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December 15, 2016
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September 19, 2002
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January 1, 1970
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Approved For Release 200 66 lVf J I*tRDP80-00317A00020006000V.70 FUNDAMENTALS OF INTELLIGENCE An instructional program in basic concepts, terminology and inter-relationships as- sociated with U.S. foreign intelligence. OFFICE OF TRAINING INTELLIGENCE SCHOOL 1970 25X1A Approved For Release 200:11'*fIDEMTA DP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 This programmed text deals with basic concepts and terminology about: - the WHY, - the WHAT, - the HOW, and - the WHO of U.S. FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE The text is intended to be stimulating and enjoyable. Its con- cepts will be discussed after you complete your reading. Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002N EB ETIAL7A000200060001-0 FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE is essential to the conduct of the government of the U.S. Several of our Presidents* have attested to this claim: George Washin ton (1777), 'The necessity of Procuring good intelligence is apparent and need not be further urged..." Harry S. Truman (1964), "To the Central Intelligence Agency, a necessity to the President of the U.S., from one who knows." Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959), "America's. fundamental aspiration is the preservation of peace. To this end we seek to develop policies and ar- rangements to make the peace both permanent and just. This can be done only on the basis of comprehensive and appropriate information." Lynd'on B. Johnson (1965), "We have committed our lives, our property, our resources, and our sacred honor to the freedom and peace of...all mankind. We would dishonor that commitment-if we are not every hour of every day vigilant against every threat to peace and freedom." Richard M. Nixon (1969), "In the society in which we live is necessary that those who make de- cisions at the highest level have the very best possible intelligence"..."I look upon this or- ganization (CIA) as one of the great instruments of our government for the preservation of peace, for the avoidance of war"..."as a necessary adjunct to the conduct of the Presidency." *Excerpts from "Presidents of the U.S. on Intelligence," a pamphlet published by the Office of Training. Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release'2U02r1'1)69ENATRDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Thus our Presidents need and expect "good intelligence." But many types of government officials also require for- eign intelligence, such as: -the Secretary of State, when he is formulating .foreign policy recommendations; -an A.I.U. official who is considering U.S. economic or some other type of assistance to a country; -an Ambassador who is negotiating a treaty with the country to which he is our President's rep- resentative; -the Joint Chiefs of Staff who are deciding to deploy our armed forces where they are needed; -a Defense Attache who conducts his day-to-day affairs overseas; -the Secretary of Agriculture when he is to be visited by the Secretary of Agriculture of a foreign country. In particular, and most significant for your overall understanding, although U.S. intelli- gence deals with many subjects for many pur- poses, the over-riding purpose is to aid U.S. national security. You might properly ask: WHY is "intelligence" so important? WHAT is "'intelligence," basically? What are the relationships between "intelligence" and "national security?" Approved For Release 20Q2/ LnA.-'G1A~?12nR$gkq0317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleacW4 N11 80-00317A000200060001-0 Large segments of the Government are concerned with the problems of U.S. National Security. How might we, in the U.S., define the term "national security?" Essentially, it is the ability of the U.S. to pursue its national objectives reasonably free of threats from without and from damaging activities within. The term "national security" as used in government practice normally refers to the whole spectrum of matters which have occupied the attention of the National Security Council and officials at the White House level for the past twenty years. The principle goal of U.S. national security is the maintenance of an effec- tive counter-balance against those events and situations both here and over- seas, which could be detrimental to our national strength--political, socio- logical, economic, military, and other elements. In preparing to deal with the threats to our national security, both internal and external, the U.S. has developed a national security system, with an in- stitutional structure and method of operations, that is in constant need of the best intelligence support that it can command. In attempting solutions to the many-faceted problems associated with our na- tional. security, any President must consider the nature of the total challenge of maintaining or improving our national security he faces: -solutions are tremendously costly (tens of billions of dollars annually) -they have an impact on all U.S. citizens -they affect virtually all elements of the federal government (not just the military forces) -they reach to all parts of the world (wherever the U.S. has an interest) -arriving at solutions is a demanding job, yet crucial to our well-being. The CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY and other intelligence agencies are directly involved with helping .ththerU.S. Government develop and maintain its national security. The U.S. intelligence organizations, therefore, provide INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY By collecting intelligence information, producing finished intelligence, and conducting other activities upon direction, the Intelligence Community tries to assure that key U.S.,officials--from the President and his top-level advisers on down to the lower policy and action levels--are given the best-).possible finished intelligence to help them formulate and execute national security policy. Approved For ReleasCM_ R E AT 0-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 1 EN-'F? -00317A000200060001-0 Based on these introductory remarks and your own experience, which of the following terms do you think would characterize (describe) effective in- telligence support for U.S. national security? (1) comprehensive in scope, (2) demanding of resources, (3) timely, (4) relevant to the situation, (5) costly in manpower and money, (6) accurate, (7) reliable, (8) adequate (ANSWERS ON THIS PAGE) More about WHY intelligence for national security purposes is so important: -The U.S. is a powerful nation with global influence and interests. We need to understand the capabilities and intent of other nations in the world in terms of our own interests and capabilities. -The U.S. is the "leader" of the Free World. We have allies and friends with whom we cooperate, and many of them need our support. -Our national leaders are among the most important officials in the world today and must be kept informed on world-wide matters. -New challenges confront the U.S. national security organizations. Developments during this decade include the rapid proliferation of science and technology, the great "information explosion,` the fragmenting of world communist ideologies, the growth of nationalism, and sociological problems on a global scale. Both the terms "intelligence" and "national security" are key items for our consideration throughout the rest of this text. You will reflect about each of them in terms of your: -previous education -previous experience (overseas travel, military assignment, etc.) -present Agency assignment ANSWERS TO TOP OF PAGE: All of these eight terms are characteristic, and you may have thought of some of your own. Approved For Relealeffl#~1,(Q?ftIF 80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release CR"f) 1kpAiO-00317A000200060001-0 Regardless of your own experience, some intro- ductory guidance as to how you might think about these fundamental- concepts is what this text is all about. HISTORICAL NOTE: Emerging from WWII in 1945-46, the U.S. Government began to recognize its need for a properly organized national security and intelligence structure. That is the reason we have had-- ever since passage in 1947 of the National Security Act--a "com- munity" or federation of U.S. foreign intelligence organizations. Later, we'll discuss WHO these organizations are and HOW they do their work. For the present, we want to concentrate on fundamentals as we see them from the viewpoint of THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (CIA) the component of the intelligence "community" charged by law with coordinating the U.S. foreign intelligence effort. When we think about the task of providing intelligence support to U.S. policy makers we can describe it as: (insert the appropriate characteristic for each blank) c in content and extent; d of effort and time; r to those who make and execute policy; c in manpower and other resources. (to check your replies look back on Page 4) (THIS INTRODUCTION THUS FAR HAS FOCUSED ON THE AWARENESS OF THE WHY OF INTELLIGENCE) Approved For Relea 041M. rh 80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release ?QQ,2~1.1JQE~$Q~P~81 -00317A000200060001-0 Precisely WHAT do we mean by intelligence as it relates to U.S. national security? As a professional employee of the Agency you probably, like others, have your own idea of the meaning of the term "intelli- gence." To some people, "intelligence" is synonomous with clandes- tine activity and "spy stuff"--the "cloak and dagger" image so prevalent today in popular literature and TV programs. To others, "intelligence" means secret information used for questionable activities leading to all kinds of immoral and nefari- ous ends. Others associate "intelligence" with the processes of research and analysis (e.g., writing an "economic intelligence report"). What is the relevant meaning of the term in our context? Can we settle on a single definition? Why is it so important that you have a personal, working definition of intelligence? (SEE NEXT PAGE) Approved For Release 2 1K]P M U8 40317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleaseC2 7PD: LO-00317A000200060001-0 Basically, Intelligence is knowledge about what is going on in foreign areas Nevertheless, even though intelligence is knowledge about foreign areas, we usually must add other modifying words to the term "intelligence" whenever we use it. This is because "intelligence" means so many different things to so many dif- ferent people in different circumstances; e.g. We received an intelligence information report on the current status of the Chinese economy CIA is one of the intelligence organizations of the U.S. Government The process of producing finished intelligence involves the analysis of intelligence informa- tion We urge you to develop your own definition of "intelli- Bence" as you think through this program. (FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES WE ASK YOU TO USE OUR DEFINITION EXPRESSED ON NEXT PACE) Approved For Release e&N plbilkfDPP8 00317A000200060001-0 IAL Approved For Release 