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December 15, 2016
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July 8, 2004
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September 1, 1951
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Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 ARMY, NAVY, USAF, OSD & DOE REVIEWS COMPLETED 4 ESTIMATES OF CAPABILITIES of the UNITED STATES COMBAT FORCES IN?BEING , September 1951 DOCUMENT NO. CHANGE IN CUSS. DECLASSIFIED (ILES& CHANGED TO: TS S C NEXT REVIEW DATE: AUTH: HE 1C4 REVIEWERL. ,.. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release 2004 07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 NOTICE The Estimate of Capabilities of the U. S. Combat Forces In-being of / September 1951 is the result of 99 man-weeks of work spread over 10 meeks, 25 June - 1 September 1951. The Research Staff consisted of 17 indi- viduals Biology : 1 History : 8 Chemistry: 2 Mathematics: 1 Classics : 3 Physics 1 English 1 Although eleven of the staff were in the Armed Forces during World War II, none was in a strategic echelon; and those in Intelligence units were concerned with Tactical rather than Strategic Intelligence. Therefore, the resulting product muse be considered the work of laymen and not professionals in either Military Strategy or Strategic Intelligence, The conclusions, which we hope to be reasonable ones supported by the evidence presented, must be considered the products of amateurs and not professional Intelligence Analysts. Furthermore, only unclassified materials were used and only 10 eeeks available to search theme Few materials back of 1 May 1931 were exam- ined and numerous other sources 'were not touched, e.g., local newspapers of Eavy ports and cities near Army and Air Force installations. The Intelligence Office of a foreign power using this research technique presumably would have beea at work much longer, with a larger staff, covering more materials, Finally, the Intelligence Office of a foreign power would have data collected through an Espionage System with which to supplement the data here presented, notably on such matters as aircraft and armament production and Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 25X1A Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-R P79R00971A000300020002-0 perhaps research and development projects. Therefore, the estimates made and the conclusions reached must be taken as the minimum of information on U. S. cap4bilities available to a foreign nation's Intelligence Office. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Table of Contents Section I General Summary II The U. S. Army III The U. S. Navy IV The U. S. Air Force 1 14 169 251 VI Electronics (all Services) 501 Approved For Release 2004/07 =- -RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 .440444.444T-L0.1,- "acaremCIIT I Al - A -ortikar ' Approved For Release 2004/0 /2 .*C1A-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECTION I GENERAL SIMILAR! Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 IA L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 U. S. ARMY CSection II Below] The U. S. Army is at present in a state of partial mobilization, consequent upon the outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June, 1950. Its present strength is close to the authorized cieling of 1,550,000 men. This force now includes 16 fully organized divisions, 6 of which are in action in Korea, 2 in Japan, 3 in Germany (in addition to the U.S. Constabulary), and 5 in the Zone of the Interior; two of these last have been alerted for move- ment to Germany in the near future. In addition to these 16 active divisions, there are 12 training divisions in the United States. Plans call for the for- mation of a total of at least 18 and possibly 22 active divisions and 18 Regi- mental Combat Teams by 30 June, 19,52. Including the Constabulary, this will be equivalent to a force of 25 to 29 combat divisions. Present forces are equipped with sufficient supplies and weapons for purposes of training and for the conduct of limited operations such as that in Korea. Most equipment, however, is of World War II types. Only limited ese of newly designed equipment - notably the 3.5 bazooka - has been made in Korea. The T-46 medium tank, one batallion of which ia in action, is a post - World War II model, but has already been superseded in production by the improved T-47 model, Large orders for production of new equipment are now being placed. For example, it appears that approximately 5,000 T-47 tanks have been ordered under 1951 appropriations. But delivery of much of the equipment now on order will not take place for a year or more. What has so far been accomplished is creation of a production base rather than production t;f available equipment. 1,10& troops now engaged in action in Korea are almost as numerous as all Y.1. S. troops in combat one year after Pearl Harbor. Total military supplies Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 reneseeerea=eeele, CONF I DENT I AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 ehipped to the theater of operations in Korea during the first 12 months of hoetilities amounted to 10,278,000 measurement tons, as compared with 9084:000 tons to all theaters in the same period after Pearl Harbor.' The Army is in a position to fulfill adequately its present commit- ments, but not materially to increase them. In the Far East the forces under General Ridgeway's command are the maximum which can be -supported logistically in Korea and are fully capable of carrying on the type of defensive and limited offensive campaign to which they are committed. There appears to be no disposi- tion to attempt again an advance to the northern borders of Korea; manpower is not available to defend the greatly extended front which would then be created, When the 28th and 43rd Divisions join the occupation troops in Germany, the six divisions promised for that function will be complete. A strategic reserve of only 3 trained divisions will then remain in continental United States, Any considerable fresh military commitments for the use of U.S. ground forces will require further decisive movement toward full mobilization. The rate of production of military equipment will probably not make such a step feasible before the summer of 1952. U. S. NAVY [Section III Below] The Navy has on board at present approximately 755,000 officers and men, the Marines 194:000, Current plans call for Navy to increase by mid-1952 to 805,000, for the Marines to decrease to 1769000, though pending legislation proposes a Marine force of not less than 300,000 or more than 400,000. There are approximately 1,050 ships in the active fleet, of which 400 have been demothballed since June, 1750. In the reserve fleets are about 10770 ships the Atlantic Reserve Fleet contains 305 major combatant units: Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 PrIklfrri Al CON pt Eft) L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 the Pacific Reserve Fleet 296), and roughly 100 are assigned to Naval Reeerve Training. The major combatant units in the active Atlantic Fleet are 3 CVB, 2 CV, 4 CVL, 7 (WE, 2 BB, 7 CA, 2 CL, 101 DD of all types, 6 DE, 49 SS. The Sixth Fleet is the only major operating force. The major combatant units in the active Pacific Fleet are 8 CV, I. CVL 6 CVE? 2 BB, 6 CA, 2 CL, 87 DD of all types, 12 DE, 27 PP, 34 SS. The Seventh Fleet and Naval Forces Far East are the major operating forces. The most important items in the conversion of shins for combat dury are the strengthening of carriers to handle heavier aircraft, modification of DDs to DDEs, and "Guppy" conversions of SS. Regular Navy and Marine Corps aircraft number about 6,600; the prin- ciple types now in use by combatant Naval and Marine forces are: 1) Fighters: F9F? F7F(N)0 F4U? F211; 2) Attack Planes: AD, A2D, AJI; 3) Carrier-based A/3 Aircraft: AF2S? AF2W, TBM; 4) Patrol Planes: P2V? PBM, NM, PB4Y2. In the active fleet at present are 14 carrier air groups and the following squadrons: 13 VS, 10 BC, 30 BP, 3 ZP, 18 VMF and WM, 3 VEEP. The fleet is still basically equipped with the weapons employed in dorld War IL Improvements in shipborne ordnance consist mainly of better automatic fire control and faster rates of fire. Important developments in rockete and sonic torpedoes have been announced. Guided missiles are still in the test and evaluation stage. The Navy is greatly expanding facilities at many of its existing fleet bases. Funds have been appropriated for a new secret base in the At- entic area: and negotiations are in progress for bases in Spain. Three new air stations are being constructed in the Far East, and the Navy is devoting large funds to developing facilities for jet airdraft at its existing air sta- tions. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 on kir FlPIJ''1"1 A I CONF I DENT IAL Approved For Release 2004/0tfrlatiDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Undersea warfare has the highest priority in Naval planning. Since November, 1949, technological development, training, and expansion of forces for ASW have been greatly stepped up. Experiments are being made with sub- marines for novel purposes, and much effort is now going into such new projects as the nuclear-fission engine. The Navy today is the most powerful afloat, Able to defeat any other surface fleet in the world. At the same time, the active forces are capable of very great expansion. It is unlikely, however, that any war in the near future will see fleet actions similar to those fought in the Pacific from 1942-194'. Naval forces will be called upon primarily to launch and support large amphibious operations, and to protect both their own units and the merchant navy from air and submarine attack. For these purposes the active fleet is at the moment inadequate. The combatant units afloat appear sufficient only to execute a relatively small amphibious operation over any extended period of time. In other words, they constitute merely a good striking force, even though some naval aircraft may now be able to deliver the atomic bomb. AS forces are insufficient and will remain so for some time, despite the existing program for properly equipping small naval and coast guard ships. The conclusion is inescapable then, that, owing probably to the state of public and congressional opinion rather than to the wishes of the Navy Department, the United States now possess what is fundamentally a peace-time Navy for a state with all the commitments that this country now has. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 0111,1 r I MT! AI CONF I DENT IAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 IJAPII, FORCE [Section IV Below] Prmsent St_rEtyk 81 combat wings. The 78 which have been identified are composed of 26 Bombardment, 39 Fighter and 13 Troop carrier. Total personnel: 78'4000 (106,500 officers, 657,500 airmen). The total of first-line combat aircraft available is between 4,742 and 50,000 (bombers 677, fighters around 4,000); this means that the 26 Bomb. Wings are ander strength and the Fighter Wings have less than a 1 to 1 eeplacement ratio. The Troop Carrier Winge are adequately supplied with air- craft. 5tren.gth_by.Alt1952. 8 more wings will be added by July 1, 1952 (but these will be combat-ready wings of 4 squadrons). Officer strength by July 1, 1952, will be 136,000, airmen 925,000. The 26 Bomb. Wings should be up to fulrncrrthe complement of aircraft And the 39 Fighter Wings should have an adequate reserve. But the 95 wings which will then be in-being will not be fully equipped. 421121litielOtratsis. The AF undoubtedly has a sufficient supply of atonic bombs, the planes to get them over the target and the technique and instruments necessary for extremely accurate bombing. But it does not at present have enough planes to maintain a etrategic offensive very long, if plane losses are even moderately high. Tactical The AF has no modern light bomber available in quantity. And its fighter- bomber strength is not at present adequate for the high attrition rate of opera tions against modern aircraft and ground fire. Defense General Vandenbergle recent estimate that the AF could destroy less than 34 of an attacking bomber force is confirmed by all available data. The AF does Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 r`fl/Jr I IIPRIT I Al CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 20041070 -RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 not possess a fighter capable of effective combat performance at stratospheric levels, and the all-weather fighters needed for interception [F-94 and F-89] aeem to be in short supply (of the 16 Fighter Wings identifiod as part of ADC one at least is flying F-51s and one is even operating with F-478). The GOC is woefully under-manned; the radar screen for continental U.S. will be reason- ably complete by the end of 1951 but not until next year for Alaska. 111212ERSPA. The main weakness is the lack of bases in Europe, where the AF cannot count on using bases in Germany in the event of an enemy offensive. It will have to rely on bases in England and the new bases being built in the Mediterranean. Work on the North African bases is being pushed and building is going on in Cyprus, Crete and Greece. But it is not likely that these new bases will be fit for SAC operations for some time to come. Bases in the Far East are ade- quate for present and probably for all future operations. WEAPONS [Section V Below] Section V is primarily concerned with developments in the field of weapons and equipment which have taken place since World War II. Many weapons utill being used by the armed forces are World War II models - the M1 rifle and the Sherman tank; for example. Detailed descriptions of the characteristics of such items of armament are readily available in TheAmy,Almanac (Washington, 1950), and G. M. Barnes, %mug. World War II (New York, 1947). Both Barnes end John E. Burchard (ed.), Rocketax!Guns and_yEett (Boston, 1948), contain information about the problems with which Ordnance and other experts were wrestling at the end of World War II. Many of these problems are still plaguing the weapons development program; but some of our most recent weapons are the Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnmr'I'N'er?1 A I 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 CONIF44- I AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : A-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 25X1 ELECTRONICS ESection VI Below] The development, during World War II, of very small radio tubes for use in proximity fuzes was widely extended. As a result, electronic equipment designed since World War II, while more flexible and efficient than the equip- ment it replaces, also is generally smaller and lighter. At the same time, this equipment is designed as a small number of component units rather than a large number of individual parts. Now, if a radio set fails to function, a dozen or so components are tested, rather than a hundred tubes and an equally large number of resistors, condensers, etc. Due to its small size, it is economical, and of course much quicker, to re- place the whole equipment. Maintenance of electronic equipment, which be- f,./tme a major problem toward the end of World War II, has thus been greatly As a result of the research and development done since the end of Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 CoNFH?L Approved For Release 2004/4/rg RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 World War II, military electronic equipment has been developed which is of very high quality and variety. We are far ahead of any other country, except pos- sibly for Great Britain, and we seem to lead her by a considerable extent. ,It ahould be noted that what we have are refinements of World War II equip- ments. Padically new devices, if any, have been well concealed. Production, however, is a different matter. In the summer of 1951? production of this new electronic equipment Was sufficient in most cases to allow its installation in new aircraft, tanks, ships, etc., but not enough to permit refitting of previously constructed units. On the other hand, by the end of 19510 retooling and construction of new factories will be largely oompleted$ and by the end of 1952 large quantities of the new electronic equipment will be available. 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rrArn rfc'filT-1 Al 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 00F 8+14K-I-EirEff-T-htt Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :K2M9R00971A000300020002-0 r Approved For Release 2004/0 DP79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release 2004/07/2 ,ek, General 1? Nisgion State of Mobilization 79R00971A000300020002-0 18 -15 15 3. Strategic Factors Governing Mobilizaticn 19 4. Relation to Allied Ground Forces 21 5. Effects of Actioa in Korea 22 6. Capabilities 23 13, Admanietx,ative Cegnniation 28 10 Comtitution of the Army 28 2. Compand of the Arqv 28 3. Department of the Amy (Appendix 1) 28 ? Arqr Field.Forceo 29 (Appendix II) 30 Contiziental Comwands Glerseas Cowanls 31 7. Branches of the Amy 12 8. Woments Arpy corps 33 Tactical Organization 34 Regimmtal Combat Tema 34 2, Division (Appendix_ I1_)34 (Appendix rir) 3. Goi-pa 35 4. Field Army 36 .400 ilmy Group Diviaion Slice Z. (Alex. of 3att13 Zone (of7 thT, Approved For Release .2004/0 36 (Appendix -) 38 DP79R00971A000300020002-0 Nitanir Approved For Release 2004/3 ". --?DP79R00971A000300020002-0 Section II0 Amv* Contents* iCe 30 American Ground Forces ftn Emropc 48 40 Other Oversee Commands 54 Memporter and Training 57 10 Ar3ny Strength 51 2* Soarcas of Manpower , 3e Aznw-TrainingProgmn 65 70 Decant Developments in Army Preeponv and Est/want 73 1. Small Arms and, Infantry Equipment 74 20 Mortars 77 30 Artillery 78 40 Tanks and. Armored Cars (AnpandirITI) 79 5*Va1son Aircraft (Appendtr1FI) 84 G* Comments on Principal Source 86 10 Tie Army Almanac 66 2, Army Orders 87 30 Hearings at Cengressional.Camml,ttees 89 40 New To Times *id Harald Tribma 91 5* The liew Eaten Register 93 6. Stars and Stripes: European Edition 9)4 70 Stars etnd Stripasv, Pacific Edition 95 90 Saturday Evening Post 96 LI No DI.,ssZi71.49/3 97 LO n APO Listings fj1T17111Atz .i) 97 On the Efficiency of Censayip 99 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : ciA. DP79R00971A000300020002-0 ncik Approved For Release 2004/07/ 79R00971A000300020002-0 Section 110 Any. Contents. (Cont.) APPENDICES To Departmint of the Arnor (Chart) 102 110 Arm Arms, zone of the Interior ()Aap) 102 Divisicti Tables of organization 103 IV. Compar!.son of Marine and Amy (Infantry) Divisions 106 V. Order of Battle ? U. S. Ary 109 VI. 'ranks and Armored Cars (Chart) 157 VII. Liaism Aircraft 157 Villo APoil 156 Approved For Release 2004/07/ R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release A. General 1. Mission. CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 3ECTION II U e 6. ARMY The major missions of the U. S. Army as recently stated by the Chief of Staff, Gen. J. liswton Collins, are a. TO maintain adequate forces in occupation areas and to maintain strategic oversee bases with a strength sufficient to meet extended emer- gencies, including armed aggression. b. To aid in bringing the war in Korea to a successful conclusion while maintaining the security of Japan. c. To develop a general reserve of sufficient size and readiness to provide for the security of the United States. 