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May 26, 1966
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Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 443 Riverside Drive !.Y., x. Y. 10027 9-6 may 66 Dear Sherman j I am enclosing tree items ! I. The abridged version of the article on Vietnn, as published in took. The much fuller version of the article on Vietnsm (which ran considerably, beyond the nueiber of words that the editors set for me, when they ordered the article written), in. An article an the laud problem in Latin America and its bearings on the development of Communist revolutions in that region. I. I wonder whether ym would be willing to go through the printed article again? (a) In this article I suggested a method alina t with peasant land-hunger (by issuing official certificates in the very region where the Buddhists are strongest? in of the local population ff; and certainly it is in this region that the Buddhists have been most agressive.. These certificates might do a good deal to reconcile the Buddhist peasants to the Saigon Government -- but they (the certificates would have little or no effect unless the government were demon- strating its good faith by pushing rapidly a wide and deep land reform in other areas of the country where ample arable loud is : cutely available for distribution. (B So far as I know, the latest more-or-less detailed praise of land reform by des government was made , my article was already on the press; I managed to insert an evaluation of this government statement (a very unpromising wie) into the final page proof. The press reports on the Honolulu Conference (President Johneon, Mr. ,, etc. etc.) mentioned lid reform once or twice, but certainly gave it no special e sis. The same is true of the accounts that I have seen of "the rural pacit~tion plan" one report that I saw provided a "table of organization' for each pacifica- tion team; each team is to have one member (out of those dozen or so) who will devote himself to eagriculture8 -- but that term Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 vague that it may not cover lend reforul at an. my ion, from such scrappy press reports as I have, is no reform is moving only very slowly, if at W U -- required a grreeat deal of the gave mat's attention. It % The published article foresaw a grave danger that the gon 0overnment would lose the first genera, election and co late f irn?s unlese the Saigon Oov zament put into effect a wide and d land reform before the election. Yet that goverrnseema tom#~ on to _ ~.. Peasant votes - - - --. by 'l.r_ _e-~lsat~ land aye. II. The VMd text of the Vietnam article, before cutting, *avers in more detairn the printed text a gt many subjects t h a t got into IOW's. p r i n t ; also the t y p e d text deals with some woad a great favor if you would read the kzd text. I Should think Gardner Cowls would give permission for the repro- duction of the full typed text if it were marked "Per Official Use Only. " (This Is Just in ease you should want it reproduced. } Ill. The second t d arttole entitled "Agrarian Worm or Communist Revolution, -bas been, published; I intend to revise it to some extent, aspeciai,y by expWing the treatment of Santo Domingo and by mentioning that country's land problem very near the beginnin of the piece. I have no objection to Use Only, "if you so desire This second typed article d very= largely with tin America., but it gives more c uesti; in all, or nearly all backwa..rd countries -- and perhaps as the major question in a Urge majority of such countries. I should be very glad to *me dovu later for discussions of both the Vietnam paper and the Latin American,. paper, If you feel that this might be useful to you and to some of your colleagues. W ithout any question,, such a discussion would be useful to Faithfully yours, /e/ Amy Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 Tht3 Memo vex written in very grebt baste r because of the pressure of many other things that Idt13t be done before I go. Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 Approved For Release 2005/11/29: CIA-RDP79R00904A00196('16d-7 _:! L C -C ' % ice; /l/~L c - ~ i Ceroid P. 44D River 0 New York 2; A N.1,% J 'av a a .. . 14' JJ #. .11 S T P,, - 13 0 S7 ------------------------------------- 0 'J .. V I E. '.. IT I .i ----------------- tai icy-. mJ Meao :.res i;i33t i;V,ht have r?n for gJFSt it. a riy u.1t Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 By Garold Tanquary Robinson Approved For Fie ease 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AAO01300010020-7 a:Ze Communists are pa:. t rrasters of the strand ztrategy of revolution - their kind of revolution; and vwi ;h .ec :' orosight, they have z elected the under-developed countries as their chief target for years to come. The Co:~mue;yctu count on ctimulatina agrarian revolts that will smash up :e economic, social and political structure of these under- developed countries, one after another, and will enable the Communists to climb to power on the ruins. There is one form of non-violent Counter -: trater;l that ives good -promise of preventing this kind of revolution f c d:velopinv - if the Counter-strategy here proposed is nut into effect with speed and thoroughness, in a given country, well before agrarian violence breaks out on any considerable scale. If this precious opportunity is missed, and a Ce munist-led agrarian revolt, supported in part from abroad, sews into .all swing in a given country the is now the case j South Vietnam), this revolution cannot be checked without the use of armed force - but a vigorous application, at the time, of the non-violent str3GC-'ry"y ~ ~y proposed below could be counted on to reduce substantially the cost, in dead and wounded, of turning back the Communist advance. In South Vietnam the revolutionary crisis has semis t,c ? "er twenty years and is now in its period of maximum intensit~r, -a Russia, and subccquei.tly in China, the Communists could not have come to pot cr the h lp of season's la,d-hunt y.:~r z:W.d a massive peasant drive for the possession of the land. v= e ? r Y dtstSr& e!Mnda enta principles of4Communi t2 strategy Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 1 to promise the land o the peawanto; but neIt er in Rues; :, nor China, nor South Vietnam nor any other under-developed country do the peasants know in advance that when the Communict.: have established their co:.trol this promise is broken. Between teem 18- and ~9 1383, China's ancient and rather s adowy overlordship, in the area now called Vietnam (_.orth and South), was replaced by a more effective control by France. En the rich alluvial plain of the lower I.11ekon3 River, in South Vietnam, great reclamation projects wore carried out ur. er French direction, the amount of cultivated lad in the rice plain was increased Wore than five times over in oeventy years, and this river basin became one of the great ri:.Te- e :,porting regions of the world. Throughout the remainder of South Vietnam; most land-holdings were 5-10 hectares in eize,: b,-,t in the great 1ekon plain, the large holdings of n.,.-_J-iv,:, French landlord: predominated. .:ere 'lapproximatel:r 2.5 cent of the owners, w th more than fifty hest; rez dish, possessed roughly one half of the cultivated land." At the other end of the scale, 70 per cent of all the ow nerz : this southern pit than five hectares each, while Vwo- t :irds of the peasant fa hies in this region owned no land at.' all, but cultivated rented plots, or worked in the -fields of others as hired laborers. When the landowners prov_dcd the land and nothing more, "the rentals were as heavy as any to be found in Asia - ,t3 ~? nor cent of the crop,;' and alr:.ost t .o tenants and landlecz laborers were deeply and perennially in ' Yed D~J Oa?J4Aon the O ti3a!01 OO2O Corr -unisto Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904 P01300010020-7 found ready for hem in the riche -t sec :ion of South iet.n In 19:;O, several Communist rows were combined to form the inuochinese Communist Party. This merger was arrange;: _ the Comintern rcproscrtat .ve in Southeast Asia., later to well onouch known c '_o Chi Iiirh. :harinC World 11ar Ii nd the Japanese Occu:a;;ion of Vietnam, the Co aunist '~.eaders formed a sort of "national front" O he Via'(.