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Document Creation Date: 
December 15, 2016
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January 23, 2004
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September 27, 1951
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Approved For Release 2004/02/10 4180-00809A000600010062-8 __ PIASSIFICATION SECREf7 1 CENTRAL. INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT USSR/Germany (Soviet Zone) 7 1. Training and Mant-uvers of the 23rd Tank Regiment 9th Tank Division. Preliminary Military Training in the USSR. 25X1 DATE DISTR. ; 7 Sep 51 NO. OF PAGES 4 NO. OF ENCLS. 3 (LISTED BELOW) (A), (B) & (C) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. .t Ttt u.,,,. IT?Tt.. t1TI.It Ttt . ?.I t..t TI T\t It. ttcylall\ 7tt ?.. 714, at ltt u ('..tl ? ?.tt.tt. IT\ ?t.l.\l.? . . \?TIIt 11 ITt C..Ttt Tt T tCtltT 1? ? .tll1. f tilt tt.tltl N. tt \?t. Ttt .tit..ut Tl.t .t ttlttt.t. tt tt.tl tl Ttt. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION 25X1 25X1 FORM NO. 51-40 JAN 15101 The training of the 23rd Tank Regiment at its winter quarters, from December 1949 to April 1950, was divided into three stages, The first was devoted to individual training, i.e., radiomen were instructed in firing, assembly and disassembling of guns, nomenclature, eto, drivers were instructed in the maintenance and operation of tanks; the motorized infantry units were given instructions in grenade throw- ing, target practice, observation and tactics. The second stage emphasized squad training of the motorized infantry troops, The third training stage was done on platoon and company levels, 2. Prior to departure for summer camp, troops carried out simulated attacks, break- throughs of enemy strong points? bivouacs and forced day and night movements. In the suuuner quarters, from April. to September 1950, training prot;ro;sad to regimental alid d isi.c:ll 1 - ; da I=, v 1- - -.....~, ~ u ___ _y schedule o the coc.ni.y, pla Leon officers and enlisted mon of the 23ru Tank Regiment at their summer trai.ning quarters as follows. 0600 06050625 0625-0635 0635-0700 0700-0900 0900-0930 0930-1530 1530-1600 1600-1645 1645--1845 1845-2000 2000-2030 2030.2130 2130-2200 -2200 was approximately the same as the summer schedule except were an hour later.. Political information lectures wore Reveille physical training preparing for inspection inspection training (classes) breakfast training (classes) rifle training dinner training (classes) free time supper political rallies roll call taps Siok call wa:4j at 1700. Guards were posted at 1800. CLASSIFICATION SECRET SE Chit that reveille and taps given daily. On Saturdays Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-8 The winter training schedule Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-8 3 MIRK T Waif 0 all troops reported for technical inopco;.ion; after 1600 on Saturdays and all day Sunday they were free. Ten hours of daily training were divided into technical specialty training, clone order drill, lectures, stripping, ansembly, nomenclature of weapons, etc. I hove no infor,wation on tho total number of hours devoted to oa^,h subjoct. 3. The platoon NCUs conducted the training, under the supervision of the platoon and company commanders but the battalion coranander freglently inspected the progress of training. Tho regimental commander, his chief of staff, the regimental political officer and various other staff oficors inspected the training weekly or bi-woekly. All units and a'1 types of trainng were inspected annually by the _dinistry of iirioed Forces in doccow. In ray opinion the two most outstanding training deficien- cies were the poor methods of instruction, often by unqualified instructors, end the shortage of training equipment. Tank training was hindered by the fuel con- sorvation program which precluded the use of more than six tanks to train the entire re iment. The firing, training norms prescribed by the iliristry of Armed Forces were established at a level too low to permit proper instruction. 4. in 1950, the 23rd Tank Regiment conducted a course for 1COs which lasted six months. The students, (Kursanty), were picked from well-disciplined, educated and politically reliable NCOs. The instructors wer?: corapeny grado officers who taught close order drill, tactics, leadership, the use of weapons, etc. Upon graduation, the students .