2. State of Mobilization. In order to carry out these missions the Army began partial mobilization immediately after the outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June, 1950. The size of the Army was increased from 593,000 on 30 Junee 1950 to approximately 1,531, 00 on 30 June 1951. According to official etatements these forces are being organized to form 18 combat divisions and 18 regimental combat teams, in addition to the Constabulary in Germany. These will provide the equivalent of 25 combat divisions, together with necessary supporting units. Four additional divisions may be formed before 30 June, 1952, partly by calling to Federal service two additional National Guard divisions and partly by assigning a higher proportion of existing troops to service in divisions. At present there are 16 divisions in the combat theater, combat- ready, or in final stages of training. Eight Army eivisions are in the 7,7 r rkoife Rib I tcar?e 04*712134 OMM40003000200010 one Approved For Release 2004/ -RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Marine division in Korea. Three divisions are in Germany in addition to the Constabulary, which is the equivalent of one division. Five active divisions are in the Zone of the Interior as general reserve; two of these are scheduled for movement to Germany before the end of the year. In addition to these 16 active divisions there are 12 training divisions in the Zone of the Interior. There has been a corresponding increase in production of military supplies and in appropriations for the over-all needs of the Army. Appropriations for the Army increased from $4.4 billions in the fiscal year 1950 to $19.3 billions in fiscal 1951. For i. cal 1952 the Appro- priations Committee of the House of Representatives have approved expenditures of $20.1 billions. This figure gives only a partial indica- tion of foreseeable expenditure for 19520 since it does not include 81.4 billions requested for military constructions or the cost of continued combat in Korea which has been estimated at $7.0 billions. 3. Strategic Factors Governing Mobilization _ . ? _ Analysis of major emphasis in the Army budget for the fiscal year 1952 provides a key to certain fUndamental factors in general stra- tegic planning. The most striking aspect of the budget is the high proportion of total appropriatious requested for major procurement and production. A comparison of expenditure for primary items in the budget for fiscal 1950 with the corresponding percentages projected for 1952 brings out the radical shift of emphasis in respect to procurement: Object of Expenditures Percentage of Appropriations _ Personnel Major Procurement and Production OPer9VISM/eqilfloWlerMWS504/9fflefinPf9k00971A000300V26602-0 All Other Functions 23.9 7.7 viMPILMENT I AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP70R00071A000300020002-0 1)-4 Most of the equipment to be provided by the 4506% of 19521appropriations devotee to major procurement and production will not be complete and available for use before the latter part of calendar 1952. $5.5 billions, or more than one quarter of the entire Army budget, are intended solely for tanks and combat and other vehicles, items which have a long production lead time - the period intervening between placement of orders and delivery of finished goods it may be concluded that present mobilization plans are based upon the following assumptions: a, A major war is not to be expected in the immediate firture. EM- phasis is therefore being placed upon the creation and maintenance of a production base rather than upon all-out production for immediate use. It is the policy of the Army to encourage manufacturers to operate on a one shift basis, so that there will be a maximum number of plants with production lines in being, which can be put into round-the-clock operation when greater urgency is felt. The Army's Detroit Tank Arsenal, for ex- ample, is producing at less than one quarter of capacity, on a one shift basis., bs War within two or three years is nevertheless so likely that tooling up and initial production of major ordnance and other equipment cannot safely be delayed. The heavy investment now being made in current models of such items as tanks will necessarily discourage radical changes in design for a considerable period in the future. An indication of a sense of urge:we in production of equipment is provided by a recent relaxation in U. S. insistence on complete standardization of equipment with the Allies, although discussions are continuing on the .30 vs. .28 caliber rifle. These conclusions are supported by the fact that the manpower leeel of the Army is to be kept unchanged for at least a year. The present size of VApriteViad.En*Releastergeetitir / t riSR011970,110113490110104290n artnier3 rnKI II 11FMT I A I c Qvg IAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28-:4A-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 before the first World, War. It seems lieely that this size will remain fairly constant unless there is a radieal ehange in the international bal. ance of power, which may be produced either by a spread of the Korean conflict -which will lead to all-out mobilizen!.on, or by the development of European ground forces strong enough to provide an effective Ixtrrier to Soviet forces in Western Europe without permanent U. S. Army support. he Relation to Allied Ground. Forces. A basic factor in all Army planning is a recognition that the U. S. Army can never approach numerical equality with its probable enemy. A result of this fact is an emphasis on the building of a system of alliances, encouragement of the concept of a United Nations Army, develop- ment of a combined staff structure for the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- tion, and the Mutual Defense Aid Program. Although the particulars of these matters lie beyond the scope of the present study, their importance in relation to U. S. Army strength is indicated ny the advice of Secretary Marshall to the Senate Foreign Relation:, Committee, that re- duction in U. S. military appropriations would be preferable to a cut in the sum requested for fureign arms aid. Marshall at the sane time nada' American purpose clear when he stated (requesting that his words not be published) 'Me are proposing dollars to arm men other than our own men. we are contributing dolIareisth r than men, although we have made some sacrifices of our own in Korea. The other side Lioe., the European Allies] is thinking of In pursuance of this policy, .nea united States has already sent over one billion dollars worth of equipment to its allies, including 4?500 tanks and combat vehiciee 2,900,ne3or field artillery pieces, 19,000 general purooee vehicle en ae well as small arms, amennition, bazookas, i3PelivelctEes.Ree6F,29NPETi2gii3.4 efik99 VA? 99e3SP 161 ? rrlhir I flFEIT I Al CONI3713 Approved For Release 2004/07/28: ARDP79R00971A000300020002-0 lOerld War II -stocks which are being replaced by new models for the Army own used Orders have, however, been placed for to be ehileped to the allies when produced? 5, Effects of Action in Korea? m...1311.1111EN,Io.11??????,-Wit- the now N647 medium tank, The chief immediate effects of experience gained in Korea for Argy planning and training have been the following: a. Reaffirmation of the primary role of ground forces in warfare. In presenting to Congress the Armyls 1952 appropriation request for Research and Development, Maj. Gen. Tard H. Marie (Chief, Research and Development Division, Office of the A.C. of S., GAO stated that allocation of 66% of this budget to the Ordnance Corps "is consistent with the major combat role which must be assumed by ground troops in any war of the foreseeable future.0 boAtougher and longer training program, with more emphaeis on physical conditioning!, night fighting, and guerilla warfare? c. Provision of lame numbers of combat-experienced men to provide training cadres. At present 30,000 men are returning each month from the Far East to the Zone of the interior preference in this rotation is given to combat troops senior officers, including divisional and corps commanders are also rotated after relatively short periods of command so that their experience can be utilized in training of fresh troops. do Greater emphaeis on the need for air-ground cooperation. The efficiency of the Marine Corps in this field has been particular17 no- ticed, but the need for general improeement is still apparent. e. Testing of new arum and eeeipment. Noteworthy examples have been the 3,5 bazoo7:a and the Patton mediumegun tank. The latter has shown its superiority to the Soviet T-34 tank by an l84 margin of victory xAlfijoeellFeellialekseage4197/SEVE+FgkROMM09,949093pg04orted rnktrI rwhiT I A I CONfil.,UNTI AL .; Approved For Release 2004/0401jHEIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 as only 5 to the enemy's 90. The value of Korea as a proving ground has, however, been sharply limited by a policy of refraining from the use of new equipment unless there is real tactical need for its employment. 6. CaEabilities. The U. S. Army is not now in a position to assume commitments considerably greater than those it has already assumed. The six Army divisions now committed to action in Korea, together with the two formerNational Guard divisions on occupation duty in Japan, form one half. of the Army- s trained divisions. Of the remaining eight divisions three are already in Germany and two more are scheduled to join them before the end of November. This will leave as strategic reserve in the Zone of the Interior only. three divisions other than training divisions, nameay the 1st Armored, 11th Airborne, and 82d Air- borne. None of these three is likely to be sent overseas without extreme reluctance until additional National Guard divisions have been Federalized, brought up to full-strength and given considerable training - a process which Would require a minimum of 6-9 months. Gen. Collins has stated that the calling up of two additional Guard divisions is under discussion; but no decision has been announced. Although no dates have been revealed, two to five active divisions are eventually to be formed out of existing training divisions. It is possible that speed-up in formation of one or more of these divisions might permit release of a colibat-ready division for oversee duty somewhat sooner than the calling of a Guard division, but this is uncertain. In addition to the three Army divisions which, subject to these qualifications, are available within the Zone of the Interior for active duty, it is believed that the 2d llorine Div., now stationed at Camp aejeuneA Ve!7th.Approlfed,fordRetease,2604/01/2 4,1111P79R00971A000300020002-0 rnm I ()FAIT I A I CONfIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/0 EUEIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 The Three of one Marine and six Army Divisions now engaged in Korea is coneidered to be the maximum which can be logistically supported in view of the terrain and rail and road conditions in Korea. This force has shown itself capable of highly successfUl defensive and limited offensive action against the present enemy. SVom statements made at the 'MacArthur hearings, especially the tentative plans for evacuation at the time of the successful Chinese offensive of December, 1950, it appears highly probable that if the situation in Korea should again de? teriorate-severely, withdrawal from the peninsula is more likely than large reinforcement. In Europe there has been a considerable strengthening of U. S. forces during recent months. This increase in strength is continuing, with the announced goal of 3140,000 men in Europe by the end of 1952. This nuMber will include the troops now in Europe, the 28th and 143d Divisions which have already been alerted for movement to Germany, and necessary corps, army, and other supporting troops,. Although the end of 1952 is the projected date for fulfillment of this goal, almost 411 of the combat elements will be in Europe by 30 November, 1951; it seems probable that the remaining troops could be made available quickly, if the situation should make this necessegy. Other troops availeble from the Z.I. for European duty have been discussed above. If a decision should be made to withdraw from Korea, the bulk of the forces no; engaged there could possibly be released for European duty. In view of the overwhelmieg U. S. naval superiority in the Far East, it is possible that a total force of four divisione might be considered adequete garrison for the Japanese Islands if hostilities in Europe should cause a decision to concentrate all available Ir'r"lifpojaft'Okedaie 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECRET onkiP I flchIT I A I COOIAIL I A L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 It may therefore be concluded that the maximum number of divi? sions which could be made quickly available for European duty, addi? tional to those already scheduled, would be one Yarine and three Army Divisions from the Z.I., and possibly five divisions from the Far East. This figure of nine divisions is a maximum, and it is highly unlikely that a decision would be made to accept the strategic risk which would be involved in such a concentration. The present U. S. and Allied force in Western Germany includes U. So 3 divisions and the U. S. Constabulary British 4 divisions French 3 or 4 divisions By the end of the year theae will have been increased to include U6 S6 5 divisions and the U. So Constabulary British 4 divisions French 10 divisions,(5 in combat readiness, 5 at 3 dayer notice) Belgium I division There is considerable doubt whethee this French conslitment will be fill? filled. It is evident that either the forces presently available or those expected by the end of this year would be in a very vulnerable position if subjected to a determined attack from the East. The present front, stretching from the Baltic to Jugoelavia, is 700 miles long. To defend this line there are now not more than 12 divisions, some of them partially trained and not at all fully equipped. They face the danger of airborne operations aeainst the Rhine crossings in their rearo Air protection is inadequate since the ring of fighter air bases projected t'or ciaPtigtf.t.E9189.19.PAP R9P4ifigafh: PnAlr I IIPPJT I A I VityclA47 (ORPIPMIRT pv, CONH-t IWiA L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 14, 1 The difficulties or this position could be partially met by withe 1 drawal to the Rhine and the Alps. Defense of the Southern sector would presumably devolve upon the Southern Command of SHAPE. The line of the Rhine would then extend some 350 miles from the Swiss border to the sea. If this shorter line could not be successfully defended, a possible with- drawal from Westeee Europe north of the Pyrenees appears to be contem- plated. Two recent developments support this conclusion. One is the change in the line of cormanications of the European Command, which no longer originatesin Bremen but instead passes from Bordeaux through Verdun and Metz. The other development is the agreement, details of which are inomplete or unannounced, between the U. S and Spain. Unless a retreat into or beyond southern France is considered possible, the value of U. So bases in Spain does not seem to justify the political risks involved. Present capabilities in Europe seem to be indicated accurately by the statement of Lt. Oen. A. M. eruenther? Chief of Staff, SHAPE, in June of this year, that while "significant n progress has been made, owe are still not in a position to defend Western Europe. ff (quoted in the N. Y. Times, June 29, 1951). These estimates of the very limited immediate capabilities of the U. S. Army in terns of combat divisions seem in general to be supported by the situation in regard to weapons and equipment, Supplies of World War II materiel are being depleted both by the action in Korea and by contributions to D. S. Allies under MAAP. New equipment and weapons, production of which has been authorized by recent appropriations, will not be an imoortant factor for nearly n year. It seems that the policy of maintaining the sine of the Army unchanged throagh the fiscal year 1952 is at least in part determined by the quantities of weapons and equipment Approved For Release 2004/07M0DP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnmrI nrwr I A I CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 200447/4;,.CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 nt T 17 This statement of present ArAf capabilities does not take into consideration the possible use and effectiveness of new and unconvent- tional weapons of atomic, biological, radiological, and chemical warfare, which are treated elseWhere in this report. Approved For Release 2004/07/MtrP79R00971A000300020002-0 OrIKIP I nrkIT I Al CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/STOCRET-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 130 Magma= oinalvaioN Constitution. of the it 3,11MUVASalkIditaaf tv is The 1/050 Army leteludee the Rogaler Arch the Nationel. Guard of the United States and the Organized Peewee Copce 20 Command of the A HiadISERSMINIKLIME.PCIR-Mees...F xis.. TAN' Command of the Amoy and ell cumponents thereof is exercieed by the President throude the Secretary of Defame end. the Secretary of the Army0 Ith.o directly represent MT" 3.1 DVEIVP#:ece PIR,AxR7. ae The Department of the .Army is a military dope_ emit within the Department of Defence* It was GO established by the National Security Act of 19470 as mended by the Ilational Security Act Amendments of 1949e The Amy OrEflaiStitiOn. Act of 195C peteridod for the organization of the Army end the Deparkeent of the .Armye In generale this Act followed the polity of Testi:me bectad orgenizational powers in the Secretary of the AZW2 aubject to delegation by him0 rather then srpecifying the duties of auberdimate officers* A chart of the organization of be Department of the Army is battened as Appendix le be The Secretary of the Airy is the head or the Department of the AlSgra Subject to the directionr; anthority0 and control, of the President and the Secretary of Defenee0 the Secretary of the Any conducts ell affairs of the Amy Establishment* EXt is assisted by an Under Secretary, two Assistant Seceeetartes? a legal Departeent Counselor, and an Administrative Asseeeetee, c The Chief of Staff of the Amy is the principal military adviR196r8TeirPoPINfrateHoi3i/ r`CIKIFI 11FMT I A 1 CO Zell re AL Approved For Release 2004/07/2$ : MA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 the Sseretury of the Arzw for tho offickmcy of tba Array, its state of preparation for military operatione?, and plans therefore Lb p sides over the Avow treummits to the Secretary of the Anny plena and recommendations preparad by the AlwarSta2T advises htn in regard thereto?, and. acts as the meant of the Soo Ian, or the Amy in carrying the crams into effecU Ve to the rowe&entative of the .Army amon the :rant Chiefs of Staff, By virVao of hia position he takes rank above all other officers of Pe ArsmA, do The Amy Staff is the Staff of the Secretary of the Army at the seat of- government, It Includes the Chief of Staff raid him immediate assistantse the General and Spacial Staffss and the A4ministra1ivo and Technical Staffso The precise fUnstion of each of these are defined In the U.S Government Organimtion Manual ?3,11.A.ei.,,,ind?rVOZ,458.,,XMAI?NLIS-.11.0111,14 194;1:21,yp 174.4350 GreArth in the size and importance of the Aziw Steil" has been signifioant feature in the devolonnent of the Amy structure sines the bog:filming of ISOrld War 110 On 2a Fobrr,aryv 2.951? military pereonnal on cbity in the Departmest of the .Army .ucludod $410 officers and 474 0331tetti1 Men& The relathfo i? istAtution of Val perconnol 13 indicated by the ronowirks table ahotvi-- diwtribtation iatrit)triatoly before the ou.tbreek of hostiMM in :ko. each ewe it 13 probable that the present number 50 to 0% Ian-era Office of the Secretary of ha krAV 100 Office or the Chief of Staff 300 Divisions of the General Stet 600 Special Staff ZOO Technical Staff Administrative Staff Amy Field YOlteeS swerAwitIms...a.armumaoz*....newretveuglramat.ivas,rar, ?rglaWriktlategA/067a:rRiSg9litleigg466666621661324; to stipends:6- tho trairdmr, JECILETauals ? all'dite isocl OrIAIC I IICAIT I Al ? CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/07/2SEMEIF79R00971A000300020002-0 oe71, 0" haw in the ie140 and to- suporTLte tha Tollowing Army'Fiald Ferns Boardss ao Board Neo 15 at no Briat5 troCo5 which ts responsible for testing of A:rove:demon Gw.ipuatt,, airborne squipment and Tiold Artillery cauipmento be Board No 2, at Fort Kno=0 Eyoc, which is