- : irth) c:es ~ ned to draw people of many different political opinions into a united movement for liberation from Franco. r:, as in m,-,ny "fronts in other countries, the Communists played the leading role, S but their Party always pr e: er veA its own identity w: i %,hin :ch conglomerate groups. Shortly of ter the Japanese surrc:nder in :a ,5, Ho Chi Minh and his supporters announced (in = ~re+i, mar the Chinese frontier; ;;he formation of the "Democratic lepubl~c of Vietnam., " with 11irh at its head; but the French ; een in Via.Pl/ed attempts 1Pta 7 1to r-a., ~~Jlish their control in li: ~narz, K~w..wt presently there developed a so-called "People's of Liberation" which cragged on for nearly eight bitter -,ad bleddy years. To secure wider suppvt:.? against the Frcneh, the "::emocratie R.,public of Vietnam" dleavowed its Communist character, but after the Communist Chinese reached the Vietnamese border late in 1949, and C1inese military supplies f or the Viet Minh arm my began to roll into Vietnam, the government Eanoi publicly affirmed the leaders mip of the Communist Party, now called the "Vietna A. :.o~~tiera' Party"; and Communi .: this government has remained .:vcr since. Approve government at Hanoi. the French set un at Snicon Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 in 1949, an independent n^i' 4. 0.0 U I.Ctn: '; but not until Vietnam via-- n.'"ovitalionally cut in half by the co-- r1 }?-'- c t~ y 21, 19 at .,, `-`... t.,iaE,'nt of Lu154., C.ia the 9 uovern: ten t o ie Saig M' s to ' o;. ,~..... build, tin any real tat3f;_.o~^lty _ and then only in the sout;hcr: half of the country, of source. I the r:^antolme the rural areas of South Vietnam were Governed only no :inulIy, or not at all, by the Covern1 ent i... ^ai on. ,ar,d.-hu A-zer, anti-colonIz.lism, and the disintegration of author ty raiCht well have been enough to stir many of the reaoc nt of South Vietnam to action a.-rain,-Mu- the landlords, but Corm--un1er?.,, strongest in North Vietnam., had its missionaries and its Iceal adherents in the south also, and these Zealots told t,e easants they would get all the landlords' land for nothin , and did all that they could to bring on a general f ry~ ,~cr ~.,~ r Az a re;,ult of all this, rents were very rarely St t i~t ar??`y,C' rj y paidA the old ? ,ecorc's of landholdin^s were burned in many villages, so/yv~yye o of V l/if the landlords were killed ::.Nile many fled in a panic to the t-o,, ns, and ouch of the landlords' acreage was occup ec by t e pea ants, sometimes with the confirmation of docu o: is is` L ed by the Corr.r * The United State.; had riven substantial finai.cial aid to the r nch military aot vities in Vietnam, but t hen the forces of the Co., unis' government at I-'anoi captur eed the ma f or .drench position at Dien -fen Phu a cease-fire agrecr. z n`.; soon. followed (at the Geneva Conference, July 21, 1954), i for the provisional par titi.on of Vietnam at the Ccventc::.>nt.a ::)uxroehQy R!VGW9ci15Po'7e0au10t~30hiCh Civilian: Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 could rove freely between the two zor ess. All the e bcre of the Geneva Conference cxccn;; the United States and Viotnam a;;recd to a provision for a uen oral election to be Id throughout: "north z:_nd South Vietnam in July l95u, on t -y ,..:o, Lion of uniting the two halves of the countr,; . In, rospce tt to the proposed election, the United St tes made a rrtoacntous independent statement to which we shall return at the c_n.d.of this article. The Government of South Vietnam simply refused to reco;njze the partition of the country. Under the Pre::icrahip, and su secruently the Prccie eney, of N o Dinh Diem, the Sovern :ert of South Vietnam A-'-,-cod by m any contending forces uit:rin the country. Amon- the actors favorable to t_he Diem