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FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 The USSR and Eastern Europe Belatedly Recognize the Container Revolution Summary 1. Although broadly employed in the West since 1966, modern standardized container transport only recently has been introduced in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Advances in industrial technology and trade in countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) have generated a need for a safer, faster transport system to handle a variety of spe- cialized high-cost goods. Accordingly, the CEMA countries have committed themselves to a coordinated policy for the expansion of containerized trans- portation from its present rudimentary base. 2. Installation of basic rail and port terminal facilities is under way. Additional container ships, railcars, and trucks are provided for in current five-year plans or are on order from Western sup- pliers. The necessary bureaucratic bodies are being organized and expanded. By 1975 the skeleton of a CEMA network should be formed, with regular service Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release MAR! -RDP79TV'IV98A000100010001-4 intensive nature of containerization programs. one container ship, for example, costs as much as $25 million, each container about $2,500, and port installations and related facilities perhaps $20 million per berth, including cranes costing more than $1 million each. The New York - New Jersey Container Terminal at Elizabeth, New Jersey, has invested more than $143 million alone in seven fully equipped container berths and extensive back-up facilities. As a result, Elizabeth handled nearly 6.5 million tons of containerized cargo in 1971 and nearly 4 million tons in the first six months of 1972 -- more than any other port in the world. The economy of. container ship operations, however, as demonstrated in Table 1, more than off- sets the large investment. Space Costs for Four Kinds of Ships US $ per Cubic Meter Conventional Ship Pallet Ship Container Ship Barge Ship Total 6.11 5.38 4.97 4.09 Capital cost 2.30 2.22 2.50 2.48 Operational cost 3.81 3.16 2.47 1.61 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CI7-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2009 59T5 I CTiQD T990M8A000100010001-4 Office of Economic Research THE USSR AND EASTERN EUROPE BELATEDLY RECOGNIZE THE CONTAINER REVOLUTION ER RP 73-1 RETURN TU ARCHIVES 1 WW1 ""' E May 19 7 3 IMMEUTATEIY AFTER USE / RU Copy No. Joe 124 Approved For Release 2000/05/15: CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2MOf?AE'FW9%T698A000100010001-4 The USSR and Eastern Europe Belatedly Recognize the Container Revolution Summar 1. Although broadly employed in the West since 1966, modern standardized container transport only recently has been introduced in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Advances in industrial technology and trade in countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) have generated a need for a safer, faster transport system to handle a variety of spe- cialized high-cost goods. Accordingly, the CEMA countries have committed themselves to a coordinated policy for the expansion of containerized trans- portation from its present rudimentary base. 2. Installation of basic rail and port terminal facilities is under way. Additional container ships, railcars, and trucks are provided for in current five-year plans or are on order from Western sup- pliers. The necessary bureaucratic bodies are being organized and expanded. By 1975 the skeleton of a CEMA network should be formed, with regular service Note: Comments and questions regarding be directed 's aper are welcomed. They may Code ch 143, , of the Office of Economic Resear Extension 7884. Approved For Release 2000/05/15 1 OR :OFFICI~L7-1J5~:0090100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Figure 1 Typical Standardized Container Transportation System Containerization is a system used by all modes of transportation wherein goods are packed and shipped in containers using standard sizes. Standards agreed on by about 50 member countries of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) are shown in the Appendix. A total container transportation system begins at the shipper's loading platform. Here the cargo is stowed in a container and loaded on a trailer. Wi~ The container is then hauled either over the road .. . The vessel, loaded above and below deck with containers, sails for its port of destination. All containers Upon arrival at the terminal, the are waterproof to protect the cargo on the high seas. container is driven to dockside where it is lifted from its chassis by a gantry crane and stored in a shaft-like steel hold aboard a containership. Again, the container is hauled either over the road... . Upon arrival, the container is lifted off the ship and placed on a waiting chassis. At the consignee's receiving dock, the cargo is unloaded. Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release OFFICIAL USE ONLY 0 5 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 between 19 CEMA cities and ports from Moscow in the east to Rostock in the west. Containerized service to Japan via the Trans-Siberian Railroad will be systematically built up in this period to provide a Soviet "Land Bridge" as an alternative interna- tional freight route. Western suppliers of equip- ment for container transport systems should find an expanding market in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Sophisticated loading and unloading equipment, systems technology, container leases and purchases, and even some ships and rolling equipment will be on the Communist shopping list for several years at least. 3. The developing CEMA capabilities in con- tainerized transport will effect important economies and speed up the movement of Soviet military sup- plies. This is true both for the transfer of freight between different railroad gauges at the Soviet borders and for intermodal transfer of sup- plies destined for military and civilian units in remote areas of the USSR. Furthermore, container- ization is essential to the Soviet policy of playing an increasingly important role in international shipping. Approved For Release 2000/00 1& PINRQPZ~10 4000100010001-4 Approved For Release 200/0'571P FOR CCIA-RDP79T0I098A000100010001-4 Discussion The Container Revolution 4. As early as 1966, governments and private firms in the industrialized West were aggressively pushing containerization as the means to meet burgeoning transport requirements. Using 10- and 20-foot containers developed by the United States in World War II, maritime shipping companies by 1967 were operating 60 special container ships between the United States and Europe. In the fol- lowing year, operations were extended to rail, inland water, and highway transportation and the "container revolution" was in full swing. At the start of 1973, Western fleets were operating 580 full-container and 300 partial-container vessels with