Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 14, 2016
Document Release Date: 
October 26, 2000
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
March 2, 1954
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP80-00809A000500410043-6.pdf450.73 KB
Approved For Release 2003/08/11: CIA-RDP80-00809A000500410043-6 25X1 CONFIDENTIAL SUBJECT Status of Medicine, Medical Training, Research and Public Health COUNTR'? Yugoslavia 25X1 PLACE ED DATE AC "D 25X1 DATE (or INFj.) 25X1 ANO 71A. 0- TMt U.1. COCI. A[ AM[N n!~, 171 TN AN IYIS110N OA RLYt? CATION 0- ITS CONT*NT1 TO OR 0101FIT LY AN IINAU TNOAIS[0 '1110N IL CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT 25X1 N I N F O R M A T I O N AF/[CTINS TNL NATIONAL OLIEN/t 0, TM[ UNITSO STATES. sITNIM TNt M[ANINO OR 71TL1 It. 2101100/ 751 THIS Is UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 25X1 DATE DISTR? m R R 5? NO. OF PAGES 6 NO. OF ENCLS. SUPP. TO REPORT NO. Organization of Medical Services 1. There are two types of medical service: (1) State, and (2) private. There are many private doctors in Xugoalavia. They are L?rom governmental, control, and they are the rich men among professional workers. There is a shortage of medical manpower. There are only five to six thousand loss in Yugoslavia for a total population of 17 million, This is one of the principal bottlenecks-to' good medical service. The quality of performance of private practitioners is =0h higher thht-'that of state doctors. It is still the ideal of the medical man to have his 'own practice. The people do use pri.vate doctors even though they have to pay for such oervices. 2. It is compulsory for every medical student, upon completion of his medical, to spend two years working for the State. Young doctors perform such services as working in rural areas with an ambulatorium (office). Only after the performance of such service arc: doctors eligible for more advanced, specialized training. These offices, or ambulatoria, have overly heavy patient loads because of the lack of doctors. Gradually, they are getting good equipment, e.g. electrocardiographs; most of such equipment comes from Germany. These ambulatoria have two sets of doctors: one to take care of incoming patients, and one set to go out to visit patients. 25X1 Appro4d F9r Release 2003/08/11: CIA-RDP80-00809A000500410043-6 25X1 25X1 CONFIDENTIAL, _FF - 2 - 3. Health Insurance: The ambulatoria are state-owned and the patients are all covered by public 'insurance. Insurance is~paid by the government and by the factory or office w-here!the individual works, 50% by each; the individual pays nothing on hi .own, insurance. When al ;person becomes sick, if he works he gets a form fromhislemployer to take to the doctor. If the person is not employed he may st.ll'go to the doctor in the ambulatorium and get free treatment; obtaining the necessary form might take a little longer. About two-thirds of the .octors in Yugoslavia practice under this insurance plan. Some work full tim~,forithe state, and others have part time private practice. The national healthlinsurance program is aery good idea, hut the quality of this state ser1ceii inferior. Preventive Media Preventive medicine plays a greater part in Yugoslavia than in Western co tries, because primiti'Ie hygienic conditions exist in Yugoslavia. Many octors cannot do public service because they don't have traini.g in this type of medicine (this applies especially to the older doctors). After World War II quite a number of German doctors were invited to Yugoslavia to help get the medical profession started again, but this was not too successful because the Germans lacked necessary preventive medicine training. The mainlpreventive medicine problems in Yugoslavia are: (1) general hygienics in disease, and. (2) nutrition for childxen. With UN and UNICEF help after World War II, two diseases werellrased in Yugoslavia. They were: (1) epidemic typhus (knocked out by DDT), and 2 endemic syphillis (treated with a form of penicillin). F_ I 25X1 Medical Education 17acilities 5. Yu lavia has .fi. eImedical schools: (1) University of Belgrade, (2) University of .'_agreb, (.3) University of Sarajevo, (4) (University of Ljubljana and (5) University of Skoplje. The Belgrade and Zasr. k schools were established after World War I; Sarajevo was found l944 or _-aabouts, and the medical schools at Ljubljana and Skoplje. were s Pup after World War IT. A fixed number of medical students is authorized for each school. At Belgrade and Zagreb two hundred students are accepted in the beginning class. At the three. smaller schools (Sarajevo, Ljubljana and Skopije) one hundred students are admitted to the first class. There azr? five classes to the medical *training, and six years is the average amount of time it takes to complete medical school and a year of interning. :n rnoont yof -3 th?' output of doctors from the medical schools each year has boon eboub five, hundre'l. 6. Medical students don't