Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
January 13, 2003
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
May 2, 1952
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1.pdf978.72 KB
Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 SECUR I TY I NFWMAT ION SECRET ' CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT ) : COUNTRY : USSR SUBJECT : Area Description of Severo-Donetsk DATE DISTR. 2?. MAY - 52 NO. OF PAGES 13 I 1 25X1 PLACE NO. OF ENCLS. 1 ACQUIRED: (LISTED BELOW) DATE SUPPLEMENT TO ACQU IRED REPORT NO. DATE OF I 5X1 5X1 013SUNIDS GOISTS11/11 ????? SIVECTIII? ?Sti SNAIL OSPINSS SI VMS 1.11111,0 TTTTTTTTTTTTT 1St 101,141?61111, TIT" 112. SECTIOSO 7112 AND SS Sr SI" U.S. CODS. as TTTTTTTT ...... es?lom ?Ivg- ...... St 1111 OOOOOOO IISCSI?S ?111 0011,11,14/1?11I0 OOOOOO IS SO SY 1.??. SYS OOOOOO UCTIOR nr TOIS POSY OOOOOOOO SD. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 25X1 Severo-Donetsk is a new community on the left bank of the Donets River about 5 km from the coal town of Lisichansk. Its existence is .due to the erection of a large chemical plant which is still being built, ana which has just begun operations. Prior to early 1950 Severo-Donetsk was known as "Lisskhimstroi", which may be translated as the "Lisichansk Chemical Plant". Since then, the newer name has been at ?-? ? ? I IS? .7t opulation of approximately 30,000 May 195.27. 2. Geologically, Severo-Donetsk is situated on the dividing line between the fertile Ukraine and the barren prairie. The view from the edge of town consists of sandy land on which there is sparse vegetation. The Donets River, which flows about 3 km west of the town, is not navigable, and its ,),..rso is not regulated. Between Lisichansk and Proletarsk, the next town to the north, the river is deep enough for rowboats and small sail boats, but during the flood season the cur- rent is too strong. The river inundates the east bank and swells from 75 m to a width of more than 1 km. The east bank of the river is entirely flat, while the west bank is lined by steep hills leading to a plateau on which the city of Lisichansk is located. SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION FORM NO. 51_4F OCT 1951 CJ 051 j 011W6:11-0 D I ST) I BUT) ON Ee--- Fel 11-V /11_111A (20) Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 ingliMEISWINISIMIBILMINSIMINE1101111111011111a1.101.111111111MIESNIMIIIIIIIIIIIIMIll p- Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 sEca4/6toviItt-mfttiust201rr 3. The railway citation Of Liaticrliarask tOt tip afinfr ealproes trainer' on the trunk ljn?tram 1tonle4SW'to" Dtbialcsoircli"- 'The 3han two traokel . 5X1 oid'eldink IA6 lileiefuesink (station. The epreets. . t ko0oW"rciavcie ? eila 41450, ,approrimatoly ? the same t,tee ac the ifie r.frOm litbiseocr Sobaleasaa. 2045 ? an eTPreek. train ,,t6' Detig.Ientwe'lekvoti-the litillehtialski>etiatiOn.. .13e- ? Be- tween ono and two di?.pold'4ghi the tricine. efut he Kharkov... ? ? ? Voroahilovrad1izie meet at l.taiOne.nekis Th 5Ogait trains other than these. ' . . 4. Irreight traintraffic), iii.npt be014'.I "more than! five . or eii freight '.trainn travoiling- in, either'ciliteatItte during the day. . ? , ? ? Of oourea,the tgraffi-ei during -normal weekdaye, Fon the frolitani traffic ? at: night'. Grain ? and ben:tent '.WOre the 40x.itodt,tiv1' bet -freciatVtitly: %axle I uoually on open freight : .cara: , TA?, lA.ttr re o the itewo-tabd .founlaxle type, '? en'd. were a little heavier ;than' 'the deralecti3OarcP because. of ? their wide ? atinge:.Z(0,Wi *he 'tfisa4a' caniirewthari :fiffty! :bars. The loopmpti'vee ap,peared. ctepe gliod.'and citurdYV g3E1 5. tae xipict. railsK 'istatO.On -`,ziarth ro 14nioha lk ? id- Prolatautak.r ? : It i a : apprgenimate4, ;:kle ?fr'om '/iVettehanek ? a te tie* jand 'le' artio??;ami expreee c. .. :. atop,. .;271e..nnp . e-qteine efo# 'in that aresittweryrt-Vreciinnatly,--. :and ... :I therefore. .4?wIrcK 1?)awa .O?Ohaao-o. id rlfruptCruilfliapetitte - :.Abont 4,1km tn. the wn,ut,h is trio 'teen of ParetWidtiaraii? A11%1044* tato Lbtx expresa,.,0 1, atop. ' . b - - .!.' ;.,:.,: ?14 , ? , ., , , ? , PrOlOiW4,1 J. ,11,i 110841., vrit''haviliiii 'a. glean 'ttlgent lea Sta P only:An- .... duat4aA ..knitAtituttoit:'.,X1;)trat ''2: km ribs-tit. of the tkewActhe trailway aroqmoc the 1 ponetid. Uilr04.' cit 'kho.), oftlr'llartintr.Atinairaotod tbridger in ,: that regien.,,,:?Igeo 'ritinn , bf to - old .bridge ate 111.111Wiellile in the i watopii*Filitl,YhlinWath.: ? -TO' new bridge litenite,oli two ?- atone pillars and in . a !tool . tru40"kiith a 'oentineoue csimi.? , ? Tha-Viver le not. much . wider than 60 mat that oi?ott. ' Trio' hildtia ' aft Ate OA bridgea in the usen,, .ittla guarded 'dttY -and( n.ight. by isentintsiev.with? blue.. or . bleak Uniforma parrying riilet"ot a- very eld:leicksi-ollbout. 50 m t from the bridge, blyiliann Wore' warned' by ?igen Che'S!,thi0 were not permitted. to crone the; qv.c.r by, meann of the bridge, TbeY were also forbidden to oral?, 4041,,,F .-..the. 'apcton y boats ' hireelted'ii'. Viatti-.440115Ye4 41Peuld hay's. been. quAikek kekaakdt*.Ybeatsuale a 1410. 