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January 24, 1952
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Aper. yAMr elease 2003/10/01 CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 CONFIDENTIAL SECURITY INFORMATTO R5X1A 25X1 CONFIDE -CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT NO. D NO. COUNTRY COMMUNIST CHINA SUBJECT Indications of Psychological Vulnerabilities HOW PUBLISHED WHERE PUBLISHED LANGUAGE DATE PUBLISHED DATE OF 29 November- INFORMATION 12 December 1951 DATE DIST. 2 `f January 1952 b NO. OF PAGES 18 CHANGE TO UNCLASSIFIED PER REGRADINf, &UUETSN NO?_~_~ TNII DOCYIINT CONTAIN/ 1NIOIMATION AIIICTIND TN1 NATIONAL DIIIN/N OF TNt YNIT10 ITATII T/ITMI^ T1I NNANINN OF IIPIONAI2 *11 IO I. a. C.. II AND II,01 A/1ND10. 1. M.111111.0'" ON TN1 NITILATI0N TO A .'IITIOC ITT LAN. I XPRODUCTIOARI or TNII IONT III ZION ~IT1D. 1/ /NO? SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION C .P .W . REPORT No. 3--COMMUNIST CHINA 29 November - 12 December 1951 CONTENTS Production and Austerity 2 Ideological Adjust ents . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Counterrevolutionary Activity . . . . . . . . .11 War and the Military . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Social Reforms . . . . . . . ? . . . . . . . 15 miscellaneous .17 There are continuing indications of the urgency of the campaigns for production and austerity and the latter appears to receive more emphasis than the former. Reports of difficulties in ideological training, production, teacher attitudes, extravagance, etc. indicate that Southwest China is not yet completely assimilated. There are . explicit attacks on Catholic institutions. The Resist America, Aid Korea donations drive-appears to be drawing to a close, in accordance with the original schedule. CHANGE TO PER REGRALING. BULLETIN NAVY NSR9 DISTRIBUTION _ 7IR approve or Release 2%10/0 C A RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 L Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00026W4 09-8 PRODUCTION AND AUSTERITY Stepped-up Activity and Propaganda: The nation-wide drive for increases in production and avoidance of waste continued to receive primary consideration and the greater emphasis was on avoidance of waste. Meetings of Government or Party officials a. various levels to step-up the drive are reported from Peking, Yangchow, Chungking, Dairen, Hangchow, Kaifeng, Nanking, Chinchow, Foochow, Hofei, Canton, Nikiangsu, Mukden,' 1Puhsi, Tsitsihar, Wuhan, Shanghai, Lanchi, Antung, Amoy, Soochow, Kirin, and Yungen. The Northwest Bureau of the Central Communist Party, meeting at Sian on 7 December, devoted most of its time to the drive. Meetings were held in numerous heien of',tbe Central and South China Military and Administrative Area, and additional haten ..pd local sessions were reported from Yunnan, Hunan, Kiangsi, and Honan Provinces. Some 8,000 Government cadres met in the lest-named province. Special committees to push the drive were reportedly set up in North Anhwei., North Szechwan, Wuhan, Peichiang Hsien of Kwangtung Province, Tayeh Special Area of Hupeh, and in Sinkiang Province, where Government Chairman Pao-erh-han heads the new committee. On 29 November Peking reported that all dailies in Peking carried reports on the production and austerity drive. Most of these told of progress,but an editorial in PEOPLE'S DAILY flayed "corruption and extravagance," citing as a horrible example the "huge waste and heavy Government cost" in the provincial offices of Hopei. Regional broadcasting stations reported new increased production quotas by factories, stores, farms and public utility companies; announced gains in production and economy; and listed! some methods used to achieve these gains. Dairen (2 Dec.) said members of the Youth Corps in the Dairen Shipyard had taken the lead in alerting workmen on ways to economize. The same station (5 Dec.) said teachers in this shipyard had devised a new textbook of literature composed almost entirely of lessons on this topic.! Dairen (4 Dec.) announced that the Dairen Native Products Company would open 24'pew retail stores in the area "to stabilize the economy.,, Mukden (10 Dec.) announced that a heien department store in Liaosi Province had discarded "conservative methods and increased transactions." Mukden (4 Dec.) said the Trading Section of the Mukden People's Government is adding 16 retail stores in various rural areas. Foochow (4 Dec.) announced that the people had banded together to increase production .,as a result of their political indoctrination" during the Resist-America, Aid-Korea campaign. Hankaw (4 Dec.) reported that in four large textile factories there had been a "great political awakening," with a corresponding increase in production' One contribution of the East China Military and Administrative Committee, according to Shanghai (4 Dec.), was the cutting of cars used by cadres from 120 to 50. Chinchow (3 Dec.) said workman Wu Kuo-hua replaced a defective pipe in a certain factory, with an old one, rather than a new, thus saving 200,000 yuan. Sweepers in that factory use only three brooms now instead of the former six. Workers at a steel factory, Chungking (8 Dec.) reported, made a considerable saving by using scrap metal to make machine parts. Yangchow (4 Dec.) announced that Cheng Hwei, workman in the North Kiangsu Yangehow Postal Telephone Administration, saved the State 33 million yuan by innovations in the telephone service and at the same time improved the service "so that it is even better than the telephone service under the old regime." Yangehow (5 Dec.) announced that the People's Banks in Hai an, Nantung and Tungtai, North Kiangsu, had started a campaign for increased production and austerity among farmers, and that the Haian bank had set up 10 offices in villages to promote the drive. Hangchow (10 Dec.) said that "for the purpose of protecting the Interests of the cotton farmers," but also, presumably, to increase the deliveries of cotton, farmers who deliver cotton at the Yuyao stations in lieu of "public grams" will be paid five percent more than the officially quoted cotton price. m According to Shanghai (10 Dec.), the Communist Party branch headquarters in the'' Wuhu Match Plant prodded workers into making suggestions for increasing production and saving, and finally obtained a suggestion that the length of the matches bei shortened one-fifth, which was adopted. This not only saves materials, but makes packing go faster. Taiyuan (10 Dec.) claimed that the Wu Chow Pharmacy, Taiyuan, increased its business 14 million yuan simply by shortening the work day of CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00050074d909-8 Approved Fo Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-R - 050074 CONFIDENTIAL ~ - 3 - pharmacy clerks from the cus~omary 16 to 17 hours to a mere 12 hours. As a result of the change the clerks have time for study, and also give more attention to increasing business. T sinanl(3 Dec.) reported that in the Second Chu the quota of processing 270,000 pairs of military footgear was "essentially completed." Wang Tse-heng devised a method of cutting with shears rather than knives, and making the same material cover 227 pairs rather than the former 196. For their good work the employees here were granted a bonus of 15 billion yuan, 8 billion of which immediately was turned over to the local donation campaign. Weaknesses and Failures: Many weaknesses in the drive to produce more and save more are admitted, while some weaknesses may be detected even in the success stories. For instance, Peking (7 Dec.) announced that "the People's Democratic regime has again demonstrated its superiority by reducing commodity prices in winter, the season of boom sales." A cut in the price of cotton was announced, because of an increase of 70 percent in production, and there was also a cut in the price of edible oils. Fuel oil prices were cut by from 3.87 to 12.14 percent "in order to minimize the operational cost of communications and transportation," and the price of kerosene was'cut 5 percer'. However, an incease in the price of food was announced at the same time. This was explained in U01 ways. First, because grain at the time of delivery had a high moisture conten., the present "improvement in the quality called for a necessary increase in price." Second, by raising food prices the State-operated trading concerns "not only stabilized commodity prices, but also encouraged peasants to sell their foodstuffs," thus enabling the Government to "control more material, which will be the cornerstone for price stabilization next year." The Hangehow radio (30 Nov.) announced that State-operated monopoly corporations in Chekiang Province had "stabilized prices" as ordered by the Central Trade Ministry. Cotton towels were cut up to 2.12 percent in price, and cotton socks 2 percent. The price of rice was raised 4 percent, flour 2.5, wheat 7 and other grain 6 percent. Peking in ^lumeral Code (30 Nov.) quoted from a PEOPLE'S DAILY editorial criticizing "red tape" in Government organs. A secretarial work conference had been called to prepare an "oppose-office-red-tape exhibition," and it was pointed out that it took some official documents four or five months to make the rounds through scores of departments and', across the desks of as many as 10 responsible