pay anything for their training. They are paid three thousand dinars per, lmonth for their living expenses (about US$il0); their tuition is paid fibs them, and they receive (their textbooks free. Usually they get_.some extraf.nancial help from home. They are paid by the government for only the avoragel! amount of time it takes to finish medical school, and the student must finish within that allotted time ox pay his own way for any time in school beyond that authorized. There is'no way for a'student to earn supplemental incomellfromiodd joLs, as is dole in the US. A few good students are used as iemonstxatora or sub-instructors, but that is all. 7. The Yugoslav medico schools corrbine, to ol certain degree, the US and European systems. (In most European universities there is no limitatl:)n on the number Of students permitted to'attend medical school, but an entrance examination i.s required,.) At Yugoslav medical schools about 25% of the students are flunked throu@;hout ttie tour-e. The students now come from all economic levels without di.scri.minatio:. III 25X1 CONFIDENTIAL( Approved For Release 2003/08/11 :CIA-Rp,P80-O08o9A000500410043-6 2 CQNr'IDI:NTIALt 8. 25X1 25X1 25X1 Administration of Medical Schools azid Sources of, binds:{il The universities of YugoslaVia'are under the dixxection of the Ministry of Science and Culture, but-the' medical schools are under the Ministry of Public Bealth and Social Welfare. lit was the Public' F(eal'th. section of the Ministry which held: e responsibility for the medical schools; while the funds for the support of, the'medical students themselves came from the Social Welfare section of the"Ministry. 0 9. The medical school at* the University of Sarajevo receive's', 180 million dinars per year'.-(about US$600,000).1, This is more money than the other parts of" the University receive. The medical school is better off than'~the other faculties. This 180 million dinars, is used, among other things, four he. payment of teaching staff salaries, for all equipment, but not for the buildings nor for the non- teaching staff. The'money,for the students' tuS,tioi and other expenses does not come out of this 180 million. dinars either. The. Ministry' of Health makes Its grant to' the medical school; what is done with the money is up to,the faculty. They are the deciding body. The full, associate''and assistant professors, together with the, dean, who has a little more, voice than the other professors, make up the budget. The. position of dean 'is 'zotated every year or every second year. With the office of dean goes a crand chauffeur. The funds provided for the Sarajevo 'medical school are typ' 'gal' except the.t Belgrade' and 'Zagreb', having more' students and a' consequent need for more f4cilitiesand staff, 'receive; proportionately more mone'. 10. There is a shortage of residents and of assistant doctoT'sat,the universities 25X1 11. There are no separate departments of biochemistry at thelmedical schools in Yugoslavia. At the University of Sarajevo Medical School the Physiology Department is the'largest, which may be explained by the'f'act that the first dean of the school'was also head of that department. Medical Faculty Members and Their Research Work and Facilities 12. Pharmacologists: a. 111 jj Dimitrievid, University of Belgrade. He has not, been 25X1 25X1 25X1. 25X1 25X1 active cince he became head of the Department of Pharmacology. He knows the literature fair 'well, He was trained in the 7:n'bool of Flury (Germany). F d: tlatko_Su ek , University 'of Zagreb, is Ivaildevid's' assistant. He has 1sluing as a toxicologist He .. and that digitalis increases oo coagulation , and 4 .LSO (,J.acovered a &iuretic substance in liver. b. in:Na Bogdanoyi6, University of Belgrade.,'Ass.ociate Processor. Ite Is very acts sto and works ' on vitamins; 'he found txiat Vitamin E increases the e86 prc?t -.lion ,of chickens. c. ,l'vo, Ivandevid, University of Zagreb, Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology. e was cooperation with?an'ex6ellent pathologist, he found that rutbin flavon-derivative) prevents toxicity of Vitamin Pp (Archive I turnationale de Phaxanacod amie, 1951 0111952). C0IIFIDENTIALI pproved For Release 2003/08/11 : C P80-00809A000500410Q43 51 cONI'ILUINTIAZ e. Pavao Stern, University of Sarajevo, is Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and also Deiin of the Medical schoolfor'the academic year 1953-5. He was a pupil of Pick' (in Vi, nas). His research work is primaril'yon diami-Le ax9.daaa"I autihietaminics '(mecha=tsm of.action) and also on 25X1 25X1 g~~ tt+~; Qinaokorai o Univ?rsity of Skoplje, Department' o f 'P2iar ia- cology~; e s a. acedonian and was a pupil of Heymazis He workoalong the linos 'of his former, tteacher on regula ion of blQbd 25X1 pressure by sino-aortic en lion. His abor&b6ry 12 as only ~ a few faoili~ ee 25X1 U. University of Belgradb, College of Veterinary, ie a.i 1(D. Be, is a good man. ~ 8e workce on histamine assistants and several voluntary helpers. f. 1eter Lende, University of Ljubljana, 4Cbairman of, t'he Department of Pha~ 3acologyy. He was a pupil of Pavao Stern., ari& in t}xe past worked on diemine oxidase of the arat 'uterus. He is' currently' testing Digitalis preparations with'the pigeon'heart methoa?. 