Government was the major increa of American economic aid, and the assumption by the United `ta Ues of the training and the main ;enance cost of the South Vietnamesc aj q. The Diem Government mot with acute d_ .fficult1 u tab3.iw ~ing its authority over the countryside and in sore " lions it never succeeded in doing this. Very consci. uz of this dangerous sit,OM tion, Diem's Government initiated t,ao agrarian prove' s: Under one of these proMrams the 1 ~ , overnrr.:ent resettled more than 125,000 peasants (_any of then drawn fro. the narrow and overcrowded coastal plain of central Vie;;nam) i new Communities ectablishcci on uninhabited ane sl , c iefly o the high central plateau o:.- is the nz r _z ~hcs of the south. The other and much r.o_ze imporvant pro-ram was c.%-.1)-,died in tApprov'OdPoreRAR'asPe'200'11-I'I/214 ctlR-Xtepft 1 04 U0~4 D1~b (t7 s rpl Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R0090W01300010020-7 reduced 4 :e prcvailin;; rents, anc prove ed a ;i lted :: _: Ya~? (of 1956 956) on the ~, f_ .?.`- c of Ver~uy 'e; and Crci so No. :._ .._ ~ai.. 57 (or ~~s of additional land amoa t I.,,e peasants. Ordinanc : 57 pi'ovll'. d :?.at no native landlord could continue to own more t ian about 100 hectares (plus 15 hectares of in eritcd land to support , .~ expenses of ancestor worship): the surplus was to be .:, rchascd by the gover .mor.t (at a modest figure, in ear h and _, bo ds ), and resold to peasant to :arts (at a very ,o:: pric. c.:,_v ded into six annual payi ents, but later spread over ttiaice a: on period). sf to the tsurp1ua !ands of the ?:Letnamese, the overn-m-ent acquired t ho entire hold1n of ; reach 1;,~. ~ ~ncr:s, who were Indemnified at a very low I'i;ure by the French governn:nt. Accordir: to the latest sou. ce available (is ucd in Au;ust, 1964), the distribution of the surplus land of the Vietnamese landlords had not yet be n :orpleted, and no final decision had yet been made as to the disposition of the far?=:~:r French however, If the pattern previously followed under Ordinance 57 were applied to -11 these lands, a rand total of leas than one third of the country's la* ter .n to would beco o peasant proprietors, and about two thirds of Who tenants would still own no/land. Likewise, an unknown nu cr of landless farm laborers would still possess no land of their own. :ror some time two~ r0 %0 sirmirrr of the Geneva a. ,.d the rise of Ngo Dl:L: epic w to power, the author ;:; of the overnment atR~Saigon sLc:,; Ctpo_Rbpe 7sprcacinZ throu h the country- CA ;r ~? 1rt"1ep 1 o ~t 5/ j/ i1r t~i?i~ PY1 ver90su e 00 A0 n ri z ins Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 of Y' y -nz-r Lns-cr control x:iou:O ic....r.~...., .. ~..~' i'C,'_.-d07s for partial cuccess oft 2 SaI on Coverrment in sprcad r.- its authority may have been: the exceptional energy and abisit . of its leader; the very : L: tantiGl aid p ovi(: d uy he Urlt: i States; the homeward ta,- ration to I~ orth Vietnam of L'aa of t ;e :?cvolutionist c;ho had entered South Vietnam in the ho' o " un .szjn the cou' t`-y t. t -:~ j and ere no do- - follow;: d of r t it:~.~~ of the converte t _cy had made south of the 17th para.l:~e? ; migration in the opposite direction of nearly 9C3,7000 : onz (chiefly Catholics) from Dorth Vietnam who did not ,nt to lyve under the Red Flag; t:-.e colonization of Luz; rehab iced - - s, and the great devastation r.nd war- weariness of orth >na: , which had bowie the chief b1urden of e?.cfca;;i ~ the reach, an needed to recuperate before re ewin its t- --c ; is arry the Con nn:uniat revolution beyond its proviaio_-a v:~or~a frontier. Diera's rarian ref cru pertaining; to rent reduction, eurity of tenure and : :n d. partition is not i :cludcd i the is Just given, for the reason that these measures ::_~ ;' well have created the villacers of South Vietnam nor; anti enjc ; an suppor, for the Saigon Gover :.. int. For a very ? t F,~_ :: villc ~ rs had nurse;' the grievances cog + on to land-i_un~ r y ,ea ants wherever thee,. give in the neighborrood of lar-;e enviable landholdin ;s; but all through the eight year... of the .'