cadres. A Peking Home Service broadcast (1 Dec.) pointed out that an inventory of the railway south of Shanhaikuan uncovered unrecorded property worth 4,000 billion yuan. As usual, the Southwest was the locus of a large proportion of the admitted weaknesses. Peking in Numeral Code (9 Dec.) reported that at the Chungking Number 101 Steel Factory at least 10,000 tons of mechanical and steel materials not on the books was discovered, much of it seriously damaged through neglect of the cadres. Responsible cadres even sought to discourage inspection work at the factory, on the pretext that it would "hinder production." Chungking (29 Nov.) said that because of inexperienced c'adres,collection and purchase of tung oil in Ta Hsien, North Szechwan, reached only 20 percent of the quota. According to Chungking (6 Dec.) great confusion was discovered inltransportation of materials by the State-operated Native Products Company, Cotton, Yarn and Cloth Company, and Department Store, with each company wasting about 2 billion yuan. Confusion was so great that some transport vehicles even returned goods to the original loading points. Other extravagances in the companies were notedl. The Native Products Company spent 4.44 million yuan a month on stationery alone; and water, power and stationery costs of each company averaged 6 million. Chungking (8 Dec.) said that the Chinese Edible Oils Company took the attitude that no further economies could be made, while a check showed gross negligence in inventory controls. Workers in the Chungking city offices and in the Southwest Finance Bureau were found to be "very lukewarm toward the production and 'austerity movement." CONFIDENTIAL Approved Fo'Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809 A000500740009-8 P Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIAfFK@ff05 CONFIDENTIAL Negligence in handling Government grain was reported from South Szechwan by Chungking (5 Dec., because of poor warehouse management and failure to make periodic checks. In Pa Hsien grain damage ranged from 20 to 80 percent, and in Pishan Hsien most of the grain was wormy. Chungking (6 Dec.) said worm infestation was up to 8 percent in Kulin Hsien, South Szechwan, while damage by worms and moths was consider- able in Hochuan Hsien, Suinan tawnlet, Tzuchung Hsien, and in Neichiang, Loshan and I-pin Special Administrative Districts. Poor results in grain collection in the Third Chu, Kaiyang Hsien, Kweichow Province, reported by Chungking (1 Dec.), were blamed on instigations of landlords, who told peasants it was not necessary to report correct figures on the harvest. Chungking (6 Dec.) also reported that 'the Tsechung Salt Works was still not in production in South Szechwan, even though 800 million yuan had been spent on its construction. The Chengtu Brick Works, West Szechwan, was built at a cost of 600 to 700 million yuan, and after its completion it was found that no raw materials were available. Most construction projects in the Southwest in the past two years were said to be "poorly planned and organized and not completed according to schedule." There were many signs of complacency and extravagance among working cadres in North Szechwan, Chungking said (1 Dec.), and inspection teams were being sent into the rural areas to investigate the cadres. Farmers had fallen behind in South Szechwan, and the cadres were again blamed. Extravagances in the area were highlighted. Chungking (3 Dec.) reported that three Youth League members were guilty of spending extravagantly on marriages. The same radio (12 Dec.) reported that cadres of Tsuchung, Chienyang, Neithiang and Lu Hsien had called a meeting to put a stop to extravagances in cadre marriages. Cadreman Ma Ken-shih of Chienyang wasted 300,000 yuan; Liu Shih-chiu spent so much on his wedding he.had no money to buy spring fertilizers; Wang Yu-fan wasted his life's savings on his wedding. Chungking (11 Dec.) said "signs of serious extravagance, lethargy and complacency had appeared among peasants" of Mienyang, Tzuchung, Wusheng and Hochuan Hsien, South Szechwan. A director in the PeasantF Association of the Fourteenth Chu, Lu Hsien, invited 264 guests to celebrate his birthday, while a Peasants Association director in another hsien invited 172 ''guests to celebrate his birthday, some of them even borrowing money to buy him gifts. Second to Chungking, the Chekiang Province Regional transmitter at Hangchow held the record for reporting failures in the increased production and austerity drive. Here, too, the cadres were the whipping boys. Hangchow (5 Dec.) quoted a cadre at Haimen as saying: "I wish I was not a cadre so I could make more money in the course of a few years." The same radio (4 Dec.) reported that in rural organiza- tions the Youth League had too many lower-level cadres holding other jobs, causing them to neglect the Youth League and placing a heavy burden on a few. Hangchor (6 Dec.) said the Chiahsing branch of the China Miscellaneous Goods Company filled only 72 percent of its sales quota for the third quarter because cadres were afraid of selling too much and losing control of the market. They made little attempt to sell unpopular items, failed to order goods that would meet the local require- ments, and needlessly tied up 800 million yuan in unwanted materials. Damage was also serious, with 52 bolts of cloth molded in one place. Farmers in Chekiang also were having troubles. Harvests in the Fuyang area 'ere good, Hangchow reported (30 Nov.), but "due to a lack of proper le accersh{ p , " they did not utilize this prosperity to in,_.rease national production, but wasted money on eating, drinking and extravagances. In Loching there was a shortage of oxen even for farming, as well as a shortage of "urgently needed leather." Experiments in Loching in the tanning of pig skins have been under way since June. Formerly such gcperiments failed because of poor processing, but now a Loching plant has produped 3,700 excellent skins, and 3,200 have been sold. Hangchow (9 Dec.) reported eight casualties from "accidents and poisoning" since February because of the "bureaucratic practices and neglect of the Chientang River Bridge engineering section of the Hangehow Railway subbareau of the Shanghai Railway Administration.'!, Personal extravagances are prevalent in this area too. Hangchr. (:3 Dec.) said the Chekiang People's Government from January OOU#4 N TEA 1 Approved For Release" , 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 P pproved For ReleaN-p,Mi:a~lA-RDI80-00809A000500740009-8 ql. CONFIDENTIAL to October wasted 116,750,000 yuan, 15 percent of its expenditures, on "entertain- ment, gifts, free water, electricity, and miscellaneous expenses." The same radio (6 Dec .) said that i.n Keh Chino village, near Shaohstng, a' million yuan was spent on presentation of one patriotic play. Again it was reported (1 Dec.) that extravagance in the Native Products Company and the China Foodstuffs Company was 'very serious," ?ith more than 80 million yuan wasted this year. Other regional stations reported weaknesses. Hankow (30 Nov.) said the Wuhan aquatic products control had lost a great deal. of money. Peking reported in numeral code (9 Dee.)that six inspection groups of the South Anhvt,ei and Wuhu Capital Ascertainment,Coumittees had discovered that the South Anhwei Food Bureau and the First Food Processing Mill had failed by 200 million yuan to make proper inventories. Wuhan (7 Dec.) admitted a shortage in some native products, and said the prices on some items had doubled. Shanghai (30 Nov.) !:reported that uninventoried goods worth 7billion yuan were uncovered at the Huainan Mineral Resources Bureau. T sinsn (5 Dec,) told of extravagances in weddings and funerals in the villages. At Tsuishihkwan village, Third Chu, Tai Hsien, the village chief, Tsui Cheng-shih, spent 1,722,500 yuan entertaining the entire village at the marriage of his son Tsui Cheng-wen, on 11 November. Hung Hsueh-cheng had a whole troupe of priests and professionally funeral attendants at the funeral of his mother 27 September, at a cost of 10 million yuan. Hofei (10 Dec.) reported a cadre meeting in Minchuan listen at which cadres were charged with dereliction of duty because they had done nothing to promote production and economy, despite rich harvests. Haifeng (3 Dec.) reported violations of the cash control system by 256 units in Honan Province. Mukden (29 Nov.) reported that the Department o0i Industry of the Northeast People's Government had called attention to "certain undesirable tendencies," such as inappropriate quotas of raw materials, failures in inspecting and repairing mechanical equipment, and too much overtime work in factories and stores. Wuhsl (1 Dec.) reported a 22 November meeting in Chengehow to study plans for increasing the flow of goodslbetween the city and rural areas. Because of the "traditionally powerful business interests" of Chengchow, and their "feudalistic methods," trade had been disrupted and held back. Dairen (29 Nov.) said that staff workers in Plant Number 11 of the electrical supply industry had looked upon the increased production and austerity drive as "beneath them, and intended only for the laborers." After a checkup of their work they changed their attitude. Wuhan (12 Dec.) reported the formation of investigating committees to "enforce official