a combined capacity of more than 343,000 stand- ard 20-foot containers representing a payload of 3 million to 4 million tons. 5. In contrast to these dynamic developments, the USSR and East European countries have lagged in broad implementation of modern container trans- port technology. This lag is a major illustration of the inability of the CEMA countries to translate known technology expeditiously into successful Approved For Release 200 gQ5/f,FRf2 ItDt~%Tb1fQpg4000100010001-4 Approved For Release 296MARF5 ILTiq=RDP99M98A000100010001-4 day-to-day operation. Basic economic factors,-- such as the growing complexity of industrial out- put and trade within the CEMA areal and the aspira- tions of the USSR as a major maritime power -- have forced Moscow to take action. Therefore, the USSR is investing substantial domestic resources and is actively seeking technical aid and equipment from developed Western countries to spur its con- tainerization program. CEMA and the Communist Effort 6. CEMA has long been the forum for resolving problems and coordinating actions on the develop- ment and operation of the transport systems of the USSR and the East European Communist countries. The USSR has dominated the organization since its inception in 1949. Following the worldwide trend to containerization and the experimentation in various applications by some member countries since 1967, a CEMA-wide program for development of a net- work of container terminals and transshipment sta- tions was finally adopted at Bucharest in mid-1971. 7. In the CEMA program, member countries are to be linked by 1975 by a network of container- handling ports and terminals integrated with rail 1. This complexity is, of course, a much greater incentive in highly developed Western countries but is nevertheless of concern to the CEMA coun- tries at their current stage of development. Approved For Release 200/1 &FJLJIDPJsT~ Q000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Figure 2. Transloading Large Containers from Ships Directly to Rail Cars in Zhdanov Port, USSR Sea-Land's SL-180 Container Ship Approved For Release 20FOR /15 ICIALD f~ ?Ta 9 A000100010001-4 OFF Approved For Release 2000/05/15': TAT M'7*6`1W A 0100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 3;x'4 I %L NI )NI_,a FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 and highway transport facilities2 ................................................... :::::::::::::..............:::::::::::::::..... .... Baltic.:: ::::::::::::::::::... ........................,,_ ....; 11 GDYNIA STETTIN I P02NAN 171 I MOSCOW / I I MALESICE I WARSAW i / KATOWICE! i KIEV ' I New CEMA container network will link 19 terminals by 1975. Heavy lines indicate routes scheduled for opening on or before 1 January 1974. Broken lines indicate routes to be opened on or before 1 January 1975. Squares show eventual locations of CEMA's major port and rail container terminals. At the same time, the number of container terminals is to increase to 120 from the 25 available in 1971, with container traffic accounting for about 7% of the 350 million tons of freight scheduled to move Transport facilities in the CEMA countries, especially the railroads, are being gradually up- graded, including changeover to modern diesel or electric traction and the improvement of ancillary facilities to realize the inherent advantages of the new traction. (see Figure 3). Approved For Release 2000/05/1 5F&A fI AQ1Q OSRJOP010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 Pc1A=RDP79T0104SAP00~00010001-4 internationally within the region. An increase in the inventory of standardized containers to 130,000 from the 7,000 on hand in 1971 is also envisioned. Accordingly, a coordinating council was established to allocate production responsibilities for con-, tainers and specialized container-handling equip- ment among CEMA members. 8. Total investment in the system probably will be more than US $2 billion, somewhat less than 5% of estimated total public transportation investment during the current Five-Year Plan (1971-75). Among member countries, Soviet invest- ment is to top $1 billion, followed by Czechoslo- vakia and Romania with $280 million and $200 mil- lion, respectively. Data are lacking on the East German, Polish, and Bulgarian shares of this in- vestment package. 9. The CEMA program is small in comparison with the long-run task. The 7% share of traffic targeted for 1975 contrasts with estimates that 70% to 80% of freight moving between CEMA countries is containerizable. As to the planned 1975 con- tainer inventory of 130,000, two US container leasing and operating companies alone own more than 110,000 units. Finally, the projected investment expenditures are low, given the highly capital 6 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 ,C~I0--F~M~~~L00( 1~V10001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15.CI~ F79T01~ 8A000100010001-4 intensive nature of containerization programs. One container ship, for example, costs as much as $25 million, each container about $2,500, and port installations and related facilities perhaps $20 million per berth, including cranes costing more than $1 million each. The New York - New Jersey Container Terminal at Elizabeth, New Jersey, has invested more than $143 million alone in seven fully equipped container berths and extensive back-up facilities. As a result, Elizabeth handled nearly 6.5 million tons of containerized cargo in 1971 and nearly 4 million tons in the first six months of 1972 -- more than any other port in the world. The economy of container ship operations, however, as demonstrated in Table 1, more than off- sets the large investment. Space Costs for Four Kinds of Shipsl US $ per Cubic Meter Conventional Ship Pallet Ship Container Ship Barge Ship Total 6.11 5.38 4.97 4.09 Capital cost 2.30 2.22 2.50 2.48 Operational cost 3.81 3.16 2.47 1.61 7 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : FORRW TAIL096H0BW10001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/1 ?.IA 7bPblW? AWt 0010001-4 Developments in the USSR On the Rail System 10. The USSR has used small cargo containers domestically since 1948. This system was developed to handle small cargo lots over the rail system, and most of the containers are not suitable for maritime or international shipments. Lack of a well-developed road network and enough suitable truck transport in the USSR will continue to limit most movement of large containers to the railroads for some years to come. Inland waterways are closed for two to six months of the year and facil- ities are inadequately equipped to handle large containers. Many important shippers and consignees are not served by water or by intercity truck transport. 11. There are about 1 million containers in the Soviet inventory, 80% of which are rated 3 tons or less with most of the rest 5 tons. A survey of the Soviet container inventory late in 1971 in- dicated that 40% were defective. 