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Document Creation Date: 
December 16, 2016
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September 3, 2003
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May 22, 1952
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Approved For Release 200 /g Q1 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 SECRET CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT COUNTRY Germany/'USSR I4 25X1 SUBJECT Treatment of German Scientists, NO. OF PAGES 8 Living Conditions In the Leningrad 11r.oa TTecP PLACE ACQUIRED fl DATE ACQUIRED DATE OF INFORMATION 25X1 DATE DISTR. ' NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED' BELOW) SUPPLEM EPORT NOT TO 25X1 R THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMAON 25X1 F 5X1 25X1 T~,e Soviet Military Administration SMA) Laboratory at Leuna .e 25X1 25X1 2. 25X1 25X1 25X1 the SMA laboratory was established in order to gather German scientists in preparation for their transfer to the USSR. sent to the SMA laboratory in early September 1946 and all forcibly transferred to the USSR ten weeks later. S.nce took almost five weeks to set up the laboratory, the authorities could not have expected positive results before departure. The entire laboratory was designated Me-24-C. i=131 X I SEUFiE'I' T 7E X DISTRIBUTION FORM NO. 51-41F OCT 1951 RETURN TO RECORDS CENTER IMMEDIATELY AFTER USE JOB i _ 33 BOX_ 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/0.6/01 : CIA-RDP80-0?N 09J\000500760043-8 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 25X1[ "Me' was the symbol for Merseburg as "Len was used for 25X] Leverkusen; the figure referred to the building 25X1! 25X1 ?3. The SMA laboratory was under the supervision of two Soviet scientists: Rgabkov, an engineer and Zervyelski,. a._chemist,.both of whom followed--us to Leningrad. There were three main divisiors of this project, a-physical laboratory, a heavy water laboratory and an analytical laboratory. (a) The physical laboratory was under the direction of Dr Franz Scheuer, a physicist, whcse chemical laboratory. 25X1 assistant was Harry K1emt_ 25X1 Scheuer was to make measurements on 25X1 German rocket fuels, in particular to- testa ignition times with oscillographe, viscosity at --60 C, 25X1 coagulation points and s ecificheat measurements.II Scheuer L_Jmade the apparatus for 25X1 testing Phe ition delay time" on these rocket fuels. 25X1 Scheuer made daily reports to the Soviet scientis Servyelaki who later went to the GIPKh Institute in 25X1 Leningrad where he was In charge of the two labora- 25X1 tortes conducting research on ethylamines (Labora- tories 579 and 604). While still working in Leuna, 2 5X1 Scheuer frequently visited the Siebel aircraft group In. Halle an der Saale (Soviet Zone), who also did research work on amines. Many of the Siebel scientists 25X1 were taken to the USSR Schauer was sent to 25X1 Moscow. n Leuna, in June 1951, he said that he had done little practical research. 25X1 25X1 (b) The following German scientists were employed in the heavy water laboratories: Heinrich , Paul Herold, Gel and . They were instructed to make exact analyses and density measurements of heavy water produced in those Leuna installations which still existed after 1945. Their laboratory was in the 25X1 vicinityand under strict Soviet supervision. Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 SECRET 25X1 L- 1 y a o s 25X1 fuels were made which were tested in the physical 'I r- 25X1 25X1 I in October 1. 46 this installation 25X1 was moved to the USSR 25X1 (e) A number of chemical specialists were employed at 2 5X1 the analytical laboratory: Gerhardt Gaeiseler, Andreas Kleinert and some others 25X1 -. thi 1 b rate the amines an other roc e r Transfer to the USSR lF, forty Leung Dshipped to the USSR in October 1946 with Ofamilies and possessions. Thirty scientists from other firms, mostly construction engineers, were transported by separate trains on the same day. following people from Leun.a: 25X1 Andreas Gemassmer, Gerhardt Luebecke, Ernst 25X1 Aainger Herold, Paul Otto, Ernst Eckoldt, Hans von der. Horst, Dieter Peinze, Georg 25X1 Elm, Heinrich Jahrmann Pohl, Franz Falkenberg Jochinke, 11e-1mut Scheuer, Franz 25X1 Froehlich Kaufmann, Ilermann Schmidt Qeib . Koeterhon, Kurt Scholz, Walter 25X1 Geiseler, Gerhardt Lorenz, William Smeykal, Karl