directives on economic operation" in Hsianiyeng, Mienyang, Tunge eng, Y ingcheng, Tangshan, Hsiaokan, and Yiunmeng listen of Hupeh Province. Tightening of Central Controls: There are indications of a steady strengthening of controls which seem related to the austerity drive. Private businesses are bging made more subservient to the State, while State-operated concerns are be; n[7 brought ever, closer to the Central Government at Peking., The Peking Home Service (30 Nov.) announced that the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the CPPCC had namea3hen Shu-tung as chairman and Sha Chien-11 secretary of a preparatory committee to plan for an All-China Federation of Industrial and Commercial Circles. Members of the committee are Li Wei=han and Chang Nat-chi. Ater this committee lays the groundwork the new centralized organization rill be set up. Peking announced in numeral. code (11 Dee.) that i n South Kiangsu the State-operated food companies, the cooperatives, and transportation facilities will be centralized with a common director. Hangehow (12 Dec.) said that the Hangchow city government had called upon all, firms to set up a committee to check upon "business morals," and eliminate the 73 methods of cheating that had been uncovered. Mukden (30 Nov.) announced that the Northeast People's Government had decided to pay all employees of State-operated concerns only one half of their wages in cash, and the other half in new "wage payment certificates in kind," which may be used in all purchases and payment of bills with State concerns, but not in transactions with private, merchants. Holders of these certificates also will "enjoy priority when UeNFIuENT1AI j4pproved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDl'80-00809A000500740009-8 I Approved For ReleabV 1iAcIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 CONFIDENTIAL I 25XJ~ making purchases," and the Department of Trade and the Northeast General Cooperative are ordered to enlarge the State-controlled stores and "speedily procure the necessary commodities." Plans also are announced to speedily open State-operated retail~stores in the factory and mining areas where the certificates will be used. This measure obviously seems intended to cut into private business. Dairen (4 Dec.) announced that the Dairen-Part Arthur branch of the China Industrial Equipment Company was "helping private companies" to organize into joint operational organizations for processing and ordering of goods. Hankow (4 Dec.) said that private, industry in the Wuhan area had made great progress in expanding production because' of heavy orders placed by Government units. For instance, the Hengshen Machine! Works was reopened because of a 3-billion-yuan order from the Department of Heavy Industry. Sian (i Dec.) reported organization of cooperatives in the Tacheng Special Di strict 1 with 1000 members. Small businessman Liu Ta-cheng was "very happy to join the cooperjktive; as it greatly increased his business." We are not told what would have happened to his business had he refused to join. Chungking (1 Dec.) quotes cadres 'as telling peasants that they must join cooperatives in order to get supplies, as private merchants will be closed out as soon as the cooperatives are organized. Peking llin numeral code (9 Dec.) gives an illustration of the tightening control over State-operated concerns. The North China Textile Administrative Bureau completed its examination of inventories in all subordinate mills, and turned over to the State 150 billion yuan in "surplus circulating capital" and 80 billion yuan in "surplus stockpiles." Tientsin Number 2 Mill contributed 8 billion yuan to the State. Corruption and Squeeze: Judging from the number of cases of tax evasion, fraud and corrupt practices reported by the Chinese Communist radio, the moral stature of business men and State employees is not increasing very rapidly. Peking reports in numeral code (12 Dec.) the largest single cane of graft: "reactionary factory owners "i in Tientsin, Tsingtao and Peking, defrauded the Government of 10 billion yuan on military raincoat contracts. A PEOPLE'S DAILY editorial is quoted as saying: "Let the raincoat contract case teach us a lesson in refinishing and purchasing control." Dairen 11(6 Dec.) reported that the local Bureau of Trade covered 91 violatdons among 'local merchants of price ceilings, licensing regulations, smuggling laws and other :regulations. The Kuo Ching Company alone made excess charges totaling 141.42 million yuan, while the Chung Hua company made secret profits of 26.53 million. Fines were assessed against all the merchants, the amount of the fine rargi.:g from 5 to 30 percent of the working capital plus confiscation of all illegal gains. Illegal action was reported to be widespread among local restaurants. For instance, Cheng~Cheng reduced the size of buns from 4 to 2.8 ounces, and Su Hua raised the price of a bowl of rice from 900 to 1,200 yuan. Hangcl}ow (3 Dec.) reported that Tun Li-Rang of Sheng Hsien worked himself Into an important position, and then diverted 1,89 million yuan of public funds to his own use. Hangehow (10 Dec.) said that Shen Te-shen, an employee of the Tax Bureau of the'Department of Finance of the Chekiang People's Government, was sentenced to six'years in prison for defrauding the Government of 1,929,120 yuan and more than 42 tan of rice. lie had two accomplices, Yeh Hai-chao and Yuan Yin-kuan. Chungking (9 Dec.) reported that in Wanyuan Hsien, Szechwan, 30 persons were turned' over to the court on charges of corruption involving 90,000 catties of grain. Chen Yu-ching, chief of the hsien food bureau, and Chen Chino-kai. were sentenced to death. The others were given prison sen-ewes. Chungking (3 Dec.) reported that the Government had seized a "number of wicked business men" who undermined the finance structure through speculation. Canton (8 Dec.) told of the trial and death sentence for (Yen Keng-yso), manager of a privately owned coal mine,~who "used underhanded methods" to get a billion yuan for use in developing a coal mine, and used it instead for buying explosives and for smuggling. Gumfl ENT AL CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 F 25X1A 740009-8 Approved For Release 2003/1 BWADEWH4119 IA- - 500 CONFIDENTIAL - 7 - Kaifeng (6 Dec.) told of illegal exactions by police under the guise of benefit theatrical performances. Police Substation Number 11 spent a million Yuan on a troupe and demanded that the populace support it. Substation No. 12 collected 1.1 mil- lion yuan from the populace to support a show, and many people were forced to buy theater tickets they could not use. Hankow (11 Dec.) reported that Kiang Han-chih, Shen Cheng-i and Kiang Wen-ching had been handed over to the Wuhan People's Court as leaders of a band of smugglers. Numerous cases of tax evasion also were reported. For example, Dairen (4 Dec.) reported that Wang Te-ching, owner of Hain Hsin Leather Factory, confessed to evasion of 400 million yuan in taxes, "because he was influenced by the campaign to stop tax evasions." As a result four other factory owners admitted evasions." Manager Kao of tae Yung Hsing Leather Factory admitted evasion of 42 million yuan, while Wang Hsiao-hsien told the Tax Bureau his payments were in order, though an audit showed he ,wed 57 million yuan. Over 30 firms in the area have admitted evasions, and many "are still holding back." Chinchow (30 Nov.) announced that Weng Chen-li h&brought to light tax evasions of 2.19 million yuan by a local merchant. Weng tas quoted as saying, "I consider the implementation of the Nation's tax laws one of my most important duties." The Tax Bureau rewarded him with 20 percent Qf the amount for making the report. Wuhsi (1 Dec.) reported a meeting in Soochow of 3,700 persons from stores and factories for "education against tax evasion." Chungking (12 Dec.) said that tax evasions in Lu Hsien involving 21 million yuan are being processed, "but evasions in Lu Hsien still are rampant." The report said that "under the pressure of an intensive tax evasion investigation" many business men had admitted their errors, and the number of known cases totaled 2,372. IDEOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS Thought Refoa: Next to increased production and austerity, the radio gave most stress to the demand for a strengthening of Communist ideology among all circles. Peking in numeral code (2 Dec.) reported that the Department of Publicity of the East China Bur a' the Chinese Communist Party had decided that by the end of 1953 instruction~in Communism and the Communist Party would be given to all workers in the East China area. One-third of the "aggressive elements" among industrial workers will attend such schools during 1953, in rotation; they will "disengage themselves temporarily from production" to receive Communist training. These special ideological schools will have 2,000 "political teachers," who also will train new teachers from among the workers. At an expanded meeting of the standing committee of the Democratic National Construction Association, reported by Peking in numeral code (6 Dec.), it was decided to make an orderly start toward thought reform among cadres and in industrial and commercial circles; the movement in the latter group is to be tried erperimentally in Peking and