2gs4 yo io mfeik 0317A000200060001-0 Our working definition of intelligence: STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES +W & INTENTIONS INTERNATIONAL ;CRISIS 40 SOCIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS INTELLIGENCE Knowledge about the rest of the world related to U.S. national security in- terests SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION I Approved For Release 2LID Iff t:E~ "A 00317A000200060001-0 IDEOLOGICAL CONFRONTATIONS MILITARY CONFRONTATION EMERGING NATIONALISM Approved For Release, V 111y I fyg"1.0-00317A000200060001-0 As we have just seen, "intelligence," however we define the term, only has meaning in association with something else, e.g, political intelligence national intelligence current intelligence In a very general sense, the term "'intelligence" may refer to three quite different things: a product (the result of collection, or analysis and reporting--e.g. biographic intelligence) a process (a specialized system of activity such as intelligence analysis and production) an organization (the Central Intelligence Agency) What are we talking about when we refer to "intelligence products," "intelligence activities,` "intelligence organizations"? Is intelligence the same thing as information? If not, what is the difference? (BEFORE WE CAN ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS WE MUST SUMMARIZE--) Approved For Rele~ 2 P/LNTIIoF 1P80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2000KI E-t4 J3 4&A317A000200060001-0 Thus far we have-highlighted WHY national intelligence is so important and also considered some basic definitions of the terms "intelligence" and "national security." As you proceed, you will discover new aspects, new principles and new terminology that should lead you to a better understanding of the WHAT and HOW of intelligence fundamentals. Important Note: Most of the following pages like those you have just read, contain new information. They may state a fact, dis- cuss a principle, or develop a concept or term. They also ask you to think about something, construct something or otherwise respond to stated directions. You are then told what the expected response should have been and to proceed to a certain page. Every so often, we .check your understanding of what we are discussing. At that point you respond to a self- test. Self-testing questions show you whether or not you have learned the main points being taught. Approved For Release 200 9 Q,O,nDsf,Q4317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleaseGONF/UDEUTdI LN-00317A000200060001-0 OUR OVERALL PURPOSE This programmed text is intended to develop yours-un- derstanding of U.S. foreign intelligence matters by intro- ducing you to: important basic terminology and fundamental concepts, primary functional and organizational relationships, and reasons for doing what the Agency is assigned to do, Specifically: -we want you to gain a concept of the ntelli gence process and intelligence product related to U.S. security, so that you can see your work as part of the whole picture; -we want to introduce you to selected terms, abbreviations, and symbols unique to the intelligence profession, so that you can recognize and use them; -we want to provide an elementary understanding of those intelligence matters--people, organizations, methods, facilities, products--that will be studied and discussed in depth in other training, so you can relate to them, and -we want to help you establish a positive at- titude about the Agency's professionalism--and that of U.S. intelligence generally-so you can identify with its past, present, and future accomplishments. (THE NEXT SELF-TESTING PAGE CHECKS ON YOUR UN- DERSTANDING OF THESE OB- JECTIVES) Approved For Release COUNMbeA*fiP,,,8Q-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2 NEID Ni i11 0317A000200060001-0 The following list includes specific goals we would expect you to achieve after reading this text together with things you would not be expected to achieve based on this text alone. Write Yes or No beside each item as you now understand our objectives for this program: 1 To provide a personal working concept of intelligence, 2 To demonstrate how intelligence is generally produced. 3 To tell how intelligence differs form ordinary academic research. 4 To provide details on the intelligence process other than to identify or describe Ley steps. 5 To explain why U.S. national security interests require intelligence support, 6 To discuss all of the distinctive characteristics of in- telligence as a specialized field. 7 To identify who is involved in the intelligence "community". 8 To discuss any aspect of the above beyond a basic under- standing. (CHECK YOUR ANSWERS ON NEXT PAGE) Approved For Relet~,2Qp~; (Q~;'~f 2eP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleasCONFIMN J L80-00317A000200060001-0 1) Yes, 2) Yes, 3) Yes, 4) No, 5) Yes, 6) No, 7) Yes, 8) No Hopefully, you are now at least aware of the importance of U.S. Foreign Intelligence--the WHY of Intelligence. We are ready to discuss the WHAT of Intelligence in some detail: Recall what was stated on Page /#9 If we consider intelligence PRODUCTS (the result of some production) there are a number of ways people express it--some- times leading to a confusion of terms; (1) Some terminology is used to describe the type of infor- mation contained in, or required of a document; e.g. political intelligence study, basic intelligence study, a national intelligence estimate; (2) sometimes terms are used to refer to the individuals or groups involved in the production of intelligence such as: an economic intelligence analyst in CIA; the military intelligence experts in DIA; (3) some terminology identifies the recipients (intended consumers) of the intelligence product: the Presi- dent, the National Security Council, Secretary of State, etc; (4) sometimes terms are used in a mixture of one or all of these. (ON THE NEXT PANEL ARE THE TITLE PAGES OF SEVERAL BOOKS ON U.S. INTELLIGENCE MATTERS. NOTE HOW THE AUTHORS HAVE CATEGORIZED INTELLIGENCE AS THEY SEE IT.) Approved For Relea VQW LOA- N UL- ftpU0-00317A000200060001-0 25X1A CONFIDFNJ"d, Approved For Release 2002/11/04 p80-00317A000200060001-0 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY HOW CLOSELY DO THESE BOOKr TITLES RELATE TO CATEGORIES (1), (2), (3), or (4) ON THE PREVIOUS PAGE? (answers on next page) Approved For Release 200 tI y L l fffI f317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/C'9(M(Pfffp 7A000200060001-0 ANSWERS TO QUESTION ON PAGE #14 A 2, B 2,3,4, C 1,3, D 4, E 1, As you have just seen, there are a number of ways to con- ceptualize intelligence products or finished intelligence. A generally accepted arrangement for categorizing--one that is easy to understand, and one that we will use throughout this program--is as follows: -- Finished Intelligence may be subdivided 1. By SUBJECT MATTER or TOPIC e.g., Political Intelligence, Economic Intelligence 2. In terms of SCOPE or RANGE (IN TIME) e.g., Current Intelligence, Estimative Intelligence 3. According to USE by a CONSUMER e.g., National Intelligence, Departmental Intelligence Let's consider SUBJECT MATTER or TOPICAL specialization: A publication having the title "Current Status of Chinese Communist Nuclear Physics" would be com- sidered as SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 'What intelligence subject matter or opi al label would you give to a study on "Soviet-Japanese Trade Arrangements"? Intelligence (SEE ANSWER ON NEXT PAGE) Approved For Release Loft 4AE1f1^flW 00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Relea C9N11'Iq ' EN 1"80-00317A000200060001-0 ANSWER TO QUESTION ON PAGE #15 - ECONOMIC Intelligence We have just identified. a few of the major subject matter categories of intelligence products. A more complete listing together with typical sub-categories of topical coverage follows: MAJOR SUBJECT TOPICAL COVERAGE MATTER CATEGORY (Typical) POLITICAL Political dynamics, foreign policy, national leadership, national programs. SOCIOLOGICAL The people as distinct from the leadership. Attitudes, motivations, ethnic charac- teristics, culture, population problems. ECONOMIC Natural resources, manpower, trade, industrial capacity, transportation, finance. SCIENTIFIC AND Scientific and technical in-* TECHNICAL stitutions, methods, organi- zational relationships, per- sonalities, goals, programs, accomplishments and capabilities. MILITARY Organization, doctrine, size and structure, deployment, sta- tus of training and equipment, capabilities, and vulnerabilities. BIOGRAPHIC Personal background data on key individuals (military, scientific, political), resources. Topography, hydrography, cartographic (Note: This list is by no means, all of the possible categories) Approved For Release 20,80~41DENTI - 0317A000200060001-0 Using the chart on the previous page as your guide, label the probable subject matter area of specialization suggested by each of the following: 1. A study of the Prime Minister of a given country (Ex. BIOGRAPHIC Intelligence Approved For Release 20N'fPAL0317A000200060001-0 REGARDING MATERIAL ON PAGE #16: Neither Photographic Intelligence nor Communications Intelligence would be in such a list of finished in- telligence categories. They are labels for intelli- gence sources and will be discussed later. 2. Location of airfields in a given country Intelligence 3. Alm-estimate on the:)status of monetary reserves in a certain nation Intelligence 4. An analysis of the quality of nuclear research in a certain nation Intelligence 5. A map presentation of East African highways Intelligence 6. A descriptive study of a nefa aircraft showing its character- istics Intelligence (SEE NEXT PAGE FOR ANSWERS) We have just demonstrated some of the general types of subject matter or topical specialization in intelligence products. We have also seen the relationship between overall topics and sub-topical coverage in a given intelligence product. As a general rule, the major subject of an intelligence study, as seen by its title, provides a cue or index to its sub-topical coverage (arid vice versa). Intelligence products may discuss widely unrelated topics (e.g. political matters, military capabilities and scientific institutions) within a single publication--such as we'll see later when we discuss the National Intelligence Survey. Most products, however, tend to be more narrowly focused and topical. Approved For Releas 7 aFf0-00317A000200060001-0 CON Approved For ReleaIEM80-00317A000200060001-0 ANSWERS TO PAGE #17 #2 MILITARY (ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC are also possibilities) #3 ECONOMIC #4 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL #5 GEOGRAPHIC (also ECONOMIC) #6 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL (also MILITARY) If you have been uncertain in responding to the questions on the previous few pages, your con- fusion undoubtedly arises because there are many instances when finished. intelligence reports are not confined to a single major field of interest but rather to several related interest fields. Ex: "Port Facilities Study" (a description of har- .bors, docks and transportation) would be classed as dealing with economic intelligence but may be the product of an analyst in military or geo 1rraphic intelligence. Ex: A report on the "Military Leadership in Brazil" would be considered biographic intelligence basically, but might also be considered as reflecting -Military intelligence subject(s) of interest -Sociological intelligence -Political intelligence Obviously, these categories are often artificial and theoretical; but if recognized they help you understand the nature of finished intelligence products. Approved For Release ?