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Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Secret Western Europe Canada International Organizations JCS review completed State Department review completed Secret No. 0132-75 February 14, 1975 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 .SECRET This publication is prepared for regional specialists in the Washington com- munity by the Western Europe Division, Office of Current Intelligence, with occasional contributions from other offices within the Directorate of Intelligence. Comments and queries are welcome. They should be directed to the authors of the individual articles. Cypriot Turks Establish Separate State 1-2 Problems in Consolidating NATO Training. 3-4 EC Farm Council Marathon Ends in Success 5-6 Commission on Human Rights Meets in Geneva 7-8 February 14, 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET Cypriot Turks Establish Separate State The Turkish Cypriot declaration yesterday establishing a separate state pending agreement on a proposed Cyprus federation has prompted the Greek and Greek Cypriot governments to refer the issue to the UN Security Council. Greek Prime Minister Karamanlis condemned the action and Athens called off a meeting this weekend in Bonn between the Greek foreign minister and the US Secretary of State. President Makarios called the Turkish Cypriot action a "very severe blow" to negotiations for a settlement of the Cyprus problem and dispatched a high-level delega- tion, including Glafkos Clerides, negotiator for the Greek Cypriots in the intercommunal talks, to Athens for consultations. Turkish Cypriot negotiator Denktash, who is president of the new state also conveyed his proposals for a settlement yesterday to Clerides and requested another session of the intercommunal talks on February 17. His proposals, which deal with general principles, call for a biregional federation with a weak central government. While no mention is made of the size of the proposed Turkish Cypriot region or its share of the island's resources, the Turkish Cypriots are likely to insist that it be substantially larger than the Turkish Cypriot share of the population, 18 percent. The Turkish Cypriot actions apparently are in response to the more detailed Greek Cypriot position paper submitted earlier in the week. It called for a multi-regional federation and a strong central government in which the total area controlled by Turkish Cypriots would approximate their per- centage of the population. The Turkish Cypriots may now be trying to take back the initiative and place the onus of breaking off negotiations on the Greek side. The Greek Cypriot proposals reflect President Makarios' belief that international pressure for concessions by the Turkish side will fade if the February 14, 1975 -1- SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET talks drag on inconclusively. Makarios has been pessimistic about the outcome of the talks for some time and had threatened to internationalize the issue if no progress were made by the end of this month. Proclamation of the separate Turkish Cypriot state may convince him to abandon the talks alto- gether, but Makarios will probably want to sound out the views of other governments and examine the Turkish Cypriot position paper closely before breaking off the talks. The initial reaction of the international community was opposition to the Turkish Cypriot declaration and reaffirmation of the usefulness of the intercommunal talks. In the meantime, Turkish troops in the Nicosia area were placed on alert in anticipation of a possible Greek Cypriot military reaction. While this appears unlikely, demonstrations did take place within the Greek Cypriot sector and more may follow but indications are that Greek Cypriot officials will not let them get out of hand. February 14r 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET Problems in Consolidating NATO Trs:iri~ih The chairman of the group studying the possi- bility of consolidating military training among NATO members has said that his main problem is lack of support and interest on the part of national decision-makers. Training is one of the three areas NATO is currently investigating in order to increase efficiency and, it is hoped, also lead to sub- stantial savings. The appeal of such an under- taking should be great at a time when most NATO countries are having trouble maintaining their level of defense expenditures. To date, however, there has been a great deal of study, but very little implementation. Rear Admiral Trebesch, who chairs the Euro/ NATO Training Group, told NATO's Executive Work- ing Group this week that training experts recog- nize the potential of joint training projects both to improve training and to save money, but that there was no such awareness on the part of national decision-makers. He went on to outline what he believed to be the causes: --NATO and national military authorities are not giving the training group adequate support; --nations change their representatives to the training group far too often; --some governments are badly informed about what goes on in the training group, in part because reports sent to capitals probably never reach responsible officials; --in most NATO countries, training is the responsibility of individual services, and they do not take the work of the training group seriously. February, 14, 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET The lack of support for consolidated training i.n national capitals, according to Trebesch, has already led to the collapse of a number of promisincr projects. Even the project that seemed to have the-best chance of success, basic train_i.ng of helicopter pilots, is rapidly falling apart. The UK has pulled out because it h~~s a differ- ent philosophy of pilot training. The Pletherlands has decided to train pilots in Canada bE~cause it is cheaper. Denmark is considering withdrawing because the U5 is cancelling a training course in which the Danes were interested. Several of the allied representatives who reacted to