Tientsin to gain the "necessary experience to expand into the various local industrial and commercial circles over the Nation." Shanghai (6 Dec.) reported a city government meeting for discussion of ways to cut public costs! Vice Mayor Pan Han-Nien warned that in order to carry out a plan for simplification in Government "the ideological mobilization must be carried out first." Hangchow (2 Dec.5 reported that at a political education meeting for workers of all trades in East China, held 25 October - 1 November, it was decided to utilize all available specialized training organizations, including the Communist Party, the Youth Corps, and all "active elements," to carry Communist education to all trade workers. Dairen (29 Nov.) announced that a permanent chec]-up committee had been set up in the Dairen Steel Works to "investigate the degree of cultural improvement" among the workers and to reward model teachers. Shanghai (8 Dec.) reported a symposium of all East China cadres to "discuss ideology remolding and a study of Mao?s ideology." Mukden (7 Dec.) declared that the thought reform movement in Peking had aroused great interest in the Northeast, and literary circles had called on the people to study proletarian thought, and displace their feudalistic and capitalistic thinking. The same station (3 Dee.) said the "remolding drive" in Mukden had resulted in studies by 8,312 Party members, 8,670 New Democratic Youth League members, and 9,240 Govern- ment organ cadres. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For ReleasiGIMiUkNl URDP80-00809A000g f fA009-8 CONFIDENTIAL - 8 - In Kwangt.ung Province, according to Wuhan (2 Dec.), more than 6,000 farmers' groups had been reorganized, with 50,000 persons engaged in "improving the political consciousness" of the farmers. Chungking (8 Dec.) reported that new methods had been adopted in cadre schools of N anchung, Suining and Yingchuan Haten, North Szechwan, with stress placed on a study of the Soviet's "happy lives." A system of rewards and punishments was suggested because nearly 25 percent of rural cadres still had "thoughts of lethargy." Chungking (12 Dec.) severely criticized Steel Factory Number 101 because of the feudalistic thought of Its workers, and said the factory had been ordered to improve immediately its technical level and "correct the errors in thinking among the workers." Schools and Teachers: Peking reported in numeral code (29 Nov.) that a conference of the China Democratic League was held In that city 13-27 November. During t`'e conference some leading Party members described "promotion of the study movement of teachers as the most important political assignment today." Further stressing the need for "ideological improvement" among the teachers, the Peking H-me Service (3 Dec.) quoted from a PEOPLE'S DAILY article by a professor at Peking Teachers College. In the article, entitled,"I Must Reform," the professor admitted that he must "correct his thought" and become a "people's professor." The Home Service (4 Dec.) quoted from a KWANGMING DAILY article which asserted that teachers in colleges of Peking and Tientsin had made sufficient progress to "enter the seconr' phase of thought reform." Wuhan (11 Dec.) reported that Chao I-mien had called a meeting of the Central and South China Communist Party Propaganda Bureau to "discuss means of overcoming,, the ideological shortcomings of the schools." He emphasized the teachers' responsibility for indoctrinating the youth with the "new political consciousness," rave a detailed analysis of the courses of study that should be used in the schools ancd "pointed out the errors in current thought of educators." Yangchow (29 Nov.) told of a winter class for teachers being held at Haimen, North Kiangsu "to raise the ideological standard of teachers and administrators." The same station (6 Dec.) reported a meeting of all primary school prinrinals and teachers to discuss the increaser production and austerity drive. Mukden (1 Dec..) told of a Jehol primary and middle school teachers meeting 6-12 November, with awards distributed to teachers for out- standing achievements in "elevating the political consciousness of the children." Hankow (5 Dec.) stated briefly that the Municipal Cultural and Educational Bureau was "carrying out a remolding of teachers." Wuhan (6 Dec.) reported that the authorities had organized study groups to "improve the thought of the teachers," and to "intensify political indoctrination." Teachers of science and biology were urged to use only Chinese materials, and to "eliminate all imperialist theories." They also were urged to repair old equipment for reuse. As usual, the most damaging criticism of teachers for failure to reach satisfactory ideological standards came from the Southwest. Chungking (20 Nov.) reported that both students and teachers at Cheng Hua University and Chengtu School of Fine Arts, and at Liwu, Shuteh, Huayang and other middle schools of Chengtu, pay no attention to politics and have a strong desire to be specialists and bury their hears to curricular studies. At Cheng Hua .I,2 percent of the students failed in a current events test, while at Shuteh Middle School 153 out of 197 failed. The students have "decided to read newspapers every evening from 7 to 8." Nothing is said of what forces induced this decision. Chungking (5 Dec.) complained that in Luchuan Hsien 120 out of 137 primary school teachers failed a current events test, and many teachers still "teach reactionary ideas." in Chengtu city some of the teachers had never even heard of resist-America, aid-Korea donations, and the 'ncreased production and austerity drive. Peking, in numeral code (12 Dec.), reported on the Third Expanded Meeting of the Southwest Educational and Cultural Committee at Chungking, ending 3 December, r'th 68 persons present, including high school principals and professors' representatives. The meeting was called to discuss changes in "educational methods and the indoctr"na- tion of new thought among the educators." Chu To-nan, Committee chairman, made a report on "the problem of educational administration and self-reform In the educational circle." Chu declared: "The main problems in education today are the CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For ReleaiVewAbIMb)g1' !th4-RDP80-00809A00 CONFIDENTIAL attitude of many teachers that they are above all others and above politics, and the serious lack of coordination between theory and practice." He strongly criticized the attitude prevalent among some professors of "not studying politics and not changing their thinking." In order to change these conditions, all grade and high school teachers of the region will be called in for political indoctrination this winter and next summer. Chu pointed out the need for "a patriotic emphasis in all the courses of study," and urged educational workers in the Southwest to "use the revolutionary techniques and the revolutionary spirit" in carrying out their educational duties. Teng Hsiao-ping, Southwest Military Control Deputy Chairman, told the conference that reform among educators has been so weak during the past two years that it has affected the progress of reform on other fronts. He added that if educators wish to serve the people they should be "critical of archaic thinking." The occasional charges of mistreatment by teachers indicate one method that can be used to eliminate those who refuse to conform. For instance, Tsinan '8 Dec.) reported that in the Third Village of Kuangjao Hsien, Shantung, primary school principal Tsui Han-hsueh mistreated his students, locking Wang Yun-i and Tseng Chung-tsai in a room and resorting to other "feudalistic treatment." The students protested to Village Headman Liu ."en-fu. Hangehow (30 Nov.) said that Yeh Chi-ling, principal of Hsialing Primary School, Tungyang Hsiang, Chekiang Province, forced a 12-year-old boy to blow a horn every morning, injuring his health and causing death. Little was said about the winter schools, but Yangchow, Shanghai, Hofel, Tsinan, Kaifeng and Foochow reported calls to peasants to enroll in the schools. Yangchow (2 Dec.) said 22 high school teachers in Kiangtu Hsien, North Kiangtu, received special training on organization of the schools, and then called meetings of cadres in their own localities to make plans. Yangchow (3 Dec.) announced that the school had opened at Liukang village with 126 students and 28 workers, and at Huangchao village with 159 students and 20 workers. The large proportion of workers to students might indicate smaller enrollments than expected. Dairen (3 Dec.) reported a "Children love Chairman Mao" rally in the Children's Palace of Cult-are. Prizes were given for songs, plays and poems honoring Mao, and "the program greatly strengthened the children's love for their great leader." Religicua Countermeasures: Comment on religion concentrated on the Catholic Church in Honan and Shensi Provinces, and especially on the Catholic orphanages in Canton and Kunming. Kaifeng asserted that patriotic Catholics know that Catholicism has been closely tied to American imperialism,as shown clearly by such imperialist lackeys as Yang Ming and Kao Mou-ling. Because of this, patriotic Catholics in Honan Province organized the Catholic Reform Committee in August. It is now supported by 1,033 Catholics, or 91 percent of those in