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November 9, 2016
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June 30, 1999
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June 1, 1953
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Approved For Release1p9m/3. ? C.1A-RpP80-00809A0C1115007:5DOER5-8 CLASSIFICATION FL 0, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT INFORMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROADCASTS CD NO, COUNTRY USSR SUBJECT INDICATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITIES HOW PUBLISHED WHERE PUBLISHED DATE PUBLISHED LANGUAGE IRIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFONNATIOIT EFFECTING THE NATIONAL DIFINOS 01 frit UNITED STATES WITHIN TTIE IIIIIAMIlla OF ESPIONAGE ACT SO V 5 C . 3 AND at. AS ANIMAS, ITS TRANSMISSION OR THE REVELATION 01 ITS CO IN ANT NA**** TO AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PRO. 1110111.11 DT LAW RIPSODUCTION OF THIS FORE IA PRONIDITEU. SOURCE Monitored Broadcasts STATE ARMY DATE OF 14-2? April 1953 INFORMATION DATE DIST. /.,7.11 1953 NO. OF PAGES SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION CM Report No. 82 -- USSR (14 - 27 April 1953) CONTENTS AGRICULTURAL SHORTCOTAINGS, ? .. Livestock Industry Machine-Tractor Stations Tadzhik Cotton Production Azerbaijani Cotton Produc tion Miscellaneous IDEOLOGY.. ? .? . ? n ? ......... I ? ........ I Soviet Legality Friendship of Peoples 2 3 4 4 , ....... 5 5 Collective ve One-Man Leadership 6 CLASSIFICATION FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NMN ..e) nano DISTRIBUTION AM roved folkelease1999/U9/?8 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500750035-8 11111111111111111EMUMemmummimmaggliffill9=11661111111111111111=111111119111111111117111111111 Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00-8 JNCLASSIFIED - 2 - AGRICULTURAL SPORTCOMINGS Lteeelesieladustry: Central and local transmitters :entenue to highlight the insufficient attention given the livestock industry, the shortage of skilled mechanics, administrative inefficiency and the unenthusiastic approach to field work. As spring sowing gets underway in the southern and central areas of eh( country, the farmers are being urged toward achievements, tcward laying the foundation for a bumper crop." However, related field operations such as the construction and repair of livestock premises, fodder peceerement, etc. should not be neglected. A report from Tambov on 14 April says that an ?bleat Party eomneteee investigation into the livestock industry Showed "a considerable drop in the number of livestock," low productivity of cattle and "a general nonfulfillment," of the plan. Sufficient fodder had not been stockpiled last year, and the ehortage i .ready being felt. Despite unceasing pressure, much of livestock is eell kept le inadequate quartere wheeh "lack indispensable facilities for proper meeetenanne. Listed as "laggiag far behind the plan" are at least 10 rayon n where local. leaders have relegated stock breeding to a secondary role, neglected the upkeep of oaseeres and failed to maintain the sanitary standards for watering places, ehicb "are to overgrown with shrubs and turning into bogs.h In its review of the livestock setuation, PRAVDA (17 April) says that immediate and drastic measures will have to be taken if the slow rayons and oblasts are to catch. up. Furthermore, the cattle-raising industry of some oblasts has actually deterlorated: CPYRGHT Russian. text: CPYRGHT In the collective farms of Volegda, Kostroma and KuTgan oblasts considerable losses of grown and young stock were sustained in the first three months of this year. The situation is also unsattefeetory?in Bashkir ASSR, Orel. Tyumen and certain other oblaste. V kolkhozakhVologodskoy, Koseromskoy, Kurganekoy obleetey za pervie tri meeyatsa etogo goda dopushohen znachieelniy otkhod vzroelogo pogolovye akota e molodnyaka. Neeecv. letvoritelno obetoit delo takzbe...v Baahkirskoy ASSR, OrloveRoy Tymenskoy i nekoterykh drugikh oblaetey. Fodder production is still inadequate "in several ?bleats, krais and republics" eeere natural pastures cannot yield anywhere near the necessary supplioa without "envanced agrotechnical measures...and a concerted effort.r A lack of regard for regulations governing the seockbreedeng.and ottez trenches of aericulture is noted by RADYANSKA DONETSCHINA (18 April) es one of the major sources trouble in the oblast. Agricultural experte are not given responeibility ao '.eey might "exert a beneficial influence" on farm peoduetton. 