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Document Creation Date: 
December 12, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 18, 2002
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November 29, 1963
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PDF icon CIA-RDP79T01019A000100190003-7.pdf125.51 KB
29 November 1963 MEMORANDUM FOR:.,Director of Central Intelligence SUBJECT The US Inspection Program for Antarctica 1. As a result of US initiative the Antarctic Treaty was negotiated in Washington, D.C. and signed on 1 December 1959 by twelve countries) including the USSR. The Treaty entered into force on 23 June .1961. The principal objectives of the-Treaty are to restrict the use of.Antarctica entirely to peaceful purposes and to continue international scientific cooperation in Antarctic research through an exchange of scientists and data. When it became clear that the USSR would not depart from Antarctica after the termination of the International Geophysical Year research program (1957-58), the US initiated the Treaty as a device to obtain the right of surveillance of USSR Antarctic stations and of any other unfriendly power that may come to Antarctica in the future. The Treaty also set aside all territorial claims -- including the troublesome Chilean, Argentine and UK conflicting claims. In addition to the original signatories) Poland and Czechoslovakia have acceded to the Treaty. 2. To ensure the use of :. Antarctica exclusively for peaceful purposes, Article VII establishes for each adhering country (a) the right of free and unlimited-unilateral inspection of all stations, GROUP 1 Excluded from automatic downgrading and dechsslflcatiod Approved For Release 2002/07/23 : CIA-RDP79T01019A000100190003-7 Approved For Rele -`2002/07/23$E -K19TO101.9A000, 190003-7 interior of Antarctica). The.teams will depart on or about 31 installations, and equipment in Antarctica, (b) the right of aerial', observation, and (c) the obligation to supply advance inforniition on all expeditions to Antarctica, the stations to be operated, and the military personnel and equipment to be utilized. 3. Model observance of the Treaty by the USSR served to defer somewhat a US exercise of the right of inspection until this season. By late 1962 US opinion began to form that a formal inspection ought to be undertaken lest the right be lost through atrophy. A program was developed this year. After approval by the President, the Secretary of State, in accordance with Treaty provisions, advised all signatories on 14 November 1963 of our intentions to inspect certain stations, and announced the names of the US observers., The USSR took the position that it saw little,need for such an inspection and itself would not exercise its right because of the costs of such an under- taking. 4. A US Observer Panel of 9 has been organized-into two teams, one to visit two stations. each of Chile, Argentina, and the UK in an area opposite to South America,'and the other to visit up to five stations in eastern Antarctica, including two of the four Soviet .year-round stations (Mirnyy, the main base, and Vostok deep in the December 1964. SECRET Approved For Release 2002/07/23 : CIA-RDP79T01019A000100190003-7 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/07/23 : CIA-RDP79T01019A000100190003-7 Approved For Release 2002/07/23 : CIA-RDP79T01019A000100190003-7