the province. The Acting Bishop of Honan, Ho Chi-ming, is quoted as follows: For the past 100 years imperialist nations have used many methods to gain access to our Nation and to oppress our people. Besides utilizing political, economic and military means, they have also sought to enslave our people with thought, under the guise of religion and education. The minds of the Chinese people have been poisoned by imperialist religious influence brought to the Chinese people by such imperialist lackeys as Wang Ming and Kao Mou-ling. We know that Catholics and their leaders the world over love their own people and country. Those who demand that others hate their country are not true Catholics. They must certainly be false believers working under a camouflage. We must expose the true face of the imperialists. We must wipe o'at all imperialist influences. (Kaifeng, Honan Regional, 30 Nov.) Kaifeng (30 Nov.) quotes from a HONAN DAILY NEWS commentary which calls upon ali Catholics to approve the Ho statement. The commentary mentions the CPPCC article on freedom of religion, saying it is not contradictory to the article calling for everyone to live-his Motherland. The Catholic imperialists have distorted these CCNHUENTiAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Relea P 0 f TjA. IA-RDP80-00 09A000500740009-8 O points and led the masses away from a love for their Motherland, an action that cannot be condoned. Canton (4 Dec.) reported the closing of the Shengying Orphanage and the arrest of the French nuns running the home. A radio roundtable discussed the affair, and stressed the imperialists' cultural penetration "Lnder the guise of religon," the urgent need for "patriotic Chinese Christians" to expel the imperialists; and the necessity for adhering to the Catholic Reform Movement. "In the past the imperialist elements have used religion to drug the pe-)ple and bind them in cultural slavery," and they must "mane a clean break with world Catholicism." The broadcast lsaid 439 Catholics signed the Reform Movement statement. Wuhan (7 Dec.) claimed that of the 2,251 children received by the Shengying Orphanage since the liberation, 94 percent have died. Chungking (6 Dec.) reported that an investigation of the Catholic orphanage at Kunming was under way. It also reported the discovery in one section of Ltuchia- shan of a grave with 119 bodies and 80 coffins. Since the liberation only 34 of the 300 children received by the orphanage have lived, and these facts have "boiled the indignation of the people, who have demanded that the Government take punitive action and order the expulsion of the {.mperialist elements." Chungking (9 Dec.) reported an accusation meeting in Kunming and the arrest of the Fjrench Catholics in charge of the orphanage on a charge of murder. Peking in numeral code (3 Dec.) announced the expulsion by the Sian Municipal Government of five Italian priests and one nun, including the acting Archbishop. The six are accused of contacting American spies since 1944, of stealing cultural treasures, storing weapons and ammunition, setting up a radio station, and "distributing reactionary books and periodicals in order to undermine the patriotic campaign of the Chinese people." The persons named are Ko Lu-kaa Pien Chi-ning, Chia Po-chi, Chi An-le, An Fei-yueh and Sian Archbishop Wan Chiu-lou. Literature and Art: Peking in numeral code (5 Dec.) transmitted a commentary by Hu Chiao-mu, "Why Mu8t Literary and Art Workers Remold Their Mentality?" Later (8 Dec.) the same transmission carried an article by Chou Yang, "Readjust the Ways of Thinking and Improve Leadership Among Art and Literary Circles," based on a speech given by the author at a 24 November mobilization rally Of literary and art circles in Peking. Chou declared that "the ideological confusion among literary and art circles is no longer tolerable, and the process of purifleation has become imperative." He criticized the popular movie, "The Life of Wu Hsun" saying it merely publicived "the theory of politically reactionary reformism and the lroad to struggle of individuals," and was not in harmony with the democratic revolutionary ideas of "heroism springing from the theory of collectivism which we went to publicize." He admitted that ideas of capitalism and the petty bourgeoisie still are strong, and demanded that artists and writers abandon even peasant cultu?.,, and literature, and develop a real proletarian culture. Mukden (7 Dec.) called on all literary workers in the Northeast to study carefully Mao Tse-tung's theories. Radio and Publications; Peking announced in numeral code (9 Dec .,)`that the Staff Office of the Hopei Provincial Government, the Hopei News Publication office, and the Department of Publicity of the Hopei Communist Party organized an examination committee and discontinued publication of 17 newspapers and magazines "because they lacked content, repeated other papers and magazines, and were ideologically and politically weak." The remaining 10 publications in Hopei underwent changes so that their "leadership was strengthened to elevate their ideological and standards." This action cut out the expense of some 20 editors, saved one billion yuan for the Government, and "further raised the guiding, eff'cie cy of papers and magazines," the broadcast said. i' Wuhan (7 Dec.) said that the Central and South Chine News and Publicity Department, the Federation of Labor and the Department of Industry issued a joint directive ordering all public and private concerns employing more than 70 persons to take immediate steps -to set up broadcast monitoring stations. The act1ionwas taken because "radio broadcasts play an effective part in carrying out political and ideological education of the workers." CQNFI UTIAI Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00009A000500740009-8 F Approved For ReleI 1 fl I fIIA-~DP80-00809A000500740009-8 CONFIDENTIAL Direct Art ion: Renewed activity by counterrevolutionarjes in the Northeast is suggested in some of the broadcasts from that larea. Mukden (12 Dec.) reported the arrest of 128 persons in Liaoyang Hsien, Liaotung Province, who were marched about, the hsien for five days, given a public ltrial and'the death sentence in each village. The 128 ??iere charged with having tortured and killed 533 Communist cadres and 366 peasants before the liberation. Mukden (2 Dec.)' told of a public trial in Harbin or. 25 November following the arrest of a counterrevolutionary upon informa- tion "given by the people." Chairman of the meeting, '!?ang I-jen, exhorted the people to "look upon the work of suppressing counterrevolutionaries as their personal responsibility." Mukden !12 Dec.) announced the arrest of 20 Ikuantao members who will soon be given a public trier They are: said to have r-aade several attetrpts to organize revolutions to "destroy the Communist Party" ''n Mukden and Antung. Mukden further reported (12 'Dec. that Intensified drives ag:etnst counterrevolutionaries have been launched in AntunFr andChinchow, and the People's Militia of Haichen Hsien has been strengthened. Dairenl(1]. Pec.) announced the trial and execution of Chou Shun-chi, who had been spreading anti-Communist propaganda and attempting to organize an anti Communistlleague In the petroleum plant where he worked. "The decision of the court to execute Chou was received with acclaim by the workers of the factory," the broadcast said, and porkers Liu Yueh-ming. Tu Kan-ya and Kang Fu testified against him. Tsinan (30 Nov.) reported several cases of subversive activitylin the Techow Special District during November and the discovery of a cache of arms in the Kushangho Gra i n Compan: offices. Chinchow (30 Nov.) told of two pvblte trials followed by executions. On 11 November 50,000 attended an accusation. rally in Hsi aoshenyi village for the trial and execution of Hsu Te-chang and Hsu Te-fu, members of a Kuomintang special service corps. On 24 November 5,000 persons gathered in front of the Talienho Railway Station, where Tung Ying-keh was executed following a public trial, while Loh Tai-shan and others were given prison sentences. Tung was charged with the death of Wang Ken-seng and three other men during the Japanese regime by pointing them out as anti-Japanese. He was accused by Wang's sons, Wang Seng-ming and Wang Pao-ching. Chinchow also reported (6 De.:.) a concentrated drive against counterrevolutionaries, especially Ikuantao members, with 1,200 propagandists taking part in the campaign. Within two days following the start of the campaign 500 Ikuantao members "had surrendered their certificates and the names of their respective organizations and had voluntarily disavowed membership In the sect." In Loyang Street alone, 70 persons announced their withdrawal. I I Wuhan (3 Dec.) announced that in a mopping-uplcampaig*nn process in Kw?angtung Province since August, 5,300 "bandits and special egents" have been eliminated, and 1,700 artillery pieces, 34,000 rifles and pistols, and 757,000 rounds of ammunition, shells and hand grenades were taken. The fact that action had not been taken sooner was blamed on the "ignorance and complacency of a portion of the cadres any their neglect to make a thorough mobilization of the peasants." Hangchow (7 Dec.) reported that the militia of Chenhai, Hsiangshan and Yin Hsien had strengthened their sentry and patrol duties and doubled their night patrols following the burning of a peasants association office in the Third Chu of Chenhsi, and the murder of Liu Chuen-ho, peasants association chief, in the Third V llarge. Chunglu Hsiang, Hsiangshan. Sian (8 Dee_) said that in Tsinghai Province 6 reactionaries. 