12. By 1968, containerized shipments in the Soviet Union had reached 28 million tons, mostly by rail. In 1970, Soviet railroads began handling the larger 10- and 20-foot international standard 8 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/T "CIA-96P79T0'fvhMST00010001-4 containers on an experimental basis on a few routes. Organization was tightened in July 1972, when the responsibility for the organization, development, and control of internal container transport by all modes was centralized in the newly created all- union association, Soyuztranskonteyner, an auton- omous unit within the Ministry of Railroads. By March 1973, Moscow and nine other cities were served on a regular basis (see Table 2), and attempts were under way to establish international service to Japan (see Figure 4) via the Trans- Siberian Railroad and to Berlin, Prague, Budapest, and Sofia. All-container express trains are to be started in 1973, the first such services to be inaugurated between Moscow and Leningrad, between Moscow and Brest (for through service to Eastern Europe), and along the Trans-Siberian route. By the end of 1972, container traffic accounted for only about 1% (33 million tons) of the total volume of rail traffic, but this amount represented 20% of the total value of rail traffic. Plans call for the Soviet railway system to handle 74 million tons of containerized cargo in 1975. As the volume grows, however, lack of automatic con- trol systems for the movement of containers will 9 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/159CIA-VJFWOT0%AU0&T00010001-4 USSR: International Standard Container Routes and Stations in Regular Servicel March 1973 Leningrad Moscow (2 stations) Riga Leningrad Kharkov Riga Tashkent Khar'kov Odessa Tashkent Berlin Minsk Budapest Odessa Sofia Ungeny Prague Brest Irkutsk Khabarovsk Nakhodka Vladivostok 1. Frequency of service on most routes is only about once a week. hamper the efficiency of container operations. Lack of widespread internal handling facilities will tend to limit the large containers mostly to international railroad transit routes. Seaborne 13. The first official commitment to Soviet use of modern seaborne containerized transport'came in October 1969, when Nikolai Bykov, member of the Collegium of the Ministry of the Maritime Fleet, announced that ships with a capacity of 500 to 10 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Japan-Europe Container Service Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 tP0OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2 5/15: CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 600 containers were to be acquired by the USSR during 1971-75. This commitment was expanded in the 1971-75 Five-Year Plan, which called for (a) seaborne containerized cargo to reach 5 million to 6 million tons by 1975, (b) purchase of at least 20 container ships (mostly 39- to 300-container capacity), (c) construction of modern container port facilities3 (see Figure 5), and (d) upgrading of the merchant fleet inventory of international standard containers to 23,000 units. The new: vessels will be used on major international routes between the USSR and Europe, Cuba, Japan, and the Middle East. 14. When the 1971-75 Five-Year Plan was being drafted, experimental use of international con- tainers was carried out by adapting existing ships, rolling stock, and cargo-handling equipment. By the end of 1970 a few Soviet international shipping I. Most of the port facilities are new or recon- structed areas at existing ports. One or two berths have been adapted on a temporary basis, with adequate cranes, not specifically designed, however, to handle containers until the new facility is com- pleted. The current volume of container traffic at Soviet ports is small. Leningrad, probably the leading Soviet container port, processed only 600 containers in June 1972 -- indicating an annual rate of 7,200 containers (perhaps about 70,000 tons). The leading non-Communist port, New York, was already handling about 6.5 million tons of con- tainerized cargo in 1971. /' LifLDIU?gC68&4000100010001-4 Approved For Release 20ftUMR Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Major Container Ports of the USSR: Status as of 1 January 1973 ? Murmansk Klaipeda ? *Ventspils Riga* ?Leningrad ? Arkhangel'sk I l'iehevsk NOdessa ? Zhdanov 11 agayevo? Petropavlovsk-0 Kamohatskiy Vladivostok *Nakhodka Wrangel Bay Status Arkhangel'sk Facilities adapted in 1971 for loading 20-ton containers with small electric loaders. Plans for expansion include 1 quay for containers. Small amounts of additional container handling equipment acquired during 1972. Baku Agreement in 1972 with Iran for container shipments from Baku to Iranian ports. Il'iehevsk Began regular service in 1971 to Bulgaria on the V. Kocher (container ship). Container section net up in one cargo area (one wharf and warehouse assigned). 20- and 30-ton cranes used. Rear storage area available for 8 000 20-ft. containers. Specialized container ter- minal to be constructed in the near future. Automatic crane to be installed with productivity of 30 to 40 containers per hour. Extensive warehousing and facili- ties for motor and rail transfer to be included. A total of only 3,529 containers (53,000 tons) handled during June-December, 1971. Klaipeda Some containerized cargo being accepted from ships drawing no more than 8.5 meters (capacity up to 300 containers). Depths to be increased to handle ships holding up to 750 containers and a specialized container area is to be constructed. Leningrad Some 20- and 40-foot containers handled on conven- tional cargo ships Leningrad-Europe beginning May 1970. Regular handling of containers began in 1971 with use of adapted timber carrier Ivan Chernykh, Leningrad-London. Container-handling cranes ordered from Finland to equip 2 berths at the new terminal probably to be delivered about August 1973. Port in mid 1972 was processing 600 containers per month; ,888 large containers in 1971. processed 4,8811) Murmansk Container terminal under construction. Nakhodka One 100 containers operating pr dsince ay. Secondlcontainer sbe berth being to fitted out is expected to handle more than 500,000 tons (perhaps 42,000 containers) annually. ? Operating with expansion under way ? Under construction Status Wrangel Bay Container terminal with a capacity of from 120,000 to 140,000 containers a year under construction with Japanese aid. Completion is planned by 1975. Nagayevo Container operations underway and volume expected to increase. 