-Tere pro;noted to the rank of junior sergeant and assigned duties within the regiment. he only spocializod school for now inductees was the six months chauffeur school of the 9th Tank Division. In order to acquaint tl& troops with ni,*ht operations, the 9th Tan. Division, interch:,nged its day and night schedules. All chemical training was defensive. There was no training for defense a ainst atomic attack. I observed neither airborne nor air transport operations. Great stress is placed on artillery support and tank-infantry coopera- tion. i have no infor;uation on spy special training for air-ground support, new antitank weapons, and the tactical use of now weapons. 5. The 73rd Tank degimont moved from Occhatz to the s mmer training area near oohmorkau, a distance of approximately one hundred lens, in April. The movement was conducted as a large scale motor move, combining eormnand post exercise and bridging operations. The coaunand post exercises of the staff officers involved mapping, defining of missions, etc. Each officer at the command post had his organizational function, i.e., the Chief of POL determined the amount of fuel needed for an operation, how it was to be transported etc. The troop officers studied problems involving the combat mis, on, enemy positions, enemy power, casualties, weapons and replacement. I observed no particular officer or NCO leadership training programs nor training courses in passive defense, blackouts, radar nuts, etc. P.mergehcy alerts are used for training purposes. Actual war- time omergency alert plans existed. A wartime emergency -an be declared only by a divisional commander or a higher ranking officer. Upon the declaration of such an emergency, prepared plans, one for the summer and one fur the winter areas, becomes effective. Those pla:.s incl?r. arrangements for transportation of troops, tanks, guns, vehicles, supplies and equipment to a designated position in a forost approximately five or six kilometers from the regular training area. Drivers a?e assigned to the trucks by noise and four or five men are designated to load the tr;,:kn. Antitank, chemical, air defense, security, reconnaissance, ranl;v f'_ndir,g mf,asures an: tank and run movements are prescribed in detail. The 23rd Tank do-;imont effected a simulated emergency in .lay 1951; the degimont and all other units of the 9th Tank Division were alerted and moved to their designated areas. 6. The entire First Mocz Arm ?ras located in the area between Koenigsbrueck and Schwepnitz / nclosuro (A/. Five officers and 65 cnlistod men were loft behind In Uschatz. Inc rogira:nt took only an such ammunition as would be needed for practices to their summer training quarters. The tanks (33 T-34/65s, 8 JS-3S and one tank wrecker), accompanied by thoir crews, were driven '?o the railroad station, ;,ut on platform cars, and shipped to Schmorkau. In Schmorkau the tanks were driven to the seminar training area, lubricated, stored on planks and covered with canvas until the time of the return trip to Osohatz. Food supplies and olothia;; were also moved by rail. Personnel and equip.aont of the regiment were transported by trucks; each truck carried equipment and approximately 16 men. The convoy f the 23rd Tank Regiment consisted of approximately P7 trucks, six training tanks, (one J5-3, five T-34/35), and one tank wrecker. Thu rail movement en!;ailed ~ EPui d Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA RD 80-00809A000600010062-8 3ECREU' 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-8 SECRET 0 25X1 the use of GO railroad cars; 24 for the lst Tank 3n, 24 for the 2nd Tank Bn, and 12 for the 3rd (Hvy) Tank Bn. The 60 cars included platform cars for the tanks and passenger cars for the tank crows. 7. Since the move was treated as a tactical problem, the Regiment Practiced day and night driving, bivouacs, attacks on enemy positions, breakthroughs and defensive combat. Three days were required for the true: column and for the railroad convoy to make the move. There were no major mechanical breakdowns or accidents enrcute. German civilian guards, hired to guard the huts and houses in the summer area, were the only personnel present in the summer training area prior to the arrival of the 23rd Tank Regiment. The 8th Moos Rifle Regiment was housed in 'tents; all other units were housed in huts or ;louses. Ordinarily, the 88th Meez Rifle Regiment remained in Geithain for the summer, but their quarters were converted into barracks for the Volkspolizei, and no permanent huts or houses had been erected for them. There were no bathing facilities in the area; every ten days the troops were marched to the lake to bathe. 