'His labore'?bry is ,very poorly' equipped. a? Milutiaiftdkovid', Uxiiveraity of Belgrade. Hin fic1Q, i7oom~arativo physiology. ai^80) A a a Miverdity' of Belgrade. Ho io actually ozi the Phil.oeop oat Faoulty (which is the eeno as Liberal Art's), but he 6.r-k., on thereto regulation or an nals.' He was the first k,-,:raqa ;61 cool animals auoo!sesfully,. HA, publishes in French scientific o"er-:_r,,i.~.l Fie is a great moron. ' ' and allergy; h., has done work on tha,mode of aotioa of, cortisone (e tee on permeability on erythrocytes). . r N A11 a etti, University' of 'Z greb, 'Qb i mac 'of the Department of Physic ogy. Be is.a VAr7 79=9 ma4; he is:a iuly a pa thophysiologiet; he'wor i on musala oont aoti, n an& also on e.soorbio acid and. the 25X1 inaulaz^','*P=atus of .aa ai'xga8., The *evxoue 'ohaltman of the 25X1 department was an old. man who was fired. a. A'V.8 Qv j ev,, Uni~vvexsity of S@XA QVo . !o 'morly studied at the ,%lears y of, Iowa. ' Ho is working with tad .oeiot~ve sotoods (phosphorus), on tale physiology' of' the lung (reaation 'oi' the lung valomotors) . Equipment for, radioactive work is fair and not tpo dif f'eteut from' that found in maxiy sizeable US universities. 25X1 25X1 CONFI 'T" Approved For Release 2003/08/11: I~ DP80-00809A000500410043-6 25X1 f. , uu`djZ ui~td, University of ;,yubl~ana, l~xanl~,ent patho- physiologia He wme trained by, or in the school of, Taltauf (Vienna)-. He, worho on the autonomous ner Quo system and has clods.a paper on cholinesterase as the receptor for acetyleholin.:. gMi](ivojeVidmltovic, Univerait of 81co 1 e Chairman of the 25X works on the aio of the duodenm, 1 25Xj ?Bioohemiete Although uono of the uni mraitiea ? has a epa-ois . department +,o oQyer this field, they do have faoulty members who lecture on the subjoaot e3'-d engage in rel.rated. research. .a. Pgvlo Tryinac, Uhivoraity of Bolgrode,- C,DoparUment of Qhenistzyf, Given e0 ores in biochemistry for,mgdiQal students, b. A Ratak, University of Zngreb, Vato .ery.Faculty, Institute of 0 istry. Igo is the beat oncymologi?t.a,o,Yugoe~,alY~a,, althh~uo the fiaa .4 is not very e4Ya and in aux. qv=try exd nee6,s some help) it still he.o a long Way to go. Ft09e1C earns good, mopeZ,,3`rom z textbook on biochemistry which he wrote, C+xrxent17, he to working on oholinouterave, the role of CO2 aegirnilatiQn, thermal wmtsr4, sand the btatory of medWina, bare, Bvtbenovid, also at the University of Zagreb, Doyartmmnt Qf. Cheiu"Lo`" " ..He gives lectures in biocIzamietry fQr-medical students. Ljubljaxxat ?au6 siza4:6Arly, ha'e faculty mombera who 3,e4we on bi.ook~emxstry. PlateL utclus - eaa h and Pxoduatiou 15. The P11va< Comeuy (.Zormaray Castel) Bulto= ai des Cardiaasol . PitaAtiu 0 .. in Zagreb yrQd,4oos the Lollop I Faludrin (culti.rrualaria~ ) Barbituxates, Lumixial, Nembutal, Uhei,pan v+nd similar Qompouxxd~a Local anaesthetics, F.ntoc4tn Insulin (uoli~auit'lacn) Other hormones; Acs, Pituitrin, P.tthortuon Yugoslavia is one of the 1argeat producers of a lta.loids, with pertieular reference to morphine, of whi.oh Yugoslavia produces..thee greatest e oust in all of gurcpe. Morphine 1s.produved by a +irm in.Skoplje,? The basis for the 4: i?tI?etio pizaxamace tidal industry was provided only l eQ9ntly by the introduction of coaltax production (Bolts). 25X1 he CQNTIMTIAI, Approved For Release 2003/08/11 A_ - DP80-00809A000500410043-6 2 X1 25X1 coi.FTDENTTALI 16. 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 17. 25X1 Some, penicillin is made in Yugos..avia, but most of it is imported from Germany. Penicillin is the onl antibiotic make, and have not developed any new antibiotics. cannot afford research on aarge enough scale to make it worthwhile. Dr.Pavao Stern at;arajavo has been studying the pharmacologice.l.?behavior of. penicillin, but for research leading to the development of new antibiotics, are relying entirely on the outside world; As for work on blood and blood substituted, in the first place nothing similar to the US method of fractionation 25X1 u Bloch is in charge of the determination of b groups and plasma supplies in Belgrade The q~.~estion is, 25X1 how to get aritifiicia rep cemen sus ances ich remain in circulation 25X1 and keep water back 'and. prevent shook. The Problem is to. get large enough molecules to keep the, circulation going. tried Pe'riston, a. (}airman I2 5X1 subatQ.nce, but it ras too toxic. however, 2 5X1 would use Periston again. In Yugoslavia the military physicians are s udyiAg'this question, but thsy have not yet found anything better., end 856.o11i 857.37 857.21 857 Q5 857.388 $57.351 712.6. 712.36 645.1 25X1 8oM 80M 8oM 8GM 8oM 8oM 8oM 8oM 8OM CGNFTDEI'?TTA