, to hard-handed geopolitics, include 1!rr CO"N005 Of ;. Arkentina and Chile - - (insert motivation) 2. Australia and New Zealand - - (L-sert motivation) and France '3. The U! - - (insert rsotivatior.) and; 4. The US and the USSR. 73. Sovlet activity in the Antarcti: dates from. . and has included the foil owitig'. e4tOwq.e 1. Historically, Russian interest in the area stems from the _>e LVOmt I LL$CjjMJSVeM? f iJ'i* 2!) As T. o~itl~er'ay~ exp-ora ory voyages eri od m#ieh put Rusivia;; place'rnames on the AntarctLc map. 2,~q~8~gd Fa~~'a.~rR~ii'iQ@U~6??1~Q2~43~1 n;,-. retica did not begin until last winter (the Antarctic "swarmer"). ovlet ti?es~,-ele departed to the frozen continent 355 ICA-R?P79R00890A000800011-0014-3 ar oval of the 4K '-,tafo z. '!is last a tt: ? ae s ~ : on 18 March 1 , the USSR had de it ientific and support, personnel, 4 hircraf t (ranging from ,._ to ..... , ) and ovisions, housing equipment and fuel. A. IGpermanent 1 aaee were established, at 1V ESA f_ 4"' 41442A I ta? f4UslsM?s i*404awe int ? DiANN - #4uif O~VA.Nvt.AAWfirs -MA ' pje? si(Ay ). :1 amot f _ _____ 1 When the last of the Soviet ships left Mj'egy/ scientists, technicians and aides remained behind, to "winter over" until the arrival of the next supply expedition'C due in 1957). B. A description of these permanent bases gives some meafrare of the USSR's wholehearted support of this Antarctic er ort. 1. ltirnyy ( -tv ! - the main base - - is toasted at (see map). It can accomodate 100. There are barracks, three laboratories, five scientific as of the U^SR's six Antarctic aircraft are located there; as are of the 40 vehicle-s.? Tte winter co plement numbers oiaagnttic Station during the 1957-1959 Tnternatianal G:iophysic= l Year'MY) - - located at . It can accomodate' . There are barracks, . laboratories and scientific e. ' lrp ifu ttOsd lH : C A_FR~A WbRWOW 16014-3 vehicles and of its planes are touted there. Approved For Release 2OO11 t/f43 CIa:RD-P79R0089OA000800010014-3 ?. T iener"skay"a ("Pioneer"), an interior base, is located , at an altitude of 9,000 ft. (map). It was established by a combination of air-lift sledge-train and can accomodate, - . Its buildings include and its winter, complement numbers It boasts a ft. airstrip. With the establishment of Pionerskaya, the USSR is able to claim the first interior scientific station in the history of the Antarctic. its Imo. Frcrn/i t arrival An January 1956 to the presant, the Soviet Antarctic expedition has accomplished the following works A. Air mapping: A. Marine chartings C. Ground reconnaissance and mapping: D. Geophysics (including S. Oceanography: F. Meteorology: -TT TA o i6 ?'a ~ lS ~, fr wk, T Ulf"r , X rt -E /Pep in; :; ? '_ oar- t t 4 1r m. miles on.the ground, cruised miles of 'seacoast and put Russian names to Antarctic terrain features (%a mw ,fir tici,B 8/1.4 CIA-RDP79R 90A000800# the Soviet scientists also held four Approved For Release 2001/08/44 : CIA-RDP-79R00890A000800010014-3 cerem6nial flag-raisings, and depoeitid duplicate records in flag-marked cairns at two other points (map). B. As a footnote to this, Chairman of the Soviet Academy of Science' a 'Council on Antarctic Research", in march 1956,. made it a point to emphasise: 1. Initial Rust" discovery of Antarctica] 2. A ntarctica's importance "in a strategic aspect"; 3. Soviet "rejec4.ion" of the so-called "Sector" principle of various national claim. to Antarctic territory; and 4. Soviet insistence on & -voice in arty international division the of/Antarcttc.k It *' it is noteworthy that all the Soviet activity here detailed has taken place before the official star$ of the International 7 Geophysical Tear. (1957-58). During the ICY, the USSR plans. even more ambitious undertakings. 7 and perhaps seven 2 ? A. Six/permanent stations will be established (v. 3 in 1956); B. Fifty or sixty "mobile" stations will be set up (v. 4 in .1956); C. On-th.?-ground reconnaissance Is envisioned, tram coast to Pole, along a 1,000-mile etrpteh of coastline (from 70 to 105E; see map). insert D.) B. Finally, same Soviet scientific detachments will remain in Antatrotica even after the close of the Geophysical ' ewf oeq research in , . of studies outside the scope of the IGi progrm) envision D. The scientific proVsn (which, even in 1956, embraced a number .: activities which no other IGT participant in Antarctica will pursue. the question of nabtivation arises. Approved For Release 2001/08/14: CtA-RDP79R0(0890A000800010014-3a. ph-#, - f t e Iay pror ati and iat l,: 4 ~c w4'taling f :Srit C)f* , le3 J ? 3i7$18ia I new add! tidnal...wl:ale tk(~ re4:,rt states 1 nd..v~}? ti?.. gayer w. ;.:i:. nc .wu ..rt v a_. ? 5 c f^a ?.,~+a'. s T eC-AWMAW q 5t t vs - Ss14F 1 . lz4lk rAW u . n 1r X'T 1'^cs:"3( ,..~ Cirf ,C19 ;i ft~+#Fi1S2"r {: N rthc r! nea ,-titP during aran ial t.:.r ?a. f r1 s'v ; r .1 . 46 f,:)ll.ows. At n; A:.cnta desp t.e a ri:;md:er of national claims to "; ^crd mot : ,:a~.;ar ccribtne e ortont-c and ge ,o1itlpal oon idrat". Antarctic territory (w ,ch ;the USSR oppose $ princix.ik) , no Rats: ac t:.._,ll y has tsx era' ? eon ~_r?~^_t ic'n s nri ?. r a Zo.-d chance rrf knowing chat ,, 1i the ft. tce-hover if, * a T us, ar`y lA n,; the TJSSR may in ar. eventual partit .or Antarctic a among the pcwerr,, am likely to be based .on kiaowl edge z .at hei' than speculation. "':ier a are Bother fringe benef' t m which the T1 R will derive from its e F.ay9.icns Know-how on cold weather op,!rations, testing of high-latIt,:i - . r 1 r g and na-dgetioj techniques., and the like. All of those w?1. r of Y :I.r omp>>z i - . f;ac~lttf.Y surveying by its 'GT e ^ 1? . E wane ane that the - o-vie i s have any idea of w}iat it, might pcpsea - in the way,.. of ~ rlr~ o f econorn. ;ale was Approved For Release 2001/08/14: CIA-RDP79R0089OA000800010014-3 7Yhe TJTO-Sr . htia\rl Approved For Releptse 2001/08/14: CIA-RDP79R00890A0008,00010014-3 < -I ;lei f: ~ #':. .?a.. ' [7 '.1.i 5..., S.. .. .. ffort _ :r, excasa of th t.'rsy red.1~ the glac:o c~;y e,.IGY j has applicability ot,skdie or guided missile operations would, of course, give the USSR oviet Arctic'. 'these f .ind iriis'', are', l ke ientists with refinemients 20 Appiioability of such refined data to, the pr+oblern,of long-range substantial advantage in thi.a field, of warfare. Approved For Release 2001/08/14: CIA-RDP79R0089OA000800010014-3