.Jar of Liberation" r , had been heated z:_.rc 'oy agitators from the nor h and_their converts in the south, 10 6j3tWveggo iftjq. , 0 0r,~~ ,112 i1pU D~I~ RQO~YOt~ 1A~h10 ~~~1t10023 tr'?LII d b Approved For Release 2005/11/29: CIA-RDP79R009044001300010020-7 Sao; and for na!- /..,i:?^c-,, y o thy Or`~:z rto v take it theirs ". , c:f _.~ pc:azants uou-ily, pez'- pss th-c who were L~.U attz.L t their follow vill crc j, Lladly aces ted and c.ctcd provisions for a s7s:'c-,tV1- rc(Guced rcn , with m oree scC-r: -- of tenure, or for an ouiri ht nureh.ane at a low pr S.uo o blc. the landlord's land. Lu wh V ' x~. It he refor m r" a z ;.o vy ach larger number oi' tie:. ailants or laneless a ricultura ' laborers frho had now been land? ors' c land illegally, often or years, without paing any rent at all - much less any purchase on vy: To those pea anti, Diem's reform meant the restoration to the landlords of all t_1e land that the pea ants had taken aver without sanction, p er-haps with. tI>e:-~ exaction of r'e.t for t .e ? ntleos years tha : had '.iot gone "o;., and certainly w h t .: ~ _y~nent of either rent or purchase money for any of t :- 1a ilords l-:;,~r ?`2at any peasant or laborer was to use in the tu.t:4re. iern. errs soldier end police would bring the landlords back .th the:, and cat them up on their old estates once ;:.a e; ..i ue, te law said that each of the lamer holdin-s a:.uct reduced to about a hundred hectares in size, but to a labor_ - w o had never oc; red or rented any lzmd, or a pea-an` -ho ha--' ?:en trying to d1Z a l ivirrg for i:..-.:ce: l and his fa ~:_l out of a hectare or two., a ia1.1_ndred_ hectare,-, nu_it have seemed- an V or ain. After eight year of ~ lawless seizures and :a o nisec,, Dien's agreriaL reform have seemed to :. t O_.1'..,0 peasants and landless a:Z:1 laborer c to re-present an aar 4 r a : counter-revolution. Approved For Release 2005/11/9 : CIA-RDP7'RO0904A00 3 0 00 0-7 ind so it 1 sus t s V Ali seem to rIos G o_ > . oday, if they Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 ti._e do'stin a 4tod above all C-lse by e. :ire to ri z in ..~ t they have Weizcd w? 1o-al ly. P:I'Zo the eivill .rr , ; '?'."x~oc~,altin; fro:,Y the bo' ":.~fi r.' of vj`_11,n,~'clz believed to anti ri , . v F. ?. ..:ber of n t1te ?4.Q et h we Crc Vo?w 1 J. L ~i r. e t, s- ,v, w..t a tf a. ct aye rn ,,er;t '?t ric i~ ' `.,', . : y ..:. 'ova td o cou :.e 1'... V +, -r oo r + f , f i ' ,~..,, < e'. the s :"i V' ;. cans; p riiyi',rr -..r ti J,. 6.i lI c, i~l~: ~:. '.7i~:+? on the ve oft :n been treated very harLh:4 `j~ ~s b~? '{ f.; w Ci n`~, Vii.:-~~ ~v 'a.~' v12~. t1 s.,et"+ Co.-,::;., v:ll`:L1 ;_1 the k1 oA. of heavy wcz..l g, i,_:?. :ter.,, Z N of c n A r .:..,aced Co??iver r o_ e for oar-wor hlc s paper, the ru;hlec execution of vilic,:,erc ?? :.> oppose Vi --"U- Cony or ar,, sucpec tec1 of oppositioi. uch ~~.,,,, IAa.` f a ices .F'sir? a.rav ~~;: ~..a:.. - 0 1:w.O % i e .;, -mot will 1 ;. Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 r:.oro cf thcia to vol ccr -o:: ?uch crv?.::. ?;ill attract defccto:s the Vi:::: Con, and t o _ 4 _.. >e.4.., controlled by 4h T'ct Cons, VJ111 mobilize a -ultitur1e of to ~r on a$e in 6shi.e lt'"nd of war ffanthat .(~i~-L of "lliy i icn tr (cverl ins our . but the ta. of Individual initiative _ni dovotion Turs;`' think hoi e,~ it for a guerrilla to cdz iert,, if h e happens to feel iikc it). R to all :)Ian and yY..r--,r cut an a rairitin reform :;i11 b 4 air to a l cancerneS. is a very tedious and rather ;.3.. ess. S.: ut to advance 1-1h e war to,Yar d a suoceo ~.,t.L V s~ .... >4. to keep down the cosit in iete': 3 ?~ and .1 ine. ;n ?+ .~~ V 4_ 2cse a. 1C'm i ivo+., . in -e1vtine; On ~wh a reform aV will appeal to t` e w i o indis-ensable. ._.:ar;.ures t:lic~. 3r 1s:-Lt: be taken are: to Cancel all `pa,,ri ntu .