rospahsible for autonctive_equipment and heavy fire-control equipment in connection with armored vehicleso co Board Roo 55 at Ft o Braggo FroC,5 which le responsible for I .t7 equiymsato do Board No, 4, at no Bliss, Tazoi Which it rasponsfble for anti.airoraft artillery and guided mlesilemp eo T Arctic Teat Brunel% of the four Army Field Force boardez Which is responsible for all forms of ectoipmant under Amotic conditionso Tho headquarters of the Array Yield Perces Is at Ftw Uhur000 va, Continental Colgrands Th s commanding neral of each of the Continental Arnies and the Military District of Washington commands all aults,, aetiv1ties1 and installations within bla area =apt those specifically =monde. by the bead of an Administrative or Tecimical service or other agency of tiv) Dopeatoont of the Arroyo Be is zasponsible for the operatiens trainingt sdmlnistration5 servioso5 and supply of all nnitem activitIes, and installations of his caumand5 and for certain activities at installations reporting to -he Doparbvent of the Arsqo Tho aceo4lanyingyov al' the UvIted Eiwitef4 attached. as Appen4V4 IX.,) indica:Fats the AIWAroaa of the Contizestal CmmaniMe, VII Any Areaso Beadquars?erso and territory inuluftd rive as follows: Approved For Release 2004/07/2SHR-Er79R00971A000300020002-0 r1MIF I 11FKIT I A I COV I DENT IAL Approved For Release 2004/0E2GRET-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 First Ar270 ato 0overnoxiv8 bNG Connacticot Nvs .7-aTiecy Maim Now 76:1-:k Moneachnsatim iniotle Mena Now shire Vermont Second Army's Ike no ?torso Ga ricadot, Meow= Ponnoylvaria Kautuitty Virginia Norylasoi ilost Virginia Ohio WW1 Amin r[9.0 Ft, MoPheroon Ca. Alobasa- No2th Otroliva 2Iorida South Carolina aeorgia %maim? Miesioalypi north ArorD Pte Sinn 1301.131ifnlp AIIMPITSB Oklahoma LattiBleZEt TantS New Mexico Fifth Arisyt, FaoFLS ridanf,IlL Colorado !Amoco% Miacoorl Indiana Rehr:I:Wm lowt Mrth aatota Kansao South Watts Michigan Wisconsin Wyoming Sixth Amy? Plq, Procidic of Son Frouciocos ulifo Arizona TavaeNa California Oregon Nebo Utah Montero 1WhimSton 6. Overcoat Cconsarls. (u Far Beat Comsonk Bq Tokyo, Tainan9 U,ST. Armty Fa:memo Easto aro aanintstratively illteSratTO, Vith la* Per Fact Como:A vbich consists of four aiist3?ati E&b11:0* (Kona) IL,S, Array Forces in Talaillar, Rpli1713 00211alldv and ble.5?iouas- BomiappmesWor Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rrISECIRET A I csfcgErr I A L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0:,,, It* Earopear, Comand5 Ftqp 33cf.doltoTz, Cierwarya? troSo -112w7 POrcee la :blaropeo including the &worth AraTo aro under ths administrative jurisdiction of the European C Or* and the operatAral control of Supreme Eno, Allied Powers In EtImpeo U.Cio 242recs in Austria is a subL-counand of the..naropoen Comaamiz. co 1305. An227 AlaakeD is undo the jariedictf.onr tbei Alaater, Command; the latter is rnder an Air Ibros officer*. Erelo are at no Richardacho Alaskao - do U J:atly5 Caribbecoli the Nae-Vhb9821 CorMinto which ie v..nder an Army officero Iicio are et Post of Coaam7 Faightne Canal Zomo Ay Forcesu Antilloos, is a suh-coraaind of the Caribbean 021:0611Thdo so Amy Pacific is under :,;nrisdi*tiou of the Pacific Oomaaadnwiox ta under a naval orrbuer,6 the Tt. )7.40 ex,0 n. EThaftersi 4NJAINT.ItTante Time are tuelve Besic_Branchos and three Spsiaial Bzancheso latter with separate promotion co Basic Brand's: Iatantry Armor Artillery Enenear Corps Signal, Corps Adjutant Genera19 s Corps 76, Special Branches ltateo Q:lartscv.utaster 05rps Finance Corps Ordinance Corp;75 Msmtoal Corps Tren5portation Corps MI/nazi Police CorpH .Tadge Advocate ConAraPs Corps Azszy Medical Service 1..nol'Iadln3 iifealoA Colve:c. 1)sntal Vatevintrey CF,erpso Medical Stroloe Corree?, Arr.w Ilarre Cogpet: anon's Medical Sorvice Corps) Chaplains Approved For Release 2004/RenttRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnmcinFhIT I A I C Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Wcanoriz?AAty: como 43 The VAC la a Gervrate aompoment of the Ammyo The amber of arum Vih0 1147 servo at pay ctee tlaie numbes's of the ENO-az' Arn7 lo fixed at two pernemt a the ()twin:gat of the regmler eatebliehmeato Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 UCIET Approved For Release 200 41 aliDENTIAL kg: REIA-RDP79R00971 A000300020002-0 C. TACTICAL ORGANIZAITCN 10 jy)gAiental Combat Team, Although the Division is asual1y considered Mse smallest composite unit capable of operating independently, the Regimental Combat Team han recently re- ceived considerable emphasis as a unit of greater maneuverability than a divi- alien and capable of undertaking independent combat missions, A Regimental Combat Team appears to consist basically of an infantry regiment, an artillery batallion? and an engineer company, together with attached armor and service units. Present Army plane call for the formation of 18 such units. The 187th Airborne R.C.T. has been in action in Korea, though recently withdrawn to Japan, The 45th Infantry Division, now on occupation duty in Japan, is organ- ized into three R.C.T.ts, rather than the normal organization. 2, 12ivislolla There are three types of U,S, Army Divisions, Infantry, Armored, and Airborne, Tables of Organization of these three types of divisions are attached as Appendix III. a, The Infantry Division has 18,804 men. It normally travels and fights on foot, but there is a growing tendency to provide motorized transport directly to the combat area. Recent developments in provision of armored personnel carriers are directed to this and, The increasing use of VT fused ammunition, with its distractive ef- fects on unarmored troop concentrations, has been a major incentive to this development. b. The Armored Division has l57!, men - foot, motorized, and mechanized elements. c. The Airborne Division has 166O men, and is capable Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rriftRIPA CO' F i4V.,11? Approved For Release 2004/ :If!-ItDP79RD0971A000300020002-0 f b 1;47 ing transported entirely by air and landed in the combat zone ? by parachute. Because of the present tendency teward air transport bility of the Infantry Division, the distinction between Infantry and Airborne Divisions is tending to disappear. The First Infantry Divi- sion now in Germany, is capable of moving by air with all of its equipment except the 155 mm4 howitzera do The relative efficiency of Army and Marine Divisions has recently been the subject of public debate. The meuttqw of considerable expansion in the size of the Marine Corps, and its position in the Armed Forces; is at present uncertain and subject to Congressional decision. Attached as Appendix IV are tables showing the Table of Organization of a Marine Division, and a comparison of the weapons of Marine and Army Divisions. 3. Ccn:49, The next higher headquarters above the division is the corps. It consists of a corps headquarters, certain corps troops, and such divisions as may be assigned to it. a. The corps is primarily a tactical unit. The corps headquarters is designed for the purpose of coordinating and con- trolling the combat operations of two or more divisions by a single commander who is not burdened by supply and administrative responsi- bilities. b. Unlike the division organization, the corps is not a fixed self-contained unit. It normally consists of two or three In- fantry Divisions and one Armored Division; but it may be composed of any number of divisions required for the accomplishment of its mission. It total strength, therefore will vary. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Afigig Ti Al CON F iste-RIFT Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIATtbP79R00971A000300020002-0 e, co Sxamples of corps troops, available to the corps com- mender for attachment to his subordinate combat units are: 1) Heavy Artillery 2) Various types of Engineer units 3) Armored Replacement Bns. 4) Signal Bn. .5) Quartermaster Truck Rgt. or Bn. 6) Ordnance Bn. 7) Military Police 3) Medical Dn. 40 yield qmx. The Field Army is the next higher organization to the corps. It is composed of a headquarters, certain army troops, a variable number of corps, and a variable number of divisions. Like the division, it is self-contained, in that it has the means for independently carrying out tactical and administrae tive responsibilities. It normally consists of two or more corps plus a pool of reinforcing units termed army troops. It may also contain additional divi- sions not assigned to one of its corps. 5. Army GT2142. An Army Group is the largest field organization handled by a single commander. An Army Group is formed when the forces within a theater of opera- tions consist of several Field Armies. It may include from 400,000 to 1,500,000 troopso The formation of Army Groups is primarily for taciscal purposes and facilitates the control of the various armies by the theater commander. Unlike the Corps and Field Army, he Army Group ordinarily does not have a reserve of reinforcing anits. 6. Division Slice. AprR11489 aat; Atote-ii enkto I IWKIT IA I L'ilR6667i'Abig53robrthROOtrooPs CONE I DENT I AL Approved For Release 2004/267AVA p(A-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 annul eP contained in a division and required to support it in the field. It is proper- ly restricted to troops in a theater of operations, either in the combat sone or the zone of communications. In general, it is considered to include: a) The Divisions themselves b) Corps and Army support troops c) Corps and Army headquarters troops d) Logistical support troops within the theater. According to a monograph published on the Division Slice, written by Genal Ogden and published In the Hearings of the House of Representatives Appropria- tions Committee on the Department of Defense appropriations for 1952 (Part ld page 31) the typical planned division slice is 50,000 men The following table, derived from this source, shows that this figure indicates a considerable rela- tive decrease in the number of non-divisional troops included in the typical division slice since World War II. Dion Army Zone Slice Theater Slice World War II 13,500 21,000 41,000 Typical Field Army 18,000 36,000 50,000 Percent of Increase 33 33 22 Approved For Release 2004/07CRIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnmrinrkiTi A I CONIMREIAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Do ORDER OF BATWA 1,0 The Zone of no interior Ramon gTKSNMMIVCA,WINr,PKA.ECLIP'Wli.,r,a,gz;,,,,,..,,,,r,,,,,,, Inspection of the tap takes it plain the%) vhatever considerations dictate the placing of troops ia tho 'Malted Statos the idea of equal protection for all parts of the country la not one of them, At the outbrees of hostilities in Tuly 1950.0 the following serviceable divisions re in this country: 2 Infantryn Fort Lewis: Wash 3 Infantry Bort Benning? Ga, I Marinen Camp Pendletonn CalM 2 Artoredn Fort Bbodn TeMo 11 Airbornen Camp Oompbollo Ey? 82 Airborneo Fort Braggo This disposition of 2 on the Pacific Coast,,,, 1 In Kentuaky 2 in the Southeast end IL in the deep South suggests only that trersportation within the country was ogpeetod to ba able to take care of any necessary movementec no particular movement being anticipate& Those were in various states of readiness but the first three could be shipped to Korea? the latest by Nevevben 1950, Thie was by mane of borrowing men and unitsn The 11 Airborne contributed the 187 Rain end the 3 Division took the 65 ROT from Puerto Rico, Simultaneously the 2 Armored was rednoed to organize the I Amoreds also at Fort /*pods The build-up in Korea left only one ready division the 62 Airborne.- in the United State% The an transportatioa of the 5 Infantry Dsion weal, of ooure9t. neoessItsted by the feet that there were no troops to be had nearer thi. zoom) of sotion,, Approved For Release 2004/07/28E0RUP79R00971A000300020002-0 rmir 111Ft4T I A I Oi AL Approved For Release 2004C3 Al-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 lj'4o The 40 Infantry f,16.G. Calif.) and 45 Infantry (N.G. 0k1a0 were aalled up with the &Noreen purpose of sanding tham to Yepan an replacement for troops withdrawa frmg the r* to Korea. Their training areas? Camp Ocoke9 Calf, and OaAp Polka Lao 'respectively, were chosen for convenience in the allele and. not in accordance with any permanent When the stibsewnt expansion of the sr/Jr/began there was no attempt to fill the places left vacant. No mew divisions were organized at Lemis? Cooke, Pendleton, or Pon* At Banning the 4 Infantry was made ectiveo not to take the place tt the 3 Infantry but presently to .be traio?t to Germany* Only at Ebod was therO plan for what might be celled replacement, the 1 Armored being made ready and the 2 Armored sent later to Germemlro The psnt placing of active divisions (In different degrees of activity) is as renown: 28 Infantry* Camp Attorbu,* Ind4, 43 Intantry Camp Dix* W.T. 11 Airbornet, Camp Campbell* Ky* 82 Airbornee Fort Bragg N0C, Ammorede Fort Ecoda Tex* Of those the 28 Infantry and the 43 Infantry have been designated for movement to Europe in October and Novamborf, 19510 It is evident that troop location did not and does not conform to any conception of a general garriaan for the country. In this conneettan it may- be noticed that plans Ter detense against air attack scan to bo vowlittle advanced as yet,, The nature of those plans are indicated in the placing of AA headquarters et Air Force bones, sot.: Approved For Release 2004/firet-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 (flW fl nFnri- I P11 CONF.; Approved For Release 2004/07/ DP79R00971A000300020002-0 sq. Eastern AA Command? Stewart; Ma N.Y. :fX,4 First Azwr AA Gomrank Mitchell AFBaLL BAL. Fifth Army AA Comani, Ent ArB1 Colo. liqo sixth Arm, AA Cu Hamilton AF Ba Either their security 13 very good:, or these aro. commands without many guns. There are few signs of ALA concentration around such cities end industrial areas as would rAnke likay tarota for air attack. Thia may be because trained crows 8TO not yet, availmble or because defense IS te be committed to Air Force intorception instead of th AA. That nor is some measure of truth in the l!ermer possibility is suggested by As concentration of AA urlta at such :points as Ed aideMass," and Stemerta Gael, which must be trAming centervr, since they are 17ot placed to defend anything in particular. A few movements toward centers of population may be the precursors of a general distribution of tbat kind: 51 AAA Brigader, Stewarto 2 NOT0 1950 Chicagoa 4 .A7ag. 1951 00 AAA Groupa Dvsne O Dee. 1950 Totten (E. Y.0) 24 Nev. 1951 209 AAA Groupa Stet a 2 NOV4 1950 Indiantown Gap (i') rjXuly 1951 260 AAA Grouna Edwards to Meade (Baltimore)1 :Kara-Apr.0 1951 9 AAA Gun Bno3 Bliss 10 Feb. 15.)51 Son Francisco, 11 Augc, 1951 35 AAA Cvn Bnaa Bliss, l0 Febn 1951 Made, 12 May 151 The present aspersion of vound troops iv largely the reau1t of circumstancesz Installations aketady in being must be used are Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :.C.JA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECRU ('flpJV I 1WKIT I A I COI Approved For Release 2004/0ff :Val A L KIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 poealble, and large camps have in the past been built in the South (*cause the Iseather allowed more days for training, and in the Bast to In accensible to the centers of population* These considerations F.111 govern the training programs There are the following traiwlng livisions now in the Federal service: 5 Infantry, Indiantown Ceps Pao 6 Infantry, Fort Ork, Calif* 8 Infantry, Port Tackson, 5.00 9 Infantry, Fort Dix, N47. 10 Infantry, Fort Biley? Kan* 31 Infantry, Fort Zaakson, S* C* 47 Infantry, Camp Ruaker? Ala* 3 Armored, Fort Knox, Ky0 5 Armored, Camp Chaffee, Arko 6 Armored, Fort Leonard Wood, Md. (?) 7 Armored, Camp*Roberts? Calif* 101 Airborne, Camp Breckinridge, E70 Of these 14 6 are east of the Mississippi, 9 east of the mountains; only 2 are north of Baltimore* While these training units are organized as combat divisions, essential/7 the IMMO basic training is given at each, regardless of the designation "Infantry", "Armored", or "Airborne% A large part of the armed forces in this country are organized not by divisions but by lesser unite, and it Is impossible to say what their combined strength is at present. Most of them are undoubtedly undergoing training, and some centere of specialized training are indicated by concentration of certain arms at the following points: Approved For Release 20rEttrIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rrn,i cl flFAIT I A I CONgENEIA L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 AAA; (Amp ,ide? Mcsa, AA4.0 Fort MOVe0 Hda AAA, Fort Stewart, Gee AAAD Camp Custer? Raabe Ahei.0 Fort Lewis Weeho Amtlileryo Fort Bragg Ne0. Artilleryo Camp Raki, lee Artil1ery0 Camp TAcCeyo Wise Artilleryt3 Caw Cor 4 Coloe Armorc_Cap Mike La& Engineers9 Camp Campbell', Kyo Engirserss Fort Lewin), wash, Englreersz Camp Robe rts Ga/iTe Infantry.(Banger) Camp CerseN Coloo Reeoansissanos Camp Pickett.1, Vac, Ca%culation of American potential rast take into townet the National Guardv since that is regarded as the firct source of nor combat unitse Or1g1nally0 of coursc.,;? the National Cua7d would have Alrnishod garrison troops? There Is :WWI, houmers no diepositien to amoclate tham with their hems ntataa once they have been called ic ti-he Federal servicee Approved For Release 2004/07/28SENR79R00971A000300020002-0 rnkirtnrtcri At CONFFIE Approved For Release 2004/07/ge IAL FTDP79R00971A000300020002-0 24, Far EasteI?n gouvreit #.5 The main ground force of the Far Eanuern ?amend consists of 8 Infantry Divisions (2 In ;repent) 6 in Korea . the 1 Cavalry being organised as Infantry), 1 Mnrine Division (in Korea) and 3 Regimental Combat Teems (2 in apan, 1 on Okinawa)* Sines the units are reported to have been at full strength since May? 19510 this gives a force of about 186,500 man* The shooting strength can be reasonably calculated as: 78,622 mall arms offensive weapons 1,592 mortars 1,089 recoilless rifles 1,352 tanks 702 artillery pieces 111 flame throwers 256 M46 SP AA weapon 06 M-19 SP AA weapon (The basis of this estimate is given on the table of Offensive Tempo= eppended$ To this must be added Corps and Army troops in unknown amount* It is Impossible to 'calculate what total this would products, *punting troops of all services, because 1) the mutual contributions of U.S. and Rolc services is unknoen, and 2) the extent to which civilian labor can replace military in Tapan and Korea is eqsalkyunknown* Senator Douglas' figure of a total ?5?000 necessary per division of 18,900 would give 659,000 army personnel (plus 70400 Marines) which is clearly impossible it the whole army was 1,5000000 - 1,600,000 in Tune* Even Arentinb Faraelentiat20041Et: rnt4F-inFNT I Al Rev91Atelimolutalt000 CON F I 61EGRELT Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 given to the House Bridget Comittoel?, would amount to 4390000 without the Marinel4 leaving only 10164000 for the establishments in EuropeL Amerioafs, and the outlying JeraIends The estimates of 5006000 in the Far East (Hsrald.Tribune 200 Xune) and 250:,000 plus (Time, 9 XulY) seeu to be no more than guesses? The organization, 3f the ground forces of the Far Eastern Contaand la as follows: tat* Matthew Bik RickgriaYe 00 Lto Gana Doyle 0? Hickeyo C of S GHQ Tokyo XVI Corps GHQ Reserve Corps redesignated XVI 13 May 1951 Tajo Gen. Roderick R4 Al1er4 CO HQ Camp Sendalo Tapan Components: 40 Inf. Div ? (OB of the several Divisions appended) 45 Info Div* 34 Rar 187 ROT Ryakyna Command IQ Okinawa Components: , 29 RCT 65 AAA Gun Bno 947 .AAA Gun Bn. 22 AAA and AW Rao Approved For Release 2004/0NCRETDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnm r I 11FNT I Al CON F I DO Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : 179R00971A000300020002-0 Eighth Army 1.40 Gen* Tames A* Van Fleets CG Tato GOD.