'dahlia a linitfiCr.bridgehaying in the shee% 'sr low "tae - 7. Lio.Lohaa0k-41. 'the noaii.tal* 1:410-isawl iatowt imOortaill towfu in,thin ?region. It beg A polioel :,of,:iainette:for iba_trata10 'of Caning engineers , and. a ocnirt ;ofjnei4oe for '010 iitlitattzimite_citeSott of .-kiiisila .dement for minor , art:nook., 4uoti a *Art 3.e ',Of 'great, 0ter liogo.wtsitictti.tra ' tint ' iet nyetam be- =sues ,,the..?dovicitoeshint dortrow -a` high poitellnillegte.:of -its labor from po.-.7jetie". 'Theta toiktriolt*, "nay 'either be leorle 'IMO lave erred. politi- oallar, Ar ,tboos who arci-oal. oritginalao. r Mold :,frankly by soviot !oitlaoaa that 000asi4nal..11. a oonist ,io'ridvilood of a labor ehortage . in ja aorta,in .dtutOlcit,- ?and in ethen honer boiand to ? speed .np ? its work in Order to 'all the vaoanoleo With -itontrioteO -- . Bo A read loads to Joleadille,nek fre'll 'the rallciely.statton. , It in roughly paved with lilbekb Of liMentonol, and in ticatieXicall year long by truoke. The road, whigh- le 4pproiciraately-' WM wide, ? rises aharply in two eerpentineh to lutelehlicsiuk, 200? m aboiro, the leverJef the ? Donate. It ion dangiirowa 'drii3),, ? as 't evi?teneed 'Ashis lewerturnod, truoke I I neon 'On i ' . - - - ? Ito,' Ilibib itt?? Tliii? diatom/as :from. the bridge to the ?catalpa ? bquore le' 3 fun. SEC= 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 IMONOMEMEINVENSISM Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00050VR903-1 131.M.ET/!ZOURITY INFORMATION -3- . There are Slag hilla just outaide of Lisichansk. The coal-there of two kinds" :Ipor ualit hard coal whish oakeajand a high quality ? enthractitet S[11;111 mining shafts abound, most of which are'ezploitedf. ? without the uao of machinery:' One of them on the southeast side. ofa the town, howeyor, proiridea the Don soda factory in Pereyezdzia,ya.with, s 'coal by means of a oonyeyor systet.* 10. At the Wse.*ern rih.ef the oity is an undorgro-Ind gae plant called fl Podcomget.- The Air is channeliid in two Shafts into, a Aix-nage who .1. .-0 the cosl'is burned to produce gaa. The gas is piped to the turfaoca ?.and iss.diredtod'in tubes of. 1000-2000 mmto the Don Sodalaatory,... 'Thwprosauro:in the tut:ion lB atmopphorio. .This inotallatiotHwao 1001%-, operating] iin the fall of 1949. "be. entire right bank of the Donate, inoluding Liaiohanak,.Was *off. - limitoafOr dsrmansi We ware allowed to go there for definite. p0000 onlY; and.evon then worecarefully guarded. 11. bveryonS.In Severo?Denetukhge 13ome oonneotion with the obestsalilgtont. Jiteto . all thlWorkero'doodpiod Sovero-Donetek-live in town. many would travel Aivery,aarniag from Riboohnoye, 14 Ism north of Seveto-.Donote14,o'++. and return there' in the evening: The ohuttle traina were, open treSabtrg,t,:t care On,whioh,pociplo-etood in'all.kinde Of weathertIn 1949.tht- trains war44o1ange4 to Ol000d'freight earovithlumohoe and.ovendev and werepaintedblUe on theoutaide.- Sinoe 1949Ahe-Gerrhanaticem:.reitro not,peraittOetoUao the0o trgino, in faat, were-not-permittod,40.401 eo:T to Ruh4011100at:a11:1 'broke thie rule vepeotedlyitoger f,4- reasona'unknOwni .rthe-ahuttlts trains atopped'about 1 te4: aide tha bity. TrOwol tlito waits 20 minutes. Whereas traine'used1o1 run only wIlinAshe.trtiffie'verranted lisle they are now regulatediwa.: b! timetable. - ? . 12. Thq only` pOt pf the Pevero.-Donotok plant whiah had started operatioact. wan the amtania oxidation plant, whioh began operatingAn Jannary.1954-.. Apparently*ork wet being conducted at a very.olow pace, beeanso May 1951 the 1iinloter'bf Ohomioal Industry, Tiohomirov, wasJin"Severeft-- Donetak and raised quit? a rumpuo. Since then, the pace of!bul1OMS610,,, haa boon etelipod? up oonoiderably. the plan-prbrides, for the oomplotion o tho'power plant by the end of 1951? :4.11 ing activitios in town noticeably ooaeed and all available workare ? were the oompound of the plant. The oompreenorevero:tc. he WOuntad in the fall of 1951. Thio part of tho oonetruotionei?tiowqrar,..., aufferode..eavere delay won it woe noted that the bolas 00114re in theldundationo were spaced inoorreotly,..and,the tione had to be ripped out again and rooaot. ? . ,The alemouta for the oieratioa of the plant was, at the time of our. ? depastUre, oh/11110d in tram the outoide. I the ammonia; - ? game in liquid form in 'tank Oare from the cake plant at Oolevkai==== cl. 'doubt tho.validity of this' etatemontA ,t booauckaI do. not think the ammonia would be pure enough for induetrial,...i use. The qUantity of ammonia brought to the plant at that time was- negligible' tho'oxidation plant woo only to be tooted until the plant,.. was, ready to prOduoe Ito own ammonia. 14. Tho majority oetho }mums in 3ovoro.Donotok wore poor wooden atruo.. tures built on pond. Only a few of the publio buildings wore bpilt from limoatone, the predominant building atone in that area. The A, houeop had no plumbing. The German poientiato livod in prefabrioatoPo- d.wellinga oallod Pion houeea. Theoo otruoturea conaistodof two. otorloa, the lower one of which woo atone and the upper woo wood me:, cased in in Stone with an inaulating layer of glaao wool between the. wooden walls aild'tho tono cooing.' lhoueolo had water fauoeto ;10 and sanitary plumbing. he heating plant in the basement, did not " *Small bueketo followed each other at intorvalo of 50 m on an overhead cable from short to factory. ] ithia system was not in constant operation. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 SECRET/SECURITY INFORYATION 25X1 .funetion at first because the pipe? channeled the heat downward in- -atead,ot ixpward, but we were able to correct this fault after some . experimenting. Our house had electric lighting. ? the Soviets did not blow the system of meters to measure tho mono .aumption of electric current, but figurNithe bill for used oleo-. 'tricity by oounting the bulbs in the house, I who to14 us of the approach of the colleotor of plectric bills, and we always ssbid mann)' bulb when we received word of hie impending arrival, 15. The houeing shortage in Severo..Donetek way acute. Although the ? town was built at 'a rapid pace, the population increased ranter than living places could be procured for them. I 'familiars on several occaoionn move into placen even before the windows and doors were finished. To our surprise these hasty tenants were not eviotedo They would,have been prevented from moving in if they had been caught ,$:r4 the precees,'but once they were installed they were left alone. 5X1 16: 5X1 Movements wore strictly eupervieed in Sev-To.Donetek. Vico qyatell of supervision wasp as ip true everywhere in the Soviet territOr7, cin of increasing severity. I let first permitted to . go to Rubeehnove, auch vinite were later strictly forbidden.I ? Wee 'banned from the must bank of the Donets, and wero not allfated to gate the river without a guard. This, however, was one of the .regulational Idinre arded oonstantly and without any 141 4af. The only rebuke I I received was delivered by our - okalomMamdant when we cz'oated a near public riot by appearing in short troll?A9VP,I Ishookod the Soviets, and were admoniched to dress .,.i.morp. :decently honoeforthl 17..:;11 detail, he !ayout of the SeverO?Donetsk area to an fel3,er/0 476. . Enclosure. al: ? (1) The administration Building of the Bevero-Donetsk plant A. two- story, whitish gray limestone building, finished in May 1949, whE.16 the German scientists worked_ The entrance was at the corner, and rooms were located on both sides of a middle cor'zidcro Coin east, the order' of the rooms on the left aide ' -0 s; ao Office?of.the Eeenotic Dire;,Aon;, Zhuk, was the anteroom) b. Office' of the Chief 6f-fersonne1:'ar.d. (name unknown) Ge (Next to hie offies Department of !Aber Library (throe rooms). It was directed by Mrs llikitsnko prior to the fall of 1949, awl later by the wire of the Plant Idapacer, Villenevl 'Mrs villeeov did a remarkably ,good job or oateloguing.iri an orderly manner the largo 'amount of material contained therein. The library Sono tamed a largo number of the books taken from &nano, an4 the majority of the books removed from the nitrogen, oar. bide and cellulose plant at Fieeteritz (Saxony). In addition, it had a great number of foreign and Russian books on ohemistry, engineering, metallurgy, building, and teehAm 122,:=1 Among the chemical periodicalol *Analytical Chemistry*, "Industrial Engineer;ng Chemistry?, "Chemie et Industries, and the nentehee 'Zontralblatt fuer Chortle". The entrance .to the library was through the middle room, One of the rooms was fUrim 'rushed as a reading room. thP tntal numbeW pf volumes in the library to have been about 2000. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 5X1 5X1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 SECRET/SECURITY INF.'RMATION -5- d. Photographic laboratory. On a. 25X1 the right side of the east wing- gore the following roomet Work room for the Gorman scientists. nut to- gether into one room, which was advantageous when given oolleotivo assignments. b. Office for Placement of Labor. c. Small construction room. This was used only by engineere belonging to the GIAP who wore ocoupied with problems con- cerning the operation of the plant. At the outset their equipment was very primitive; at the time of or departure, however, they had genuine drafting tables. 1 _loon- tact with them was when they directed some questions concerning brown oxide catalysts. Their chief was Goth. d. Ozalid reproduotion room. e. Office of Kravzova (female), head of the Personnel Section. f. Office of the Secretariat of the Konsomolis (VLKSM). On the right siLe of the south wing were the following rooms* a. Branoh office of the GIAP. b. Bookkeeping and Accounting Office. c. Cashier's office. d. Chief of the Finance Department. e. Archives. Contained all construction plans and blue prints. This material was aeoret, and only a few perLons were ad- mitted there. On the left Biel? of the south wing the fol- lowing roommi a. Office oonneoted with the banking operations of tke plant. This office was also responsible for the publL?thirg of the production and building quotas and the announcement of quota changes. b. Offices of the Planning Department (middle of the Wing). c. Office of the First Department. This Department, headed by Suchin, was responsible for security, and was genera4z be- lieved to be part of the MVDI 1 On the second story the following rooms were located on the left side of the east wingt a. Part of the corridor was partitioned off; offices were located in the partitioned area. b. Main Planning Office. c. Anteroom of the office of the Plant General Manager, ?Mosey. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 1111111111111111.111MMERSIIIMSIMISSILIMMAKIIIIIIIIMMEMIRMEMM 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 (2) Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -6- Villonov'e office (three windows faced the main street, and one fuoed the aide street), en the ric:ht side of the east wing, second floor, wore located the following roomes a. Office of the Department of Power Supply, headed by Ryabin. !informed that he wan at Lourm after the war to study the power inetallationo there. b. Offioo of the head engineer for building end construction, Oogin. On the let aide of the south wing, second floor, were the fol- lowing rooms a. Office of the Recorder and Registrar (occupied by typists). b. Two roome belonging to the Oonstruction and Drafting Depart- ment. This department wi;.s headed by Mrs,Logyinyanko. I not know the nature of the construction plans drafted there. o. A drafting room in which only engineers worked. On tho richt side of the second floor corridor (south wing) there west 41.? Office of the Chief of Oonetructions, Mastorov. b. Makarovis office, the Chief of Production. Makarov did not come to Sovero-Bonetek until May 1950. iMe had been at Leuna for a lonz time, and spoke German Suitnvrell. He was the only man who had imagination as far ao-our assignments wore concerned, and who took a vivid interest in the progress of our work. He visitod=evez7 day to get some information,. or to daoouss a point of interest. He had a sense of humor, A rare trait in a Soviet., o. Office of Yovtushenko, the chief of the draftsmen who were working in the room across the corridor. The drawings they made were mostly of cranes, dredges, power shovels, etc. The interpreter, Baril, was also in this room. Police Roadquarters. There were about a donee policemen eta. tionod there. They were members of the MOB, and were, according to the inooription on the building, a detachment of the Lisi- chanek Militia. (304)0anteene for laborero who were employed outside the plant. Be- %noon 100 and 150 workers were fed there. Office of R3okkeeping and Acoounting. This office was furnished wit's International Business Machines taken from Leuna. Sinoo =rah 1951 the offioo was headed by Boric' Konstantinovitoh Shovuov, who had been our commandant for a long and arduous time. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 (6) '(7) Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00050077000 SECRET/SECURITY INPORMATION -7- Central telephone +switchboard. Telephone oonneotiono within the town and to the plant were made by means of a dial syetem. Long distance oalla could be made, but took a vary long time, often ceveral houro. Even a connection to Rubeehnoyo might take one or two houre. The connectione for the plant manager'e offioe were not made through thin owitchboard, Villesov had hie own die. root wire to Loecowa and a more efficient long distanoe cervices In the Administration Building the telephones could only be used far official businees. The German acientiots dil not have a telephone. The central teleahone switchboard wao to be moved to another building zro (lel% The Personnel Section had al- ready partly movod into thia building, and it planned to tak0 over completely as soon aa the new telephone center was finiohede Booidea containing the telephone owitohboard, this building sees* houeod a radio receiving otation. A large receiving antenna sraii erected on the roof. This otation picked up radio Moiscow and . "piped" it throughout the area. By merely plugging your set into the radio wall socket, one could listen to the programa. ORS (Workers' Supply Division) hoadquarters for Severo-Donetok. The ORS is an organizaeion:which ia attached to a plant, pro- ductive cell:Opine, or government office to furnish it with food.. stuffy ane/or buildingemeterials and fuel. Almost every large plant has ouch-an ORS organization attaohed to it. The ORS for SeverooDonotee the vicinity of Lemberg, and wags an area consisting of wood o and oultivoSod fields. In addition, ORS operates a fishing boat flotilla in the Aeov Sea for the purpose of supporting the plant. The produce of this area by. ' peoloes the Central Distribution Mateo in Moscow, being ohan- nelod directly .to Severo-Donetak. The food and the wood ooming. froe ehe'ORS in shipped to the plant by truck. Only the emo ' ployeen of the Sovero-Donetsk Plant were ontitled to the con- sumption of thd goode brought in by the ORS. The transportation eid not alwaye function well, and hence delivery by ORS was not. POMO:dared very reliable. Saohot was in charge of the ORS. eee (0). Hotel belonging to the plant administration. The rooms wore very small. It contained :some 60 to 80 rooms. (e) An apprentice sohool. It esao completed in the fall of 