'Thoughtless" kolkhoz chairmen and MTS directors prefer their own obsolete methods of farming. The Starotaryanskaya NTS, for example, has even demonstrated indefferenee to scientific ad-1.?e: "the agronomist for fodder procurement has been made a station despatcher." Elsewhere, little has been done to improve the caes for cattle, and this reflected by "low productivity and decreasing milk yields. el:eilINAYA PRAVDA (21 April) admits the "justness" (epravedlivost) of PRAVDAts ?eticiem of the Koetroma Oblaet livestock industry. :t ia true, earl the paper, ee great cattle losses and other "serious and impermieeeble shortcomings" have bt.en allowed to occur, and certain rayons appear little perturbed by their failing'. Amcng them are Manturovskiy, Orekhovskiy, Buy, Kadivskiy, Mezhevekly and Ivanovekly tweet:4. The decision of the Moldavian Party Central Committee on current agricultural UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500750035-8 13111WIENIIMINNIMMINIIM STATOTHR Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809 035-8 UNCLASSIFIED operations, quoted by Kiahinev on 21 April, notes anspecified nterious mistakes and shortcomings" in Republican agriculture, clearly reflecting official disappointment with the progress in the field. The Moldavian Communist Party, it states, "has decided to put into effect" the decisions of the 19th Party Congress to increase agricultural crops, raise the number of communal cattle and gi acre attention to stockbreeding. Local Party and agricultural officials are urged to introduce "advanced agricultural technology" wherever possible, Machine-Tractor Stations: Regional broadcasts continue to stress that tractor breakdowns occur far too frequently and that improper use of available equipment is responsible for the failure of MTS to meet their "collective agreements" (kollektivnie dogovora--Which applies exclusively to cont'set betS. iMTS and collective farms). EIROVCCRADSKA PRAVDA points out editorially on 15 April that the fulfillment of collective agreements usually "surpasses all time limits aet down by the lair because they are not taken too seriously. However, it implies that the MTS' desire to abide by the agreements is often frustrated by the lack cf equipment in good working order and the shortage of qualified personnel to operate it. Citing cases of contract violation by both parties; the paper points to the MTS as the major offender since failure to maintain the required amount of operating equipment defeats the agreement in advance. CPYRGHT They do not manifest the necesary care for the highly productive utilization of powerP.11 technology, do not eliminate the technical deficiencies of the machines in time, thus wasting valuable t1me and threatening the harvest ye id Several hundred new tractors and combines have been received in Stalin? Oblast in the first two yeera of the current five-year, but this he not been followed by A correoponding improvement in performance, according to SOTSIALISTICHESKIY DONBAS of 15 April,. This is because- 'lett:ay hundrede of tractor- shifts are waeted." In DobrepOlf*:!.Y and Koeetsntinovokiv rayons the organization of tractor maintenanCe and repair work ie so poor that r+it takee day* to m4n4 minor breakdown which should be fixed in one or teo hours- Malta KONMUNIZMA says that the planting of late crops', already overdue In some southern rayons, far from oompletee due to serous shortcomings in the performance of MrS servicing thoop rayon. The struggle for A bumper erp, it is deported? is now hindered more then ever before by the 'iidleneee and lop productivity of tractors, and the outlook Appeere still grimmer in view of the fact that 411ren the rowing