28 bandits, including 2 leaders, 10 ri, 2I pistols and 25,740 rounds of ammunition had been captured by militiamen of Hualung and Haiyen Hsi en. Again the Southwest reported the greatest activity. Chungking (9 Dec.) announced that "lawbreaking landlords" Liu Ping-shan, Lf Shui-an, 'Chou Yu-kuan and Lin Tso-san, First Village, Fengyso Hsiang, Fengkang Helen Kwei chow, collaborated with dependents of local despots in Fengkang, Tsenkung,and Pingpa Hsien and on 3 November burned 83 houses, damaged 160 more, and destroyed 97,000 catt'es of grain, 4,000 catties of cotton, 2,000 eatties of edible vegetable of 1, furniture and other property. On 14 November the wife and children of Yao Hung-1iao, of the Kuomintang Military Statistical Bureau, burned 26 houses in Lotat village, Hsuyang hamlet, Tsenkung Hsien, while a cadrelmeeting was under way. Chungking (29 Nov.) said that counterrevolutionaries had burned granaries in Nanchuan, Yuyang, Fouling, and Linshui Hsien. A fire on 31 October at Nanmen hamlet, First Chu, CON lid h Al CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/1 /01 : CIA- DP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/01 :.9 9A00 009-8 CONFIDENTIAL Kai Hsien, destroyed a granary and 1,256 catties of grain. According to Chungking (6 Dec.) the Public Security office in one East Szechwan hsien arrested 21 counter- revolutionaries between 26 October and 3 November, including a leader who had con- tacted "local bandits" and secretly organized "anti -Commuriiat forces with the intention of launching a rebellion on New Year's Eve of 1951." Chungking (3 Dec.) reported the execution of nine counterrevolutionaries, including (Mal Chiang-te), former Chiang officer for 16 years. In Yunnan Province, Chungking said (30 Nov.), six bandits were killed, including Tsai Chun--h-u, a Chiang commander, and Hua blen- ching, deputy commander. At Kunrr-ing, Chungking said (1 Dec.), a large rally was called to try 80 counterrevolutionaries, 19 of whom were executed. One was placed under surveillance, and the other 60 given prison terms. Counterpropaganda: The masses are being mobilized to oppose counterrevolution, Chungking said (10 Dec.) . In Na_npu Hsien 250 meetings were held, and 80 percent of the people given enlightenment. As a result Chairman Chang Yung-hui of the peasants association in Pingyung Hsiang, Pengchi Hsten, gave up his idea of resign- ing his position, and regained his enthusiasm. Chungking (6 Dec.) reported that 20,000 counterrevolutionaries have been organized into reform groups under the policy of "combining forced labor and ideological education." The program was described as a success, "but since the counterrevolutionary cannot accomplish ideological reform in a short period," a few still attempt to escape from the camps, and are given "strict suppression" and taught that their only way out is to obey the authorities. Chungking said (7 Dec.) that Kiangan Hsien had shorn a profit from its forced labor groups, and other hsien report the system has paid its way. In some cases the men are paid small sums for the'r work. In Kweiyang. however, Chungking admitted (7 Dec.), the Public Security defense committees rere "faced with resentment from the masses of the people." The reasons given for this resentment are poor planning and a "lack of centralized leadership." Members now have organized sessions to study and discuss concrete steps for implemtatation of their tasks. Hangchow (5 Dec.) reported the first meeting of model textile workers in the auditorium of the Hangehow People's Government, with 400 persons present. One model worker, Sze Te-ling of the Hra Chung Textile Mill, was singled out for special reward because he had the arrest of six counterrevolutionaries to his credit. In commending him Deputy Mayor Liu Kai-hsieh called on all model workers to "intensify their work against counterrevolutionaries."' Chinchow (8 Dec.) cited the example of middle class farmer Chu Ching-ling, who knew of counter- revolutionary Chou Tao-Chiang but failed to report him because he considered that middle class farmers had no interest in such matters. He approved of his wife's counsel: "Don't offend people. We have no say in such matters." However, Chu became indoctrinated, influenced other middle class farmers to join in the hunt for counterrevolutionaries, and even forced \"ang Feng to hand over his pistol. Chinchow (12 Dec.) reported that since counterrevolutionarj Chen Ping-nan was punished, so many youths in the Third Chu, Haiyang Hsien, liaotung Province, have volunteered for the People's Militia that there are now 40 corps instead of the former 25. National Minorities: A group of 31 Sinkiang journalists from the Uighur, Kazakh, Mongolian, Tartar, Uzbek and Han nationalities visited Sian on a tour of newspapers, broadcasting stations and other propaganda media in the East avid Northeast, the Sian radio announced. In Sian they were entertained by two high Communist officials, Chang Chia-fu and Wang Chung. The leader of the Sinkiang group, At-su-may, was quoted as follows: During our tour, local Party and Goverruaental groups, as well as people of all circles, expressed a sincere interest in minority groups. We are elated by this spirit of brotherly love. From what we have seen we already have a greater love for the Motherland. When we return we shall carry out Chairman Mao's injunction to study Marxism-Leninism, earnestly correct CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/6O TMk09AO005QQUMX" V"Im CONFIDENTIAL 13 - our thoughts, and follow the tenents of Mao Tse-tung. We must reconstruct ourselves. We must report to the people of Sinkiang or. the achievements which we have witnessed. (Sian, Northwest Regional, 29 Nov.) Sian reported (11 Dec.) that a National Mino: ities Committee had been set up i n Sining, Tsinghai, under t e ehairmsnship of Nave-bo-cha-sha and his deputy, Cheng Pi-Jen, to plan "for a united government of all nationalities." Among the 10 persons on the committee are Cha-mo-she, Mongolian; Mo-ta-she-taa-ko-me-cha-se, Tibetan; and Mordat, (Moslem). Sian said (10 Deg.) that many Kazaikhs in Tsinghai Province have studied the People's Revolution and shown a great interest. After studying collectivization.. the Kazakhs of Kungho Hslen, with the aid of 100 tan of cotton seed and the help of cadres from the hsien governmer.`., organized collective farms and harvested good crops. Hankow (3 Dec.) announced that the Central College of Nationalities opened on 21 November with 194 students in the Central and South China branch representini 11 nationalities. In a speech opening the college Chang Nan-shen said the Govern- ment would do its best to "unite the nationalities of the region in their struggle for complete liberation" and warned that they must "intensify their study of the Marxist-Leninist policy of nationalities." Many model heroes and model fighters have emerged from the national minorities of Southwest China, Chungking (10 Dec.) declared. For instance, a 60-;:ear-old I tribesman of Sikang, A-pan-ni-la, captured 15 bandits in one month; Chang Min-sen, Wany'ien Hsien, North Szechwan, persuaded more than 1,000 to surrender; a woman of Suiyang Hsien, Kweichow, Huang Chen-fang, led bandit hunts and nabbed bandit leader Huang Cheng-I. Chungking (29 Nov.) reported "brilliant achievements" among national minorities in Kweichow Province, with a marked increase in "political consciousness." The old "feudal stratification" has been abolished in favor of democracy and equality, and 32,000 of the 40,000 members of the Miao tribe have signed the petition to support the Five-Pager peace pact. Chungking (30 Nov.) reported that the thief of the Panchen Lama's office in Chungking made a cash gift to the People's Liberation Army in the presence of high Party and Government officials, praising the Army's "heroi.c exploits" and expressing "appreciation of minority groups in Tibet for the solicitude sharn for their welfare." A hint that the minority groups in Sinkiang are not ^ full.' in the develop- ment of Sinkiang resources for the benefit of the Chinese and Soviet Communists w'as revealed In a Sian broadcast (5 Dec.). A new coal mi.r.e was completed in Sinkiang on 25 November, and the work was done by the People's Liberation Army. Manpower Demands: Canton (6 Dec.) announced a reorganization of the Canton Red Cross, with establishment of a study system for workers to "strengthen their study of politics," and the setting up of hospitals wh ch will treat Army dependents with no charge. Canton said (6 Dec.) that 179 medical volunteers in the 2nd. Medical Service Company of the Canton Red Cross, following a period of indoctrination, had departed for Hainan Island and the old revolutionary bases in Kiangsi to train public health personnel and guard against the spread of contagions. Canton reported (10 Dec.) that 11 medical workers of the recently organized 5th Detachment, Medical Corps, had arrived in Kwangtung Province and departed for the Korean front. Shanghai (8 Dec.) reported a "monster rally" In Tsingtao to give