1950, and uan apparently to be furnished with work benches. By the timel lay 1951, however, the school was not in operation. (10) Public) bath. This included four or five rooms with tubs, also shower rooms and two swimming poolo. (11) Construction and electrical engioeering firm for the plant. There was no indication am to what firm it Was. The building was two-storied, and was built in a square about 12-14 M. (12) Old bekeTY. It is a small ,Plant, the production of which in no longor sufficient for the.population'of Severo-Donotok. It 0411 ' at the most produce broad for 10,000.. people, while Severo-Donotak has more than 50,000.e The building looks grimy from the outsides - It hap a small shoot iron chimney right next to the building. ? (15)' New telephono center. The building was started in 1948, but was not finished at the time we loft. The interior inotallations had not boon started then. Tho building in two-otoriod, and about 11 m square. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/Q1 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 :3ECRET/SECURITY INF0RN4TION -e- (14) Public club. This club, open to everybody, has a movie hall, library, music room, amateur theater, and all kinds ef cultural entertainment. The club belongs to the plant, and ii'alwaY4 very crowded. (L5) The old hotel. It is a one-story structure having about.:50 rooms With few modern conveniences. It is operated by the plant. (16) Repair and Maintenance Office. Byelo-Zerkovaky is the chief of ? this office which serves the entire community. Here living ? quartera are allocated, fuel distributed, and repair men die. patohod. There are only two lockemithe for the community, and the service is usually slow and ineffioient. (17) Stores (markets), There were two storee dealing in foodstuffs and one which handled "industrial goods". Industrial goods included ouch things as textiles, shoes, toys, and hardware. Almoet all the trading of the town is done here. Beside p this oompound, there were only two other stores and some wooden huts ? which sold merchendiee. Sometime the stores remained open until 11 o'olock at night. The eupply of "industrial goods" was vary uncertain; nail,sorews and bolts were not available until the end of 1950, and even then were not fully etookod. Behind these Ettore', was a storage depot; at the west corner was a little tavern with tablet; where one oould get beer or vodka. (lq) Market hall (and behind it, market stands). The meat counter was located loft frem the entranoe. The peasants stand at the pntranoe selling their produce. Most people would haggle over the prices, which varied coneiderably among the farmers. Ex- prioaoe proved, however, that the more expensive goods were better in quality. There was always a shprtage of potatoes, and sugar was not procurable until late in 1950, I ohaeed collectively and had an agreement with the manager of the tore to sot aide some foodel I Such agreements were not permitted by =Msuperiors; they wanted to isolate the German group as much as possible. They also forbadeI 1 di- rect touch with any offices; the only ohannel permitted was through commandant. (ip) Public kindergarten. A two-story building which existed before the war. People who have official employment are virtually forced to bring their children to the kindergarten. This ex- cludes servant girls, einoet they are privately employed. There was also a rule that a child may not go to the kindergarten if only one of the pa-rents is working. Usually both parents employed since a family cannot exist on the salary of one person. (20) Officee of the City Council, mayor, and civil register. Town officials hold office for a period of four years, and are eleoted by secret vote. The only flaw in the voting procedure is that there is only the provision to say "yes" to the list of names presented on the ballot! On public holidays this building did not dieplay the Soviet red flag with hammer and sickle, but only the blue and red flag of the Ukraine. (21) New Administration Building for the TREST. Tho TREK' in the or- ganization in charge of building reoidenoes in the town. This sets the TREST entirely apart from the organization in oharge of the plant buildingn at Sovero.Donetsk. There is a separate of. Lice for the allocation of living quarters for members of the TREST. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00050073g33-1 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -9- (22) New bakery. This building, unfinished when I left, was to be four stories high. (23) Garage for the TREST. This area was surrounded by barbed wire. The parking space could hold about 200 trucks. There were also some passenger cars and a half dozen jeeps. The trucks were used primarily for the transport of materials, but on ucasion would also transport passengers. On the parking lot were some wooden buildings serving as repair shops. The tools for ropair work were often difficult to obtain. There did not appear to be any storage of gasoline on this lot. Gasoline was delivered in barrels and dispensed by means of hand-operated pumps. Be- tween the garage and the railway line dismantled Leuna equip- ment was