~ ~. ill due on land al-afily purchased by the pea a aaad ref :i":u law o:f to wipe OE t,, at the a?rOr'Y~ peasant 1 an 1 be levied on such lands during '-_he war, The wholezale gratis distri1-,ut- "Lon of would be, of course, the ':. Zasurz v would I nave r f. .....tu fi the : 4rv:.y '"~~Tr impact. Th $ir s~,/ s tep in that direction 1.ti' h / 4.} ti1'4114.~1ar to the pea-ants gratis an lanc, : '?.~ec to i t-.,.? . tivi ~ 9 ! ,~ t fro dlor. Under the O r t_Inance of 1957, but not yet aa ctual Coal, of further under ,,, aabl; be to pr;rv2 . e:2ch peas at or landle f :r. :~orare: w VflrcWe1ff3 00 /11ii9~ : ?y 8P889RQ~~~i ~ Q02 ?, Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 ,Iubsistence for a fa::iily of avcra;-~a size - ~.'? t'i a and added for each me: ter of the _ous~hold ccrviM the armed forces of South Vietnam; provisional allott;;c :t.> of and could be rack with a in ear deed provic in for a subsequent review if t e holder of the deed, or anyowho claimed ' hat hio own inter c:;~~ .~Ls d Ica .: f it, should apply for ,.a`.ch a r~evicw within a specified number of y carp after the war, if provisional diztr1t ution of land were aosi ned in each villa o to a co xrittce t lccted by t be I~xe e:s of house olds, n.,z::,. , of apncalo for post review by a i-i-lcr aut-...,-.,1ty vaould probably be r:.oCest. If the head of a riven houceho? -.were a'boent on uili'tary service for South Vietnam:, hi:; wife could vote in his place. in the rice-plain of the I?:Lko n River, the a d necCdc;J for the additional allotments could probably be Trade vaiia:jie local ly, if the ma it u a size of each landlord's holds: wcv _u duced from 100 hec ~o r : e to, per.-:apS., 30 heetarc: ; ~n addition, as w az done ir. the law of 1955, a modest plot of :;hereditary land could be loft do c:eh landlord ~ :ta.n ;.`-e to =,: :. expenses of ancestor worn -.ip - a provision designed to prevent the new reform from stir?rii: up additional friction, o 'n rc1i* 1ouo 3)roundv ~+ S 7yi~'t 1/central ietn: m/~' the n :ccz ;ary acreaSe of c ltiv ;~ c land for the new 4: _,..A :cr:us simply would not be availe le "or v-ar-:,7.>oe.~.t 7cd here, Lie G is an 2tCt,;;t~,.. ^, the or~. need Approved For Release 2005/11'% 9 CIA PT9 0`tt04- `g~00 1`~y who r"" '' v AnUaMl- inadequate ilotrrzents, to settlements to be developed on new Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904401300010020-7 :ds rl available by ~}r1t- that will do far lrss he a resou n ian the proposals offered here to Communists on earth but a profound th 1t disaster for the rest of the world-and t 11 s c - } b t1 7;11S~ s1;1: .- o after this din, triumph fur all they The ultimate o12lecltyc of the pie A ; 1 the present article oiled countries that are still sitting on L t'-Communist 1 gram suggestec the fence between t e an l is to move toward a better life for the and fro Communist camps. END peasants of South Vietnam. But the 1 Approved For Release 2005/11/29: CIA-RDP79R A0013000100210-7 Wit' j !s. ::.ti~.iiced A Ti? ouEand Million People C V Sys 1 1 U nl b i J f R E V 0L ----------- ------ ! 45 -' veruide Drly u 27, I.Y. ;3y Geroid Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 CRA RIA ~ R.? `'0R14 Approvec4For Release 2005/11/29: CIA-RDP79R%p4A001300010020-7 The total ropulazion of y ? . r_devc o ~e : non vo:2TT?LlT39solfi countries is more th':' -' "')U sand million souls, send a very large propoz,tion of t , .. oople are pea:::ts In nearly all o:" t ce land-hunger need that is most w del?; and most felt; also, it -w the need that is most easily e. , o:ced by the Coirmniuni: t and ae~re afar n., he r.~, .L -? ~.; ~ar ent completed in 1;64 a series of land tenure studico v in seven countries of :;'4h America, and the United Nation- has made sir lar studies of twoA countries in Central Ameerica. In their, most surx--nary form, eight of these studies indicate the estimat ",n t of "rural 'amiltos requiring land and other .stance "'(teat is, peasant families that hold an inadequate acreage, plus the fam!.lies of low-income rural workers who have no land at n.ll ) Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 NEW Chile 48 per cent Brazil 56 /C 01 C-n'.: ^ a 64 '.onduras 75 Ecuador 82 Guatemala 84 