500 large internatiopal standard containers arrived at Nakhodka in mid-1972 for Nakhodka- Nagayevo service. A specialized container complex planned. Odessa Odessa- Varna -Alexandria route in service since 1971. Limited operations at one wharf equipped with 10- to 30-ton portal cranes. Larger container terminal under construction; to be equipped with 40-ton cranes for handling of ships carrying up'to 2,000 containers. Petropavlovsk- Refitted container ship Zabaykalsk operating container Kamohatekiy service to Petropavlovsk from Vladivostok and Na- khodka by late 1971. New facilities for the handling of heavy containers are to be operating before the end of 1975. Riga One wharf adapted and the first container ship Fritsis mer t e in sum Gaylis assigned to the Riga-Liverpool rou 1971. Container route Riga Rostock also initiated in 1971. Plans to program loading up to 30-ton containers using Minsk-32 computer. Larger container terminal under construction. Port equipment adapted for some container handling. Experimentation and expansion underway. Containers shipped to England on Fritsis Gaylis. Vladivostok Container terminal under construction, A large consign- ment of specialized equipment for handling containers has been delivered. One 30-ton crane installed and two others to be installed soon at the container pier. First container ship departed in July 1972. Zhdanov 20-ft. containers being handled on the route to Italy. Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2&MF057'T'S:jG'fARD'FrT9TU'fU98AO00100010001-4 lines were carrying small amounts of containerized cargo on converted cargo ships. Some of the con- tainers were small Soviet railway containers of 5 tons or less, whereas others were 20- and 40-foot containers leased from foreign shippers and con- forming to international standards. These larger units were carried on the decks of conventional cargo ships on international routes moving between Il'ichevsk and Egypt, Black Sea ports and Bulgaria, Baltic ports and the United Kingdom and East Germany, and Far Eastern ports and Japan. 15. The first Soviet-flag full container ships -- two small East German-built Boltenhagen-class vessels (39 containers) -- were delivered in:June 1971. The lead ship of the first class of full container ships to be built in the USSR -- Sestroretsk (218 containers) -- was delivered to the Soviet Baltic Steamship Co. in March 1972. The Soviet merchant fleet now has at least four ships of the Sestroretsk class and perhaps five of the Boltenhagen class.4 In addition, at least 12 dry cargo ships have been converted to handle con- tainers. Other ships of the Sestroretsk and Boltenhagen.classes will be delivered by 1975 along Later versions carry 56 containers and are some- times referred to as Warin-class. . 12 Approved For Release 200P6 /W& ftDP T(dgi> 1000100010001-4 Approved For Release 1090 ORAT CC W-R '9TU41 8A000100010001-4 with new classes, including as many as 15 ships with a capacity of more than 700 containers. In addition, a total of 74 partial-container ships are to be de- livered by-East European shipyards by 1975, along with two large roll-on, roll-off (RO-RO) ships from Finland, with a capacity of 1,300 containers and six smaller RO-RO ships from France. The RO-RO ships with their built-in unloading system are uniquely suited for operations to ports in less developed countries where there is insufficient sophisticated shore-based gear to handle large unitized cargo. Table 3 gives data on container ships on order by the USSR. 16. Soviet international container lines, in- cluding those serving the Soviet Land Bridge, cur- rently operate out of Baltic, Black Sea, and Far Eastern ports. Services that have now operated for more than a year include Leningrad-London., Riga-Liverpool, Il'ichevsk (near Odessa) - Varna, and Nakhodka-Japan. Services recently introduced include Leningrad-Hamburg-Rotterdam, Riga - Le Havre, Il'ichevsk-Alexandria, Zhdanov (Black Sea Basin) - Italy, and Nakhodka - Hong Kong. Services were established recently between the Black Sea and Canada and between the Soviet Far East and the 13 Approved For Release 20 ,OdWS/1F4ARLDBTa9IA000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 USSR: Container Ships on Order as of March 1973 Country of Construction Class or Type of Ship Remarks East Germany Mercur (13,314 deadweight Full-container ship with 774-con- tons -- DWT) tainer capacity. As many as 15 to be delivered by 1975. East Germany Mercator (12,050 DWT) Partial-container ship, 368-con- tainer capacity. Fifteen to be delivered by 1975. Romania "Universal" type Probably a multi-purpose dry (2,150 DWT) cargo with partial-container capacity. Twenty-four ships to be delivered by 1975, Finlandl Roll-on, roll-off type 1,300-container capacity. Total (21,000 DWT) order for five, with two to be delivered by 1975. Ships are to be strengthened for ice navigation and a 30-ton axle load on the deck. France Roll-on, roll-off type Six to be delivered during (4,200 DWT) 1974-75. USSR Aleksandr Fadeyev 300-container capacity. Speed of (5,000 DWT) 17 knots, range up to 10,000 miles. At least five are to be built at Kherson with the first to be delivered early in 1973. USSR Berezan (12,000 DWT) Partial-container ship with 300-container capacity; eight ordered, with some probably delivered by 1975. Poland "B46" (7,500 DWT) Partial-container ship. Speed 17 knots. Thirty-five to be delivered during 1973-75. 1. Except for the two large roll-on, roll-off vessels to be delivered by Finland, container ships of more than 800-container capacity are not expected until after 1975. Approved For Release 20 516fpM&EDt9gpT8 A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 200105/15 : CIALRDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 west coast of the United States. At present all these routes are operated solely by the Soviet merchant fleet, but the Varna service eventually will be worked in conjunction with the Bulgarian Merchant Fleet, and Japanese shipowners are pressing to enter the Nakhodka-Japan service. The Soviet Land Bridge 17. The Soviet Land Bridge is a key element in the Soviet development of an intermodal intera- tional containerized transport system. This unique trade route between Japan and Europe was established in 1967 by Soviet, Japanese, and European trans- portation companies and freight forwarders and soon came into use for experimental shipments of small lots of international containers between Japan and Europe. Conventional dry cargo ships were modified to carry containers between Japan and Nakhodka, where at least one wharf has been designated to give priority to the transfer of containers to rail- road cars for transit of the USSR via the Trans- Siberian Railroad. Some of the containers from Japan 5 are delivered to Europe via sea from Lenin- grad, by truck from Moscow, or via rail or truck Service was expanded in May 1972 to include a Hong Kong - Nakhodka link. Some containers have since been delivered [footnote continued on p. 16] Approved For Release 200p//1 1FIC - pPJ C6JR& 000100010001-4 AR 2F~ICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release ODU/0 1 IA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 from the western borders of the USSR. Transit times are reported to be from 24 to 45 days, roughly on a par with all-sea movement. Rates are as much as,20% lower than all-sea routing.6 18. Traffic via the Soviet Land Bridge has been light but increasing. Currently less than 300,000 tons a year, traffic may jump with the installation of new facilities. These facilities include a new port