* 7ohn Bo Couttorl Deputy Commender HQ Possibly Puma Corpo IA* Gene Fronk W* Milburn (relieved Augo 1951; successor not announced) Brig* Gene Thomas I. Harolds Deputy Brig* Gene Rinaldo Van Brunt s C of S lest Front Koreas no HQ known* APO 356 S.F. Components: 1 RaK Div. 1 Cavalry Dive 3 Into Div* (until 17-16 Mays 1951) 25 Info Div* IX Corps VAjo Gen* lobe M0 Hoge, CO. Brig* Gen* Thomas 7, Cross Central Front Korea., no HQ known, APO 264 S.F0 Components: 24 Info Div* 1 Marine Div, 7 Info Div* X Coma Moja Gen* Clovis E. Byerss CO. (Established in Korea 23 Sept 1950 with components: Approved For Release 2004/07/NWP79R00971A000300020002-0 rrmir I r1FAIT I Al CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/07StatyDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Eighth Army, (Conte) corps, (Cont.) 7 Info Div. 24 Info Dime 25 Info Dive 1 Caw, Div.) East Central Front Korea, no m known Present Components: 3 Info Div, (since 17-18 May 1951) 2 Infs. Div, To the right of X Corps are (or were in May) 3 ROK? 5 ROK 7 ROE and 9 ROE ' At the outbreak of hostilities in Korea each Infantry Regiment in Japan except one, was 1 battalion under strength; the 4 divisions, therefore lacked a total of 11 Infantry Battalions, They also lacked 11 FA Batteries, Righth Army as a whole was 32,000 men short of T/0 strength, In the first three months of hostilities, 100,000 troops and 2 million tons of equipment ware sent to Korea; 9 bus, of infantry, armor and artillery? while individuals fran every organization in the Army formed trained cadres for 6 additional bne, 2 Inf, Div, was brought up to strength by similar stripping of other unite and sent to Korea, 5 Inf. Div, was not yet up to strength when it sailed; the 65 info Reg, from Puerto Rico was its third regiment, 11 Aire, Dive was stripped to form a full strength Airb. RCT, the 187, Tghen the troop build-up in Korea was complete, 82 Airb, Div. was the sole remaining combat-ready division in Z I. ugh March 1951 U.S. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :C&E R00971A000300020002-0 rnwrInFmTIAI kiCONAL Approved For Release 2004/07a, kitIDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Divisions in Korea were nearly 29000 men under etrength, the difference being made up by Korean units. The integration of Korean soldiers into American ranks began with the 1 Cavalry Division in the summer of 3.950 and proved so successful that the practice was ex?ended to all American units in Korea. It was expected that American divisions in Korea would be at full strength by May 19510 Aside from U.S. and ROK troops IA action in Korea there are the following allied units: British let Cormonwealth Div. (with Belgian and Luxemburger troops attached) Turkish Brigade 21. Thailand Info Reg" attached to U.S. 8 Cave Rego 4 Greek Bno9 attached to U.S. 7 Cm.. Reg. Belgian Eno, attached to U.S. 3 Info Div. Dutch Bno9 attached to U.S. 2 Into Dive, French Bile, attached to US, 2 Info Div. Colombian Bno Ethiopian Bno Approved For Release 2004/07gAnttRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Stun rnm r nrtAT I Al C StfFG BUIAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 3e American Mound Feroes in Eteope WIVIS2A6MINAV Vt%. The ground forces of the European Conmand COh ist of the U.S Constabulary? 2 Infantry Divisions,. 1 Armored Division? and 3 Regimental Combat Teams, ae well as varioue unattachedvor unlocated units, Assuming these divisions to be at full strength, and omitting troops assigned to service units, the combat strength of our ground forces can be computed at pproximately 86,000 men as of I August 19510 Shooting strength, calculated on the basis of the appended table, t`an rersonably set at: 32 851 smell alms offensive woapons 723 mortars 405 recoilless rifles 1,269 tanks 342 artillery pieces 224 Ale16 EP AAweepores 224 M-19 SP ALA wespono Total ground strength including service, Corea and Army troops is estimated to be approximately 150,000, The New. York ?Aloft reported 100,000 in February 19510 and Times estimate of 139,000 (23 ;rely 1951)0 based upon 850000 combat soldiers, aepears to be not far wrong, The organization of emerican groend forces in Europe in as follows: Supreme Hoadquarters Allied Powers in Europe (SHAPE) Hq Rocqueneourt? France CO: General of the Army Dwight D, Eisenhower Depuby CG: Field Marshell Yonteomeey C/S: Lt e Gen, Alfred M, Gruenther Allied Forces, Central Europe Approved FOORdiease/20thignitteit ;NI (fklClflklTl Al Tt ' R00971A000300020002-0 CON Approved For Release 2004/07in Pr; itAL DP79R00971A000300020002-0 AMOriCRE GrOund Forces in Europe* (C3nt4,) Deputy 00: Gene Augustin Guillaume Allied Forees2 Southern HUrepo Gormand.= Admiral Robert Bo Gamily Ground Commander: Gano Maurizio Ln do Castiglione CiS Majo,Geno Tames Gavin United States Fora in Europe (EUCOM) Ego: Baidelbergz Germany : Gen,. Thome To lizndy C/S Majo Gen, Daniel Noce Seventh A-vmx FAO Stuttgarte Germany Lto Gen, Manton Sc Eddy V Corps Ego: Bad Neuhalml Germany OG: Maj., Gen, Zohn E Dahlquist U.S0 Constabulary 1 In Div, 4 Info Dive 2Am, Div. United States Forces in Austlim cum) Salsbarg Austria OCT Lt. Gen, S, LeRoy Irwin Approved ForRelease3004/Q7/28067?ROGF1AG90060020002-0 ciSRA TeoJa.eal come . ueno,Jer* C0 r:17e nruir nrkt-r Al CONF I DENT I A L Approved For Release 2004/0SHREIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Amerie und reeves in Europe o Cont.) Ttleete U 'tad States Troops (Treat) Bee: Trieete Ca : Maj. Geno Edmund Bo Sabres The exact relationship existing between SHAPE, EUCCM and Seventh Army at the present time is not clear? Before the outbreak of war in Korea, EUCOM exercised authority over all American forces in Europe, the principal tactical units being the let Infantry Division and the U.S. Constabulary when the Seventh Army was reactivated, in November 19500 it assumed tactical control; and Eucaul became primarily a logistical support commando' In theory, the Seventh Alley is already subordinate to General Znin, Allied Commander for Central Europe under SHAPE.. SHAPE ?3 to be operational headquarters for all allied force n Europe, while EUCOM will handle administrative peobleme for American troops Acteally, however, EUCOM appears to be still under the direct control of the Department of the Army and perfoems meat of the functions not already taken over by the Seventh Armee Eventually, of course, American forces will be mexe closely integeated into the projected Allied armies under SBAPE. Men the organization ef SHAPE is completed, the Seventh Army will take its place beside other Allied units onder the central authority. But it is probable that MUM, or a similar eomaana will be retained as a direet channel of communication between WeehiPston and American troopsin Europeo Since 'Jalapa 1950, two dierieions, the 4 Infantry Division and the 2 asmored Divisione have been sent to Europe o Before the end of 1951 they be joined by two more, the 28 Infantry Division and the 43 Infantry Division. With theee will go VII Corps Beadeaarters now Ii Approved For Release 2004/07/3SECUTP79R00971A000300020002-0 emir I 'WAIT I A I CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/0WEIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Amerioem Ground Forces in Europe. (Cont.) the Second Army's, &I. Unlike moot Faticual Guard divisions of World War 11 the 28 and 43 retain. their Ketional Guard cadres almost intetto In spite of some shortage of equipment their condition iconsidered good 2 thozigh far from perfecto This will provide a force equivalent to 6 divisions (4 Infantry 1 armared2 and the Constabulary) a112 except the 26 and 4, under the recently established V 0o/pso On the basis of General Ogden/s monograph on the so-so/lad division slice presented to to the Abuse Committee on Appropriations, which allows 50,000 theatre troops per division of 182000 mono total American ground forces in Germany would then amount to roughly -500,000 men. This rigure4 when increased by the units assigned to Austrian Trieste 2 The United Kingdom mad elsewhere2 appears compatible with Seorstetrzr Marshal:Vs estimate of 3400000 ground troops in Europe by the end of 1952, by which time; all divisions and their supporting units should have arrived. General 0ollins.9 figure of 2862000 ground troops by 50 Tura /952 indicates that these supporting units will be transferred to Europe mere slowly than the divisions. Recent developments have shown the general form to be anticipated for EUCOM0 The port of entry as Late as lune 1951 was Bremerhaven; a line from Bordeaux through Verdun and Metz has now been designated as the cemmunication zone o This would obviously be a great advantage if American forces ware compelled to withdraw to the Rhine. Another arrangement looking in the same direction, and alse.a step in the general integration of the European ;ort...en, i6 the estebliehnt of em American supply base at Kaiserslauternn and a training iraa suet to the north at Batimholder, both in the :Trench Zone west of the Rhir", Approved For Release 2004/07/FiltrP79R00971A000300020002-0 jt. nnuctilptsTIAI CONE I DENT I AL Approved For Release 2004/07/2SnitEr79R00971A000300020002-0 American Ground Foroes in Europe (Conte) The area from the Rhine to the present line is evidently being cleared so far as possible of all except combat It is signifieant for the understanding of their proposed function that the 28 and 43 Divisions are to be given training against airborne attack from their rear. One other recent event shows the increased importance of poeitions in the South: the landing at Leghorn of 1,200 troops, 100 of whom were to be kept to operate the base while the rest go to MIA*, (5er:eldeyriburet 13 Aug 0 1951) This may be a step in the utilization of Mediterranean ports, adequately protected by the fleet:, as major bases for the forces in Austria. Finallye. total Allied strength rests not only upon the contribution of the American army but upon those of our allies- as well. At preeent, British and. Frenoh troops on occupation duty in Germany provide the bulk of these forces. According to the New brk irMetst (15 end 20 May 9 Jruly 1951) present plans call for .4 British divisions:, 10 French (5 ready and 5 in reserve)* 5 Italian? and various units front the smaller countries to be- available by the end of 19510 According to the New Yogsp72:?13 (12 Aug. 1951) the troops available to SHAPE by 31 Dec. 3.951 will be 4 British divisions; 10 French (5 combateroady? 5 at 3 days' notice); 5 Italian infantry divisions, 2 brigades of Alpine troops, and 3. armored brigade (but the training and equipment of these are inadequate); Danish division (brigade accordieg to the lieralt,ItTr,iblatt. Nay 19511 this together with one Norwegian brigathe would be in Schleewigefliellseeen to guard the Kiel Canal); 1 Netherleinle ROT (6,000, eon); 5 Belgian divisions. The Times (25 Zuly n51) 6f3titreatOS that, by tt4 end of this year there ii1i be 500,000 A.111-ed sold:bees and ainreerA in Germany. It mat S. roved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R09971A0003001020002-0 promavure, nowever;? to 'mike znese comanbuylona or granted; SEVIEE CON sEgREITAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Allled Ground Forme in I Cont ) and Secretary Marehe13.90 atatement that tb.s NATO powers will have 205000000 men in active service by the end of 102 (pw. !tat- Ilnyas ? 28 'July 1951) will require the maximum effort end efficierey of all oarties concerned? Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECRET NIKIP I nglJT I A I CONF I DctIT I A L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :a A Hi 19R00971A000300020002-0 Other Oversee Commands no leeland Defense Force Advance detachment of 200 treSe taps arrived in Iceland, 7 May 19510 This is a unified force, consisting of Army, Navy, and Air Force nereennele It is under the operational control of CIC? Atlantic Fleet, Activities center on two airports, Keflavik and Reykjavik* Listening posts and other strategic installations are located elaewherce Radar and weather etations are to he eatabliehed on a largo smile* be Aia4can Commaad Alm Alaska The principal Army installations in Aleska are those at Fort Riehardeon and at Ladd Air Force Reee. Fort Richardson 7 miles northeast of Aneherageole the headqeaxtees and center of all Army activity in the area In March 1950, total strength at Fort Richardson was 4,185 men, charged primarily with the defense of EleendorZ Air Force Besse in Jelly len? the 196 ReT, a South Dakota National Guard unit in training at Camp C4rson? Colorado-, since August 1950, was ordered to Anchorage, Alaska* It was to proceed by sea to Baines. Alaska; and enago in mareuvers during the month of August before teking up permanent etation at Anchorage* Ladd Air Force Bees, Fairbanks, Alsam, had a station complement of 396 men in March 19500 Its facilities are being emeanded, however, and elements of the 4 Info Ret e from Ceme Carson have arrived* The station mill eventually be capable of aocomodating an entire regiment. The teoops ere -intended for defense of the Air Baas, the most northerly bomber and fighter base in Alaska. Arctic teat facilities are .to be 1"att$Origkd For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 n n tatideRiA bla.44 Approved For Release 2004C/O07N/FM. Vial-P79R00971A000300020002-0 4, Other Oversee. Commands, (Cont) Another station-worthy of note is Eielsou AF Base, AG miles southwest of Fairbanks, The largest bomber bass in Alaska it had a defonding force of 166 men in Ally 1950. Plans appalr.antly exist for the eorpMnsion of this force, Budget plant presented to the Flbuse Appropriations Committee in /961 call for conotruction of barracks for 400 men; but this was said to be far short of etentual needs and the ultimate planned strength of the bass is classified ,information, In Xuly 1950* 884 men were stationed at Whittier, Alaska, the port, of entry for troops and supplies for both Ary and Air Force on the mainland. There is no indication that the strength of this post has been increased, Finally,, Big Delta, Alaska, ASO 733, 105 miles southeaot of Felrbanks, should ba noted as the home of the Army Arotic Trainiug Center, Strategic plans- for Alaska are discussed in. the New York Times of 19 August 19510 Half a billion dollars are scheduled for the next 4 years, almost all4?-propriated or authorized since Tuly 1950,6 Persomnel, at air' basesare now being increased, radar and A& installations built up along the sea coast, hichways oonstruoted to connect air fields with harbors, The garrison of Marks Field Air Base at No is being increased The .defense lino now rung from Fairbanks down the Alaska railroad through. Elmendorf Field, Ft, Richardson area to Kodiak - a 550 mile line of air bases and garrisons, o, Caribbean Command (rftS. 011117- Caribbean?) The defense of the Caribbean area has bewo entrusted to a unified armed forces command oonsisting of U.S. Army Caribbeon, the Caribbean Approved For Release 2004/07/28 sattlErR00971A000300020002-0 rtrtki C 1 nrkiT I A I CSEDIRIAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Oth,1:, ?verso& Ocarnands. (Coat Air 012sand and the Caxibbean Sea Frostier. Unita listed in Apperzlix V are t:, only erns, aside from Puezto Ric cn National Guard outfitE4 which 0?0/1 be located in this area. Pacific Command SU.8. Army? Pacific) Like the Caribboan the Pacific Oxameend has been largely by-passed by recent military developments. The increasing _American commitments to the defense of the Far East have cantered upo;:x Korea? 5apenv and Okinawa; and there is no evidence of any build-up of ground forces .118ewhere in the Pacific area. Approved For Release 2004/07/28SEREIT79R00971A000300020002-0 PrIkIr I nclJT I A I CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/07/2SECIREKTP79R00971A000300020002-0 E. Manpower and Training 1. Army Strength In June, 1950, the Secretary of Defense reported 593,000 men on active duty in the Army. This force was organized as 10 divisions, additional regimental combat teams and supporting units. By June, 1951, more than 1,2000000 men had been called to service, leaving a net total of more than 6,550,000 for the Army. Present plans call for stabiliza- tion of Arpy manpower at between 1,500,000 and 1,6000000, according to General Collins. About 630,000 vill be eligible for release in fiscal 1952 and present plans call for recruitment of enough new nanpower to maintain the balance. This will provide the equivalent of 24 divisions -18 organized as divisions andthe rest as RCT is (18). Two more divi- sions added to the 16 currently on active duty will complete this total. In addition to the 18 divisions General Collins has predicted the federalization of two additional National Guard divisions; and Mrs. Rosenberg has stated that two divisions will be recruited by June 1952 from troops now assigned to non-combat duty. These additions would make a grand total of 29 divisions or their equivalmt, including the U. S. constabulary in Germany, at the end of the current fiscal year. The distinction of U. S. ground forces at the present time is roughly as follows. The projected strength of the Army as of 30 June, 1951 was 1,552,000 men. MaXiMUM strength of forces in the Zone of the Interior during fiscal 1951 was 981,988 men. EstinvIting 1500000 troops in Europe approximately 420,000 resin for the Far Etstern and other iwernca2 commands of thesop probably 400,000 arH actual in the ksr Eattt,, Approved For Release 2004/07/28Etttr79R00971A000300020002-0 PCIAIC I nrkiT I A I CONF Approved For Release 2004/07/28V A51 Fi9R00971A000300020002-0 The avelage strength of the Army for fiscal 1951 and 1952 had been presented to Congress as follows: 195.2:. . 1952 _......,._. Comnissioned officers 89,172 120,600 Warrant officers 7,925 14,700 Nurses and MSC 5,296 8.,000 Enlisted pereennel 984,647 1,385,200 Cadets, USMA 2,33t 2phCO / Totals 1,089,374 453102002 -1 July, 1950x 539,000; 30 June 1951: 1,5310000. 21 ,July, 1951 and 30 June? 1952. 