lying in the opon. (24) Foodstuff warehouses. A railway siding leads to these bui/dings. There Wag an elootrio wire to the refrigeration house a/. The other buildings evidently did not have eleotrio refrigera- tion. The refrigeration building was built into the ground. (25) Storage place for the Repair and Maintenance Offioe Lig. we eould see here a great number of plumbing appliances including bath tubs. (26) Coal and wood storage. The square marked "A" locates the place where opal for the plant is stored. This storage is supervised by the Repair and Maintenance Office (ATK). The coal and wood for the TREST was located in square "B". The ATK coal wad of poor quality; it crumbled eastly, fell through the grill of the ovens, and was therefore useleas for heating purposes. The TREST coal was rumored to be an anthraoite. (27) Silos for building materials (possibly oement). They are of stone and are about 15-17 m high and about 7 m in diameter. (28) Storage for building materials (except lumber). Here, in this area, are small sheds in which glass, bricks, metal frames, etc., were kept. (09) Tar storage tanks. Tar for asphalt used in road construction and repair is stored in tanks whioh are built into the ground. There were three or four tanks, eaoh having a volume of about 50 obm. Until May 1951 the tanks were not filled. (30) Railway ctation for the passenger traffio to Rubeshnoye. For- merly there were two trains in the morning and two trains at night to and from Rubeshnoyel later there was just one train operating according to schedule. There are three or four tracks at the station, and during the day there is a small amount of shunting going on. About 150 m north of the station the track crosses a wooden bridge over a h..-ook. Aoross the traoke from . tho station was a small coal pile to fuel the train engines. AlOng the ?4raoka was a large amount of dismantled Lemma equip- ment. Directly opposite the station are several large distil- lation ?alumna which do not serve any apparent purpose. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 ? 25X1 JI.CRET/iTURITI IEFORITION -10- (31) Brick factory. The '1-ricks were made of lime sandstone which was srobabl.y found in quarries just across the Donets River. The stones were shipped to the factory by rail, arriving in blocks about twice tha size of ?nets head. In the area, which was about 70 in square, stood four kilns, two of which were installed in 1950. Each kiln operated automatically, stood 17 m high, and measured 5 m in diameter at the bottom and 4 m at the top. The product was a regular brick but was not fire-resistant, and therefore could only be used for the outside of the plant build- ings. Some 40 to 50 people worked each shift in this factory. It operated day and night. The briok was used not only for the Severo-Donetsk area, but was shipped as far away as Rubeohnoye. The kilns were fired with coal. (32) Wood workshop (DOK = wood plant) of the TREST. This was an area about 70 by 100 in which was surrounded by a wall. Logo were lifted from the other side of the road which skirts the north wall and were channeled at a height of approximately 6.m into the area. The timber reputedly came from Lemberg. Within the area were eawmille, and wood shops containing lathes., shapers, 5X1 planing machines, etc. I la machine repair shop was also located in this area. The only things visible from the street, however, were a,number of sheet iron ohimneye. (33) (34) (35) Site for the proposed main laboratory. I lin May 1251 the steam shovels were still working, and the building of the outer walls had not even been started. The atrOet to the plant was still under construction. Waer. tower. This structure, probably intended for the water supply of the town, was not quite completed in May 1951. It was built o' ooncrete, stood about 20 in high, was 10 in in diam.. ()ter, and 'had windows. Garage of. the ATK'(plant administration). The building looked like an ,ordinary garage, but had no roof. Ae a result, all oars parked therein actually stood in the open. The garage could aeoommoda:te from 50 to 60 trucks. Trucks were used almost ex.! elusively to bring the workers to the plant. There was some . gasoline mtorage here, and a small repair shop. The road north of the garage was paved i to the south of the garage its surface was of hard-packed sand. (36) Repair and Building Department. This installation was somewhat similar to the DOK of the TREBT. It probably belonged to the ATK. It contained carpenter shops, smithies, and machine shops. Sidorov was the head of the installationt.and Baetiehkin was the head of the smithy. The latter had barred windows to prevent burglars from entering. Some lumber was stored in this area. (37) Storage of the dismantled Leuna equipment. We never got close enough to this equipment to identify many of the individual . pieces. One oould, however, see some boilers (the type that produce 50 tone of steam per hour). Not only individual pieces of equipment were stored there, but sometimes entire installa- tions. We oould oleo identify transformere. We heard that not only maohines, but all typeaof apparatus were stored in the open field. We could not ascertain if any of the equipment was ever moved from the fields. ,Tho entire area was closely guarded by a special plant guard. These guards wore dark blue or black uniforms and, in winter, brown. military coats. There were 50 to 60 men in the detachment which guarded this equipment. Dogs ac- companied them while they wore on duty. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 (38) Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770635X11 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -11- Smokestack. This was completed in the late summer of 1950 as a part of the boiler house of the power plant. It was about 110 m high and buil of a lignt-colored stone, possibly lime- stone. Red warning lights for airplanes marked the top. The. erection of a second smokescack was planned. . (39) Diagonal coal conveyor installation. The steam boiler installa- tion was presumed to be in the immediate vicinity. It could not be seen from the outside, however. The only thing we know definitely is that it was not finished in Bay 1951. Of the coal conveyor system, only the diagonal elevator was visible. The area of the installation was 30 by 50 in. (40) Installation with steel towers standing beside each other. This installation resembled the Leuna high-pressure washing plants where synthesis gas was washed with copper solution to remove the carbon monoxide. The towers were visi-ole from the outside; there were about a dozen of them next to the building. Eaoh was about 12 in high with a diameter of 50 cm. I 5X1 'copper solution pressure pumps would be located inside the building to pump the solution into the oolumns. (41) Large machine hall. This etruoture (about.. 20 by 60 m) looked like a building which houses compressors or circulation :pumps. l!he roof collapsed in July t..,..Auguat 1949, but the structure was firmlly repaired. It had a corrugated roof of asbestos or eternit.(fireproof material). (42) Off-gas tubo of ammonia oxidation. This was a vertical tube made of V-2A steel, 100 M high and 1200 mm in diameter. It was" aupported by a cylindrical, cage-like, iron structure which ta-. pored toward the top, and reached to about of the total height. of the tube. The tube and its support stood on 'a heavy founda-, tion of concrete. Near the tube must have been the ammonia oxidation ple71+ which was not, however, visible from the outside-. The tube omitted nitrose vapors indicating that the plant we in operation. It started operations in the middle of January 1951. (43) Ammonia evaporation plant and absorption and drying towers for the produotion of ammonium nitrate. This building was shaped like a rectangular hall with a penthouse. In the latter, the evaporated liquid ammonia was channeled into the absorption towers and sprayed with nitric acid. The reacted mixture was then dried with air as it descended, arriving at the bottom as ammonium nitrate crystals. Only the roof of the building and the superstructure were visible from the outside. The roof of the superstructure was about 40 in high. The absorption towers wore built of brick, and were ap- proximately 30 in high and 10 in in diameter. The towers were built very oloee to each other so that there were no gape be- tween any of the structures. (44) Large warehouses. There were several of these structures which may have been used for storage or workshops. They wore single- story stone buildings with simple steel trues roofs. They had large gates in front. Each was numbered with a Roman numeral, 5X1 J Next to these buildings were large coal piles (coke) and machine parte. SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500F693-1 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -12- A light-colored, brick building, about 12 in high and 25-30 in long, surrounded by a wall. This is probably a transformer house, since there are masts for electric wires on its flat roof. The high tension line from the Don Soda plant ends here. This line consists of four cables strung over wooden masts. The masts on the roof are made of iron; the insulators are disc- shaped. (46) Open ditch. This was apparently to be used to channel waste waters to the Donets. The ditch was open up to approximately 20 in from the wall of the plant. It was a V-shape (wide- angled), approximately 3 in deep, and about 6 in wide from rim The sides were lined with stone. 1 1 the waste waters did not nearly fill it. The ditch rune n a straight c-,urse to the river, wheva it flows into a pipe pointing' downstream. (47) Proposed pipeline. ,This was to be uei to nunp water to the plant. At the timel lit did not reach the plant. There were two pipe lines parallel to each other, each having a diameter of about 1-1.20 in (48) New building. This may be the pump house, but in my opinion it would too small for that purpose. The pipeline leading from this building to the plant had not been covered at the 5X1 time I I-The road crossed over it. Gas tanks. 