under construction at Wrangel Bay near Nakhodka with a planned 1975 capacity of 120,000 to 140,000 containers (perhaps 1.5 million tons) per year.7 Improved coordination and regular opera- tion of all-container express trains carrying up to 100 standard 20-foot containers per trip may reduce the total transit time between Japan and Europe to perhaps 20-25 days. The successful development of the Soviet Land Bridge depends on from West Germany to Hong Kong in as little as days via the Soviet Land Bridge route, comparing favorably with an all-sea voyage of 23 to 30 days. 6. The USSR may revise the tariff, boosting rates 4% to 5% for Japan-to-Europe traffic and reducing rates 7% to 10% on Europe-to-Japan traffic in an attempt to rectify the imbalance in container loads. Only 300 to 500 containers a month are moving from Japan. Some US shippers are considering use of the light Europe-to-Japan direction on the Trans-Siberian route for movement of empty containers to reload in Japan. is roughly 7. Planned 1975 capacity at Wrangel Bay comparable with the volume handled at Bremen/ Approved For Release 2000 51y~MP TLQ' $,A000100010001-4 / ~~IC1A M ONLY Approved For Release 79T01098A000100010001-4 whether the new generation of large, fast con- tainer ships already being assigned to the Europe - Far East runs will capture this traffic first.; Some container ships already make the trip in 23-30 days, and shippers may be reluctant or find it impractical to switch routes. Volume via the Land Bridge route now amounts to only about 1% of the seaborne volume. 19. Competition for Japan-Europe traffic may also develop from the embryonic North American Land Bridge. In spite of first-class facilities, this land bridge has not yet been able to attract any substantial volume because of problems with intermodal cooperation, government regulation, and uncompetitive rates. The Seatrain Company of the United States has finally engineered a break- through by concluding agreements with several rail- road companies in 1972 that permit the initiation of through North American Land Bridge service between Japan and Europe or intermediate points in the United States. Rates are the same as all- water routes, and delivery times are as much as six or seven days less. A transit time of 21 days from Tokyo to Rotterdam already has been demon- strated. New 33-knot container ships due in service q 17 gg..i~.pp Approved For Release 2000/05/15 FOR :OFAICQApp7-USPD0100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/ JC~lk-RuP79T01098A000100010001-4 in 1973 could further reduce time in transit by perhaps another five days. The superior service plus good freight-forwarding connections are likely to attract, substantial traffic to the North American Land Bridge -- perhaps partly at the expense Of the Soviet Land Bridge service. Certainly the North American facilities are far more developed and capable of greater volume than those of the USSR. Assistance from the Developed West 20. The USSR is actively seeking technical aid and equipment from the developed Western countries to expedite the establishment and expansion of containerized transport systems. A compilation of requirements described by the maritime fleet, rail, and river ministries shows that the minimum total demand through 1975 will be 32,000 10- and 20-foot containers. None of these containers, or the equip- ment capable of handling them, is yet produced in appreciable quantities by the USSR. 21. Moscow has made overtures since at least 1970 for the purchase of containers and handling equipment from the West. A huge container,exposi- tion, billed as "Container-72," was held at Lenin- grad in 1972. Containers as well as all types of vehicles and handling equipment for all modes, of Approved For Release 20 pafi5I3 .# 2DPiRT8A9pA000100010001-4 2FFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 0 0 /15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000.100010001-4 transport were on display. Manufacturers from all over the world, including the United States, were invited to participate. The largest contracts signed at the exhibition were reportedly with firms in East Germany, Bulgaria, Finland, and.the United Kingdom. After the Leningrad exposition, the Soviets also arranged two large contracts to lease containers from Western firms. Container. Transport International (CTI), a wholly-owned sub- sidiary of the Leasco Corp. of the United States, signed a contract with Sovfracht in October 1972 to lease 1,500 containers to the Soviets, and Sea- Containers, a US-registered international container leasing company, contracted in January 1973 to supply the USSR with 1,000 20-foot UK-built con- tainers. More of these contracts may be expected because the USSR probably will not reach its annual domestic production target of 16,000 containers for several years. Developments in East European Countries 22. East Germany has led the East European countries in the introduction and operation of con- tainer transport services. Elsewhere in Eastern Europe, the establishment of containerized trans- port is only beginning. More rapid development can Approved For Release 200Q1 5 l iitl%JPP$p0 $4000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 be expected over the next few years with the Coor- dinated expansion of a CEMA network. East Germany 23. Containerized transport has. been under in- tensive development in East Germany since 1968. In June of that year, the first container trains were put into regularly scheduled operations between Rostock, Berlin, and Dresden and in November a container ship service to the British port of Tilbury (near London) was started. 24. Rail container services in East Germany have increased from 21 trains a week in 1968-69 to more than 340 in 1971-72. About 18 container terminals in East Germany now serve about 1,600 towns and more than 700 enterprises. By 1975, 45 terminals are to be in operation. Regular inter- national rail service to Czechoslovakia was estab- lished in September 1971, and trial runs have been made to Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the USSR. 25. Seaborne container traffic is small because container facilities at Rostock will not be com- pleted until 1974. Services are currently'open to Tilbury, with Hamburg and Riga as ports of call. In 1971, Rostock handled 10,000 to 15,000 containers; a volume of 60,000 to 70,000 is expected by 1975. 20 Approved For Release 200/8W18F fqARQPU79Rj0W000100010001-4 gC~1& FFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2 0 /15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 As part of the Rostock complex, an additional ter- minal capable of handling 100,000 containers by 1975 is under construction. 26. Total containerized traffic in East Germany has mushroomed since 1968. In 1969, a year after service was started, 23,000 containers carried some 160,000 tons. Two years later, service had expanded to 175,000 containers equal to 1.3 million tons -- still less than 1% of overall transport volume. All of this growth has occurred in land or seaborne trade; container service by air is not available, and none is planned until after 1975. 