2. Suarees of manpauer Ore of the basic problems with which the armed forces must deal is that of recruiting and maintaining, in the most efficient and equitable ray possible, a force commensurate in size and degree of pre- paredness with their broadening responsibilities. Furthermore, plans are being made to keep available, or in ready reserves trained troops to meet emergency requirements during an indefinite period of international tension, It vas to meet this need that the Department of Defense proposed a Universal Military Training program, now to be elaborated by the Nation- Ea Security Training Commission in accordance with the terms of the Select- ive Military Training and Service Act of 1951. The act provides for the establithment of a Universal Military Training 'nog:elm under which 18 year old men Will be trained for 6 months in a National Security Training Corps. Upon completion of this period, the men well be held in a Reserve Corps for 71 years. Such a program, if ele:essefA4WOMP41114t4easellgikaOTZW:WP4UIP79RA0914400engi2QeVdr the SEOETr ad.rl cirick CON F Ie Approved For Release 2004/07/4 e P79R00971A000300020002-0 3"? Army in time of need while avoiding the necessity of maintaining an expensive military establishment during periods of relative peace. Actual setting-up of laa must wait upon approval by Congress of regula- tions to be dreun up by the National Security Training Commission and proclamation by the President that men under 19 years of age are no longer needed for the draft. It is not expected to go into effect in the near future. For its immediate needs, the Army must rely upon existing means of procuring eanpower. Enlistments, Selective Service, the National Guard and Reserve programs are the channels through which the strength of the Army is sustained. a. Voluntaay enlistment. Voluntary enlistments between July 1950 and April 1951 were 198,000 men, in addition to whom the Army reported 61,000 immediate and 33,000 delayed re-enlistments for a total of 292,0000. Of the 630,000 men to he released from service during fiscal 1952, 200,000 are expected to re- enlist. The reliability of such expectations, however, together with that of predictions as to the number of first-time volunteers, depends almost entirely upon future events. Mhile the Army mast obviously attempt to calculate the number of voluntary enlistments it can count upon during the months ahead, such calculations must always be held sUbject to change without notice. International or militaey developments, or changes in regulations concerning the draft, may, as they have in the past, bring about striking upeard or downward fluctuations in the rate of volunteering. b. Selective Service. The Selective lilitaey Training and service Act of 1951 now governs the recruitment of military personnel by means of the draft, Tizder f3 raga% RN I elge 13thliftn4 81r OrtnEkki:94' 1030 6.163020062 er rnkir I rICAIT I Al CON F [SECRET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 all of the 1925,- age group has been exhausted by their local board. Physical standards have been reduced to those acceptable in January 1945; 4,11ei the carrerit?mental etandard is a score of 65 on the Amy General Classification Test. The new standards should make available approximately 500,000 men previously classified le-F. Under. earlier draft legislation, 816,124 men between the ages of 19 and 26 were reported eligible for induction in October 1950, with 457,000 more becoming available annually. In addition to the 500:000 4-Fs, the Act of 1951 makes available an undetermined number of 18i year olde, while changes in deferments on account of dependents are expected to release 235,000 moreibr 1-A classification. It is apparent that the new law has, thus, significantly increased the manpower pool on which the angled services can dreew. With the October 1951 quota, the number of men drafted since June: 1950 will reach 675,004of whom 430,000 men: chiefly from the draft: will be necessaxy as replacements during the coming fiscal year. Monthly draft calls have recently been increased. In July, 1951, only 15,000 men were drafted. The August quota of 22,000 has been raised to 35,000 with 7,000 going to the Marine Corps* The September quota is 34,000: of which 6:000 are for the Marines. In October: 14,000 are to be called: mith 5,000 of that number going to the Hardnes. A rise in the monthly draft. quota to 65,000 men has been predicted for the near future? and it is probable that monthly quotas will at least continue . to run above 40,0oo. Here again, circumstances as they develop AIII 'unquestionably affect ultimate decisions. c. National Guard. - The strength of the National Guard on 30 June 1951 was 235,000 men, organized in 3,588 units. Most of these are organized as infantry divi'3/-0170?adraketigSaW4/81/ffiel* M0094TAS8Regio'Or ar0 the 0 L prud rI I1PAIT I A I CON F ISEORET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RUP79R00971A000300020002-0 organized Guard Divisions, those now active being rmsrked 26 Mass. 27 N.Y. *28 Pa. 29 md., Va., W. Va. 30 Ala., Miss. 32 Wis. 33 34 Iowa, Nebr. 35 Kan., 36 Tax. 37 Ohio 38 Ind. 39 La., Ark. ith0 Calif. hi Oreg., VJash. h2 *143 Com., R.I., Vt. hh hUb *45 Okla. 46 Mich. *47 Minn.., N. flak. 48 Pla.01 Ga. 49 Calif. 51 S.C., Fla. Armored Tex. 50 Armored N.J. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SC RET PrIldr I 11 MTI AI CON IEKEIL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 In additions the following non-divisional tmite are projected: 21 RCTs 103 Maine 107 Biz. iii Pa., 114 N.J. :49 KY. 150 W. Va. 157 Colo. 158 Ariz., 163 Mont. 166 Ohio 176 Va. 178 Ill. 182 Mass. 195 N.H. 196 S. Dak. 278 Tenn. 295 puerto Rico 296 Puerto Rico 293 Hawaii 299 Hawaii The allotted strength of a Guard Division is 130941 men; a Guard RCT is allotted 30465 man. But the 1952 budget liermits 100% officer strength and 50% enlisted strength for all units now organized or authorized0 not including units on Federal duty. The proposad strength of the National Guard/03A% dePdr laggaA01440/21(4:SXAW,PYR009',11A0etideb6204420@fl power n kl I nrtiiIRFT CON Approved For Release 2004/07/ glair 1- tiMIIDP79R00971A000300020p0k0 0 a is to be recruited in the following nanner: Returning guardsmen 281583 Returning guardsmen with incompleted terms of state enlistment 150000 New recruits for present 30588 units 26,000 New recruits for 325 new units 10:000 Additions from pool of 350,000 returnees 14,806 Total 843389 The training of National Guard units is treated in the discussion of the Amy training program. During the summer of 1951 approximately 4,000 Guard units trained at summer camps across the country. At Pine Oetmps New York: alone: 65,000 guardsmen and reservists received 2 weeks! training? More than 100,000 National Guard troops have been called to active (duty with the Army since the outbreak of rer in Korea. 12224 National Guard company-size units had been called by 30 Novembers 1950. These units: averaging 50% of T.O. strengths were filled by men drawn from the 0.E.C. In addition to the 6 National Guard divisions sir:nal-3y federalized, General Collins has predicted that trio additional divisions may be called up during the current fiscal year, These divisions will probably be New York, Texas or Illinois guardsmen. National Guard divisions: including those about to be sent overseas, have been used as replacement pools for units already in combat. The 28 Infantry Division (N000) has sent 6,000 trained draftees to other unit,s. The 31 Infantry Division (N cGo) has lost 49300 men as replacaRralts to other units; 'stile the 113 Infantry Division (N.G.) has trained 6s5O0 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 ?SECRET, A, CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004?7C2RETA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 draftees and sent them elsewhere. Clearly, National Guard units Which are used for such purposes should be considered a part of the basic training program. d. Organized Reserve Corps. New policies for reserve forces Imre announced by the Secre- tary of Defense in April, 1951. They are stated in Department of Defense, Office of public Information, release No. 516-51. Some of the policies announced have already gone into effect, but many await authorization by Congress before the contemplated revision of reserve policies can be coal- ? pleted. A fundamental change which the new program will effect is the division of the Reserve into Ready, Stand-by and Retired classes, based upon differing degrees of preparedness and availability. Recent Changes in regu- lations concerning the Organized Reserve Corps have generally been steps in the direction of re-organization along the lines laid dawn by the basic policy statement. On 1 Mar& 1951, the O.R.C. reported 158,989 reservists in organized units and 313,931 individual reservists, including honorary and Inactive Reserve. The total for the Active Reserve was 293,320 men. The budget for fiseal 1952 provides for an end strength of 205,000 active members for the O.R.C. aEarly readya units are to be at 100% officer and 50% enlisted strength. BY 3. January 1951, 783 Reserve units had been celled to active duty, with 50477 officers and 20,222 enlisted men. Mary reservists have been celled up on an individual basis, to strengthen National Guard and other outfits. 33,410 officers and 94,843 enlisted men had entered active service on this basis by the same data. Additional units and individuals have been called up since January - the number of units was 852 by March - but the bulk of those likely to be drawn upon were Probe:We" called in the early months of the ewe Present plans ca resezeliptemidfletaoihRP their replacement by other pore nntar I nckti- I A II! AI I StrO ?.1111 C ? *g MIAS 44 I 4 v lei (a enlisted possible Approved For Release 2004/ TIAL lh-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 3. Aralrainiqg_tr_ogram '3m To an extraordinary degree the efficacy of any Army depends upon the character of its training program. This is particularly true of countries lacking a strong military tradition or enjoying relatively high standards of civilian life under urban conditions. Men from such backgrounds must be thoroughly trained to the rigors of life in the field and to the habits of discipline and cooperation so vital to successful military operations. The process by which civilians are being made into soldiers deserves attention as a clue to the caliber of the fighting men the United States is capable of putting into the field. Like many other aspects of the Army, its training program has been considerably revised sihce the outbreak of the Korean War. Increases in the draft and in the demand for combat soldiers have necessitated enlargment of training facilities. The training establishment in the Zone of the Interior has more than doubled since June, 1950? In July, 19510 the basic training period was increased from 14 to 16 weeks to provide more time for combat train- ing. Qualitatively, too, basic training has been improved. Greater emphasis is being put on physical conditioning, infiltration courses, night problems and other exercises simulating combat conditions, notably the use of live ammunition in training exercises. In recent months veterans from Korea have been brought home to assist in the training of recruits. These men have been critical of the program for its failure adequately to prepare men for combat; and, 'with their aid, trainees are now receiving more realistic preparation. Commanders responsible for the training program have kept in close touch with developments in Korea and have constantly recommended changes to bring training more closely into line with the practical lessons learned there. Approved For Release 2004/07itatrP79R00971A000300020002-0 OrMIC I 11PAIT I A I CON F 40111ET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 46 At present there are 16 training and indoctrination centers handling recruits. Ten of these are operated by the training divisions listed =dim 311 Appe4dix Vp 2iimmilimmixixnx Zone of the Interior. As noted there, these divisions, whether designated as Infantry, Armored or Airborne, all handle general indoc- trination, basic infantry combat training, squad tactics and subjects common to all arms and services. The other basic training centers are located at various service schools, where the same program is carried on for the first six weeks. At the end of this period recruits selected for specialized train- ing are released and sent to the special service schools or to specialist training units for the remainder of the training period. Those who are to remain in the Infantry, or who are candidates of officer of NCO training, continue the regular basic training course. The latter portion of this course stresses training under field conditions and in larger units. Between 30,000 and 35,000 men are now being turned out monthly by the basic training program; and it is expected that the number will reach 50,000 per month before the end of the year. The chief difficulties encounter- ed to date have been the lack of experienced cadres and of sufficient weapons, especially of new types, for the training centers. As production increases and more veteran combat soldiers are brought into the program these problems should disappear. There have been scattered complaints of facilities inade- quate in other respects, each as housing, but these have been largely the re- sult of rapid expansion and will probably be corrected in time. Special service centers or schools exist for each branch of the service. At these centers advanced training in the weapons, techniques and duties of the branch is given. The following are the stations and branches of the special service schools: Approved For Release 2004/0Mers?LTDP79R00971A000300020002-0 dizunE rI LIT I Al 4aPPEtt NT IAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Ft. Benning, Ga. Infantry Ft. Knox, Ky. Armor Ft. Sill, Okla. Artillery & Helicopter Ft. Bliss, Texas AAA I Guided Missile Ft. Belvoir, Va. Engineer Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Ordnance Ft. Lee, Va. QM, AG Ft. Eustis, Va. Transportation Ft. Monmouth, N.J. Signal Ft, McClellan, Ala. Chemical (effective 15 October 1951) Edgewood Arsenal, Ind. Chemical Camp Gordon, Ga. Signal & MP Ft. Sam Houston, Texas Medical Ft. Lewis, Washington Clerk-Typist Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Ind. Finance Officer candidate schools are now in operation at the Infantry School, Ft. Benning; the Artillery School, Ft. Sill, and the Army General School, Ft. Riley. Additional officer candAate ezhools will be opened at the Signal, Engineer and Armored Schools, 1 September 1951. A five-month course is given officer candidates, who will now number approximately 8,000 a year. In addition to the branch service schools the Army operates a number of specialist schools and colleges to train officers and some enlisted men in complementary techniques. These specialist schools are the following: *Armed Forces information School, Ft. Slocum, N.Y. Army Language School, Presidio of Monterey, Calif. Army Security Agency school, Carlisle Barracks, Pa. In cooperation wrthiavy and Air Force. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 3EGNEPT9R00971A000300020002-0 r.r11,1C I rirkrr I A I CON F I DERVIET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 C1C School, Camp Holabir. Md. Sinal Photo Scl,00l, Sbecial Service School, Ft. Monmouths N.J. *Strategic Intelligence School, Washington, D.C. Quartermaster Subsistance Schools Chicago, Ii1.0 QM Depot Army Medical Department Research Graduate Schools '4Aehilegton. D. C. Psychological Warfare Schcoi, Ft. Riley, Kansas Ooint service schools, training senior officers in joint and calbined operatetons, strategic planning and logistic-economic factors affecting national policy are: ;National 4ar College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa. Armed Forces Staff Colicges Norfolks Va. Industrial College of the Armed'..,orces Washington, i) 4C The Coymend and General Staff College, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, trains Army officers in tactical and staff operations at a somewhat lower level. This training provided by the schools listed is primarily indiYidual in nature, concerned with acquainting the individual soldier with the noilede eechniques necessary for the bast performance of the functions assigned him. At leart equally important is group or unit training in tactical operations at aLl Levels, Onle through such training can the officers find the oppeetunity to put their knowledge of tactics and planning to the teet of practice, and ?mil officers and enlisted men font the habit of working together as a enit in cooperation with other units. Likewise, the leesons learned in the spoeleitst br ,-10.1.3 are tsere put to use in A eleee rcaiist'ce way, unit training: ippliefi a test of iudivicuaA. ,aoat.4-53 at ;-it same Lime a i J)e.pares / tn coonraton with Navy and Air For,D, Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECRET orlki nrmi- I Al CON F I DAL Approved For Release 2004/07/28: TR00971A000300020002-0 ta4 the unit foe combat operations. In every sense? operations of this type are the keystone of the entire training system. Unit training may take seseral forma. In some instances, divisions or other units set. up special schools to train all, or a part of, their men in some particular technique. The I Arm. Division, Ft? Hood, has established both a Chemical Defense School and a Ranger Training Program for its men. Units may be assigned to a particular locality to take advantage of its geo- graphical or climatic peculiarities for training purposes. Examples are Camp Carson, Colo., where units are trained in mountain and cold weather warfare, or the Army Arctic Training Center, Dig Delta, Alaskd. Camp Irwin, Calif. has recently been reactivated as the Army Armored Combat Training Center and units of the 43 Division, shortly to embark for Europe, hays been sent there for tactical training in the desert. It As, perhaps questionable whether the desert is the ideal place to train troops few of whom are likely to see combat Linden desert conditions; but it may be the only practical place from the point of view of availability. At a higher level of training joint maneuvers, such as "Operation Southern Pine" currently in progress in North Carolina in which elements of the 82 Airborne, the 11 Airborne and the 28 and 43 Infantry Division are partici- pating, provide opportunity for expeeience in cooperation for large-scale operations and for testing the validity of previous training. Such maneuvers, furthermore, approach as closely as possible to operations under actual coabat eonditions, Their value lies VI the accuracy with which they reveal flays in training which need to be eliminated before units arc committed to the )ina. For instance, early stages of the Southern Pine op-ration showed a serious breakdown in air-ground co-ordination through shortages and failures in reffo equipment. Five field exercises of this kind are planned as the culmination Approved For Release 2004/07AMIDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnmrI nrkrr I A I CON F,]EpaTelt L Approved For Release 2004/07/A4ItP79R00971A000300020002-0 A of training for major units before July 1952. Even after units are ready and have been shipped overseas, training programs are continued to keep them ready for action. In Japan, the 40 and the 45 Infantry Divisions, whose departure from the ZI was rushed, are continuing their training at Camp Sendai. In Germany, a German army training area at Grafenwoehr has, until recently, been used by American units of regimental size or smaller. A new area is to be used in the future. This is presumably at Baumholder, west of the Rhine, where elements of the 4 Inf. and 2 Arm. Divi? sione are now in training. The 1 Inf. Division, in Germany since 1945 on occupation duty has been trained in airborne operations and is now capable of packing and loading all its equipment except the 155 mm. howitzers. This training may well have been carried out with any eye to rapid evacuation in the days when the division was almost alone in Germany. Indication of the nature of future training overseas is given in the report that the 28 and the 43 Divisions, after their arrival in Germany this winter, will undergo special training in dealing with airborne attacks in their rear. In addition to such operations, less spectacular forms of training are constantly in progress at the unit level. Also in Europe, the Army operates a group of schools and training centers whose object is to maintain a high level of competence and to provide opportunities for advancement for able men. These are: Ansbach, EUCOM Signal School Bamberg, EUCOM Ordnance School Eschwege, Ordnance School Crarmlech, intelligence and M? School, Engineer School Hemmelburg, Army Training Grounds Kitzingen? Kitzingen Training Center Approved For Release 2004/07/2.8 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 ?EGRET I 11PIJT I A I CONF[Q Approved For Release 2004/07/24 P79R00971A000300020002-0 Mannheim, EUCOM Transportation, School - Munich, Constabulary. NCO Academy Oberammergau, European Command Intelligence School Vilseck, Tank Training Center. Foreign soldiers have participated in the training offered at these centers, but there has been no participation to date of allied and U.S. units in com- bined maneuvers. Combined maneuvers of British, French and U.S. troops are scheduled for 14-23 September 1951. A discussion of the Armycs Information and Education program is not considered to fall within the limits of this report. The National Guard, A.O.T.C. and O.R.C. programs, since they are expected to account for over 350,000 men in 19512 are worthy of notice.. The National Guard program is based on a weekly drill supplemented by occasional week-end training periods and by an annual two-reek field training period. Since these units are at far from full strength the value of their training is questionable, or at least variable. Of the four National Guard divisions called to Federal service ?since June 1950, none is yet considered ready for combat duty; and all have undergone extensive training periods in spite of the training previously carried on. On the other hand, the 278 infaatry Regta Tennesse National Guard is con- eidered a crack outfit. After training at Ft. Devens and Fine Camp, one of its companies was assigned to Camp Buckner, West Point, in June, 1951, for two months training with the cadets of the United States Military Academy. The Organized Reserve Corps sustains a somewhat similar training program, based on a combination of weekly drills and an annual field training period. Evaluation of the program 13 impossible sinee there have been nore- ports on Reserve units in action and since the majority of Reservists have been called as individuals and assigned to Regular Army or National Guard units. It would appear, however, for various reasons including the lack of sufficient Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :p1A-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECRET rnwrinrktT I A I CON F SECRET_ Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 4 funds, that the Reserve program to date has only begun to develop its fall potentialities. (For further discussion of the National Guard and O.R.C. see section on Manpower.) The R.O.TX.? rhich now supplies more than 60% of the newIrecommissioned officers of the Regular Army, has become a crucial factor in Army plans and training. After four years of military training in college and one summer of field training, the men from this program are ab- sorbed into the Regular Army where they are providing an increasing proportion of the necessary leadership. Finally, it may be observed that with training, as with every other aspect of military preparedness, "the battle is the pay-off." The effectiveness of Aruy training receives its ultimate test in combat, while the lessons learned there must be incorporated into arty realistic training program. The battle- field is, consequently, the most important training area of all. In this respect, the Korean War has exerted an undoubtedly beneficial influence. It has cetab- lished practical standards against which the whole training system can be measured. And it is now beginning to supply combat-tested cadres, personally familiar with the latest developments in warfare, to bridge one of the most important gaps between the training centers andthe front lines. A late addition to information concerning training: 1. Training manoeuvers scheduled for the coming year and referred to above have been identified as: a. Operation Sand Hill, involving 2 Infantry and 1 Airborne divisions - approximately 110,000 men. b. Operation Snow Fall, scheduled for January-February, 1952, involving 1 Airborne division, 1 ROT and 1 Armored Cavalry. regiment (300000 troops) in venter operations. c. Operation long Horn, with I Armored division, 1 Infantry division and I riCT at Ft. Hood, Texas, stressing .air-ground training for 80,000 troops. ApimploOftengfiltismia0,94/Sgnae '41 RAW (19MPPAYR41.9ch are still to be made. N'IMP I nrkrr IA I COVeh,titetAL Approved For Release 2004/07V2I8YHIL1RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 F. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ARMY rEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT. Weapons and eppipment common to all services are treated in Section V of this report. The developments with which this section is concerned are primarily those affecting the offensive weapons of the Infantry, Artillery and Armored branches. Modernization of weapons and equipment in these categories vas already underlay before the beginning of the Korean ware Neu tanks were being developed and tested, while many of the basic infantry weapons were undergoing striking changes, Events in Korea have provided an enormous incentive for the per- fection and production of experimental models. At the same time, the Army has been forced to draw heavily upon its slim stock of modernized equipment. It was front page news when a new and improved bazooka was rushed to the front in the early months of the Korean war. Units sta- tioned in the Zone of the Interior were stripped of their equipment to supply the combat forces. To date, only one battalion of Te46 Patton tanks? already on the wee to obsolescence, has been reported in action in Korea. U. S. forces in Europe have no tanks of the latest models; and the 28 and 43 Infantry divisions, soon to sail for Europe, lack their full TO and E allotments of even basic infantry equipment. Tank production is currently running 20% behind schedule. Despite these difficulties, progress it being mules and the following peges and tables will show the extent to which new weapons and equipment are becoming available. In general, two fundamental trends are discernible in recent developments in this field0 In the first place, increased mobility for infantry and armor has been considered of great importance. The lightening of infantry weapons, the use of armored personnel carriers, the improved engines in the new tanks, air training for infantry divi- -: ipspprDfostwippiweAochipui le7t9ROIONJAOR192OngSga0 purposea r I IICkIT I At CONE I DSECIBET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 All conform to this trend. The second trend is the effort to increase the fire power of combat troops. For the infantry, this takes the form of increased rates of fire for most basic infantry weapons and larger caliber weapons, i.e., e5J0 cal. machine gun and 105 mm. recoil-less rifle. In artillery and tank arma- ment, the trend takes the form of higher . muzzle velocities for the guns. Specific information concerning improvements in certain weapons and equipment follows: 1. Small Arms and Infantry Equipment woosisc+ssoransuans,,Airs....ramaalvramn The two main trends in connection with infantry are: a) to increase the mobility of the individual soldier b) to increase the fire-power of the individeal soldier a. As a means of increasing the mobility of the individual soldier, including the economy of transporting him be air, it is hoped to reduce the weight of his equipment and arms by as much as 65%. Items in this program are: New helmets in ehich steel is replaced by an aluminum shell with nylon-plastic lining, which weighs 8% less _and gives 15% more protection. Nea entrenching tools which reduce the soliderqs load by 3 lbs. 14 ow, NOW 3.5n bazooka, lighter than the old 2.36n. Lighter rifle, pistol, machine gun and =munition. b. It has been estimated that sometimes 75% of availeble rifle firu- power is not used by riflemen in combat. This must be Overcome Chiefly by Approved For Release 2004/07/280.R079R00971A000300020002-0 a CU "Aid C I r1CAIT I A I CONF ti: Approved For Release 2004/07/2;. JEIN- -R P79R00971A000300020002-0 training, but the introduction of new weapons ha o so far affected the situation that while the division has increased since world War II from 13,500 to 18,900, its fire-power has increased 50%. Setting aside weapons well-established and well-publicized by the end of World War II, information on which is available in the Army Almanac and in Barnes* Weapons of World War II, the following are worthy of comment: Oilkaitamm.m?????????04.1. N2, .30 cal. Carbine. Selective automatic version of the semi-automatic carbine; 30 round magazine; cyclic rate of fire 750 rounds per minute. T20? (or O25?), JO cal. Rifle. Fally automatic; 2i lbs0 lighter than the Garand; 20 round clip; 750 rounds per minute. Expected to replace both rifle, 111 and carbine and perhaps the light machine gun. N18, 57 ma. Reccealess Rifle; weight 40.25 lbs., =denim range with heavy anti-tank ammunition, 4400 yam; muzzle velocity, 1200 feet per second; elevation -665?, -27?. M20, 75 mm. Recoilless Rifle; weight 103 lbs.; maximum rage with high-explosive anti-tank al-munition, 7000 yards; muzzle velocity 1000 feet per second; elevation 465?1 -270 . 105 rm. Recoilless Rifle; weight 750 lbs.; length 13 feet; ranges 5 miles; rate of fire 10 rounds per minute. Jeep-mounted. Primarily an anti-tank weapon, which can K.O. any known foreign tank. .60 cal. Machine Gun. Fires faster and hits harder than the 050 cal. which it is expected to replace; it has higher velocity and flatter trajectory. Farthermore? the barrel can be =sera-Aid without tools and another substituted which fires Approved For Release 2004/07/StgirE P79R00971A000300020002-0 rilld ci nr KIT I A I ' CONee :'EI AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 20 uffri, shone, It can be set up in position and fid by remote control, having been loaded with anough rounds to operate all night under normal conditions. Anti?tank grenade now being purchased from Belgium. Fired from N1 rifle3 range about 100 yards; shaped charge lbsc; pierces 200 mm?, of tough armor. The grenade is pecultarly ridged and not readily deflected from the most sharply angled armor plate. The army has ordered 6,918 aniperscopes, infrared telescopos mounted on M2 Carbine and powered by springmound 10 lb?, generator. The operator mars special goggles which Wow him to see the infrared ray in the dark. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :A-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SECRET r.ntkiF I [WWII Al CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001 ofiE1A-1DP79R00971A000300020002-0 ? 2, Mc rtezt The effort to :lighten the soldier's load has led to experiments with a titanium baseplate for the 60 mm. and 81 mm. mortars.. See the report on chamieals for further information. A second important development affecting mortars is the incorpora- tion of the 4.2" mortar into the infantry regiment. Formerly, the 4.2" was opsrated exclusively by personnel of the Chemical Warfare Service, working in close cooperation with. the infantry. Since 1945, a tisavy ;Mortar Company has been assigned to each infantry regiment, replacing the anti-tank companies of World War II. Monster mortars -include the 250 MU6 mortar, built for use against the Siegfried line, which was never actually employed in coMbat, and the 914 ma. mortar (Little David) which, did see action in World War II. While it is rumored that the latter may be capable of firing atomic shells, it seems more probable that the development of guided missiles and atomic artil- lery will make the large mortarsobsolete. A reported new locator which finds end directs fire on Mortar emplacements, if praTed practicable, should contribute to this result. Approved For Release 2004/07/SIECIEr79R00971A000300020002-0 rriNr, rIFKITIA1 CON FSEDDE TL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 71 . The in eases in range and in muzzle velocity which are the goal of most of improve artillery weapons, regnike similar increceees in the size and weight of the galas. Thie situetion presents a challenge for the development and application of new materials and techniques if mobility,. one or thevital aspects of modern artillery, is not to be seriously reduced, Almoet all of the basic artillery weapons now in use are World Wee II models. Modifications are dependent primarily upon ballistic and metal- lurgical experimentation to develop light-weight, erosion-reeistent alloys suitable for high velocitye rapid fire. Etperiments in new types of shells and barrels were well under way. in 1945; but little of the knowledge gained has as yet appeared in actual firing pieces, It may be that, in the long run, the guided missiles program will develop a more effective answepr to the problem of high-velocity, longer-range bombardment. A few- now artillery pieees, or modifications of old ones have al- ready appeared, in addition to the 57 mm. and 75 mm. recoilless rifles dis- cussed in the section on small arms. In general, the new developments reflect the emphasis on longer range, higher muzzle velocity and greater mobility. The Anti-tank Gun , is a 57 non (1), single-shot, hand-loaded weapon, capable of firing 10 rounds e minute to a maximum range of 5 males. Another new anti-tank weapon is the 1051wn. recoilless rifle, listed under small arma. An 8-inch gun weighing 52,620 pounds is now in use, whereas the earlier medal weighed 69,300 pounds. During World War II the Army resorted to the use of gums mounted mounted upon tracked vehicles to provide a highly mobile, suit-propelledar- tillery force. A new 155 .mm. Howitzer Mbeter Carriage, Me41, has since been added to this group. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 CM G Aril A I CONWRIETL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 40 TANKS AND ARYORED CARB At the end of World Aar II the United States had on hand 28,776 tanks of all types. 17,901 of these remained on 1 July 1950, of which 6,600 were suitable for combat use. The tanks which first saw action in Korea were almost entirely World War II models, since the Armyls new tank development program was not yet fully under TiNay. Since the outbreak of war the funds and the stimulus necessary to bring the program into full operation have been sup- , plied. The annual appropriation for tanks and other combat vehicles rose from 103,360,949 in Siscal 1950 to $2,322 954,552 in fiscal 1951. The estimated budget for fiscal 1951 allots ?i,4?201p456,000 for this item. Despite the increase in appropriations and the fact that the Detroit Arsenal was said to have the capacity to turn out as many as 5000 tanks in the first 12 to 18 months of pro- duction, the new tanks are coming off the lines more slowly than was expected. Less than 600 tanks were produced in 1950. In December it was announced that the Army had been unable to meet its minimum requirements in modernized equis- ment. As recently as July, 1951, tank production was officially reported 20A. to 251. behind schedule. Unofficially, the major bottlenecks were identified as the casting of armored hulls and fabricating of the electric wiring sys esle, Nevertheless, the past year has seen notable progress from the stagn of planning to that of actual eroduction. Production lines are being set up at four new plants and tanks are already being turned out by at least two of them, the Cleveland Arsenal, operated by Cadillac, and the American Locomotive Co. We are said to be preparing capacity to produce 35,000 tanks a year, al- though nothing like that amount 19 being ordered at present. A table of detailed Information concerning recent tank and armored car models appears in ioshe. Appendix 11I0 Approved For Release 2004/ gli-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 F I DFKIT I I CONfrIRW4AL Approved For Release 2004/01MMIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 The most important general trend in recent planning for the improve- ment of tanks and other armored vehicles has been the evolution of the concept of the tank-automotive "family." Baste to the concept is the application of the principle of interchangeability of parts between the various types of com- bat vehicles. Transmissions, cross-drives, wheel assemblies and even engines are now being made for use in armored cars and light, medium and heavy tanks. The advantages of such a program are obvious. Speed and economy of manufacture, ease of repair and availability of spare parts are among the more important. Other new developments of a more speelic nature are summarized in the follow- ing paragraphs. I. Tnks. Two new light tanks, the T-57 and the T-41, have been produced in recent years to supplement the standard M-24. The M-24 is widely used and is still in production in small numbers. The first production model T-41s appeared in March, 1951, and full scale production is now under way. Over 1,000 of this type have already been ordered. No information concerning production of T-370 has been obtained. Several important developments have taken place in medium tanks. The World War II Sherman tank, MreViEb? has seen duty in Korea but it is no longer in production. The Pershing, M-26, is obsolete. M-26$ are being converted into M-46 Pattons, of which only one battalion has thus far been reported in action in Korea. Conversion includes replacement of the old engine by a more power? - ful one (see section III, Engines) and the installation of a cross-drive, torque converter transmission and "wobble-stick" steering device which permit the tank to turn completely around without moving forward or backward. The M46 is also capable of travelling through water to the depth of six feet, through Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RaP79R00971A000300020002-0 ECRET CMNFineNTIA1 co Approved For Release 2004/0Y/ TIAL P-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 the. use of a special Fording Kit which includes synthetic rubber nhields, in- take and exhaust stacks and sealing compounds. The capabilities of the Patton are indicated by the report that, in direct tank vs. tank action in Korea, Pattons have scored a knock-out margin of 18-1 over Russian T4s. Yet even the M-46 is little more than an interim model. The M-47, Patton II, is probably superseding it on the production line. The Patton II mounts an improved gun; and the hull has been remodelled to enlarge the interior and to reduce the likelihood of point-blank hits by increasing the angle at which a shell is likely to strike. The 1951 appropriation is sufficient to pay for about 5000 M-47s. About another medium tank designation, T-42, less is known. Probably the number was applied to pilot models of the M-47, although there is some indication that it may be an entirely different tank. The best evidence sug- gests that the T-42 and the 1-47 are one and the same; but the question is in need of further clarification. In the field of heavy tanks new models have appeared, although the Army is reluctant to commit itself heavily. Several considerations are respon- sible for this position. Cost is, of course, an important factor, since each heavy probably costs about 000,000 -- a large amount to venture against destruction by a single well-placed shot. In addition, the need for such giants is thought to be relatively small. Few targets are worthy of such heavy armor. A small number of T-43s have been ordered; but few are likely to be secured unless experience proves that the new medium types are not Aeav eso capable of doing everything expected of the ne e---4 A second heavy mode/ is the T-30, which mounts a 155 mth. gut. Il. Armored Cars. ti interest in armored care as german - carriers has been heightened by Approved For Release 2004/074BR P79R00971A000300020002-0 r.nNF I 11FINIT I A I CON F Wai Approved For Release 2004/07/K t DP79R00971A000300020002-0 .he developitent of the VT fuze. Icgainst an enemy using VT-fuzed shells, in- fantry xelding on tanks or deploying on foot is at a great disadvantage. Armored personnel carriers make It possible to transport troops close to the front lines without risk from this type of ammunition. They also afford pro- tection against small arms a fact wh%ch makes them of particular value in a war of rapid movement or for operations in areas subjected to guerrilla ac- tivity. The Armored Personnel Carrier., T-18E2, capable of carrying a squad of 12 men, is the latest vehicle of this kind. The tracked carrier, Armored Utility Vehicle, ?M-39? although it is still organic to armored units, has no overhead protection. It may probobly be considered obsolescent. III, Enpines. . - A new 12ecylinder, V-type engine, using 80-octane gasoline, rated at 810 horsepower and 1040 horsepower with the use of a supercharger its being produced by Continental Motors Corp. In line with the trend toward interchange- ability this engine is used in recent model tanks, T-41, 146, T-30 and probably T-42 and T-43. IV. Armament. Increasing use of high-velooity guns is apparent in the field of tank ? armament. It has been estimated that new tank guns have a 34, higher -velocity than earlier models 11-46s, L47s, T-41s and very likely, T-42s and T-43s, Mount super-high-velocity weapons. V.. Note on Sources. The Hearings of Congressional Committees on. Appropriations have been the outstanding .single source of infoemation concerning tank peoduction and development. Since the information they contain is of an official nature, they have been used also wherever possible as a check against data collected Approved For Release 2004MaRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 CCit F IIFKIT I A I CONE I DEOMET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 elsewhere. Statistics of appropriateons for tanks and other