Trebesch's presentation acknowledged the truth of much of what he said but recommended concentrating on practical solutions. The US representative said that the training group's obstacles should be made known to the Military Committee and that the Executive Workincr Group should refer problems to the Defense Planning Committee at the ministerial level, if necessary. The UK representative, remarking-that "drag- ging NATO into the 1980's will be difficult," thought that time should not be wasted feeling guilty about past failures. Rather, the problems should be diagnosed and work should move forward on both the political and military fronts. He thought that one problem is that ministers are often presented with too much material and cannot tell what is important, and suggested that one or two training areas should be singled out for ministerial consideration. Reacting to this suggestion, the Executive Working Group decided that Trebesch should draw up a report identifying a small number of train- ing projects most in need of political impetus. February .L4, 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET EC Farm Council Marathon Ends in Success European farmers were not given complete satisfaction by the EC Council agreement this week on prices--the farmers wanted an average 15 percent increase; they got nine percent--but the ministers were relieved that their three-day marathon session put an end to the negotiations, before these could interfere with the Council meeting of EC leaders in Dublin next month. The agreement also gave the British another plus in their campaign to "renegotiate" their membership terms. The EC Commission itself may be the biggest winner in this week's agreement. The final package of support prices for 1975-76 was similar to the Commission's original proposals of last November, thus by and large confirming the Commission's judgment of what ultimately would be acceptable to the member states. An initiative by the Irish presidency of the Council was apparently instru- mental in promoting a final compromise. One of the major Commission aims was to begin to retrieve the system of common prices that had been seriously damaged by currency fluctuations among the Nine. These required "compensatory measures" that were, in effect, border taxes on farm trade within the common market. In this week's agreement, the intra-EC levies were decreased by different amounts for each EC member, thus constituting a step towards effective common prices. The compromise worked out by the farm ministers means that German farmers, for example, will not receive the full benefit of the support-price increases; in effect, they will be paying for February 14, 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET the revaluation of the Deutschemark--somE:thing which German Agricultural Minister Ertl had wanted to protect them from. Although French farmers will see their prices increase further as a result of the border-tax adjustments, t:he govern- ment had argued that the rise in French farm costs due to inflation should be made up in otYler ways. Britain achieved one of its renegotiation aims in getting its system of direct payments to beef growers written into the common agricultural policy. The scheme of national and community premiums to cattle growers represents a continuation of the significant innovation first made last year away from relying completely on having the EC buy up beef when its price fell below a specifiE:d level. The latter system entailed expensive stocking of beef--the so-called beef mountain--and sL;bsidization of exports. The direct payments will be "experimental" and the Commission claims that once the British realize how much they will have to pay out under the scheme, :London will "think twice." Z'he new system will also allow the Italians and French to subsidize their beef growers. February 14, 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET Human Rights Meets in Geneva 7.'he first two weeks of the 31st session of the Human Rights Commission now meeting in Geneva have been devoted to an inconclusive debate on violations of human rights in numerous countries. Resolutions on Chile and South Africa will probably pass with majority support. Charges against Israel for violations of human rights in the occupied territories and against Turkish actions in Cyprus may engender more contentious-debate. On Chile, the West Europeans have drawn up a resolution that they hope will command broad support and head off an expected Soviet blast against the Santiago regime. The major provision of the resolution is a call for a visit by a fact- finding group to Chile. The Chilean government indicated this week that it would accept a Human Rights Commission study group provided the-group only includes members from states 'having diplo- matic relations with Chile. The South African resolution is also expected to be passed, despite its relatively strong demands for action against Pretoria's apartheid policies. -The Arab group has not yet indicated its strategy for dealing faith the agenda item on Israeli violations. Discussion of this issue, however, will probably provide the major forum for their customary anti-Israeli diatribes. If the Arabs choose to call on the non-aligned majority, this could lead to the passage of inflammatory resolutions. Despite the provocative resolution drafted by the Greek Cypriots, which is sharply critical o:E Turkish actions on Cyprus, negotiations among the Cypriots and Turks during the past few days appear to have succeeded in working out a compromise acceptable to all parties. The recent Turkish February 14, 1975 SECRET Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 SECRET proclamation of a federated Turkish Cypriot state on the island and the contemplated Cypriot call for a Security Council meeting to consider the situation, however, may destroy this tenuous cooperation in the human rights forum. k'ebruaYy 14,1975 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1 Secret Secret Approved For Release 2008/05/16 :CIA-RDP79T00865A000300350001-1