49A was finished in May 1951, while 4911 was still 5X1 being constructed. !whether or not a third founda- tion was oast. The finished tank was 12 in in diameter, 15 in high, and had a capacity of approximately 1500 cbm. the others, when completed, will have similar dimensions. They were.moot likely for storage of the gas used for the ammonia synthesis. The tanks were of the liquid seal expansion variety. (50) Plant Security and Guard Rouse. This is a one-story, stone barrack where the guards lived. They wore black or dark blue uniforms having a kind of Russian blouse with no rank insignia. 5X1 They came,' !under the command of the plant management, but it might be that they were a part of the First Department. These guards, which included some women, performed guard duty in and about the plant, such as at the gate, at the bridge over the brook north of the station, and in some of the buildings.. They were always frmed with antiquated weapons, mostly rifles. 5X1 1 heir numbers would total somewhere between 50 and 80 persons. The commander of the guard prior to March 1951 ended his career by being sent to jail for stealing. (51) Enclosure for watch dogs. This includes a small house to acoom- modate bitches in time of confinement. Of the 50 to 70 dogs kept here, 25 to 50 were trained for regular guard duty. It is quite common in the USSR to surround plants with a double fenoe of barbed wire and then have dogs to run between them. Only a small number are pure-bred shepherd doge; the others are mongrels with very fierce tempers. (49) SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 25X1 rimunimmaimatemenissimumilummunimmummi Appro'ved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770253c1 MET/SECURITY INFORMATION -13- (52) Airport. This was a field about 400 by 600 m. A windsock flew at the southeast corner. 7:41ere were two or three shacks, but no hangars. Three U-2 planes, used for passenger transport to Voroshilovgrad, were ever-present at the field. The trip to Voroshilovgrad took 40 minutes and cost some 100 rubles. These planes belonged to the plant, and were dispatched by order of the plant manager. There was no regular schedule. Since there were no gasoline tanks at the field, gasoline for the planes was brought to the field by truck in 50-liter barrels when needed. There were no paved runways; the planes took off and landed on the grass. During flood time the airfield would be inundated and an area south of the town had to be used for landiug. (53) Three small bridges crossing small water courses. These bridges were rebuilt using iron and concrete spans starting in the fall of 1950. Only the middle one was still unfinished in May 1951. While the construction was under way, vehicles loft the highway and drove beside the street on field paths. Old bridge (destrcyed). Only the stone pillars are.visible in the water. Pontoon ferry boat. The ferry consisted of a platform on three pontoons. It operated with a Diesel engine, and would carry oars and trucks when the Donets was flooded and the bridge closed. 04) '( 55) ,(56) New bridge. This was constructed with wooden planks laid on pon. loons with railings along the sides. The bridge would carry 4 tons safely. The approach from both sides was .steep and danger- outs. When the river was flooded, the aide rails were removed and the bridge was prepared for being inundated. C(57) Passenger fe-ry boat. A rowboat having a capacity of -6-8 persone. (5.8) Grain shed. This structure, open on all aides, was ueed for grain storege The grain was kept in seeks, which is a rare practice in the USSR. (59) Gasoline and oil storage. Gasoline and oil was kept in tanks above the ground. There were five in all, each having an .approxi- mate capaPity of 30-35 cbm. (60) Lieiohanak railroad station. . (61) Passenger ferry boat (rowboat). (62) Stagnant arm of the Donate River (called the "Coffee Bean"). There was a pump house here which pumped water through a 20 cm pipeline to Leanaya Datoha, a large Kolohoae (colleotive farm) about 3-4 km to the eoutheast. all of the buildings standing in the 'areal-especially the eastern part of the oompound, have not been enu- merated above. The latter is pretty well filled with buildings, but the surroundingwall, which is approximately 6 in high, prevents iden- tification. The plant is apparently expand4ng toward the north. The road which now leads from the town to the Donota River is to be elim- inated and a now road, which was under construction led from the town along the southern boundary of the plant to the river bridge. 19. The length of the plant by the north road, I estimate to be about 1.2 km, on the west side, approximately 300 in, and on the east side, 600 in. The surrounding wall is crowned on all corners with watch- towers which not manned during the day. -end- ENCLOSURE (A) Site Layout - Severo-Donetsk Area SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 25X1 11111111111/1111EMMINIMMINIIMMININIMEMMIIMMISMil 5X1 Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 NOT SUITABLE FOR MICROFILMING HARD COPY ON FILE Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 BRIOMMINOMMIIINIONNIIIMONIMINAIMOMMMORNIONNI Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1 NOT SUITABLE FOR MICROFILMING HARD COPY ON FILE Approved For Release 2005/06/01 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500770003-1