combat vehicles and of unit costs of some items have been assembled from the heerings. A ma-. plete cost and production analysis of the whole tank program is not possible on the basis of the data so far collected. Such a project might well be given a high priority if the present study were to be continued. An important source for such an analysis, and one not available for this report, would probably be the various reports, magazines or newsbulletins published by the manufacturers associated with the tank program. Using information collected there, together with material presented at future Congressional hearings, it might be possible eventually to construct a more complete picture of the tank program than can be presented here. Scattered news reports have supplied occasional information concern- ing tanks; but, aside from the Hearinps referred to above, the service maga- zines Ordnance and Armor have made the most important contributions to our -- knowledge of the tank program. Approved For Release 2004/07/28SEM79R00971A000300020002-0 rrAir I nFmT IA I CO ORE111 A L Approved For Release 2p:14/Mat WrINELTOR00971A000300020002-0 --A use of small aircraft for liaison and artillery tkvervation ' 3-ii.01141 was an important tactical development of the secoad World War:. A:J=tt experience in Korea has confirmed the usefulness of trilwo, c-eRft,, aealoped new uses for their peculiar capabilities and Sti7M1AtC1 4 ,,ral effort to speed production of new and better type. ftirth wk Forces supplemental appropriation bill for fiscal 19.1 illcided 341503000 for Army aircraft of this kind. Contracts have haeTi t Lcoon of the latest models is under way. The appended table 4aamaetx VII) dhows the characteristics of the types now an military- use or on order lbr the ground forces. Laaison aircraft are divided into two basic categoriesg standaad. fleedeving tnes and zvtarrawingeds or helicopters. Increasing use of 'Ett,ter has been highlighted by events in Korea l and it EICOMYS Aksly aetary?winged crafty-ill ultimately replace most, if not ail, of the Uxed?wing planes. Helicopters possess advantages of ability to hover aroceed at lower speeds? to rise and descend vertically, waieh mele team particularly adapted to difficult terrain. Helicopters and fixed?wing liaison planes are now assigned to ever' combat division. At least twenty helicopters are used by Divisive !vaa, and Division Artillery. In Korea, helicopters have dramatically enared I heLrn usefulness for evacuation of the wounded. In addittoe to lleien- and observation for the artillery, maw new uses have been developed lor the helicopters by Army and Marine commanders. Reconnatasence and Eupply problems have been greatly facilitated be their use. They have teen used in establishing and maintaining advance OP's and 13rols and or Jawing telephone wire. They are frequently discussed as petential taoce carriers: and large models with detachable pods are being deieloped to Approved For Release 2004/07/28SEM79R00971A000300020002-0 r.nta DFNT I A L COQUE-TA L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 perform this mission? In Korea, helicopters have been stationed from one-half to five behind the front lines, and their bases are moved closely behind the front. This, and the fact that they are in constant use; has areated difficult problems of maintenance and repair. However, increasing pro- duntion both of the craft themselves and of spare parts should make possible the solution of many present difficulties. The automatic pilots be:mg developed by Sperry, Goodyear and other companies will reduce the neod for pilots, allow the pilot more time in flight for other activities and make possible takeoffs in dark or bad weather To train helicopter pilots in close cooperation with ground troops an Army Helicopter Aviation Tactics School has been established at Fort SE.1 in connection with the Artillery School. Helicopters have been asnigned to units in the Zone of the Interior, notably the First Army Av:Ation Squadron at Fort Monmouth; but all suitable craft have been sent to Korea for combat service. Vote on American Helicopter This magazine was the source of virtually all information concerning thn production and use of helicopters. Its yearly December issue regularly pr:nts pictures and specifications of the outstanding types, both for miitary and for civilian use. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : Niff /9 R 0 0 9 7 1 A 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 - 0 r.nriF UNT I AL COMAIII A L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Go COMIEN113 ON PRINCIPAL SOURCES IP D.* anal A point of departure is furnished by The AznyAlmaneci, Goverment Printing Offloe9 19500 Sims most of the information contained is current as of OetOber 19489 it must obviously be used with eaution9 but such features as lts Tables of Organisation and Equipment (T/0 &I) fa.rnlah a basis which may then be revised by new information from whatever source, A large part of the volume is taben up with historical end other extraneous material; the following Is a list of the passages useful for this investigation: no 16. 30 The National Military Establishment pp. 266 Z4 Table 400 Infantry Division Organic Composition p0 275 First Cavalry Division authorized Strength April? 1.948 P. 277 Armored Division TiO & E 17111 6 Oct" 1948 p0 279 Airborne Division TIC & E 719 16 Doe., 1944 p0 305 Oversee Cammmnds (map ;10 307) pc) 313 Table 420 National Guard Troop Basis as of 1 Sept" 1948 Po 314 Table 430 Allocation by as of 1 Sept" 1948 pp. 335-400 Army Educational System (locations and functions of the various schoolsopessim, with historical material) pp. 401-408 Lists of Posts, Camps and Stations in the U.S. pp., 517 f0 Table of elements of Infantry Divisions In World War II p0 573 Table of Armored Divisions in World War II p0 685 Table of Airborne Divisions in World Mar II There are also charts which may prove convenient: po 8 Schematic Functional Relationship of Elements in National Security Viprovd For Release 2004/07/28 : Cl 79R00971A000300020002-0 organization of Security r.nr4F I DFNTI Al CON F I DEOP151 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 1, The amsnacto (Cont, p, 30 Organization of the Department of the Army (1 April? 1948) The chart on p, 8 has one detail highly suggestive for participants in this enterprise, The Central Intelligence Agency is found on the extreme left, and from it to the National Security Council is a film black line labelled "Intelligence". From the Agency to the Chiefs of Stan, on the other hand, runs only a dotted line labelled nothing atell, while there is, no suggestion of contribution fran the Toint Chiefs of Staff to the Agency, If the description of the Agency on pc 7 is read with this in mind it will give grounds for doubt as to whether the attempt to coordinate and disseminate intelligence has been wholly successful, If it does not succeed, the extravagance of duplication and even competition of various agencies of intelligence will continue to add its share to the confusion of national defense, 2, AmOrders An excellent source for the location of units is the ArnntOrders? published weekly by the AzINay Air Force Tournal and the Army Navy Air Force Reaister;, 'Zan an assignment is to a division or higher command the number and location of the unit is always given, The location (or APO) of lower units is given and the assignment to a division is specified often enough so that when such notices are accumulated an Impressive proportion of the composition of divisions is fixed and a large number of unattached units located. Similarly the association of Amy Post Offices, sometimes with units and sometimes with stations, added to the association of units with stations allows a number of important APegs abroad to be pinned down (a list of APOgs Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 published in The Air Offie s s Third Edition, The Military Service r.nNF rhr CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2004/07q&ORDP79R00971A000300020002-0 . to 20 am Orders* (Cont.) Publishing Coop 19509 pp. 454-4380 is a useful beginning, but can be both expanded and revised from Army Ox?ders). Given the composition of a normal division fran the Th & Bp reeinents and battalions may often be confidently assigned to divisions whams stations they share? This is not always the case, however, since component units are sometimes detached for specialized training, and the presence at a post of a number of training units, seldom specified es sucha may make it impossible to say which battalion of artillery or engineers is the one organic to the poet's divisione Of couese, '43..e, movement of the division will ultimately make that point clear. The composition of a division in World War II (given in the .ir.,Almarao) *ill also sometimes be of service in determining its present composition, sine a considerable number of units are certainly still with the same divieIcne The present study concentrates on combat units of the . of battalion and above, but a great deal more information is available there were time to assemble it? The disposition of such forces as Medical Corps, Signal, Ordinance, and Qeartermaster would, of course, be important for a complete picture? Mush might be done with units identified only as AAU, ABU, 18U? The fnaction of many is specified; by observing the brand and the rank of ofl:tcers assigned one can make diductions as to its nature and its size: #ego an MU to which only Signal Corps officers go will be of quite a different kind frmn one recruited from all branches; the assignment to a mixed group of a Lt. Col? of the Chaplains" or Tudge Advocate General's Corps means a body ;-;1' some size and importance Personnel files could be carried down to any point desired? Ideally, if there were unlimited time, one could Approved For Release 2004/07/2,0,..617DP79R00971A000300020002-0 eMNFIDFNTI AL CON F I wileRET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 sq 2. Amm Orders. (Cont.) learn a great deal about the training program from following the movement of junior officers. A more limited study might be made, with profit, of such special bodies as those at Trieste or Sandia Base. Both the Journal and the,Reeister print material supplementary to that in the orders. Special articles reports from posts, notices of decorations, soolal events, weddings, and obituaries often give valuable data. Since these are not necessarily identical in the two periodic:ale Tooth should be consulted. The orders, of course, are the same, though the second version is a useful check when an item is suspect - typographical errors occur and are sometimes misleading. It takes about an hour and a half to go through an issue of the journal and extract and consolidate the information of the level here presented. Another half hour should euffice for the in addition. To extract all the information from both papers would take a great deal longer- four times as long, at a guess. Nhatever level of information is desired the search should be eystematic; the mere noting of conspicuous items will not give a sound body of information. Hearings of 23.21eal_ Committees In all matters except the location of individual units, the hearings of Congressional Committees are likely to be the primary source of information, Many facts which eventually appear in newspapers and periodicals were originally revealed in these hearings. The most valuable single source is the hearings before the Appropriations Committee of the B6use of Representatives. All of the hearings on Army appropriations for 1950, 1951, and 1952 have been read for the purpose of vamp giocitpr maafftwavoeig8dirrimiegaReszi soaskoaveivigiui 61;Cifil CSEflath I A L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 LI (Cont.) rhich have been read for 1950 and 1951s contain little information not already covered in the Hbuse Committee. Hearings of the House and Senate Armed Forces Committeess several of which have been reads are valuable in parte s but ten to contain much irrelevant and no-factual material. Information may be gained from these sources either from direct etatements of facts or by inferences from several separate statements. The latter method is particularly applicable to the interpretation of etatistical tables s and to discussions preceding and following portions of the hearings omitted from the record. Much of the material given above concerning tanks end tank production is of this inferential nature. The euggestion that 1951 appropriations provide for approximately 5,000 T-47 medium-gun tanks is an inference fran the following facts all stated separately in 1951 and 1952 hearings: a, 1952 appropriations include a deficiency allotment of $123,00010000 applying to a total 1951 appropriation of $2,838,000,000 for tanks and other vehicles. b. The deficiency applies essentially to a contract for16479s. c The deficiency appropriation is 4-5% of the original approprietion. do The deficiency percentage on 1647's is approximately 10. e. The original appropriation for T-47.0 was about $2000000 per unit, It is evident that an inference based on so many disparate facts, not all completely clears is highly -uncertain. Nevertheless each procedure is necessitated by the nature of this investigation. In a continuing operation they would be subject to further check. Important hearings which arrived too late for use in preparing this report are those on Military and Naval Construction before the House Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79,F00971,A0003000200102-D Armed Services Committees and nit6tptual ,,eouriey erograms (revere C.0 NI014/ L CO N,& RVVIA L Approved For Release 2004/0701it-PZDP79R00971A000300020002-0 3,, Hearinee, OfstommUs teg, Committees (Cont.) the Heusi Committee on Foreign Affairs. TI 4. New ibrk nat. and Herald Tribes* These newapers have been read from 1 May to 24 August, 1951. The information found in them reauges from identification of ludividual?Fits to strategic planning. The chief classes of articles in which spec:Lilo items of information have been found are: a. Speeches, reports,. and press interviews of government and 'military officials, especially Secretary Marshall? General Collins? and Mr, Charleift.;: Wilson. b. Reports of hearings before the Senate and House Committees, especially those on Anaed Services, Appropriations, and Foreign Affairs. (These reports are eventually superseded by the committee tesearts, but delay for printing makes recent reports unavailable for this project. Furthermore, occasional leaks of off.thes-record" testimony in news reports are particularly valuable.) c, Special articles on matters of specifically military interest, e.g. activation, training, morale, or overseas shipment and action of units; new derie3.apnents in arms and equipment; status of forces in overseas theaters or the Z.I. do Reports of hostilities in Korea. (During the period covered thea have produced exceedingly little specific material. The communiques of the Army in the Far East have revealed nothing.) e. Appointments to important oormands and promotions of general officers. f. Articles of syndicated columnists and special correspondents? ItfOrbid*FtklUkkavelortsitteg now isr9Resasitamenivtailgro coNF I DENT I A L coNwArrtA L Approved For Release 2004/07//t: CRADP79R00971A000300020002-0 172? New Itbrk Times andanaTribune (Cont,) Middletone and C.L. Sulzberger are the most useful, All appear in they...WA* g. Passing remarks in general articles on foreign affairs and ecionemie matters, and other news reports in which refereLce to Arm- units is incidental; e.g. an automobile accident involving a soldier whose unit and its location are given* All of these classes of articles are repreeented in the following infordatione found in the two newspapers for Setup*, and Sundays 28.29 Ally. 1951: ate From. letter of Mrs. Anna Rosenberg to Senator Byrd of the Senate Investigating Committee on Federal Expenditures: That two or three new combat divisions will be formed by 30 JUne0 19520 through improved use of weapons. b. From Secretary Marshals's testimony before the Senate Armed Forces Committee and subsequent explanatory statements: The U.S. will have 4000000 men in Europe by 31 December e 1952; 3400000 of this number will be ground troops, The size and make-up of the "division slice* The over-all value of equipment sent to our allies, and Dome break-dawn by destination and types. The strategic concept that,, as far as possible, the US, will provide equipment the Allies, men. (This was "off.the-recordno but published.) e. From various special articles on military subjects: The deactirization of the 109th AAA Bgd., of which three major units have been in federal service since Mayo 1931; the name o the c P79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved FerReleaser 2004/07/28 : C general, 33rd N.G. Division. rnNFIIWNTIAL CON F 4,,Dpileyediftimmeastappiowbiselagg500971A000300020002-0 Its brigades and regiments constituting the British Commonwealth Division in Korea? The present planned strengths of the WeAoC. do A report that Pyongyang radio has identified the 36th Rego of the 2nd Division as fighting near langgas and claims that it has suffered severe casualties. eo Appointments of C/S of let Army and of the Commandants Armored Centers Ft. Knox. f. An article by CoIe Sulzberger gives the number of divisions each nation expects to have in Germany under SHAPE by the end of l9520 go An article by Drew Middleton, on Soviet forces in East Germanys makes incidental reference to serious deficiencies in materials especially signal equipment and transports as evident in U0$ and British forces in Germany in winter of 1950-510 An average of one to one and a half hours is needed to read these tee newspapers each days in order to be reasonably sure that all relevant material has been noted* Items 6 and V are especially time- on:warnings but they are necessary for full coverage. It maybe fairly aesumed that nearly all matters of general national interest appear in tiese two newspapers. Of the two, the Times is somewhat more useful both because of the greeter value of its special writers end because neme reports are often published in more complete form by the Times taan by the Herald-Tribune. The additional material that may be found la the Herald-Tribune Justifies only a cursory reading after careful reading of the Times, 5 The New Haven Ettirvi.ster Paperience pith The N Approved For Relene" Vgtg4 RIM fairo6666a2 I I 6211:Per rnw F I !WWII Al CON Salty. L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-ADP79R00971A000300020002-0 9 IP/ 110 Ito lift Haven (Cant,) (Cont.) oonsulted? suggests that selected local papers can be a valuable source of Information concerning the deployment and training of our armed forces. Particularly noteworthy are the announcements of promotions, assignnents? decorations and locations of local men. A significant nmmber of Aregrunits have been located through public relations releases to home town papers when no other news of their whereabouts has appeared. SuOh information is often omitted by the larger metropolitan dailies etich tend to ignore movements by units of less than division strength. In an area in which National Guard or Reserve outfits have been Called to active duty, it should be possible, through use of local papers, to identify almost every unit and to find rather thorough descriptions of their training, weapons, and future destination. Material of this kind mot be used with a degree of cautions, however, since careless and inaccurate descriptions of units are not infrequent. Ihen possible, it mem advisable to corroborate local news reports from more dependable uources. To cover the entire country through such materials is a project so large and time-consuming that it could probably be handled best and least expensively by hiring the services of a clipping bureau. 