Wyzeomirski, Ernst 'While crossing PolandOtranspo.rt was joined by four other trains. The first two were occupied by aircraft specialists from. 25X1 3 nkere/Dessau and Halle a S (Siebel group). There was one train from Jena (Zeiss) and one from Kiel and Berlin (Siemens) which carried shipbuilders. It took us about five days to cross Poland. The lines were jammed with trains carrying dismantled equipment. (locomotives had frequent breakdowns and there was a great shortage of coal, When stopped, the trains were often attacked by bandits who broke into the baggage cars. There was no medical 25X1 service whatsoever until Moscow. Dr Smeykal was very sick and had a severe attack of pneumonia. Efforts 25X1 were made to keep up Omorale by the distribution of cigarettes, food, and canned goods. 5.. In Moscow, the various trains were broken up and the Leuna employees were divided into three groups: (a) The Leningrad group, which included: Drs Kaufmann, 25X1 Smeykal, Wyzsemi.rakl, Peirme, Eckoldt, Pohl, Geiseler, von der Horst and engineers Otto and Scholz, Lorenz 25X1 group was also joined by some constructors from Siemens and shipbuilders from Berlin 25X1 and Kiel. These people who were not from Leuna stayed 25X1 0 at Sestroretsk until about May 47 and were then transferred to Oranienbaum, USSR. 25X1 (b) The Moscow group, whin was given accomodations somewhere outside of the city but assigned to an inetitutr within Moscow. The only member of this 25X1 group wad Dr. Franz Scheuer. 25X1 SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 Approved For Release 2005/06/01: CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 25X1 25X1 25X1 (c) The Ukraine group, lihich was also formed at Moscow. 25X1 Activity in Sestroretsk ,I I, a Iormer =L&uuuc.L- i ~..????. ?? .--? ____ _'- about 40 IN northwest of Lenings?ad. There were a number of small 25X1 swser cottages which served both as living quarters and offices. 25X1 It was evident that our arrival had not been expected as practi- cally no preparations had been made. Most families were assigned a single room in three-four room houses. There was a great deal of ' shifting around and my family i a.r3 r.e:teik0c~~nta.ets with the Soviet: p n:irtlaticn were L -.3L- 25X'1 tremely limited, partieulax?l. after 191If.3 when the Soviets became afraid to be seen talking II During the first two years 25X1 the school chit ren were quite embarrassing. They 25X1 ran e n us and shouted, "Hitler paged, or simply "Hitler?. By the winter of 1950 such insults stopped. However, at the GIPKh Institute in Leningrad, particularly in the workshops, the Soviets became quite friendly and=even joked together 25X1 occasionally. }'kept for their reserve on -political matters, they were 1Just like ordinary German wort,:er>,. 25X1 25X1 15. children attended a special German school in Leningrad (Spezial Schule No 1); all subjects were taught in German. The 25X1 text books were printed in not think these texts were the same as those used in the soviet Zone since all the 25X1 material concerned Soviet life. For example, arithmetic problems concerned distances between oiti.e3 In the USSR. 25X1 children had one hour of Russian daily and learned to speak the language quite fluently. The school had about 90 pupils. The very young were sent to the regular Soviet elementary schools in Sestroretnk where all instruction was in Russian; Departure 25X1 16. On 19 May 51 told that within three doya=would be sent home with fo, other spec:iali.sta: I:ckol.dt, Geissler, Wyzsomirski .25X1 and von der I ' rnt.lIhad been in poor health for some time, apparently from mercury poisoning, and could no longer work as 25X1 before. Servieleki, a Soviet students protecated several times Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 25X1 =MUNI 12111111111 . Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 against=leav3ng but to no avail , The det~i>sion as to which people were to be returned to Germany war; made in Moscow and no- one knew about it. Major Sakharoroti had gone to Moscow and on nis return he said, "Tomorrow you go".I had absolutely children, were forced to sign a paper certify fig would not tell anyone exactly where =worked or what done. were onl to say that II worked in Leningrad. Further- More) when took leave of the eople at the Institute, they said they would all come visitEnin 1955 because then there would no longer be any borders between Germany and Poland. The Institute employees had said several times before, that the borders would fall and that it ,uld be possible to travel without a pass. This was said seriously,, not as a joke, and it seems to be almost USSR Trip Home 17. 