Peru 84 El Salvador 89 " Of more than six million needy rural families covered by this table, more than half are found in one country - Brazil -- the largest, the most populous, and the _ost strategically located of all the countries of Latin .:erica he data-year for three of the countries listed in the table is 1950; for two others the year is 1961, while .he dates for the remaining three countries fall between 1950 and 1961. The figures quoted are taken from a publication of the Inter-American Development Bank. In calling attention to the variations in the data-years, this publication makes a grim coma.cnt t "Even though some of these figures refer to earlier years, little or no improvement has since occur The same publication says that the studies that stand behi:"'xd the above table "generally show a very precarious situation, and confirm the earlier views on the vast number of rural families requiring land and other as istance," In response most particularly to the rise of Ccz:~ur.... in b yedf j asat2Dca lag: %1WR''989f9Q HVWKW2 i '.cluding Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R0090.r4AO01300010020-7 the United States) established the Alliance for Prorss in April 1961 and adopted for this or anization a Ca-~r ter pledging the member people:, and govsrnmenvs to join in "a S.-cat cooperative effort to accelerate the ,e onom.c and , r.. bit, , ( n~E?i- c~ 1 u(a..( .r ..ocial development of the participatin corntries''n and, z mong other things, "to encourage, in accordance with the characteristics of each country, programs of extensive agrarian t::at...the land will become for the man who works it the basis of his economic stability, the foundation of his increasing welfare, and the guarantee of his freedom and dignity;" (Thomas Jefferson would have approved very heartily of this passage in the Charter., Since 1960 thirteen countries in Latin America (not including Communist Cuba) have adopted land-reform laws.` -..o universal intention Zo-f the now laws of the 13 non- Communist countries7 is to establish the beneficiaries on family farms." However, these laws are essentially permissive; the extent to which they are put into effect dcpencc upon the w'll of each and upon its assignment, fro z time to time, of the neccssary funds. A report publish d by the Pan American Union in December, 1964, says: " date very little has been accomplished...especially in the matter of land distribution, when one considers the magni- tude of the agrarian problem facing Latin America. The laws promulgated have not yet generated.,, significant p pprovedVer R eOd 2~~51 '/lgnC R 91~ - 1:~~ g of the region." Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 Of course the exist+ng situation is loaded with osoibilities of explosion. "A recent observer notes that 'there are only a few instances where land reform has been pushed ahead by Dover zi..c to without the active pressure of the peasants"'; and this observer ren. in"ss us that in Mexico and polivia, and more recently in Venezuela and -.eru, a: rarian reform followed land invs.?.ion by the peasants. Among the Latin American states, the one that recently has been most often in the headlines is, of course, vac Dominican Republic, where about 70 per cent of the people live in rural areas. In 1960, 50 per cent of all the "farn:s" in this country were less than one hectare in size, while 36 per cent fk1l into the next group, with 1 to S hectares each. At the other extreme, there were 9514 estates with 101 to 150 hectares, and 677 with more than 500 hectares each; this last group included "a fens extremely large holdings". Considerably more than half of t e terri- tory of the country is cultivated or used as pasture, and because of the ruggedness of a substantial proportion of tihe terrain, it may be very difficult to make any considerable enlargement in the area under crops - unless it be at the expense of the pasture lands. "Ga most of the small units V. t is, the sa, ll peasant fa .m i 7 which for the most part contain marginal farm land, the