60 Stars and Stripes? Boma Edition Probably the best single source of data concerning the disposition of American troops in Europe is the European edition of Stars and Atztorlo which has been consulted for the period, 1 April 1951 to 12 Tuly 1951. On the basis of items printed here it is possible to identify and locate the great majority of Army units of more than company size. While some Cf this information can also be secured from home publications, many units not mentioned elsewhere are freelymentioned here, _Outfits Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300oamoz-u rnN F I cSEDItEiT I A L Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Stars and .?tri..? Eurp_p_wl.E.Alim (Mutt) Soationed in outlying areas such as Austria and Trieste? sithouP seldom mentioned by ordinary 319WErpaperev are given considerable publicity. Pbr the identification of units, lists of proesetions? awerdso accidents and contributions to the American Red Cross drive are pertieularly helpful; but routine news stories supply enough additional information to warrant close scrutiny. Histories of the divisions and of the Constabulary make it possible to ascertain more of their assigned components. The headquarters of many units can be readily located; and these units can then be related to the appropriate military post or subpost. In this way? it is possible to draw up a rather complete list of the outfits situated in each of the main military areas. 70 Stars and arlEts.? Pacific Edition This was available Z= April 1 to Ally 12, 1451. It furnished material about the co osition and location of units in Korea and Xapan not available from, other sources" The official communique's were no mole informative -than those in the New York papers, but there were special articles and random, notes which were much more valuable for the irarestigatorn The desire to appeal to the particular pride and interests of readers in combat units has understandably led to the attempt to include as many as possible by name* The extent to which such items appear is of course, dweermined by the censorship policy, of which striking examples are obeervableo On May 26f, 27, and the Corps and Divisions on the West, Central, and East Central front were listed in a way that a good idoa of the order of battle was conveyed (the East front wa and still io held by Republic of Korea troops ).A lemediately after this a double Approved For Release 2004/07/2a elA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 SEUL r.n DFNT I At CONE Approved For Release 2004/07/28 :brAWID1b79Roo971A000300020002-0 94 7, Stars and_AStime? Pacific Edition (Cont0) censorship was imposed (8th Army and GHQ) with the result that uatil ZIne 15 nothing was published which could give military information to embody, With the return of single censorship on that date an article aepeared giving the 'composition of the Regimental Combat Teams of the 45 Div? This was unique, however, and thereafter only isolated items have appeared? These wometimes lead to larger deductions; notions of tee order of battle may be gleaned from the representation at ceremonies ot award or from the progress of Xack Beners show, but names of places are now completely suppressed in connection with units, and there has been nothing like the outburst of May 26-280 Quotations from papers in the United States have occasionally contributed news of interest not la the New 'York papers? Eleja_SurdettlEPost Harold He Martin's article, 'Tow wo stopped the biggest Chinese offensive; August 40 19510 pp? 29, 83-850 gives a detailed account of the teo actions of April 02 and May 17 and the following days c It records the identities and movements of units, omitting only the 7 and 25 Infantry Devisions and 25 Canadian Brigade, known from other sources to be on the feont0 The object is obviously to give the public an adequate appreciation oe a brilliant action; it would seam that the object was laudable and that the article was likely to be successful? The apparent discrepancy between its explicit informatien and the taciturnity of the official communiques may be explained by the fact that this is historical while they are conteeporary0 The difference is largely illusory, however? Geven the conditions of battle and of the terrain displacement of large ueitsRlif6ffetiVILN&HOWNAli &PFr7oripg149?Veragit JEljne,a eeNFIDFNTIAI CO ref/1E1AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 EglosaEVening Post (Conte) May 1,-18 must be exceptional, and it may therefore be assumed that the order of battle given in May is still substantially the order of battle of August 1* But the poeition of units on the front will certainly be known to the enemy very precaptly through normal Prisoners aid Documents channels, and presumably there is no reason why Americans &meld not know the order of battle if the enemy does already,' 9c Newm Time Newsweek, and troSo News and Xtrld222211 have been consulted. These magazines have supplied a smattering of information regarding many aepects of the military program* Of the three, Newsweek has probably provided the greatest number of valuable items* It hs run a series of articles on manpower, equipment and other mobilization problems which have dontained useful and accurate infOrmation0 Its feature, The Periscope, often reports up-to-date military developments, some of which have not been found elsewhere* The other magazines have been less helpful* If analysis Of military potential were extended, however, to include resources, Industrial production and logistics, U.80 News and World ,Report would be a valuable aid. Its reports on manufacturing and business conditions are its most significant feature* io. Apo 1....71.2, A record of APO listings can be a valuable adjunct to such a project as the present one, A rather complete list can be compiled with the aid of the Air Force journal..., the various editions of the Stars and Str&e.1, and. letters to the editors of military publications and news tie magazhkgr,oviiiSpyilperisisiebgpiTta : C - 111:121138209R,Av00,preOcgt0i002i00 Feb. 19500 rntsrag 1 CONM,.rifefA L Approved For Release 2004/0/1/1BMKIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 lg. APO Listings (Conte) contains a list of APOss as of that date. This, however, is now obviously out of date; new APOoa have been assigned and some of the earlier ones appear to have been nominal even at that time. APOos should probably be considered a secondary:, rather that a primary source of information; they are not always as illuminating as might be tweeted. In some instances, they are a sure clue to the assignment of units concerned? APO 1, EterYOrk, for instance, belongs to the 1st Division and all of its components. This tends to be true of the low-numbered Regular Army divisions, such as the 7th? 24th? and 25th. It is not true, however, of the 3rd or 5th e Later units were clearly as3i8Asd APOos without regard for their unit numbers? This practice, of course, makes location and identification mere difficult and was probably meant to do soo Even when APO and unit numbers do not correspond, unit assignments are often clarified by knowledge of their APOos. In some cases the APO can be confidently related to a general geographic area when the location of even one unit having that APO is known? Other units in the name area caxi than be occasionally related to the same APO; or other wilts having the same APO can then be located geographicallye This method is not infallible; however., Two units having the sane APO may be widely separated, while several AFOos may serve units in a relatively restricted area. Toe great a reliance upon the APO numbers can, consequently, preduce real confusion. But, used with caution, the numbers can be a helpful aid in keeping in touch with the location or movements of units overseas. Appendix VIII contains a list of APOos which have been identified, Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 with units using the APO, and its apparent locatione r.ntEMIri A I CONF I DENT IAL Approved For Release 2004/07ACRE1DP79R00971A000300020002-0 fq 2L;1,0 On the Miami of Aswan. The investigation has revealed some successes and some failures of the system of censorship* Information on new weapons Is gratifyingly herd to find* The transference of the 3 Infantry Divielon from Fort Benning to Korea was accomplished with no indications given in sources accessible to us* Theee are cases in which the advantage of secrecy le obvious, On the other hand, impressive scientific generalities have been published, doubtless with official sanction, and, for a similar reason? the movement or troops to Europe has been advertized rather than concealed, Policy in regard to units in station is net clear, With respect te units in the Zone of the Interior there is no official publication of their positions except indirectly through Army Orders, but there seems to be no attempt at concealment which would in any case be impractical* Possible exceptions are certain Training Divisions (0,80, 5 Armde Dive) whose component units are never identified. It seems mere likely, however, that the troops in training in such divisions are not ozganized into 'Units with permanent designations. Otherwise we must assume extreme differences of regulations between posts, On the whole the Army's attitude toward troops in this country seems to be that those interested will find out where they are, and need be neither prevented nor assisted. Much the same principle seems to govern the mention or troops in Europe and in Tapane In Korea, however, the situation is quite different. For obvious reasons, the location of Corps and Division Headquarters is concealed* Furthermore, the position or troops relative to the front line is now never indicated in official sources,. At the tbreak of hostilities a Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : ClJ$Et i sO971A000300020002-O eeNFIDFNTI AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 /00 _papa the Ef_11/12Eez of (Cont,) (Cont.) great deal of information was given out, on the assumption that the public Lad a ligitimate interest in the progress of battle. Commit:pas grew .sore and more reticent as the principle prevailed that information as to the location of troops would jeopard their operations. With some fluctuations this has become so fixed as official policy that no unit in combat is named any longer in communiqU'es. The previous theory lingered on, however, in unofficial publications so that material rigidly excluded from releases from headqoarters would appear in the Stars andad2215 Neweweek, or the New York papers. This is clearly the wrong way around. It in useless for headquarters, which is beat informed of the facts, to impoue silence on itself if what it conceals is to be published by other BMW* One gets the impression that the difficulty is caused by uncertainty as to what should be concealed and what can be. Prima facie it would be well for the enemy to be entirely ignorant what troops faced then on the line; practically the enemy knows almost at once what troops face them. Concealment, therefore, operates only against friends, whose indiscretion could not convey the news to the enemy as fast as the normal prisoners and documents information. Posts of command, on the other hand, can be bidden until their area is covered by air observation, and the knowledge of such positions is properly restricted to the fewest possible nIeber of people, AR 380-5? MilitemSecuriIye, 60 M and o list as secret: "Information iadleating the strength of our troops, air and naval forces, identity or composition of units or quantity of specific iteas of equipment pertaining taereto in active theaters of operations except that mailing addresses mill include organizational designations" and Approved For Release 2004/07/ : - P79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release 2egittagair/P79R00971A000300020002-0 /01 ile pa tbe Aalsb_Lan ofp_traorip., (Canto) "United States Order of Battle information end locations and moves erecting the order of Battle," Aeidefom breach of these regualtions, the inconsistency in their awlication results from the fact that they lay down no term for their cioservance? and it is therefore left to different authorities to dItermine hoe long after the event secrecy should be preserved* Approved For Release 2004/ DP79R00971A000300020002-0 CA44,r.444E*T-44.4.. Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 102 APPENDIX / .ISE CHART . APPENDIX I ? APPENDIX II ESE MAP APPENDIX II Approved For Release 2004 -RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 APPENDIX III DIVISION TABLES OF 010ANIZATION Ao Infantry Division Entire Division 18,804 0 958, No 49, Em 17,797) Infantry 11,322 3 Regiments 3,774 3 Bns 917 3 Rifle Cos., 1 Rq. Coo 211 Heavy Tank Co. (0 6, EM 142) 4 Platoons, 5 tanks each Heavy Mortar Co. (0 6, EM 184) 3 Mortar Platoons (0 1, EM 40) Artillery 3 Ens 105 mm. Row (18 Raw. each) 3 firing Batteries (6 Now. each) 1 Bn 155 mm. Flow, (18 How.) 3 firing Batteries (6 WIN.) 1 AAA kW En 3,668 Tank Battalion (144 tanks) 677 3 Tank Cos, Engineer Battalion h Eng. Coe. 972 Approved For Release 2004/07/28 -RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 ReecntW.sstulce Co. 170 C-CILIS 1 RP TI Al _ / 03 "m= rAr115-? Approved For Release 200 . DP79R00971A000300020002-0 Br, Armored Division Entire Division 152973 (0 897, WO 832 EM 24,993) Armored Infantry 4 Ens, 4 Rifle 00s, 3 Rifle Platoons (0 1, EM 43) Mortar Platoon (3 60 mmo Mortars) Tank Battalions 1 Heavy 3 Medium Artinex7 3 Ens 105 mme Howe (Sp) J. Bn 155 mmo How* (SP) 1 AAA 0 Bn (Sp) 4,276 1,069 4434 677 757 3,735 Engineer En 19095 Reconnaissance Bn 629 Approved For Release 200 DP79R00971A000300020002-0 Fi.PiterrrirKIT I A I CO N F Approved For Release 2004/07/2ntlIn P79R00971A000300020002-0 CO Airborne Division Entiro Division 169230 (0 941p NO 56, EV 15,233) Infautry 3 Abn Inf Rcig. Support co? 2 HeEW Mortar platoons (4 Mortars each) Artitank platoon (6 90 mm AT guns) Artillery 1 BA 355 mm. How? 3 Duo Abn 105 mm. How. Tanks ? 2 lizavy 2 Medium 1 Roconnaissance co JOE For operations divided into assault, followi-up, and rear echelons. Assault echelon, an infantry- combat team plus divisional units ail capable of being landed by parachute and of holding position until arrival of the followi.up echelon. Approved For Release 2,q06/67C2F : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 4Vini. rnmr I DRNT I A I CON Fciptyf L Approved For Release 2004/07/2K 4P79R00971A000300020002-0 APPENDDE IV COMMON OF MARINE AND Aluir (INFANTRY) DIVISIONS A. Marine Division Table of Organization Entire Division /06 21,198 Infantry 11,265 3 Regiments 3,755 3 'Jana 1,081 4 cos. 228 Artillery 3 Ens 305 mm. Haw. (18 How, each) 1 Bn 155ii Hatiro (18 Howo) Tank Battalion (9 tanks M4A3 85 tanks LI 26) ca 720 The reinforced 1 Marine Div, was between 24,000-25,000 men in January 1951. Approved For Release 2oo4/te paRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnAlF I ()FAIT I A 1 CON t F L Approved For Release 2004/07/Y At1tDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Bo LIVEtms. of Marine_and lazz (1nfant17) Divisions April 1953. Marine Army Infantry Carbine cal. .30 M2 9,470 Rifle, U.S. cal. .30m]. Rifle, automatic, cal. .30 Ettmadng, 141918 M2 Guns, machine, cal. .30 Browning, 141919 A4 flexible Gun, Machine, cal. 30 8,2748 7,474 6,933 903 412 575 Browning, 111917 Al 54 Ito Launcher, rocket, 5.5 in. 1420 376 546 Flamothrower? portable 112-2 Mortar, 60 nm. 112 81 84 Mortar, 81 mm. M1 54 40 Mortar, 4.2 in. 112 24 36 Artillery Howitzer, 105 mn. 112 Al 54 54 Howitzer, 155 mm. 143. 18 18 Tanks Tank, medium m4 A3 9 111?1.4f Tank, medium 1426 85 144 Gun, machine, cal. 050 AilicnrotedaiffollitslOgserpfiligainAkficaillg79R00971A0g300020002-0 rnhaEanin 354 Approved For Release 2 NtlAkDP79R00971A000300020002-0 /9 Marine law Gun, submachine cal. .45 Thompson M1 Al 99 Rifle, 75 mm. M20 12 39 pistol, automatic, cal. 045 M1911 Al 3,196 2,769 The above is taken from tables offered by Senator Douglas at Hearings before a Senate Sub-Committee on Marine Corps Strength and Joint Chiefs Representation, 13, 17, 21 April, 1951. Since they were designed to show that a Maxine Division has a higher proportion of fire power than an Infantry Division they are not altogether free from ex parte coloring. E.g. Senator Douglas (p. 22) remarks, "The Marine division has . . 98 (sic) submachine guns whereas the Army has none.' In the Tb C & E of a Regimental Tank Co. (Infantry Journal, June, 19500 p. 23) 31 submachine guns are listed among the regulation weapons (giving a total of 93 for the Division). It seems most unlikely that between June, 1950 and April 19510 these arms should have been withdrawn without the issue of some other eqpivalent protection. Infantry companies are now to be equipped with 7 sniper's rifles per Co. T/0 & E7 (7 July, 1951) assigns 18 liaison planesper infantry Divi- sion. Each Division has 20 or more helicopters divided between Hq. and Divi- sional Artillery. SECRET Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rnt4c I 11PKIT I it I CONF4 Arty A L Y 0 7 Approved For Release 2004/0*AlYalgARDP79R00971A000300020002-0 APPENDIX V ORDER OF BATTLED U. S. ARMY CONTENTS Zone of the Interior 110 First AMY 110 Second Amy 111 Third Army 116 Fourth Amy 120 Fifth Army 122 Sixth Arpy 127 Far Eastern Command 130 Japan 130 Korea 132 Non?Divisional Troops 137 Korea 137 Japan 138 Okinawa 138 Offensive Weapons: Strength of U. S. Ground Forces, FECOM 139 Anerican Ground Forces in Europe 140 United States Forces in Germany United States Perces in Austria (USFA) 144 Trieste united States Troops 144 Miscellaneous Units Europe 145 Military Posts and Subposts, Europe 146 Offensive Weapons, Strength of U. So Ground Forces., Europe 154 Other Oversee Commands 155 Iceland Defense Force 155 Ala Car 4417 rityplease 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020 ,0 pacific Command SECRET rnmr I nrkrr I Al 156 10/R 7110 A L Approved For Relegiya gRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 ifiC) ORDER OF BAT= UNITED STATES ARMY Zone....1.12. or First Am late Gone Willis Do Grittenharger6 00 Eke Co ?a Islandp NOM 9 Infantry Division (Training) NW* Gene WillissmKo Harrison IKto Port Dlno NoTo Gomponentss 39 Info (from Banning between Ang01950 and Irob01951) 49 info 60 Info (EdzI, ET 2 July 1951) 364 Info 365 Info? LAM 26 Ango 1950) 26 PA Bno 34 TA MI6 84 FA EW6 Firs.....1.N...p217.1M9rion_al_t_paroo 0 PbTt Davana9 Masao 3.0 PA Bno Camp EdigardS0 Masao 56 AA Brigade Approved For Release 200410S1t:ErliRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 103 AAA Bx-igetdo rrudr I IIFRIT IA I CONF AL Approved For Release 2004/0742th RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 245 AAA Gun Bne (NY) 259 AAA Gun Brio (INT) 359 AAA Gun Bn* 466 AAA Gun Bn* 635 AAA Gun Dm, (MIT) Was Point 278 RCT (NG Tenn) 278 Inf* 191 FA En* Fort Totten, N.T0 80 AAA Group 526 MA Gun Bne Fort Hancock? 41 AAA Gun BEte Second Amx Lto Gen* Edward H* Brooks, co WI* Fort George Meade, Ma* - VII Corps Maj* Gen* Withers A1,0 Burros? ENL0 Camp Meade, Md, 5 Infantry Div* (Training) Hcb, indiantown Gap, Pa* Approved For Release 2004/4t0gIRDP79R00971A000300020002-0 rink! r I 1-1P MT I A I CONFiziEgar Approved For Release 2004/07/28 CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-0 Second Armz VII Corps 43 Info Div o (NG Vtoo Congos) Rao) Melo 0en1 Kennethiro Cramer, 02 Eno Com Pickett, Vao Components: 102 Info 169 Info i 1?2 Info 963 TA Bno 143 Tel:IR:Eno 126 Combo PM6 45 IV Coo 43 TA 030 Mlle& Bno Itierod`for movement to Europe? Will take part in exercise Soo Pine at Bragg 13 Ango - 2 SePte 3 Armored Division (Training) Brigo GM) Raymond E0 50 iVilliamsono cG B40 Fort Knoo4 Kyo Components: 06 Maw Tank Eno 30 Tank Bno 84 Tank BD.? 131 Tank Brio ?8 Arm& FA Bno 83 Reeono Bno Approved For Relgam/V/07/?t atrP79R00971A000300020002-0 0111,1P I !WAIT I A I CONF I DENT I AL Approved For Release 2004/07/28 : CIA-RDP79R00971A000300020002-Offs Soc9nd. Li Airborne Division Majo Geno Lo Lo Leannitzer? CO 11q0 Can Campbell., 140 Components: 188 AbnoIn 503 AbnoIn 511 ROT 511 Abno 675 Abno FA Bno 89 Abno FA Bno 4$7 Abno FA Bno 544 Abu,. FA Bno 6'75 Ala 11W Bne '176 Itcro Tko Bac. 141 Mode Tko Bno 710 'Ito Bno 127 Abno Emiso Combat Bno (with 187 RCT Korea?) 406 Abu. Coo 511 Abno Slgo Co