~Op2/.1a19Ilr;,~~pir$Qg8~-00317A000200060001-0 aw I. tJ IV I V 1V 1 Approved For Release 209&/ I ~pfJkIE317A000200060001-0 Other important things to keep in mind when thinking about subject- matter specialization in intelligence production: -intelligence analysts (the producers of finished intelligence products) are organized in ways that help them to produce intelligence according to their subject-matter or topical fields of specialization within their agencies. -intelligence products reflect the specialized pro- duction responsibilities and capabilities of each producing agency in the "intelligence community." -intelligence products, regardless of their topical breakdown, vary: in format, in scope, in classification, in depth, and in many other ways you will learn about -intelligence products are the end-result of the ''production" phase of the intelligence cycle (more about this in later pages). Approved For Releasee2OF/D 't-i'mLO-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release('~O'F$D94L0-00317A000200060001-0 There are still many other things to consider about intelligence products--the result of organized research, analysis, interpretation and publication. At this point, we would like you to check on your understanding of the basic concept of the WHAT of intelligence as far as we have gone. The exercise on the next page (21) is designed to give you a realistic test of your recognition of finished intelligence.kroducts according to AS YOU RESPOND TO THE CHART ON THE NEXT PAGE THIS SUMMARY MAY HELP YOU : Some finished intelligence products treat a single topic in considerable depth; others are broader in their scope. For example: A study which deals with the leadership qualities of a coun- try's political rulers would be called BIOGRAPHIC intelli- gence but it probably would have important things to say about the political, sociolo- gical and perhaps the military intelligence on that country. Approved For Release fQ E T?-00317A000200060001-0 A subject matter or topical categories CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 ANALYST'S CHART TITLE SUBJECT MATTER CATEGORY ACCORDING TO TITLE OF INTELL. PUBL. OTHER SUBJECT MATTER OR TOPICAL INTELLIGENCE THAT MIGHT BE DIS- CUSSED IN THIS PUBLICATION 1 ECONOMIC SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POLITICAL SOCIOLOGICAL 2 3 4 5 6 Suppose you are an analyst about to produce a finished intelligence paper on Commu- nist China. As a starter, you are given six studies and other data whose title papers are shown on this page. On the chart below, complete the list with the principal topic of intelligence information and the likely sub-topics or secon- dary subjects likely to be found in each. A~~A7'~?,~/ OF ex sn CO~~N tS ~ ~~ss ~t ~ S ~rt~S Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release :CGNEIDENFTiKL-oO3l7AO00200060001 -0 ANSWERS TO CHART ON PACE #21: 2 - MILITARY (also SCIENTIFIC and TECHNICAL) 3 - BIOGRAPHIC (also SCIENTIFIC and TECHNICAL, MILITARY, and POLITICAL) 4 - SCIENTIFIC and TECHNICAL (also BIOGRAPHIC, MILITARY, ECONOMIC) 5 - POLITICAL (BIOGRAPHIC, MILITARY) 6 - GEOGRAPHIC (MILITARY, SCIENTIFIC and TECHNICAL) The term INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTS is interchangeable with the term FINISHED INTELLIGENCE. This makes it necessary to distin- guish between FINISHED INTELLIGENCE and INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION raw, unevaluated information collected in the expectation that it will directly or indirectly be used as an input for producing finished intelligence. Some examples: a report of a conversation between an embassy official and an officer in a foreign government; a transcript of a foreign radio broadcast or television program; a trans- lation of a foreign scientific journal; a tape recording; a photograph; a document; a news ticker or newspaper clipping; a map, or a sketch of an industrial plant made by an attache while traveling. Some characteristics of INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION: (fill in any four appropriate terms from the following list:) simple unprocessed basic. unevaluated uncoordinated clandestine finished evaluated raw (ANSWERS ON NEXT PAGE) Approved For Release 2 FJDzMJ LD0317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleaseQ.Z/.af0A~EI,ArpFlap-00317A000200060001-0 unevaluated uncoordinated unprocessed raw (Note: some evaluation, some processing, and some coordination may be associated with intelligence information but these general char- acteristics hold.) You will note that INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION by its very nature is not FINISHED INTELLIGENCE. In essence, it is unfinished intelligence. In order to be of use, it must be processed into FINISHED INTELLIGENCE. I FINISHED INTELLIGENCE is a type of report which normally uses many sources (places) of intelligence information (raw, unevaluated data) that has gone through a process of analysis, interpreta- tion, and adaptation to the needs of a user. Some examples of FINISHED INTELLIGENCE; an intelligence estimate regarding the future outlook for the USSR, Communist China, Brazil, or France; a daily current intelligence bulletin item on a signifi- cant current development; a basic intelligence study on Nigeria; an intelligence memorandum on a Soviet space shot; briefing notes for briefing a Congressional committee on a situation in a foreign coun- try; a. biographic intelligence memorandum for the President. Some distinguishing characteristics of FINISHED INTELLIGENCE: (fill in four appropriate terms from the following list; unevaluated, finished, unprocessed, evaluated, coordinated, integrated, clandestine, processed, analyzed, interpreted) Approved For Release 20027,' Nr5l&"qDl9Rt17A000200060001-0 "IVH Approved For Rele 'Md"CIA!R680-00317A000200060001-0 ANSWERS TO PREVIOUS PAGE finished, evaluated, integrated, processed, analyzed, interpreted. The others are not always descriptive of FINISHED intelligence. Later in this text, you will see how INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION becomes FINISHED INTELLIGENCE (within part of a cycle) called the INTELLIGENCE PROCESS. Intelligence is a finished product that may be subdivided in terms of SCOPE or RANGE (in time) (see PAGE #15 if you don't recall this concept) In terms of SCOPE or RANGE we might visualize finished intelligence as follows: SCOPE OR RANGE (IN TIME) BASIC INTELLIGENCE CURRENT INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATIVE INTELLIGENCE Thus: We can speak of /@ BASIC INTELLIGENCE, 2 CURRENT INTELLIGENCE ando ESTIMATIVE INTELLIGENCE as representing a completer span of knowledge in time. We may refer to this as the "continuum" of intelligence production--analysis and reporting of intelli- gence from the past, through the present, and into the future. We'll have more to say about it later. Approved For Release 20(W/IJol ~Lq.~2n2fOA90317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL What are some of the characteristics of BASIC Intelligence? ? Deals principally with events and things that are past ? Is descriptive in style ? Is encyclopedic ? Usually gives considerable detail ? Is usually organized for systematic and ready recall ? Deals with topics that are relatively static or that change slowly ? Possesses long-term usefulness This category of finished intelligence is characterized by fairly detailed compilations (studies, charts, maps, reports, briefs, summaries) of basic data which intelligence analysts, researchers, planners, operators, and others require to perform their jobs. For example, the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) which is the main form of BASIC intelligence widely used in the U.S. today, covers a wide range of topics: political dynamics of a country, its economic resources, its educational system, military strengths and capabilities, the nature and scope of its scientific resources, its social structure, and many others. Some of these things are quite permanent; others are subject to consider- able change. finished intelligence which describes fundamental or basic facts and relatively stable subjects span- ning a period from the past to the present. (CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE) Approved Fc0INne ffiftQ :LCIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release NIE1DE4N i&oO317A000200060001-0 BASIC INTELLIGENCE often serves as a foundation for research and analysis in current and estimative intelligence production. BASIC INTELLIGENCE like other types of finished intelligence varies by: topic - security classification -- origin or source - purpose and usage BASIC ]INTELLIGENCE is fundamental and virtually indispensable when needed, not only in times of national crises such as during a 'war, but also during peacetime. As one famous Marine officer put it, "if this kind of information isn't ready and in the hands of troops before'their battle, it is much too late" to be secured and pro- duced, BASIC INTELLIGENCE often requires considerable time to produce. The lack of adequate basic intelligence in World War II, for example, caused the U.S. to suffer greater casualties in certain engagements than might otherwise have been the case. It was basic geographic intelligence (in the form of annotated map studies) that was of such vital importance to U.S. operations in the Lebanon crisis of 1958. In the dozen or more major international crises facing the U.S. during the past three decades, basic intelligence (in the form of reports, maps, and charts) was a significant help in national security planning and policy implementation. Approved For Release lOONf N AL00317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleaCg plE(J- P80-00317A000200060001-0 At this point you might wish to check your ability to identify BASIC intelligence items by general title. Please encircle the num- ber beside any of the following titles that you think discusses some aspect of :BASIC intelligence. Before you indicate your choices and check your answers on the next page, remember what was said about the unique character- istics of BASIC intelligence on pages 25 & 26. 1. A map study of the railroad network in China. 2. A report of a governmental crisis of two days ago. 1. An estimate of economic trends in a certain country. 4. The telecommunications facilities of Eastern Europe. 5. A bulletin about a recent coup in Iraq. 6. The outlook for the Italian elections. 7. A summary of election statistics in India since 1940. 