agricultural activity io barely above subsistence level." Surprisingly, the current disturbance in the Dominican tie YQ .r' e . ~r 8fi5% ,4 ih1 iLCI gPMPBIJPd 0 VO&W3ital, Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904A001300010020-7 -W 141MV7 with no repots of pcaLan? disturbances; on the other hard, . has been several tiros reported tha'; arms have been carried away from the capital and hidden in the interior. the Organization o. :.::erican States can establish a temporary compromise government 71nd can maintain sufficient forces on the island to assure that the subsequent election is freely an democratically conducted, a thoroughgoing r r agrarian .form (with generous financial aid from tzbroad) should .follow promptly therea.~ ter. If things do not work out in thh:s way, the next disturbance in the Dominican Republic .Ia ;r well begin in the villa ,es and develop into cone thing far mor.., widespread and racre violent than a moderate amount of gunfire in the capital. Once the peasants have a grip on the land, they can exp c ted to fight to retain it. The resistence of the Chinese peasants to enforced "communization" by the new dictators is well known, as is the resinfence to compulsory :,collectivization" in the Russian satellite states of eastern Europe. In the homeland of Russian Communism the peasants thought th-T_;~ :..e r volutionary "nationalization of the land" simply amounted to an approval of their retention of their own pre-revolutionary holdings and to their partition anong themselves of most of the holdings of the landlords as .?:ell as most of the old State lands of European Rucsiap By the : d of the 19201:; Stalin o ,ht that his govermme a strength enou;h to impose a new s4 ,"em of land holding and .andAl '~9v? F9 Be ~ %aW ;1/i~tCnelqi ~ R X 90 ~k l lany subsequent clic A time has the Soviet rrovrnmpr:t: f'A?- +.,-^- ... Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 a ant masses to accep=t the form of a~,ricu1.tural or 4rizat= t :at has always been most aClUred by the Soviet Cor.:m nisto = the lure State Farm, operated under profevoional ...anr:-eru4 , by hired laborers. In Stalin's treat agrarian drive o2 the early ' ::hirtieo the chief goal wary to "collectivize" the :"armers and their farms - that is, to force the peavc =.ts to v:ecept a form of orr anizatio n that rcpr e rented a between the Cornaunist ideal and the traditional form to which the peasants were accustomed. The drive for colleetiv Y i svolyed a loam; and bloody struC.ple between the Cor ak:~'~sto nd the pcaoants, but since the mid 'thirties the or koll.hoz has been the dominant form of organization in the vountr;;s. de. Yet the vtr- le between the peavantc and the C?o..: uni is still continues, thouZh with greatly reduced t: % nsity; since the id 'thirties, this perennial contest Luu centered '..chiefly on peasant attempts to enlarge, and the C:o::runi?:t attempts to reduce, the small plots and the very ma l~ number of animals that each member of a peas a nt "collective" is perraitted to hold individually and suite apart from the collective as ouch. In sun, it may be said U the only massive and continuous domestic resistance that the Soviet government has been obl gyred to contend with, ever since the early 1920's, 13 the resistance of the pea: ants. here the land is concerned, history testifies that very ten the peasants are far from being as submissive as many landlords and rulers .=aouid like them to be. Appr ved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 Commonly the two mot urgent needs of an ur:er-developQu Approved For Release 2005/11/29 : CIA-RDP79R00904AO01300010020-7 :...1 w -;Dn--Com unist country are, f .rot, rc sonably .u::q uatc Protection against attack from abroad (thin protection to we provided by a national military force, au tinted i:. any major crittia by the asalotance of one or more dcpvndable :Alice); and s econ~dA..ueh a development under the protcotion of this military sereea. as will make life more com orEl4Jle in a material sonde, and at the same tL