27. East Germany's container inventory should also show large increases by 1975. In 1968, 6,000 containers -- all less than 5 tons -- were avail- able; by 1971, 12,000 were in the inventory.' One- half of these were the newer international standard containers of the 10- and 20-foot variety. By 1975, the total inventory is expected to increase to 40,000 units, nearly all of which will be the larger international standard containers. Hungary 28. Hungarian experience with containerized transportation dates back to 1967, when the Hun- garian State Railway (MAV) became the first CEMA Approved For Release 2000/0 /1a fLJ-MP3STOa 000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 member to join the International Container Trans- portation Co. This firm is a commercial agent for the national railroads of 21 European countries and is involved in marketing international con- tainer services. Since 1967, however, Hungary's use of containers has not grown rapidly. Current services consist of rail shipments to Hamburg and Bremerhaven under the auspices of the Hungarian General Shipping Enterprise (MASPED). 29. Hungarian plans call for a gradual expan- sion in the network of container centers andserv- ices. By 1985, about 3%-4% of all rail freight is to be containerized, almost all of it on interna- tional trunk lines. Planned minimum container re- quirements and traffic levels compared with those in 1970 follow: Volume of Containerized Shipments (Thousand Tons)' Container Requirements (20-foot Units) Rail Loadings (Number of Containers) 1970 200 10,000 1975 700 50,000 1980 2,000 150,000 22 Approved For Release 205 13 i]p~2LL9Tt9 9i8A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 30. Twelve rail terminals throughout the coun- try also are being developed, three of which are at Budapest, Hungary's principal container cen- ter.8 Meanwhile, Hungary is negotiating to extend the present Rostock-Dresden-Prague all-container train service between East Germany and Czechoslo- vakia to Budapest, and is participating with the USSR and Czechoslovakia in construction of a con- tainer transloading center in the Chop-Zahony border complex. 31. Hungary's production of international stan- dard containers has moved ahead rapidly, and some have been exported to Western Europe. About 2,000 containers -- mostly of the 20-foot variety -- were produced during 1971, and production is ex- pected to increase to 8,000 to 12,000 by 1975. The Hungarians are also gearing up for production of special heavy cranes for handling containers and special flat cars. Hungarian shipyards have begun to build multi-purpose ships of 3,000 DWT suitable for carrying up to 100 20-foot containers, and K. In addition to the three at Budapest, other terminals are being developed at Miskolc, Gyor, Debrecen, Pecs, Szeged, Szombathely, Nagykoros, Nyiregyhaza, and Sopron. Approved For Release 20Q /1 p fD?j TQJflt8p4000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 construction of full-container ships lies just over the horizon. Poland 32. Poland, like most East European countries, is in the early stages of developing a container transport system. Containerized rail service has been limited to experimental runs on the Berlin- Warsaw-Moscow route since 1970, with regular serv- ice to begin sometime in 1973. Seaborne trade started in 1969 when service to the United States was inaugurated using dry cargo ships adapted to carry several containers on deck. This service was followed shortly by adoption of a route to the United Kingdom. Inadequate rail and highway clearances and rudimentary facilities at the port of Gdynia have served to restrict the volume of this trade. Also, the limited road clearances throughout Poland have kept inland movement of containers to a minimum. 33. Rapid expansion of Poland's small con- tainerized service may be expected during the next few years. Most of the emphasis will be placed on rail and seaborne trade. By 1975 an initial build- up to 1 million tons of containerized freight is Approved For Release 2000 5/ ; fi DIj7 TqN A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 10,%O5/13I9lA RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 forecast.9 The expansion is to accelerate after 1975 -- 20 million tons forecast by the planners for 1980 and 70 million for 1985. 34. The Polish railroad system, which will handle most of the planned increases in tonnage, is charged with implementing plans for the national containerized transport system. Initial once-a- week service began between a few stations in January 1973. By 1975 there are to be seven rail container stations in Poland -- at least five of which (Poznan, Warsaw, Sosnowiec, Katowice, and Gdynia) are either completed or will be by the end of 1973, when they will be served by direct con- tainer trains. The railroad system already has imported 160 international standard containers from East Germany to get service under way. Poland and the USSR also are constructing container trans- loading facilities along their border. Because Poland stands between East Germany and the USSR and is establishing ocean container terminals at Gdynia and Swinoujscie, its future role as a transit area for East European container trade is most promising. Eac o at least eight non-Communist ports already handle more than twice the. volume expected in Poland by 1975. Approved For Release 2000/FNR50f 'RE781j1V?6900100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 35. Expansion of Polish seaborne container trade rests primarily on the development of the port facilities at Gdynia. One wharf was remodeled for containers in 1971-72, and a new container com- plex is under construction in early 1973. Capacity for container traffic at Gdynia at the beginning of 1972 was about 350,000 tons a year, with the 1975 level expected to increase to about 1.3 million tons a year. Only 6,500 containers with about 56,700 tons of cargo actually were shipped through Gdynia in 1972. 36. Poland has already built a few small partial-container ships for export and is to de- liver several with 700-container capacity to. Polish Ocean Lines (PLO) during 1973-75. PLO received 60 large containers from East Germany in 1972 and began pick-up service to some locations in PLO- owned trucks. Domestic production of international standard containers began in 1972, and about 3,500 are planned for 1975. Most of these will be the larger 20-foot models. Also, a few railroad cars and special trucks for handling the 20-foot con- tainers are being produced and tested domestically. Approved For Release 20q /b: DPjT tgA000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 Czechoslovakia 37. Containerized transportation in Czechoslo- vakia is in its infancy, lagging behind even other Communist countries. Current services include a regularly scheduled twice-a-week rail route to Rostock, East Germany, and river transport to Hamburg for transshipment overseas. Freight moved in container services is a negligible share of total tonnage. 