8. Map of the current military engagements in Vietnam. Approved For ReleaC?N NTFfWL80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleaCONiRiDENi I 80-00317A000200060001-0 #1, #4, and #7 are examples of BASIC INTELLIGENCE What are some of the characteristics of CURRENT INTELLIGENCE? ? Time. Deals with events and things that have just happened or are now occurring. ? Is reportorial and interpretive in style (like daily newspaper) ? Is brief and restricted in scope. ? Usually not as detailed as BASIC intelligence. ? Deals with topics that are ynamic and usually transitory. ? Possesses short-term usefulness. This category of finished intelligence is characterized by short reports (bulletins, memos, appreciations, summaries, briefs, maps, and charts) of current developments of interest to analysts, opera- tors, planners, and policy makers. For example, the Central Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) in its various forms, is a daily publication of the most significant current developments in foreign countries affecting U.S. national security interests. Any one item in the CIB might report on a political, sociological, economic, military, or scientific development in a given country or area, then ana- lyze and interpret its significance. This would include any- thing from the report of a recent Soviet space shot to the results of a national election in Chile. Approved For Release !/N1@fDI FWe 00317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleC.ON Jp IT P80-00317A000200060001-0 WHAT IS CURRENT INTELLIGENCE? Finished intelligence analyzing and interpreting significant developments of immediate interest to national security decision-makers. CURRENT INTELLIGENCE thus is the product of day-by-day, hour- by-hour, minute-by-minute analysis of the most current intelli- gence information from all available sources-overt and clandes- tine. Speed is essential in the analysis, writing, printing, and dissemination of current intelligence. CURRENT INTELLIGENCE, like basic intelligence, varies by topic, security classification, origin or source of information upon which it is based, and in purpose and usage. CURRENT INTELLIGENCE in this Agency is usually: - all-source (all available sources of information are considered) - national (as distinct from departmental) - disseminated in a variety of forms (both written and oral) (CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE) Approved For ReleaCOWjrRe INE80-00317A000200060001-0 L7E Approved For Release 2002LT Nr4j)1 TqAj17A000200060001-0 USUAL TIME SPAN FOR CURRENT INTELLIGENCE PAST SEVERAL WEEKS % NEXT 72 HOURS Note the approximate time period which concerns the analyst producing current intelligence. Like the newspaperman, he must meet daily deadlines. Rarely can he do research in depth. His task is to satisfy his official "customers" (readers) in the style and within the time established for his report. CURRENT national intelligence produced in this Agency covers the latest important developments in all foreign.coun- tries in which the U.S. has a cogent interest. The current intelligence analyst focuses only on the most significant, the really "hot" breaking news, the "critical" development or on those events which have "crisis" potential-- overthrow of a foreign government . election results an economic crisis facing a country . a puzzling new foreign missile test firing . a report of a secret trade agreement . the arrival of a foreign head of state in Washington , the latest developments in Vietnam . a key foreign policy speech by a Soviet leader Which of the following would represent a CURRENT INTELLIGENCE report?' 1 Biographic report on a Swedish scientist THINKING: / 3 Key air routes to India 4 Military pay scale of Argentine Airforce 5 Report of a nuclear test shot in Communist China Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Relea A002/ ''/ '. JI-R6P80-00317A000200060001-0 ANSWER TO QUESTION ON PAGE #30 #5 is the only item that clearly represents a CURRENT INTELLIGENCE report. #1, #3, and #4 is BASIC INTELLIGENCE, #2 is ESTIMATIVE INTELLIGENCE. ESTIMATIVE INTELLIGENCE is another category of finished intelligence. Estimative intelligence is an authoritative, carefully prepared expres- sion of the present situation in a country or area with a projection of expected trends over the period of the estimate. What are some of the characteristics of ESTIMATIVE INTELLIGENCE? (usually referred to as NATIONAL ESTIMATES) a Deals with events and developments in the future. Time scope: estimates can be short (particularly in crises situations) where quick policy deci- sions are in the making; estimates can be long-term (2-3 years up to 10 years or more as When discussing Soviet space programs) to suggest where the world is heading ? Is judgmental and projective in style (statements are expressed in terms of probabilities) 0 Like BASIC intelligence but unlike CURRENT intelligence, may possess long- term usefulness. -PROBABILITIES POSSIBILITIES "ESTIMATING is what you do when you run out of facts." Estimat- ing begins where the facts end. ISOLATES AND IDENTIFIES DISSENT BEST AGREED JUDGMENTS ABOUT IMPON- DERABLES BASED ON ALL AVAILABLE AND RELEVANT INTELLI- GENCE SOURCES Approved For Rel oa jl4.1IDP8OOO3l 7A000200060001 -0 Approved For Release Z 511JQ~4 ~$1,00317A000200060001-0 The best-known example of ESTIMATIVE intelligence is the formal paper known as the NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATE (NIE) What is the purpose of the NIE's? - To provide the top policy levels of the U.S. Government--the Presi- dent and his senior advisers--with the most reliable speculations on the probable future course of world events affecting U.S. national security interests. The National Intelligence Estimate always looks into the future-- either short-term (next year or so) or long-term (3-5 years and even longer in some instances.) In terms of long-range estimates, they represent the best single intelligence product on the grand strategy of those nations in which the U.S. has a security interest. In many cases they deal with matters af- fecting the national survival of the U.S. A typical estimate would discuss strategic capabilities and vulnera- bilities of selected countries, together with their probable courses of action or intent. We cannot be certain that national security decisions always include the consideration of a relevant NIE, but past experience shows that NIE's are timely (they meet real deadlines) and they are read. While they: do not recommend policy, they have an impact on policy decisions SPECIAL NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATES (SNIE's) are a particular category of estimates. Whereas the NIE's are scheduled for production (periodically on an annual basis), the SNIE's are unscheduled (produced on a special demand). Some 60-70 percent of all national estimates pro- duced each year are scheduled (NIE's); the rest are SNIE's. Approved For Release NIE41O &00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release foGN O ENTUt11-00317A000200060001-0 SOME IMAGINARY SAMPLE NATIONAL INTELLIGEI`JCE ESTIP' TES (NIE's) SNIE THE PROSPECTS for STABILITY in, PANAMA NIE CHICOM NUCLEAR CAPABILITIES (CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE) Approved For Relear~QNV f,IQ?I ,Q~CJ,At 80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL We have established that all finished intelligence can be considered as having scope or range in time. We wish to have you check on your understanding of this key concept: You are given a report (with maps) discussing the principal railroads of Sub-Sahara Africa and their traffic-handling capacities (freight and passenger). This report represents (basic, current, estimative -- choose one) intelligence. 2. The Italian elections are scheduled next year and the Secretary of State wants an analysis and in- terpretation of the probable outcome. Such a study, when published, would he classed (basic, current, estimative -- choose one) intelligence. 3. Encircle which of the following statements is more accurate: a. Current intelligence reporting is concerned with facts and events that have just occurred and never discuss the probable outcome of a situation. h. Basic intelligence reports deal with the rel.a- vant and significant past. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PREVIOUS PAGE: #1 basic, #2 estimative, #3 b. Finished intelligence may be subdivided-- According to USE by a CONSUMER (see page 15 if you need to review) Each level of the Federal Government represents a different category of "'consumer" or user of finished intelligence.' The President, Cabinet members, heads of Agencies, and senior military commanders are consumers of finished intelligence at the highest levels. But officials of a lesser rank, by the hundreds in the Washington area alone, also need this support and constitute a different category of consumer. Intelligence considered according to the level of the user, thus ranges from the most senior officials to the many in the departments and agencies whose tasks are to implement policy and conduct programs. Usually, the higher the level of the recipient, the more apt he is to get only the very selected, all-source intelligence products. This usually means intelligence reports which are highly condensed and narrowly focused on a problem. CATEGORIES NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE by CONSUMER DEPARTMENTAL INTELLIGENCE LEVEL INTERDEPARTMENTAL INTELLIGENCE Each of these terms will be discussed in the next few pages-- Approved For Relaaso?*NTDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL What Is DEPARTMENTAL INTELLIGENCE? Finished intelligence as produced by a single department or agency of the government to meet its own needs. Examples: - One of the regional. bureaus of the State Department requests its intelligence bureau (INR) to produce a study on the political situation in a country to assist in developing a State Department position toward this situation. - The Department of Defense asks its Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) to produce, for use by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a memorandum on the military capabilities of a country. - The Naval Intelligence Command produces a map showing the current deployment of. Soviet submarines in the Atlantic. - A geographic intelligence report on a particular area is produced in this Agency for use by the Clandestine Service for a special operation. Finished departmental intelligence represents the view of a single department or agency and is not necessarily coordinated with other agencies. Departmental intelligence of all types--studies, reports, memoranda, briefing notes, visual presentations-are often the basic ingredients for the production of national intelligence. However, departmental. intelligence becomes national intelligence only when it is coordinated at the national level to meet a national policy need. (e.g. a National Estimate) CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL What is INTERDEPARTMENTAL Intelligence? Intelligence that is produced by two or more intelligence components of the government to meet their joint needs. Each might produce a segment of the joint product (depart- mental intelligence) and the blended (integrated) or coordinated product would result in an interdepartmental product; or representatives of these organizations may produce a joint product while in conference. Examples: - The intelligence components of the Air Force and Army join DIA in producing "target" intelligence for their mutual. planning needs. - The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the State Department and CIA produce an Interdepartmental. paper on the status of trade agreements in Latin America. - Several member agencies of the intelli- gence community produce a study of the capabilities of the Communist Chinese to launch and support military actions beyond their territories. Some INTERDEPARTMENTAL intelligence is also produced by a number of the committees of the UNITED STATES INTELLI- GENCE BOARD (this will be explained later in the text) CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENT,Ai What is NATIONAL Intelligence? Finished intelligence which provides support to those formulating national security policy, concerns more than one department or agency, and transcends the. exclusive competence of a single department or agency to produce. In its scope and content: National. intelligence may be BASIC (the NIS is a good example), may be CURRENT (the Central Intellience Bulle- tin) or may be ESTIMATIVE (the National Intelligence Estimates). In its other characteristics: National intelligence is always coordinated among all competent intelligence agencies, usually all-source. always focused on a major problem In its ,production: National intelligence is principally the product of this Agency, but it is a shared responsibility as we will discuss later. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER NATIONAL intelligence is not DEPARTMENTAL intelligence but represents a category of finished intelligence coordinated and disseminated at the highest or national levels of government. It is beyond the competence or interest of a single department to produce, CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For ReleasCO' ENT O-00317A000200060001-0 The term NET Intelligence has appeared in recent years, principally in connection with the preparation of national estimates. There is no single clear definition of the term "net" intelligence--it could refer to military judgments in a very restricted sense, or to broader aspects of policy contingencies in the political sense. Some examples serve to illustrate how this special term {'net" might be applied: 1. An N]:E may discuss the status of Soviet naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea. If, along with the assessment of the strengths and deployment of these forces, the capabilities and deployment of similar U.S. forces in the same area are considered, the resulting "net" judgments could be called net intelligence. 2. The 'Location of U.S. divisions and air units on maneuvers in West Germany are considered when unusual Warsaw Pact troop movements are observed. 3. Arab leaders accused the U.S. of assisting Israeli air strikes during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. This information had to be assessed against the knowledge of the location of the U.S. Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. The net intelligence gave a differ- ent estimate of the situation. Each of these instances had to do with an estimate of military capa- bilities and intentions. In a broader sense, net intelligence can be associated with a discussion of policy contingencies: If the U.S. decides to take Course A, in a certain situation, what is the likely outcome of this action? If it takes Course B? Etc. Net intelligence could be described as an assessment which considers intelligence on a foreign country's total capa- bilities and intentions in the light of or compared to U.S. capabilities and national intent regarding the same situation or problem. Net intelligence is derived from a knowledge of both your own and your adversary's options for action. It should be added that such considerations are confined to only the most senior levels of the national security structure. Approved For Releas 9 '~11~EN80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL STRATEGIC vs. TACTICAL Intelligence Finished intelligence covering the whole scope of a STRATEGIC nation's capabilities and intentions over a considerable range of time. We may speak of short-term (1-2 years), INTELLIGENCE mid-term (3-5'years), or long-term (5-1.0 years) strategic intelligence. Examples: Capability of the North Vietnamese economy to support the war effort if the U.S. bombs all of the industrial facilities. - psychological willingness (or unwillingness) of the 0 people to support any proposed rearmament program. TACTICAL Finished intelligence produced and used for short-term assessments of the "enemy" in a dynamic or moving situation INTELLIGENCE such as a military battle. Most "tactical" intelligence is produced by military forces for military commanders. 25X1 C Examp : - The numbers and location of regular N. Vietnamese military units in South Vietnam. - the size and location of any Cuban guerrilla units landing in Central or South America. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL SELECTED OTHER CATEGORIES OF FINISHED INTELLIGENCE There are a great many other terms often associated--some erroneously--with unique classes of intelligence information and finished intelligence. Some of these terms really refer to sources of intelligence information or methods of processing and analysis rather than to discrete categories. Of the great number of such terms, five are selected here for definition and explanation: ? CRITICAL Intelligence -- often referred to by the identifying tag, CRITIC -- is intelligence information which is considered, regardless of classification or source, as being of such urgent importance to U.S. national security as to warrant the fastest possible transmission to the President and his top advisers. The system is designed for the rapid transmission (10 minutes or less) of critical. intelligence from any part of the world to the Washington area ahead of other priority messages. As time permits, it is analyzed and interpreted 1'on'the spot" en route to the recipient. (example: the first report of the ouster of Premier Khrushchev, Soviet Union, in 1964). INDICATIONS Intelligence -- a special category of current intelli- gence having to do with "indications" of hostile intent or ac- tions on the part of a foreign country. It is a method of monitoring current intelligence on an all-source basis to pro- vide strategic (mid to long-term) warning of preparations for or the actual start of hostile actions against the U.S., our forces overseas, or against our friends and allies. It re- quires a special analytical and reporting organization -- using principally Department of Defense facilities and resources, but under the management of the Watch Committee of the United States Intelligence Board. The National Indications Center (NIC) lo- cated in the Pentagon and directed by a CIA official, is the inter-agency headquarters for this effort. (example: reporting events surrounding the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968.) CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 ? SIGINT -?- an abbreviation for SIGNALS Intelligence. (This term denotes both COMINT and ELINT which are described below.) COMINT -?- an abbreviation for "communications intelligence" which is the intelligence information derived from cryptological sources, or the "breaking" of foreign message codes -- e.g., the breaking of the Japanese coded messages during World War II. Major responsibility for producing this category of intelligence together with that described next, belongs to the National Security Agency -- a USIB member. ? ELINT -- an abbreviation for "electronics intelligence," which is intelligence information derived from the intercept of electronic radiations emitted from radars and other devices that give off signals. This class of information deals only with non-communications signals, and is an important part of technical intelligence collection. (example: reporting the electronic signals given off by missiles when they are test- fired. This is called telemetry and is for the purpose of measuring missile performance.) Other terms are frequently used to identify classes of intelligence information or finished intelligence: photographic intelligence, 1 counter-intelligence, naval intelligence, "warning" intelligence, RADINT (radar intelligence), ACPUSTINT (acoustic intelligence), Land scores of others. Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 The HOW of U.S. Foreign Intelligence -- Intelligence is a PROCESS In thinking about HOW the U.S. Government produces and uses finished intelligence on foreign countries, one is immediately confronted with understanding the nature and functions of what is termed: This process is a cycle of activity for the purpose of collecting intelligence information and converting it into finished intelligence so as to be able to dissem- inate the final product in response to a requestor or recipient. The basic phases of this process are: - a collection phase a processing phase - a production phase - a dissemination phase Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 4 Approved FcC Relea:te 2002/41/04: (WA-RDPj0-0031jA0002( 06000e-0 IMTELLIGE''NCE l.S A LESS ) r REQUEST FOR FINISHED INTELLIGENCE 7Vpproved or a ease 2002/1110'4 : - - - Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL In eneral, how does the process work? The intelligence process is initiated by a request for the production of a finished intelligence report or presentation. The requestor is usually, but is not always, a person outside the intelligence organization. Under normal circumstances, the cycle of activity (often referred to as the "intelligence cycle") pegins with the collection of information needed to produce the intelligence; a research and writing function, and some form of dissemination of the completed product. Collection, as a major phase of activity, does not refer to the selection and assembly of data within the analyst's files in a headquarters facility, but rather to field collection activities from the three sources explained in the succeeding pages. Collection usually is followed by the processing of intelligence information prior to the actual production phase. Processing refers to such things as foreign language translation, conversion from tape to document, conversion of imagery, digital data and graphic or cartographic data into text and other forms. Processing; is often a highly spphisticated, costly and time-consuming part of the intelligence process. Entire intelligence components are devoted exclusively to the collection and processing of intelligence. Production is the "heart" of the process because in this phase all of the analysis and interpretation takes place that is required to transform intelligence information into the completed report. Dissemination can only take place after finished intelligence is produced. The two principal concerns among many others is when and in what form is the intelligence wanted? CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 The COLLECTION phase of the intelligence process: This is the first phase of the intelligence process WHAT and includes all of the activities associated with IS acquiring intelligence information from overt, COLLECTION? clandestine, and technical sources and methods. Intelligence collection may be categorized by sources and methods: ? OVERT. Intelligence information collected from "open" sources using "omen"' methods. This is informa- tion from less-privileged sources and makes up the overwhelming bulk of collection. ? CLANDF,STINE: Intelligence information obtained through espionage. This is what has to be done when overt sources are exhausted or non-existent. 