of early crops" has not been completed in a number of rayons. A Kozlov report from Minek carried by PRAVDA on 22 April (not broadeaet) reveal that although theueande of new tractors and other agricultural machines had been received by the Beloruemien MS before spring moving began, not all of them were brought out to the fields. It may be said "without exeggerationn (bee preuvelichenia) that even the so-called leading MT'S and collective farms of the Republic are not making the best possible we of their technical feeilitiee; CPYRGHT Russian text: CPYRGHT Even now more than 11000 tractors are laid up at the WS compounds awaiting repairs. Some of the machines stopped working in the fields as a result of defective winter repairs. Po sey den boleye 1,000 traktorom stoit ne usedbakh WS, ozhidaya remonta Chest =Alin ostanovilee v pole, ekazaloe plokhoye kaeheetve zimnego remonta. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500750035-8 Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809 UNCLASSIFIED -4- 035-8 Mogilev, Vitebsk and Minsk ?blasts are mentioned as eritical areas where most collective farms, waiting for warm, sunny days to begin spring sowing, have already missed the "most favoeable" time for that work Socialist competition in the fields is virtually non-existent, according to Kozlnv, and those ostensibly engaging in it are actually only "putting up a fnontn, Pinsk has been competing against Brest Oblast for the highest attainment in flax-plantirn, but while Pinsk has already completed 20 percent of the plan, Brest keens up the slow pace which is reflected in its plan-performance index of 2.4 percent, Tadlik Cotton Production: A report from Stalinabad broadcast on 15 April quotes a reoent decree of the Tad jikistan Council of Ministers noting "great difficulties" connected with cotton raising this year. The decree reveals that cotton planting last year was "held up by exceptionally unfavorable conditions" and that aurgent measureae must be taken to get the planting done on time this year. The Republican Ministry of Agriculture, Soviet officials, and every kolkhoz, Fovkhoz and /CS" are exhortednto help obtunn a better cotton crop this year by completing the planting 'snot later than 25 April." A KOMMUNIST TADJIKISTANA editorial broadcast on 15 April makee the unusual announce- ment that "there are still too few enlarged kolkhozese in the Republic, Previous references to this theme gave the impression that the merger of the small kolkhozes into larger units has in general been completed. The paper criticizes the "inadmissible views" of certain Republican agricultural authorities who are still oblivious of the fact that aingle-crop fanning is frowned upon by the authorities. Cotton-raising alone should not be used as a substitute for mnitiorop farming in Tadjikistan, Where "prevailing conditions offer great possibilitiee for the development of all branches of agrinulture. AzernaljanSoteolajzoduction: A decree issued by the Azerbaijan Council of Minieters (23 APril) in oonnection with 1953 cotton-raising and .teliverlos, contains nhe Implieit admission that last year'e failures are boyond'repair and had bent be forgottern CPYRGHT The crop debts which Repubincam collectave farms In: 'r under the 1952 contracts art written off in order to the kolkhozes Prompt cotton deliveries are to be rewarded rith larger supplies or consumer goods. and the Azerbaijan Union (Azerittife)c) has been instracted ftto allocate tioo,ds for those malting cotton delivernee." On the other hands the tleseened quotas" set for the newly opened irrigated /ands and the fodder-growing areas "are to be abolished" There is no indioation of the size of the 1952 "farm debt" or of the preaent norms au preeumably outlined in the decree. MitaaallanZal&V Indifference to new labor-saving devices on the part of agricultural administrators, including the US5R Ministry of Agriculture, is discussed n. an article by Shibakov published in IZATE,STIA on 15 April- Kreanodar Kra1 alone, he says, nverhas about 25,000 "rationalicers and inventors" (rateionalizatory 1 leobretatiall), but their inventions