8. Recreational facilities were open-a1: movies on Saturday and Sunday, and club rooms, (Loninskye Komnaty), in each battalion. 'Football matches were hold on Saturday afternoon and athletic and gymnastic tournaments were held on Saturdays or Sundays. Training in the summer area consisted of regimental and divisional team work, and command exercises for the staffs. Enlisted men were not permitted to move from their unit area and were not allowed to visit friends in neighboring unite. Officers were not permitted to leave the area except on business. The officers requested and usually received permission to go to 5chmorkau to have +heir clothes laundered or shoes repaired; at such time they would aleD drink and fraternize. Fraternization, AWOL and drunkenness was usually punished by 10 days confinement in the guardhouse. 9. In June 1950, the 23rd Tank jiegrirnent conducted a 15-day maneuver. All services, except paratroops and glider troops, were represented and I would estimate that approximately one-third of all the Soviet Troops in the Soviet Zone participated. I do not believe that the units pooled their weapons, equipment or manpower. JS-3 and T-34/85 tanks, JSU-122 and SU-100 SPs, AA artillery (Caliber Unknown), 120-mm .411d 160_ ;, rtnrtors. 1;-'0-mm AT guns, bridging equipment and bomber and fighter planes .ere included in this :;aneuver9 All the moves male by the tie;im rt motorized. I believe that the maneuvers covered the entire Soviet Zone of Germany end were designed as a propaganda measure to counteract the effect of the combined US-UK-French maneuvers which were conducted at the same time In the Western Zones of Germany. My function was to draw up plans for the food supply movements and depots. The only air raid defense measures known to me were radar installations near the 12th Mechanized Division Headquarters in Brest, and the Air Warning Service (VOS), in the Soviet Zone of Cermary and in Brest. 10. The chief sources of complaints in the summer training area were lack of freedom, the stringent restrictions and poor food. The enlisted men were dissatisfied with the leave, system; leave was granted only in cases of emergency. The high desertion and AWOL rates reflected the low morale of the troops. There were usually about 10 to 12 r..en c oni'ined in the guardhouse of the 23rd Tank Regiment. The of,fenses were usually drunkenness or fraternization. In cases of chronic offenders',.frater- nizers were eourtmartialed and returned to the USSR. -runkenness was very prevalent despite efforts to curb it. General Chuikov, in a 1 May 51 order, prohibited the sale of beer, whiskey and all other alcoholic beverages to military personnel. Another corrootive measure employed was an acceleration of the political indoctrination programs. I know of three officers and two enlisted men who had venereal diseases ; I have no information regarding the prevalence of venereal diseases since most officers treated themselves privately and many enlisted men did nqt rep:)rt their infections. The disparity in the policies and practices applying to the enlisted men and officers were greatly resented among the enlisted personnel. These ciis.arities occurred in matters of leave, living quarters, food allotment`s, disciplinary restrictions, medical care, etc. 11. The return to winter quarters in late September 1950, posed many problems. During the mive, which took three days,the troops conducted field problems involving the attack of enemy strong points, breakthroughs, coordinated motorized and tank borne infantry operations, bivouacs, and night actions. A11 tanks, except six training tanks, wore returned to the winter training areas by rail. When the Approved For Release 2004/02/10 1 1 T80-00809A000600010062-8 SECRET i~ Ldp Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-8 SECRET 0 Regiment returned to winter quarters, tanks and guns were lubricated, barracks were repaired and maintenance crews worked in the compound area preparing for the next training cycle. The training programs remain the same from year to year. The :schedules do not call for advanced training. 12. No soviet troops or equi ment were left in the summer training area. German civilians guarded the permanent installations in the training area during the winter. ivory 10 days or two weeks, officers of the 9th Tank Division inspected the summer training area. 13. A critique was held at the end of the maneuver at which only officers participated. The 23rd Tank iiegimont held no final maneuvers in the fall of 1950. 