6 TECHNICAL; Use of technical equipment and systems -- such as electronic and photographic -- to acquire intelli- gence information. Some authorities also include the use of technical aids for human agents in clan- destine operations. Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11t6wffefa Q-W 1 jXf00.0200060001-0 What is-the scope and methodology associated with intelligence information collected through OVERT sources? Foreign press . radio and TV broadcasts . SCOPE OF periodicals and journals . diplomatic collection OVERT (observations, reportsyand conversations) foreign SOURCES materials . military attache and command sources domestic sources Methodology: In addition to overt sources of intelligence ..... information, overt methods are utilized to collect this information. The press is scrutinized, broad- casts are monitored, publications are translated and screened, diplomatic information is collected and reported, foreign materials reviewed and analyzed, domestic sources contacted and reported. Approved For Release 2002/1 ` II bMAikA000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFI)ENTIAL Examples of intelligence information collected from OVERT sources:, 1. The statements of a Prime Minister to the U.S. Ambassador concerning his country's views of a U.S. proposal to cut hack on military bases in that country. The Ambassador reports to Wash- ington by cable, probably TOP SECRET 2. A Soviet broadcast to South Asia reminding India, Burma, Indonesia, and others of historic Chinese imperialism and the danger of a revival. Moni- tored by the FBhS and relayed to Washington. (FOR OFFICIAL-USE ONLY) 4. An Associated Press news ticker from Paris re- porting strong rumors that the franc will be devaluated (UNCLASSIFIED) CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 25X6 25X1A Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 What is meant by CLANDESTINE collection of intelligence information? Clandestine collection - espionage Note: this text, because of security limitations will not discuss the scope nor the methodology of clandestine collection except in very general terms. Scope of Knowledge of any aspect of overseas activity that Clandestine is of interest to U.S. security and is not obtain- Collection: able through overt sources is a potential target for espionage. The data collected may be in any form paralleling that of overt collection. The only difference is that the target country or area denies the information to U.S. eyes and hopefully is unaware it is being obtained. _The classic collector is the indigenous agent, not an American "007'x. J Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 5X1 C kk Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL What is included in that which we term TECHNICAL collection or collection from TECHNICAL sources? ? Electronic intercepts (radio and other signals) -ELINT ? Audio--surveillance ? Intercept and analysis of radar signals -RADINT ? Intercept and analysis of nuclear debris and radiation ? Collection and analysis of imagery (including photography) ? Intercept of audible noise emanation - ACOUSTINT -Technical sources require technical and scientific (S&T) methods to exploit them -Technical methods require highly specialized equip- ment and facilities (systems.) -The larger collection systems in the technical collection field (radars, for instance) dominate technical collection of intelligence information; but many authorities also include in this category technical aids used to assist clandestine agent collection. CONFIDEN-~ Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-R 0- 0317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A00d200060001-0 CONFIDENTIAL Some examples of techpical collection: 1. Aerial photos of infiltration routes from North Vietnam through Laos to South Vietnam. 2, Aerial photos of Soviet offensive missiles in Cuba in 1962. 25X1 D CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 20,QONF~:ENTI~- 0317A000200060001-0 53 The COLLECTION phase of the intelligence process may be summarized as follows: The collection of intelligence information is the most characteristic COLLECTION REQUIREMENTS X1111tIIIIIf,I activity of any intelli- gence organization. It supplies the data-base upon which analysis and writing may proceed. Collection can take place in a headquarters environ- ment or in the "field." The sources for intelligence COLLECTION OVERT, CLANDESTINE, or TECHNICAL. By far, the greatest amount of collected ? OVERT METHODS I information is derived from CLANDESTINE METHODS (ESPIONAGE) TECHNICAL METHODS INTELL INFORMATION OVERT sources. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 The step known as PROCESSING In recent years, an important new phase in the intelligence production cycle, called PROCESSING of intelligence infor- mation has developed. by the intelligence production analyst. refebs to those activities which assist in converting PROCESSING intelligence information into forms more readily usable ? TRANSLATING FOREIGN LANGUAGE PERIODICALS KINDS ? CONVERTING MAGNETIC TAPE DATA INTO DOCUMENT FORM OF TASKS ? CONVERTING IMAGERY (PHOTOS, ETC.) INTO DIGITAL ASSOCIATED OR GRAPHIC/CARTOGRAPHIC TEXT WITH PROCESSING ? MANIPULATING TEXTUAL DATA BY COMPUTER SO AS TO BE ABLE TO ANALYZE AND SUMMARIZE FINDINGS As pointed out earlier (page 45), this step is essential to the analyst. It is usually done either as part of the collection process (such as data stored from a large radar collecting system) or closely associated with the provision of collected information to the production components. (PANEL ON PAGE #44) Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 The PRODUCTION phase of the intelligence process: This phase of the process is the activity of WHAT research, analysis, evaluation, and interpre- IS tation of intelligence information with the PRODUCTION? purpose of its transformation into a product called finished intelligence. The PRODUCTION of finished intelligence involves at least three major functions and a larger number of inter-related processes or steps not always done in the order set forth below: 1. RESEARCH -- what is it that we need to know? ? what is the requirement? ? how do we formulate the problem? ? what should be the plan of activity? 2. ANALYSIS -- what is it that we know? ? formulation of the problem ? conducting research and writing: assembly of information - synthesis of ideas and hypotheses correlation of data - integration of sources - evaluation of sources and content (CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE) Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 3. INTERPRETATION -- what is the significance of what we know? (This function is critical to the consumer because the analyst expert or specialist is in the best position to tell the recipient of the report its exact meaning as he sees it. 4. PRESENTATION -- placing the completed analysis and writing in such a form as to ready it for formal dissemination. The Analyst - the key figure in the production phase. The analyst must formulate the problem, establish and execute his research strategy, assemble, collate, integrate and correlate data, analyze his findings, evaluate his efforts, and interpret the results for an interested consumer, Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11Q CA-r6 O,-?eXt000200060001-0 CONF Some illustrative types of finished intelligence: -? an article on the political crisis in Ceylon in the Current Intelligence Weekly Review -? an article on overnight developments in Vietnam in the Current Intelligence Bulletin -- a memorandum on the "World Gold Problem" -. a National Intelligence Estimate on "The Outlook for Spain Through 1973" - a memorandum on "The Status of Communist Chinese Scientific Manpower" - briefing notes on the Soviet ABM for the DCI to use before an(, NSC meeting - a special research memorandum on "Leadership Succession in the Polish Communist Party" 25X1 B - an NPIC report, with photos, on the Chinese coast adjacent to Quemoy and Matsu - a geographic report on the disputed Sino-Indian border region - a handbook on the capabilities of a new Soviet tank Approved For Release 2002/1 MWAT"6000200060001-0 ft^t The production of intelligence may be considered as the heart of i Approved For Release 20e6fl4Ib t3At0317A000200060001-0 The PRODUCTION phase of the intelligence process may be summarized as follows: the entire intelli- gence process. Re- search, analysis, and writing constitute the three principal ac vities. Major functions and key CONSUMER steps in the produc- tion phase vary rnn- REQUEST FOR siderably according 1 I to: FINISHED INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTION RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS ANALYSIS - WHAT IS IT THAT WE KNOW? FORMULATION OF PROBLEM RESEARCH AND WRITING -the analysts re- search plan -depth and scope of the analysis -the purpose and timing of final product INCLUDES PROCESSES OF ASSEMBLY, SYNTHESIS, CORRELATION, INTEGRATION AND EVALUATION INTERPRETATION - WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF WHAT WE KNOW? Approved For Release 20i~R1)PaA317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 The DISSEMINATION phase of the intelligence process: WHAT The final formal step in the intelligence IS process. Ideally, this phase is organized DISSEM- so as to respond to the right recipient at INATION? the right time, with the right product. Principal factors to consider in the task of disseminating finished intelligence: 1. Format: essentially, in what form and through what channel of communication (oral, written, documentary) is the final product to be made available. Ex: does the President want his intelligence report as a document or in a briefing by the DCI? 2. Time factor: essentially, how soon is the finished intelligence wanted and by whom? Ex: not everything needs to be reported so rapidly, but in the case of launching strategic wea- pons, the reporting channel might have to be as short as a few minutes to be useful. Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Releaseap(1,'ulb ffAr-00317A000200060001-0 Basic concepts regarding the DISSEMINATION of all categories of finished intelligence - The dissemination of finished intelligence occurs at all levels of the intelligence community (laterally here in Washington and to overseas consumers) Dissemination is based on mechanisms, formal and informal, that match the producer of finished intelligence with the appropriate consumer (an official or his organization). Such terms as "dissemination lists", "repositories", "control centers", "reading rooms" may be associated with the formal dissemination process. - Much of the intelligence produced these days is disseminated in dual forms--dependent on the time factors--either electrically or in publications. - The increasing need of computerized data-retrieval is making new demands on dissemination methods. Note: THE GRAPHIC PANEL ON THE NEXT PAGE CONCEPTUALIZES THE THREE PHASES OF THE INTELLIGENCE PROCESS. THE RELATED FUNCTIONS ARE ALSO DEPICTED. YOU ARE URGED TO STUDY IT FOR A FEW MINUTES BEFORE PROCEEDING. Approved For ReleaaQ21' I'tV- J 80-00317A000200060001-0 ve CONFIDENTIAL INTELLIGENCE AS A PROCESS THE F,A CONSUMER REQUEST FOR COLLECTION COLLECTION *CLANDESTINE METHODS (ESPIONAGE) INTEIL DISSEMINATION (ALL CATEGORIES) CONCERN FOR, FOR RETRIEVAL PRODUCTIQ (RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS) ANALYSIS - WHAT ISAwIT THAT WE KNOW?, RESEARCH AND WRITING ;;.. ASSEMBLY, SYNTHESIS, CORRELATION, INTEGRATION tun FV11111TIRM INTERPRETATION - WHAT IS THE THREE BASIC PHASES OF THE INTELLIGENCE CYCLE IS/0TR 1970 FI T AL L~k Approved For Release 2001,(Q~QQAj317A000200060001-0 The WHO of U.S. Intelligence The National Security Structure -- what does it include? The entire organization for national security as we will look at it in these remaining pages includes both the POLICY LEVEL at the highest echelons and the INTELLIGENCE LEVEL. The POLICY levels include the President and his immediate staff, the members of the Cabinet and heads of independent agencies. Others that could be thought of at this level are Presidential advisers and councils. The INTELLI- GENCE level will be described in more detail. All constitute the consumers offinished intelli- gence. ORGANIZATION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY THE PRESIDENT NSC LEVEL DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES INTELLIGENCE U.S. INTELLIGENCE BOARD (USIB) LEVEL and its MEMBER AGENCIES (The Intelligence Community) Approved For Release EGNF4QE L-oO317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: IIAA-RD~P800-0031-0 The principal consumers of finished intelligence: The President THE White.House Staff CONSUMERS AT THE NSC and its affiliated groups WHITE HOUSE AND Cabinet officials CABINET LEVEL Others (PFIAB, Pres. advisers) TOP-LEVEL Executive Agencies DOMESTIC CONSUMERS Congress rV OTHER U. S. Ambassadors MEETING "Country-Team" Members NEEDS OF Military Commands OVERSEAS CONSUMERS Regional Conferences and Meetings VIP Trips Others Approved For Release 2002/11/04c tAEQ OI3TL4&O200060001-0 Approved For Release 22=UftDtQ4I PAt00317A000200060001-0 V. V NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL SECRETARY OF STATE r POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS POLICY IMPLEMENTATION UNDER -SECRETARIES THE REVIEW GROUP COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE ANNOPERATIONAL INPUT S IMPLEMENTATION AND COORDINATION OF AGREED POLICY DEPARTMENTS and AGENCIES INTER- DEPARTMENTAL GROUPS "AD HOC" GROUPS ORGANIZATION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY (SIMPLIFIED SCHEMATIC) Approved For Release 2c QN tQlkN3d> 0317A000200060001-0 Approved ForelIgENTJAC IA-RDP80-00317A000200060001 -0 65 INTELLIGENCE INPUTS TO NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION Meeting the need. for finished intelligence for national security decision-making requires organization and management involving hun- dreds of key people and a sizeable number of agencies and groups. Each President has or anizzed these national security mechanisms-- at least on the policy levels--to fit his own style. The chart on the previous page depicts a simplified pattern of intelligence support, and places where policy initiatives are taken under the present administration. Note several pints: - The National Security Council (NSC) is the most important element in the National Security Structure. - The key component of the new national security policy structure under the NSC is the REVIEW GROUP. The REVIEW GROUP is chaired by the President's special assistant for national security. It brings together all of the available and relevant finished intelligence and other data necessary to place a policy recommendation before the National Security Council (if they are very important) or before the Under Secretaries Committee if of routine importance. - Intelligence inputs originate in departments and agencies (such as State and Defense); in INTERDEPARTMENTAL GROUPS (IG',s) each headed by an Assistant Secretary of State, or from "AD HOC" groups created for special problems and crises. - The more serious the danger to our national interests and the 'more sensitive the problem, the higher the decision has to go. - It is important to remember that inputs for policy considerations originate from any point where appropriate national intelligence is produced. Directives in National Security NSCID's - National Security Council Intelligence Directives - allocate major responsibilities among members of the intelligence community. NSDM's - National Security Decision Memoranda - report Presidential de- cisions. NSSM's - National Security Study Memoranda - direct studies to be under- taken? Approved For ReIe O IDIENT P80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Relee8149t11/FNlf;F2pP80-00317A000200060001-0 This is another self-test on your understanding. We have been discussing the policy level of the U.S. National Security Structure. In Column I below, certain functions and responsibilities of key components or officials are described. You are to select one of the answers given at the bottom of this page and insert the appropriate letter beside each blank in Column II. 1. Brings together all of the relevant papers (including intelligence) to be considered for a policy recommen- dation at the NSC level. 2. Makes final national security policy decisions. 3. Charged by Federal law with advising the President on matters of national security policy. 4. Ifi the principal foreign policy adviser to the President. A. National Security Council D. Central Intelligence Agency B. The 'President E. Secretary of State C. Under Secretaries Committee F. Review Group Approved For Release GQN ENT W,-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 200t',,(r6FT Q QA1L317A000200060001 -0 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PREVIOUS PAGE: 1F, 2B, 3A, 4E The USIB AND THE "Intelligence Communit " -- The United States Intelligence Board (USIB) whose chairman is the Director of Central Intelligence, in its corporate sense is the senior decision-making body for U.S. Intelligence. The members of USIB represent six intelligence components and, with military observers, constitute a formal group of 10 senior officials. All represented agencies make up a federation generally referred to as the "Intelligence Community." UNITED STATES INTELLIGENCE BOARD MEMBERSHIP DCI CHAIRMAN *ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE ARE PARTICIPATING OBSERVERS *Defense MEMBER AGENCIES OF USIB (with abbreviations) CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (CIA) ? BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE & RESEARCH (INR) - STATE DEPARTMENT ? DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) - DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ASST. CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INTELLIGENCE (ACSI) - U.S. ARMY NAVAL INTELLIGENCE COMMAND (NAVINTCOM) - U.S. NAVY ? ASST. CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INTELLIGENCE (AFNIN) - U.S. AIR FORCE ? NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (NSA) ? ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION (AEC) FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI) USIB COMMITTEES: . 14 Interdepartmental committees responsible to USIB Approved For Release 2002/IC,0 DPN?f AL7A000200060001-0 Approved For Release,,,Z,02/,1atp?E M 0-00317A000200060001-0 CF ~M USIB Committees and their relationship to intelligence production The U.S. Intelligence Board monitors the activities of 14 interdepart- mental committees which report to the Board regularly. These committees, virtually all chaired by an official of this Agency, are concerned with: - Intelligence production (6 committees) - Collection of intelligence information (5 committees) - Security and other matters (3 committees) The committeesdirectly concerned with intelligence production matters are: EIC (Economic Intelligence Committee) GMAIC (Guided Missile and Astronautics Intelligence Committee) JAEIC (Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee) NIS (National Intelligence Survey Committee) SIC (Scientific Intelligence Committee) WATCH (Watch Committee) Membership and overall Responsibilities: All 14 1JSIB Committees have interdepartmental representation ranging in size from just a few, in some cases, to the larger committees such as the EIC and SIC. Thus, several hundred key officers and civilians constitute an important segment of the total intelligence support for national security-- information-gathering, intelligence production and special support activities such as security and defector-handling. These committees are responsible for most of the interdepart- mental :intelligence produced. Approved For Release 200 1.'" F&Df P61"17A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/1ao4 l,c P 8f-000 317A000200060001-0 THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY The CIA was established under the NSC, by the National Security Act of 1947, for the purpose of coordinating U.S. intelligence activities. The Agency, under NSC direction: 1. Advises the NSC in matters concerning intelligence activities of the U.S. intelligence community related to national security. 2. Coordinates intelligence activities of the depart- ments and agencies of the Government. 3. Produces national intelligence. 4. Performs services of common concern as determined by the NSC. S, Performs "such other functions and duties" as the NSC may from time to time direct. Primary responsibilities of CIA for COLLECTION ? clandestine informa- tion (all subjects) ? overt foreign broad- cast monitoring ? overt foreign docu- ment exploitation ? overt domestic col- lection Intelligence and PRODUCTION ? Economic intelligence (Communist areas) ? Scientific and Technical ? Basic Intelligence (NIS) ? Current Intelligence (National level) ? Estimative (NIE's) Approved For Release 20Q2/11/0f~POD P`gd`-10317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) is in a unique role as the chief coordinator of U.S. foreign intelligence activities and as such "wears several hats:" 1. The DCI is the administrative head of this Agency -- he is responsible by law for all this Agency does, but his other "hats" are just as important. 2. The DCI is the intelligence adviser to the NSC --- this means he must be knowledgeable on all issues in which the intelli- gence community participates for national-security policy decisions. 