38. Czechoslovakia has scheduled a step-by- step introduction of containerized services that is to proceed at an accelerated pace after 1975. A special Department of Containerization was, established in the Federal Ministry of Transporta- tion to foster the development of containerized transportation. Total investment is expected to grow from $280 million by 1975 to nearly $2 billion by 1980, with annual volume expanding from 2 million tons in 1975 to 8 million in 1980. Five major rail terminals are planned for completion by 1978 with another 20 expected to be completed later. More- over, the Czech inventory of containers is, expected to grow rapidly from 50 in 1971 to 10,000 by 1975, most of which will be produced domestically. The Approved For Release 20 QQ1} /dFjF pB]g$T%NBfA000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Czechs also are participating in the joint develop- ment of the Chop/Zahony container transloading com- plex on the Soviet border. Romania 39. Much of Romania's experience with contain- erized transport is in the planning stages with some experimental services and construction of facilities just beginning. Current services are limited to a few all-container trains operating on five main lines and carrying 10-foot containers. Use of 20-foot containers reportedly started in 1972. 40. By 1975, Romania plans to invest $200 mil- lion to establish a standard container transport system. A basic network of rail services, radiating from Bucharest and integrated with high- way facilities, is planned. Five rail terminals are currently under construction at Bucharest, Brasov, Sibiu, Arad, and Timisoara, and contain- erized services are planned to Constanta, Timisoara, and Iasi. Timisoara is near the border with: Hungary and Yugoslavia, and Iasi is near the Soviet border. Both are key transfer points for any integrated CEMA-wide container system. Except for improving the container handling capability of Constanta, the 28 Approved For Release 20M9L6/1aFW#AEI)OgPTAN A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 200U/057lfI%=RDOT9?0'f098A000100010001-4 current plan makes no mention of seaborne contain- erized shipping, most of the emphasis being on in- land developments. Bulgaria 41. Containerized transportation in Bulgaria is little more than a dream in the planner's eye. Bulgaria's only current involvement with containers began in 1971 when the port of Varna began handling small shipments from a Soviet container ship carrying 20-foot containers on a regular Varna- Il'ichevsk route. 42. Future plans include port expansion Varna, establishment of 12 rail stations equipped to handle large containers, and domestic manufacture of small container ships, standard containers, specialized rail cars, and trucks. By 1975, Bul- garia plans to haul more than 7 million tons of freight in 10-, 20-, and 30-foot containers and to manufacture 6,000 containers. Military Advantages to CEMA 43. A growing proportion of modern military freight traffic is handled more expeditiously and safely in its own special containers. In some respects, military traffic has been at the fore- front of the worldwide container revolution. Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 the instance of the USSR and Eastern Europe, the expansion of fixed facilities, rolling stock, and bureaucratic bodies necessary for containerization of freight traffic is part of a steady improvement in the military transportation network in the CEMA area. Of great value from the military point of view is the potential speed-up in east-west move- ment of military supplies. Containerization; is particularly important for the reduction of transit time across the change-of-gauge rail points at the Soviet border. Finally, containerized international transport enhances the ability to support military or economic activity in the Far East or other remote areas of the USSR. Approved For Release 20001"y5O IitPWI@10NW00100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 External Dimensions and Maximum Gross Wei hts of Containers Agreed on by the International Standardization Organization Maximum Gross Container Weight Designation Length Widthl Height (Tons2) 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 40' 0" 8' 0" 8' 0,93 29'11?" 8' 0" 8' 0" 19'103'2" 8 ' 0 8 ' 0 91 93/411 8' 0" 8' Oil 6' 52 8' 0 8' 0" 4' 92" Be 0" 8' 0" 9' 7" 7' 62" 6'102 7'102" 6'102" 6'102" 4' 9" 7' 62" 6'102" 6'102" 8' 8" 7'102" 6'102" 4' 4" 7'102" 6'102" 4' 4" 7'102" 30.0 25.0 20.0 10.0 7.0 5.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 5.0 5.0 2.5 Certain European countries would like a stan- dard container width of 2.5 meters (8 feet 2/ inches) to be adopted, primarily because the stan- dard width of road vehicles on the continent of Europe is 2.5 meters. In certain other countries, including the United States, it is 2.44 meters (8 feet), and such containers would be effectively excluded. 2. One ton equals 2,240 pounds. Net loads of these containers vary widely according to the com- modities carried. Containers rated at a maximum gross weight of 20 tons, for example, usually average a load of about 8 to 12 tons for a large volume of mixed freight. 3. Forty-foot containers with a height of 8 feet 6 inches have also been approved. Approved For Release 200ql&W1bppttlRIPP@%'EOtMU (000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL P~9TOIa98A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 :CIA-RD Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Analyst: , IN/ 11 (Project 34. 6473) Approved or Release 2006/05/15 : - 8A000100010 01-4 CONTROL RECORD FOR SUPPLEMENTAL DISTRIBUTION STATINTL DISSEM: 15-May 73 NO ELITE SERIES NUMBER ER RP 73-1 CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT FOUO DISTRIBUTION TO RC 50 DATE OF DOCUMENT May 1973 NUMBER OF COPIES 150 NUMBER IN RC COPY DATE NO.(S) RECIPIENT SENT RETURNED 1 D/OER 15 May 73 16 May 73 2 DD/OER. it 15 May 73 3 SA R & SA RCA it 4 Ch D N r 5 NIT STATINTL 14 May 73 6-.11 N/IT~ 15 Ma 73 12 Ch/ D/A 15' Ma" 73* 13 DCh/ D/A 14 Ch/D/S 15 Ch/D/C 16 Ch/D/U 17 DCh/D/U 18 St/SD 18 Ret'd & destroyed 17 Ma 73 19 St/CS 15 May 73 20 a CRS/ADD Release 16 May 73 21 If 22 1 -3 23 , IRS/HR/O s, 2G40, H . 1 Ma 73 STATINTL 24 D/ONE, 7E47, H q. " 25 D/IRS, 7G00 It 26 D/DCS, 811, Key Bldg. it 27, 28 OTR SIWA 926, coc it Z9 1005, Key If STATSPEC - 30 D CRS 2E60 31 CRS ISG SAID 1H19 32 D/OBGI, 1011 Ma azine 33 D OCI 34 35-38 39 40 41-4() 0119 AIM -4-U~ rr rr rr 11 STATINTL STATINTL 47-60 61, 62 903, Ke 'Bldg. Steve Strasberg, Maritime Systems iv. It 15 May 73 34 Naval Intelligence Support Road 4301 Suit] d ent - r _____ . c ", FORM 2353 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 (13) DATE COPY NO. (S) RECIPIENT SENT RETURNED 68 63 DIA, DI-3-C, 15 Ma 73 - Rm. 2058, B Bldg., AHS STATINTL 69, 70 Ronald C. Rasmus, Maritime Admin. rr Special Assist. to the Dep. Assist. Sec of Commerce for Maritime Affairs Rm. 3898, Main Commerce Bldg. 71 _72 Ronald Webb, State, Dir. , Office of Maritime Affairs, Rm. 2830, NS 73 74 1 ~3 75-77 R:! 