arc often shelved by those whode should popularize them. Flagrant disregard for technical innovations and improvements is cited In the case of S near self-propelled winnowing and sorting machine nveyelha-aortirovka) which can be operated by a crew of five people Instead of 40 As before, and capable of Inoreeelng the output of sorted grain several time*, So far none of the authorities, from the v.) the All-Union Ministry level, has *heron much interest in it. Nor is this the only oast', air= "many machines which morit the widest dintribution still remain single production samples." (Mnogie =shiny, dostoynte samogo shirokogo raapro- nr?anenia, imayutaya po)ca v edinstvennom okzemplyare,) UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500750035-8 REVENIIMINIIMIRMIMINMEani Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000 UNCLASSIFIED - 5 - A new combine attachment for gathering castor-oil plants, constructed by two stakha- novites at a cost of about 700 reties, is reported 10 have reduced production costs, compared to manual work, by 20 times. However, the krai agricultural department and the USSR Ministry of Agriculture did not appear impressed even though the madhine had already been "sufficiently tested at work" (dostatochno proverena na praktike). Other agricultural shortcomings admitted by regional transmeleers during the period under review are: 14 April- ast year the oblast as a whole failed to gaihee the prescribed harvest he eblast as a whole is still developing sugar-beet elaree:ng axtremely unsatis- CPYRGHT factoril (RADYANSKA ZHITOMIRSICHINA editorial; 1.2 April?Field work is not being carried out everywhere eete the -required energy and aneen lty. .qt.Anntil)gapyii(31,1Trniy And Yellpr ,?piyonA nnuing (ORIOVSKAYA PRAVDA editorial); perennial grasses at an impermissibly low tempo 21 April--Spring beix conducted in hn organized manner everywhere.. I last year.... Cotton planting is proceeding too slowlyl(PRAVDA editorial); 22 April- Up to now one-half of the combines and more than one-half of the grain- leaning -ransportation faoilities and grain silos is unsatesfaceory (KRYKSKAYA PRAVDA IDEOLOGY CPYRGHT CPYRGHT CPYRGHT .asairaLlisiatilatz (2akonnost) and the friendship of peoples are among the major themes exploited in press and radio non-economic propaganda. There te more frequent emphasis on the Government, as distinguished from the Party, in terms of power and authority than heretofore. The law of the land, as defimed by the Conae.tution. i streseed as something immutable, to be reapected and obeyed by everyone regardleaci of rank :!1". POBitiOn. Prominence is given the "inviolability te!: the person^ (neprikoenoveneest lichnoeti). There on be no legelietic equivocattee in that point. accordinz to an uneigned KOMMUNIST article (6 Anril) referring the arrested eecurity offieleale involved in the "doctors' Plot-H The Soviet State has already demonstrated its attitude to corrupt officials Who udared make a mockery of the inviolable rights of Soviet citizeng?r (posmell nadrugataya nad neprikosnovennYmi Bravara .vetk0A1kh graffthdon), Regional eomment on the people's conatitutional righta ho e followed the 1ine r.d.Icated by the 6 Aprel PRAVDA editortel, reprinted by all central newepeporo, on the final diapoaltion of the doctoral cage. Increaoed attention to tt,e -etizenef protection under the law ie reflected tloo in May Day alogaz number. : which opeako of rightn "guaranteed by the COnotitution" and rloacrodly gafeguarded/! by the. government. The szapatauzarzmuisui topic is Often diecueeed in contexte of law' and unity and againet the gackground of the May Day alogana. RADYANSKA. UNRA1NA (16 and 24 Apall) etreoesea the familiar lino thnt the oalvation and happinmos of the Soviet nationalitiea ling ln their unity. The value of thin unity to the Ukrainian people la hown by the "gigantic etridee" made by their Republic in induatry, agriculture, literature and art, in th,_? unification or Hall their landau (uan ovoi meat) in a oingleykrainlan Soviet (24 April). LITERATURNAU GAZETA (25 ApxJ.1) quotes Lenin to the effect that +ef, USSR ham alwaya been "A voluntary union of national' (dobrovany 'mum nately) eed on mutual confidenoe rd the realimation of fraternal unity. The paper pointe te the unprecedented cultural aohievomenta of the non-Ruaolan nationalities under the Un:on by citing the increage In the number o.books published mince 1913. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500750035-8 STATOTHR Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-0080 0035-8 'N LASSIFL Collective vs One-Man Leadership. A lengthy Sleeov a!elele in PRAVDA (1.6 Apr11) says that collectivism, meaning Party committees or aomfeeences, as the haghest, principle of Farty leadership" (vysshiy printsip partiynogo rukavodsava). That theoree says the author, was first expounded by Stalin who sold in 19:31 that the Central Conin&ttee of the Communist Party, the "supreme tribunal" (areopae 07- the organization, represented true collective leadership, rhe expereenee of individual Party leaders, no matter how broad, "will never replace the inatiatiae and experience of the entire collective," Th: a type of leadership, which is in keeping with the precepts of 1n-era-Party democracy, Slapov implies, is being violated on a large scale Some Pasty Beare- tariae have la fact gone so far as to ignore the opona of otber committee aem(ere and held Party conferences with only a eew ef ahe meniaers participaaing. eafarring to the potential abuse of power involved in earcng Indevidual leadership, aleeev hints that antimadation of committee memaere le an:iaeoxm within the Party. Tnere ara cases when the "imoroper aehaviDr" oe lae! ..aual leaaere Ls everlooked by eha .onauttee members, who are relucaant "enall ealat:ens" .eepertat otnoahenia) ii -h Them. Such members apparently fend le ta "adap, themselves" ;rodlazhivatsya) to the leaders openeon and te '.ay thaao ao eascyanang he says" aeaee.vayut emu vo vsem), The most rigid adnererae ta !lee preneiple of iaollective Leadership in the Party, Sieeov concludes, "is a guarantee of aorreat leaderahip" (yavJeacesya zalogom pravilnogo rukovodstva), and the only way the Party can rid itealf of high-handed bureaucrats, on the one hand, and tta "unbearatae atmasphere ee toadyism" (nesterpimaya obstanovka ugodniceeeeva,. en the othere aanav,s discussion of the recent reorganizateoe , aa Menistrles and State eadersnip in general, as outlined in his PRAVDA areeele on 26 April, net e)mpletely consistent with Slepovr, item on Party 'Leadership The minitraes have eaen expanded and their leaders vested wat4 broader paaers, he says, so that they eay adopt and Implement decisions unhampered by "areefecial barriers," The new nanisters will also be in a positeon to "implemene mare elastec planning" iaau- shchestvlyat boleye gibkoye planirovanie) an aal:en :aspect ehey apparently have I,ean hamstrung in the past, aCentralized or "en-man leadership" (editionachalla aceording to ivanov, what an efficient Slate apparaaus requires The autt.or makQe no reference to ''collectivism v Or eollec.teae de,.:s:ona an basic issues r4n,7).D rapeatedly emphasized in Slepcv's discussien ce Party leadership), The, e:fferena lines pursued by these authors in the taea-mant of The Party and Goaernment Laaaeashie themes are exemplefied in the followeng ateaaaons ele-rov on Party leadership, 16 April Thalkedual decisions are always or eleeee always one-sided decisions_ the most important requirement ie ma*, decisions,. .represent the ceteome of collective creativeness. aelnolichnee reshenia vsegda ill vsegda byvayut otnobokina :esheniama. Otsyuda vaahneysheye tereaovanie, chtoby reshenia?.byll aollektivnogo tvorchestva) CPYRGHT Tvaraev Ieaderkkh,12Z6 Axix:%;. The perfection .af the state apparatua and the broadening ea!: the manasaere, poweas signify a farther strengtheneng el' centra- lized authoraty, an enhaacemant of the leader s role, (Sovershenstvovanie gosudaretvennogo apparaea, aasanIrenie pray ministrov oznachavee dalneydheye ukreplenle ed1nonacha1la, novyahenle roll lacovod- i-telya UNCLASSIF:ED CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/28 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500750035-8 1