3. The DCI is the senior official for the coordination of U.S. foreign intelligence activities -- as Chairman of the USIB, he must concern himself with the allocation of intelligence collection and production resources. He does this in a formal sense through the issuance of Director of Central Intelligence Directives (DCID's) The DCI must: coordinate the total resources of the U.S. intelligence community even though his administrative control extends only to this Agency. Approved For Release 2002/11/04: CIA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Re1gC4tN F~DP80-00317A000200060001-0 71 THE BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE AND RESEARCH (INR) of the Department of State -1 The Bureau of Intelligence and Research under direction of its Director, with rank equivalent to that of an Assistant Secretary of State, develops and implements a coordinated program of intelli- gence for the Department and for other Federal agencies, and pro- duces finished intelligence essential to foreign policy. The key professionals in the State Department are called Foreign Service Officers (FSO's and FSR's). In the "field" or on the headquarters "desks" they constitute the collectors and producers of intelligence in the Department of State. Primary Responsibilities of INR for COLLECTION Intelligence and ? overt political information ? overt sociological information ? overt economic information ? overt scientific and techni- cal information PRODUCTION ? Political intelligence ? Sociological intelligence ? Economic intelligence *(Free World) *CIA has assumed a greater role in F.W, economic analysis Approved Forte 1DEN/T4A IA-RDP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/1199NI-I U-ANA000200060001-0 The DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) The DIA was established in 1961 to operate under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense. Under its Director, the DIA: 1. Organizes, manages, and controls Department of Defense (DoD) intelligence resources assigned to DIA and coordinates Department of Defense intelligence functions of the military departments. 2. Satisfies the intelligence requirements of the major components of the Department of Defense including the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 3. Supervises DoD intelligence functions not assigned to DIA. 4. Obtains maximum economy and efficiency in DoD intelligence resource allocation. The DIA thus can be considered as the most important Department of Defense intelligence organization and the primary producer of finished military intelligence. (The Defense Attache System under DIA control is a prime component.) SPECIAL NOTE A large percentage of the departmental intelligence produced by the U.S. intelligence community today is done by the components of the Department of Defense. Prior to the establishment of the Defense Intelligence Agency?(DIA), the three military services were heavy producers; now this is done largely either by or under the supervision of the DIA. Approved For Release 200203N FI8 fI 17A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002C0NFID fcl--L17A000200060001-0 THE NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (NSA) The NSA was established in 1952 as a separately organized agency within the Department of Defense and under control of the Secretary of Defense. The NSA has two primary missions -- a security mission and an intelli- gence information mission. The latter has to do with SIGINT matters. (See. page 42) THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI) The Director of the FBI, under the Department of Justice, has charge of investigating all violations of Federal laws -- some. 170, including espionage, sabotage, treason, and other subversive activities. Crimes such as counterfeiting, postal and customs violations, and illegal drug traffic are handled by other Federal agencies. The FBI's responsibilities and focus are on domestic matters; CIA's are on overseas matters. THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION (AEC) The AEC was established in 1946 to provide and administer programs, and to encourage private participation in such programs, for research and development, international cooperation, production of atomic energy and special nuclear materials, and the dissemination of scientific and tech- nical information. The AEC also has the responsibility to protect the health and safety of the public and to regulate the control and use of nuclear materials. These three member agencies of USIB are important to U.S. intelligence not for any direct responsi- bilities for finished national intelligence pro- NOTE duction, but because they have important roles in collecting intelligence information, processing of data, and providing professional and technical support. Approved For Release 2002/1,114 ffffl -AAT7A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 20002//111N ~ CGIg-AIfi8Q-Q0317A000200060001-0 The Intelligence components of the Armed Services (Army, Navy, Air Force) make their respective contributions to the national effort: U.S. ARMY (ACSI - Asst. Chief of Staff for Intelligence) -- The intelligence component of the Dept. of the Army is responsible for such things as combat intelligence, technical intelligence, and counterintelligence of interest to the Army. Finished intelligencA production and "residual" intelligence matters are coordinated with DIA. ACSI (Army) is a participating observer at USIB meetings. U.S. NAVY (NAVINTCOM) -- The intelligence component in the Dept. of the Navy is responsible for intelligence collection and production, counterintelligence and technical intelligence needs of the Navy. Its effort in finished intelligence production is coordinated with DIA and the Commander, NAVINTCOM is a partici- pating observer at USIB meetings. U.S. AIR FORCE (AFNIN - Asst. Chief of Staff for Intelligence) -- Th:Ls component is responsible for the intelligence needs of the Air Force. Like the other two services, the Air Force makes contributions to departmental intelligence, counter- intelligence, and other matters. ACSI (Air Force) is a participating observer at USIB meetings. Approved For Release 2005hQN M+R[7 A4817A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002/ lMoNMMgRYI~ 17A000200060001-0 Other organizations involved in collecting intelligence information F and producing finished intelligence. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS A number of the Federal Departments who are outside the USIB membership make significant contributions to U.S. intelligence including: - The Department of Commerce - Department of Labor - Department of Agriculture MAJOR MILITARY COMMANDS A number of military headquarters and their commands (both in the U.S. and overseas) provide large quantities of intelligence information -- collected from attache and technical sources. All three military services help pro- duce finished intelligence. OTHER ORGANIZATIONS A number of academic institutions, private research companies, and other governmental groups make sizeable contributions to intelligence collection, processing and production activities. Their work is usually under contract direction of a single department or agency. Approved For Release 200ZPWIXM]IMIA317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 20020l: RO-aOf17A000200060001-0 There are Levels of Responsibility in National Security Decision-making: LEVELS OF RESPONSIBILITY FINAL DECISIONS ON THE PRESIDENT NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY MATTERS RECOMMENDATIONS THE NATIONAL SECURITY o~L FOR COUNCIL (NSC) POLICY SECRETARY OF STATE CONSIDERATION (PRINCIPAL FOREIGN POLICY ADVISOR) SENIOR DIRECTOR INTELLIGENCE OF ADVISER. TO THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE NSC (DCI) NATIONAL DCI INTELLIGENCE (ASSISTED BY THE USIB COORDINATION AGENCIES) NATIONAL CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INTELLIGENCE (IN COLLABORATION WITH PRODUCTION USIB AGENCIES) (SUPPORT TO POLICY LEVELS) DEPARTMENTAL * USIB AGENCIES INTELLIGENCE -COLLECTION * MILITARY SERVICES -PRODUCTION -COORDINATION AND * OTHERS DISSEMINATION Approved For Release 2002/1`1ftl.4 ' t1 'A000200060001-0 Approved For Releas CQIVF04 : lAX80-00317A000200060001-0 COATPLICATIONS ARISING FROM A RAPIDLY CHANGING WORLD - Some implications for the intelligence officer - 1. NATIONALISM -- Within the two decades of this Agency's existence, the number of countries in the world has almost tripled (46 signed the UN charter in 1945). The growing number of new states merely add to the already challenging tasks of analyzing the national goals, strengths, and weaknesses of nations in which the U.S. is vitally interested. 2, COMMUNISM -- The world communist movement is in a state of flux. When we consider the proliferation of commun- ist: states since WWII, the strategic power of the Soviet Union, the potential future threat from a modernized Communist China, and the ideological convulsions in the communist world, the implications for U.S. intelligence officers are enormous. Although, as some authorities see it, the "grand design" and "initiative" of world communism no longer flows from a single source (Moscow) and thus diminishes the "appearance" if not the "content" of the cold war, the challenges to U.S. intelligence are perhaps greater and are, in many ways, more difficult. (CONTINUED NEXT PAGE) Approved For Release 2002/T11U4 : CIA-RD~8U-VU317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 20 ~~p.&1c i l 41 cp317A000200060001-0 3. DEEP-SEATED SOCIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS -- There are a number of sociological problems of a world-wide scope that need to be understood and solved in the 70's. The "population explosion" coupled with inadequate food sources, the con- cern for conservation of such natural resources as air and water, and the problems of mass education and mass housing are just a few. The intelligence officer must be able to identify these problems and their implica- tions in his analysis of the areas for which he is responsible. To the extent he can do this, he makes a vital contribution. 4. TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTIONS -- Technology has spread to new nations,.science has achieved new break-throughs in space and other fields, and there has been an "explosion" of information and knowledge helped along by the effi- ciency of electronic communications and the use of the computer. It is possible with nuclear-tipped ICBM's for the first time in world history for, one nation or a com- bination of states to destroy civilization. The intelli- gence analyst has periodic "indigestion" from too much information and too little time to analyze what he sees. Only a rigorous program of selection and priorities will enable the analyst of the 70's to fulfill the need for timely and relevant support to the policy-makers. Approved For Release 200SP/ F PTB-"L317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 200M....0NF1 P fL317A000200060001-0 PROFESSIONALISM in INTELLIGENCE Is there an intelligence profession? Who are the "professionals"' in U.S. intelligence? What about job satisfactions in "our business?" There can be no definitive answers to these three questions within the confines of this text. Hopefully, the discussions which pro- ceed from the concepts we outlined in these pages, together with other presentations to follow, should contribute to your basic un- derstanding of the nature and purpose of U.S. foreign intelligence activities. Whether you are an analyst, a "case- officer," a manager/supervisor, editor, tech- nician, trainer, geographer, scientist, "opera- tor," or any one of a hundred other professionals, you have a vital role to play in helping this Agency, and the U.S. intelligence community to achieve their goals. Quoting the Director of Central Intelligence;* Responsibility, objectivity, independence; "These are the legs"..."upon which we (in this Agency) have suc- ceeded in creating a deep-seated professional integrity, unshaken by inward emotion and outward pressure." *Adapted from an address before the Council on Foreign Relations, in April 1967. Approved For Release 99INF04PAl RDA00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 2002jQp4q E$ f4 DP80-00317A000200060001-0 Approved For Release 200SW/b P IAiRDP80-00317A000200060001-0