78, 79 jIIIU 80, 81 82 D/N ) 1 15 May 73 16 May 73 83 St/P 3 85 84 CIEP 16 Ma 7 , 3 STATINTL 86 Edward F. Hawkins, Chief, Office of 17 Ma 7 A reements Federal Maritime Commission, Rm. 1022, 1405 I St., N. 87 Henr T. Snowden, State, Office of Economic Research and Analysis, Bur. of Intelli ence & Research 2 88 1B4004 H . r~ - 93-99 Filed in St P rr 100 Archives file 15 May 73 101 -150 Records Center for supplemental 91 .3 62 c, I `` STATINTL 6111 73 73 STATINTL ? 3 STATINTL STATINTL STATINTL Approved For Release 2000/05/15 CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 -Approved or Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 CONTROL RECORD FOR SUPPLEMENTAL DISTRIBUTION SERIES NUMB P 3'l CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT /--!'uO DISTRIBUTION TO RC DA . OF DOCUMENT )22?~ 19 7_3 NUMBER OF COPIES NUMBER IN RC DATE COPY NO,(S) RECIPIENT SENT RETURNED ff ?3 Y { 7-3 STATINTL RTATI-1 0-1 G p E a STATINTLSTAT! 1 2 2 6ty?-t, , STATINTLSTAT! FORM 2353 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 2.65 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 COPY NO. (S) Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 1 SECRET When Filled In n.,.,..,...,..J C.... Release RECORD OF REVIEW OF OER PUBLICATIONS FOR SECURITY SANITIZATION APPROVAL R 73-/ F fS, d 7 kS, CA (MM2~0) 25X1C 25X1C 25X1C Excluded from automatic downgrading and declossifcation ,(DPXZ*o FW)*ftpe 2AW/I&&jAVCP4WMWA701P=4!~" 42. - 7' STATINTL ~.r 4:: >4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 - RANSMITTAL OF'4BR leis,IEP6F a eR 5Alk: A]6tF~WIJP1 j. I TO : Chief , THRU: Chief, ST/P/C TITLE, OR SUBJECT, OF REPORT The USSR and Eastern Europe Belatedly Recognize the Container Revolution p98A000100010001-4 I 34.6473 W/ mw~ ATTACHMENTS: ORIGINAL AND TWO COPIES I RECOMMENDED PUBLICATION CATEGORY I 28 March 1973 * Cartography's only copies of the grapnics accumpaiiy Wi%-_ uyay~. - ------ use care and return intact. 1. Facts and analysis in this project may be published unclassified. Classified sources were only used for background or convenient collation of unclassified data. 2. This report is to be coordinated with OSR. Copies of this d;aft have been furnished to SF/L and SF/N. 3. The Office of Facilitation, Department of Transportation has been furnished 2 copies of this draft and invited to comment. 4. Potential for wide dissemination probably merits publication as an IR. Known government consumers include: a. b. c. Department of Transportation (especially the Office of Facilita tion and the Federal Railroad Administration) d. Department of Commerce (especially the Maritime Administration) e. Department of State f. Defense Intelligence Agency g. US Maritime Commission h. Several branches of OER, OSR and DD/P :vR~I 1 722 0 350E FIVE PREV 0 US lease 20UUM115: f yP79T01098~6; .t f 001-4 P -93 - Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 PUBLICATIONS SOURCE SURVEY USE OF INFORMATION FROM COLLECTION PROGRAMS IN FINISHED INTELLIGENCE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Rating forms will be completed for each finished intelligence publication prepared by the DD/I and DDS&T. This is a machine-supported system and infor ti ma on must be gathered in a formatted fashion. Therefore, each analyst will complete the NON-SHADED parts of section I and II of this form Pl t . ease ype or print legibly. Questions should be directed to IRS/HRG, Room 2G 40, x1431 (red) or x4273 (bl?ack). _ __SECTION I - PUBLICATION TITLE AND CONTENT NAME AND TELEPHONE NUMBER OF RA - `~ -- - ~j x7884 25X1A CARD X _ --~ X V~/ /\XX X XY ~ irIhA RECORD , SURVEY NO. TYPE DATE PUBLISHED PUBLICATION NUMBER FOR OONLY (13-23) CIB PUBLICATION DATE MO YR - - ~1. -18 Q 7 I_ =-7 MO UAY A~ ~ TITLE (24-80) 4 _ The USSR and Eastern Europe Belatedl Reco nine the s2 5 3 80 Container Revolution CARD 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXf~X/~XXX I~ Xl~ AXXIIA / XXXX XXXXXX A ~ A XX XXX XXXYXX RECORD OFFICE (9 -10) SURVEY NO. TYPE ----- 01 OCI i 03 OSR 06 SRS 07 OSI 6) (7-8) x 02 OER 04 OBGI - --- - 08 CRS 08 FMSAC 2 JOINT OFFICE (specify): TtJPiCA(ATEGORY GEOGRAPHIC AREA CATEGORY Domestic Politics X_ USSR F _ x Relations X Eastern Europe x Economics Communist China Military Lather Far East Science & Technology Near East Geography South Asia a Biography Africa Latin America Western Europe LIST SPECIFIC COUNTRIES: _USSR ,-Bulgaria-_ zechoslovakja East_Germany,. Hungary, Poland, Rumania. The US and other P'W industrialized for perspective and comparison. AREA (11:12) (13-16) FORM 492 SECRET E 2&3 IMF1XT CL BY 007622 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 _ _ SECRET ECT16N' Ilm - SOURCE RATINGS For each collection program contributing information to the publication, check only the highest rating that is applicable. More than one collection program may be rated as Key, Supplemental, or Incidental for each publication. If the source did not provide any reporting useful in the publication, check the box labeled Not Applicable. If a single publication treats more than one geographic area and/or topical category and the source mix for each varied then additional forms must be completed; e.g. India--economics--State and Japan--economics----CS. Rati,;g categories are defined as follows: Key-information from a particular collection program was of such importance that basic conclusions of the finished intelligence item could not have been reached without it. Supplemental-Information from a particular collection program was important but not essential to basic conclusions of --?..~-.---.-............ eds.. l:...:,.L _.t ._._ e!e __ _ .. Incidental--Information from a particular collection program was useful or interesting primarily as background but was used onl in i t ll .i. th X!ni-L - -! ' . y c en a y e (25) 5. RADINT (37) 11. FBIS PRESS, RADIO & TV REPORTS i ransiarion of Foreign Long, document (39)* 12. by FBIS, JPRS, etc. (40) (41)* 13. Non-USIB Agency Rpts. (USIA, AID, other such reports)_ _ (43)* 14. Open Literature (professional journals, _ US wire ser., items, etc.) (45)* 15. OTHER *For Items No. 1 2, 1 3, 14, and 15 specify source of reporting used. 156-60) TRANSLATIONS: Soviet and E.European general and technical press NON-USIB ACA CY(S): Commerce (MARAD) and DOT studies and - -------statis-t ica1----repo r-ts DOCUMENT TYPE (61-62) 03 GM 04 IM 05 M 07 IR 06 GR_- _ 17-408- R p CLASSIFICATION CONTROLS: None List CS Information Reports that were key or supplemental information sources: NOTE: This space also should be used to list specific reports, other than CS, that were of exceptional value. . PENI BRAT ZEShipping&Trade News, Journal of Commerce, Lloyd's, at ~.c Inx d~Int~rnati.sznaJ 8~. .w y ournal-,Faixp..l y 1~ (?ping Journal, etc. Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79TO1098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4 Approved For Release 2000/05/15 : CIA-RDP79T01098A000100010001-4