25X1 Ml 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 1 25X1 25X1 allowed rbatic:e Jaye in *hi.uh t:;) f al.--, IIbelorig3.ngs in Sestroretsk. A special^ wa :~;;;= 1(.rted uus as were some baggage cars for family , posae.as3.ora;.,. ':i+,.abrain mfrs very clean and newly painted. They trip wai.f, ac3 Oca.r s were hitched to frai. ,:ht' trainc,Dl~ t;bro-tigh Vilna, Minsk, Brest (where=che aged : to, a German trn-ln), Viaraaw and Frankfurt/ Oder. Major Sakharorov and the (:hic:.f i,f? Dersonnel at the GIPISh Institute, Klukov, accompaniedthin Jou:cney. they both belonged to the I iDD, Thera a military guard on the train an officer and thiree soldieris. Although no ~o~,cti %, aw ver restrictions during the little besides Woods and swamps. the track wa.s much better than in 19116. In some places it was is of in others double. At Brest =c anged to the narrower gau e_when 0 transferred to the. German train). From there traveled third class, one famil to a compartment At Reppeii, the last station in Poland, were held 25X1 up for two days because Klukov had left the original 25X1 papers at Brest. a courier was sent to ge em. 25X1 There was one large sheet 'or e c pereon e_xaept for the children who were listed with their mothera0 =firat reception was given at Frankfurt/Oder greeted by a representative 25X1 25X1 of the German Democratic Republic. Arrival 18. 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 From Frankfurt/Ode! =train was roi;..ted through Wittenberg to 25X1 pickedp upLLby ya-buswhich took the l:zr t 50 1on to Leung. Dinner was waiting and the next as.=,i ned a house. This house was bet ear an the one ir_ Germany; it had steam heat. About a week I anofficial reception was given. A series of speeches was made by Eckhardt, Director of the Leuna Plant, the Soviet manager of the plant, representatives of the trade unions and b members of other SED s onsored organizations. Eclrhardt promised many things and gave many warnings. In fact, his speech cons s ed primarily of warnings -- cautioning; not to do foolish things. Rather than going West, he suggested et him know of our wishes and needs. Dr Wyzeomiroki made a general answer for all of us. Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 Approved For Release 2005/06/01,: CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8 19. After this reception, invited to make speeches to the Soviet Friendship Soc a an some other groups, but, for the 25X1 benefit of the shop groups,Owere ? interviewed over the factory 25X1 loudspeakers. At first this created considerable embarrassment 25X1 since the people id not know that had 25X1 signed a paper promising not to reveal sri thing The interviewers, suspecting the cause ofl (reticence, quickly 25X1 changed their questions to ones more generi~ in scope. Some of 25X1 the questions asked concerneQ aith in the German Democratic Republic and its leaders. Mos o the discussions were obviously 25X1 held for propaganda reasons rather than to inform the listeners. E0 e 20. On returning to Leuna given my old job in the plant. II 25X1 in no financial difficulties becausc[had aecumulated Last ar :, 20 thousand in Leningrad which were transferred to a blocked 25X1 account in Leuna. Dr Eckoldt was the first who left for the West. 25X1. He went about the end of June. Then ?chastdt, Janke and Kosterhon disappeared. The Soviets,.are very careful to hide facts concerning 25X1 those who escape as it Is unfavorable propaganda. Workers get 25X1 very suspicious when they hear that these scientists who have been 25X1 in the USSR are in such a hurry to go 'West. In October 1951 Dapproached several times by Soviet agente who wanted 0 25X1 find out -about the men who had disappeared butEwould no ink of betraying=comrade a. Moreovero they kept asking if I 25X1 health permitted departure. became extremely worrie , fearing 25X1 that the Soviets wanted to s.back to the USSR in order to 25X1 help in setting up plants there. 8 Dec 51=escaped to Berlin. 25X1 25X1 -end- 25X1 25X1 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500760043-8