a send-off to 20 doctors, 7 pharmacists and one nurse "in connection with the national defense move- ment." W uhsi (29 Nov.) reported that 13 medical workers reported to the Medical Bureau of the South Kiangsu Administrative office on 23 November and left the next day for the front after being showered with praise for their patriotism. CONFIDENTM Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : Cl A00 .Q CU. A 8 C ONFIDENTIAL Ififfleffit - 14 - Judging from the widespread effort to indoctrinate and rejuvenate the militia, it would appear that members of this organization may have lost some of their enthusiasm for carrying out the dictates of Peking. Taiyuan (10 Dec.) reported that training courses had been completed for militia cadres from 20 villages of the Fourth Chu. In the courses they were "taught to forget the reactionary attitude of the militia in the past and to awaken to a new responsibility of the People's Forces by giving their full support to the Government." Taman (9 Dec.) announced that In the Wenteng Military Subdistrict new steps would soon be under way in the training and organization of the militia, both of which are "far from sound." Wuhan (2 Dec.) said plans were being made for increasing the political consciousness and strengthen- ing the ideology of the militia in Hunan, Hupeh and Kiangst. Chungking said (1 Dec.) that many errors of thinking were being corrected and political consciousness raised in the militia of East Szechwen. Hangehow broadcast a letter purported to be from the 1st Surgical Team, Restst-America, Aid-Korea Volunteer Medical Battalion, Chekiang Province. Part of the letter, describing the "tense and happy living" at the Korean front, follows: We have been at all times standing in close unity with the Chinese Volunteers. In addition we also have assisted the Korean people in autumn harvesting, planting vegetables, and carrying firewood .... Due to our enthusiastic participation in these activities, we have been commended several times. Our efforts to treat the wounded moved them to tears. The wounded said: "We must kill more American soldiers to repay them for the concern they have given us." (Hangchow. Chekiang Regional, 9 Dec.) Preferential Treatment: There was a marked falling off of radio comment on preferential treatment for Army and martyr dependents. However, the subject was not ignored by any means. Mulcden (1 Dec.) said that preferential treatment had become a mass movement throughout the Northeast, with the standard of living of dependents greatly raised. Peking announced in numeral, code (5 Dec.) that the China Railroad Workers Union was giving preferential treatment to dependents. Chungking (30 Nov.) reported that 54,000 sick and "unattached" soldiers had been cared for in that city in the past two years. Chinchow (12 Dec.) reported that Tang Hai-jen, Chairman of the Women's Committee of the Fifth Chu of Tiehling, had organized 60 women to build houses for dependents, and two teams to do farm work. Wuhan (11 Dec.) reported a meeting on the subject of preferential treatment 31 November, when it was reported that 80 percent of the dependents in four cities of the area, including Kaifeng, had been given aid. Foochow (5 Des.) reported a meeting of martyr and Army dependents at Heientan, with delegates at the meeting promising to write more letters to relatives at the front. Hofel (30 Nov.) announced a mass meeting for dependents in North Anhwei for 14 December, with an exhibit being planned to show the preferential treatment work, and with fixed quotas being worked out for areas. Other actual examples of preferential treatment being given were reported by Foochow, Wuhsi, Sian, Mu:kden, Chinchow, T s?itsihar, Chungking and Wuhan. In a few instances the problem of Army dependents took a slightly different t+nrn. Dairen (9 Dec.) announced that a martyr's dependent was found guilty of having illegally taken a contribution fund and sentenced to 10 days at hard labor. The Civil Administrative office of the Northwest Military and Administrative Committee issued a directive, part of which read as follows: Dependents and military personnel, as well as disabled revolutionary soldiers and the discharged soldiers of both the old and new liberated areas, should be made to join the local mass activities, and associa- tions, as well as the model workers' conferences and People's Representatives Conferences of All Circles convened by the People's Governments of all levels, so that the political consciousness of these dependents and soldiers may be uplifted .... Commendable CONFIDEIflIM. Approved.For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500 CO~ FIDENTIAL - 15 - dependents of martyrs and military personnel, as well as discharged and disabled soldiers, should be made to join in reform work. (Sian, Northwest Regional, 1 Dec.) gesist=;n,merica. Ild-Korea Donations: The donation drive to provide planes and military equipment for the Korean front was definitely de-emphasized. This could logically mean one of two things: That the drive had been brought to a successful conclusion; or that the authorities wanted to stop the drive whether or not it had been successful. In view of the erstwhile tendency to urge donations far above the quotas, and in view of the obvious failure in some regions to reach the quotas, it would appear that the authorities deliberately stopped the'donation drive. This conclusion is borne out by the few references to the donation drive monitored during the two weeks. For instance, Shanghai broadcast the following instructions from the East China Resist-America, Aid-Korea Association: The pledges for the donation campaign in all provinces, cities and chu should be immediately stopped; the payinr; up of donations should be fixed at a proper time. As to the resist-America aid-Korea movement, the higher production and stricter economy campaign must be the central task at present. (Shanghai, East China Regional, 11 Dec.) Peking, in a Home Service broadcast (30 Nov.), reported that in all China the people had subscribed 95 percent of the quota in the donation drive. Mukden (3 Dec.) said that in the Northeast 80 percent of the quota had been reached. Wuhan (29 Nov.) reported that Canton had subscribed 83.9 percent of its quota. Wuhan oversubscribed its quota, but the committee ordered that the drive be closed, even though many localities had not reached their quotas. Chungking (30 Nov.) blamed poor leadership for the poor showing in some localities. In Lushan Hsien, Kweichow, for instance, the leaders were very lax, and even now do not know how much money was subscribed. In the Kweichow villages and districts 30.4 percent of the donations still are in the hands of the officials and have not been reported to headquarters. Land Reform: Radio broadcasts include considerable evidence that land reform is not progressing smoothly. Peking reported that in Central and South China land reform would be implemented in an area with 50 million people, following "a scrutiny of the progress of land reform" in an area with 60 million people where reform already has been carried out. Villages in this latter region are divided into three classes; Those thoroughly reformed; those comparatively thoroughly reformed; and those not thoroughly reformed. It Is admitted that villages in the first class are "comparatively few," and even here discrepancies have occurred, such as "complacency and inactivity among the village cadres and peasants." The problem is outlined as follows: In regions where land reform is to be carried out, the work of activating the broad masses of people and of the peasants has still not been broadened to the fullest extent; the organization of the lower strata in the rural regions still presents irregularities and discrepancies. Despite the peasants' strong urge for distribution of land, their political awareness and responsiveness to being organized are not mature enough to justify it. (Peking, numeral code, 1 Dec.) Wuhan (6 Dec.) stated flatly that peasants have not been very successful as land- owners in some key areas of Kwargsi Province. "Due to failure to activate the peasants to the fullest extent, the work of rent reduction and depositing funds has not been carried out successfully." For instance, in the Sixth Chu, Fuchuan Hsien, only 22.7 percent of the grain refunded came from landowners. In 19 villages of Yulin Hsien the percentage was only 30. Wuhan (30 Nov.) reported from Nanning that CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDFNMAL Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA=.RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Release 2gg;1 J 1ACLIA- Kill 16 - a "reinvestigation of land reform" was being carried out, along with ideological training, in an area with 3.2 million persons .4.n Kwangsi. In the "reinvestigation" it was said that "notorious elements were arrested, weapons captured, and a large amount of foodstuffs taken by landlords through cheating was seized." Chungking (11 Dec.) reported that some land in Tehling village, Chengpo Hsiang, Mienynng Hsien, Szechwan, has not been farmed since it was redistributed. Over 800 mou in Village 14, Sanyi Hsiang, Nanehi Hsien, was left idle after redistribution. In some cases the cadres did no'c complete the redistribution, so no one was responsible for the land. In other cases the poor peasants lacked capital and equipment, while the middle class and wealthy farmers were discouraged from farming. Chungking (11 Dec.) admitted that in 1-Liang Hsien, Yunnan Province, nearly ~0 percent of the population has not been organized by the cadres "to struggle against the landlords," though land reform is supposed to be complete. In 23 hsiang,"mobilization of the peasants has not done very well yet," and in 8 other hsiang, "some peasants did not sever their connections with the landlords." Working cadres in Kweichow stepped up their publicity on co31 ction of public grain in Kaiyang and Chenyuan Hsien,. Chungking said (30 Nov.), because landlords had persuaded the peasants they should not deliver grain through fear of starvation. In the sixth hamlet of Fengehui village, Tungtzu Hsien, a peasants association leader was murdered. Landlords were blamed, and three of them executed following a public trial. Marriage Law: Much attention is still given in regional broadcasts to publicity and propaganda on the new marriage law, Sian (29 Nov.) announced that a directive from the Northwest Military and Administrative Committee required that the marriage law be made part of the curriculum in all winter schools. Tsinan (11 Dec.) reported that the Shantung Communist Party had issued a directive to cadres calling for wider propagation of the law, and pointing out that though the law has been in operation a year and 7 months, forced marriages and interference with marriage still are common. "The masses must be made to realize that the law was passed to benefit them." Hangchow (12 Dec.) said that the youth of Shangyu Chu, Chiangshan Hsien, Chekiang Province, had demanded freedom of marriage under the law, but "because of the lack of public support" there had been many cases of suicide and maltreatment reported. When Ho Chia-feng of Kaochia Hsiang and Yeb Tao-lu of Hsiayu Hsiang applied for dissolution of their feudal marriages they were beaten up by the village cadres. The law was also publicized in broadcasts from Wuhsi, Hofei, Chungking, Chinchow, Keifeng, Canton, Yargchow, Wuhan, Shanghai, Foochow, and Dairen. Hankow (12 Dec.) reported that charges were preferred against Chen Wen-fa and Han Yu-chi In Kiangwan village because of a forced marriage. Both onfessed to their feudalistic errors in thinking. Wuhsi (12 Dec.) said that the People's Court of held a public trial 13 November with 200 persons present, and sentenced Pan Wen-chenfr, Sze Ta-tse and Yung Shou-ying to jail for mistreating their wives and interfering in marriages. Chien Te-ling was ,jailPri for mistreat- ment, and his wife, Chao Ying-fen, granted a divorce. Wuhsi (12 Dec.) reported the immediate execution of Chen Kuo-hua for a murder of his wife, Cher. Kin.,-sze, following a public trial attended by 1,000 persons in Wuhsien. Hangchow (7 Dec.) reported an article in the CHFKIANG DAILY had a "very serious 'view of the situation," following the suicide of a wife in that city. Wuhan (29 Nov.) told of the death sentence for Chen Chien-hsing of Village 16, Second Chu, Tayeh Hsien, for inter- ference in the marriage of another. Deputy Village Headman Tung Chen-li and Militiamen Huang Wen-te and Chang, Yuan-hsin were given prison terms for condoning the act. Chinchow (11 Dec.) reported that Wang I-chien was granted a divorce and her husband, Li Chun-chien, sentenced to 10 years in prison. Dairen (10 Dec.) reported that the Chin Hsien People's Court sentenced Wang Te-fu to full confisca- tion of his property and Jen Ting-seng and others to prison terms of 6 to 20 months for interfering in marriages and maltreating women relatives. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2Aq?/iJq*iLCIA-R Physical Exam es: There has been relatively little attention to the physical exercise broadcasts. Chinchow reported (4 Dec.) that the Chinchow branch of the People's Athletic Association had decided to support the broadcasts by making the exercises compulsory for its members. Classes will be conducted by Chao Chi-hsieh and Chao Ching-yuan, and already enrollment has jumped from 230 to 350, with a number of city officials enrolled. Chinchow (5 Dec.) said that the Liaosi Province Athletic Association had mapped plans to carry out the physical education exercises. Chinchow (10 Dec.) reported that the workers of Chinchow and Liaosi are "zealously conducting" the physical exercises every morning. Tainan (2 Dec.) announced that nine organizations of the city had set up a committee to support the broadcasts, with all schools, public organizations and military cadres called upon to take part. Hankow (4 Dec.) announced that all young workers of the Yuhua Textile Mill had been called upon to join the physical training, move. No other broadcast comment on the subject was monitored. Salt Tax: Hangchow (9 Dec.) asserted that "at present the movement for eating taxed salt is being carried out with fervor" in six salt fields around Yuyao. At Chierh Hsien there are 5,400 salt farmers, and each is pledged to pay 12 ounces of salt tax per month. Workers formerly uued untaxed salt, but have voluntarily changed their attitude, "since they see that the People's Government uses the taxes for consolidating national defenses and strengthening construction." A Shanghai broadcast (10 Dec.) places a somewhat different interpretation on the situation in a report that at the State-operated Huaipei salt grounds a network has been set up to curb smuggling and prevent evasion of the salt tax by 5,000 salt-producing households. So far this year's tax has been collected on all but 31 one-millionths of the output. To police these 5,000 households to prevent tax evasion, 1,100 workers, more than half of them Communist Party or Youth League members, are organized into 29 groups. "The work for protection of the tax source has thus become a mass movement." Soviet Assistance: The Peking Home Service (6 Dec.) quotes a Chinese Volunteer, in a letter, as saying: "Since we joined the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association we have further realized that the victory of the Chinese people and Soviet aid are inseparable." Peking pointed out in numeral code (10 Dec.) that in West Szechwan Soviet methods are being used in improving livestock. Mukden (7 Dec.) told of a meeting in Tsitsihar in November to aid in developing the Heilungkiang Provinc' lumber industry. The delegates sent a telegram of gratitude to Soviet fc-est experts who had aided them. Shanghai (6 Dec.) told of a tractor exhibition in Chu Hsien, North Anhwei, which greatly impressed Chinese farmers. One was heard to say. "We can get ahead only by the aid of our elder brother, the Soviet Union. Today, now that I have seen a tractor, I have confidence in our success." Another said: "We must follow in the footsteps of the USSR." Famine and Pestilence: Wuhan (3 Dec.) asserted that more than 32 million persons had been relieved of hunger and suffering durin the year in Central and South China. In Honan more than 3 millions were given work-relief aid, and 96.76 million catties of food distributed in direct relief. Canton (6 Dec.) announced that, starting 20 December, passengers leavin(? Canton must produce smallpox vaccination certificates before they can buy tickets. Mukden (30 Nov.) gives credit to Chairman Mao for "vanquishing; plague and removing the big evil" in Jehol Province, where there have so far been no deaths from the disease this year. Democratic Process: Hofei (5 Dec.) reports an election for a village People's Assembly in Minglan village, Minglan Chu, Chu Hsien. "Now the people feel they are really the ruling authorities." On the other hand, Chungking (11 Dec.) reported that People's Assemblies had failed,because the cadres "did not understand the meaning of the new democratic reforms." In some pieces the officials spent the entire meeting time arguing over procedures, and paid no attention to suggestions of the delegates. In Kweichow leading cadreo refused to call assemblies, because "they said they could not find acceptable delegates." p~N}IWENTIM 1 Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8 Approved For Release 8@ 3t?MJA:LCIA- YY - 18 - EI ! IAtO 00740009 8 Forced igratia: Kaifeng (11 Dec.) reported that 72 villages, including 1,809 households with 8,015 persons, were moved from the forest lands in the northern part of Pantiao, Liusi Chu, Hsinyang Hsien, Honan, between June and November. During the first period; from June to August, many mistakes were made because the cadies lacked experience. The second period, October and November, was completed with no trouble "after an educational and propaganda campaign." In the old area 6,621 houses and 25,660'mou of land were vacated. Han Chi-chung, one of the transferees, expressed satisfaction with the move, pointing out that the new forest lands are better'. Huai River Project: Shanghai said (10 Dec.) that digging efficiency among some teams of the 300,000 civilian workers in the Huai River harnessing project had increased from 1.8 to 4cubic meters per person per day. This improvement has been accomplished by "strengthening the political and current affairs study," uniting and helping each other to develop collective strength, and by developing endurance. COUIDENTIA1 Approved For Release 2003/10/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500740009-8