14. I can furnish +he following information covering preliminary military training in the USSR. A basic instruction program is administered to school acre groups. A general compulsory military training school, conducted in organized training classes and under the ausiices of the regional military commiosariat, exists for underage persons. Tho purpose of the military school is to combine general education with military fundamentals. In these schools, students wear military uniforms and are subject to military regimentation. These 10-year courses serve as preparatory courses for students prior to their entry into a military academy of their choice. T:.ose who have completed a course of education in the military schools are obligated to enter a military academy. 15. The Suvorov academies serve as preparation for entry into tho officers corps. Children, 10 years or under, are enrolled in these academies. Boys, whose parents died during the Ccrman occupation form the bulk of the students. Upon completion of the courses at the Suvorov academies, students are sent to military academies, from which they graduate as oft'icors. The military schools and the Suvorov academies differ in that the state supplies Suvorov students with a free education living quarters., food, uniforms and school supplies. Students of the military schools are supplied oily with free tuition. Graduates of either institution are well educated and well trained officers. Predisposing factors which usually led to the young graduates' laxity (morally and culturally) were association with sloe" ~-ffirerg. vr%:o had i)ecurae htirdoned to ti?eir profession_ 16. A final feature of preliminary military training in the USSR is the DOOSA M or Voluntary Society for Cooperation with the Army, (Dobrobolnoye 0bshchestvo Sodeistviya Armii), which both sexes are invited to join. Each registrant becomes a member, is issued a membership card and pays monthly duos. Societ:.es of radio operators; communications specialists; medical instrument technicians; parachutists; expert riflemen; etc. are organized in each branch of the DOSARM. This purpose is to provide amateur military specialists who can be called upon in the oven of war.. ENCLOSUWZE (A) : Summer Training Area of the First :.iecz Army, GOFG (3)x Summer Training Area of the 23rd Tank Regt, 9t11 Tank Div. (C): Legend for Enclosure (B) Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : AEQI'0-00809A000600010062-8 31tiC12ET Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-' ' SECRET SECRET ENCLOSURE (A) 0 Sumner Training Area of' First ,Ieoz Army, GOFG 1, :3C1-G:IOii'AU 2 , C-, f i- -'_. TZ J 4. i;JENIGSBRULCK iioads 6. 4th ii.A Div in I41.USELAGER 6. 9th Tk Div 7. 11th Tk Div 8. 8th 1k Div 9. 8th Meoz idfle Regt 10? 70th livy 3Y i?ogt 11. Engr Bn 12. 108th :k Refit 13 95th Tk k t . o0~ 14. 23d Tk acgt (soe Annex 2 for detail sketch 15. 9th Tk Uiv iiq 16. Ron Bn 17. Mod Bn SECRET R-E Approved For Release 2004/02/10: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-8 25 Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A00060001006W;;qL i iLD"L0JURE (13) SECRET 0 SUIXJ-1 T12AINIiiC iii OF 23d TK RECT, 9th TK DIV d -"t ?--7-r -1C3 ._ -A -% --% r ODDDLDODD luEDDOOU]D- w. nocm 1_23-C= oo-ao Q 17 J I.. 60 Ul CO C.7 c== L ? C:3 Z9 0 u, 25 SECRET Approved For Release 20(t +j0 : CIA-RDP8 00809A000600010062-8 Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA- ~?- 809A000600010062-IF i,, SECRET ~j(C ENCLOSURE (C) Summer Training Area of 23rd Tk Regt. 9th Tk Div Legend 1. Tank storage area 2. Exeroise and drill area 3. Vehicle parking lot 4. Parking lot for training tanks 5. Storage area for 45-mm and 57-mm AT guns (covered with canvas) 6. Regimental headquarters - 20 x 8 in, one story, wood 7. 23d Tk Rogt flagpole, and sentry 8. S-IG, MG, and carbine firing range 9. Pistol range for officers 1.0. AA gun storage area, 50 x 50 m 11. POL storage area, 15 x 10 m, fenced in 12. Llesshall, one story, wooden 30 x 12 in, partly for officers, partly for EM 13. Food storage building, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 14. Clothing storage building, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 15. Artillery repair shop, one story, ::oodun, 10 x 6 m 17. Club, open air with benches and tables 18. Residence of regimental commander, one story, wooden, 10 x 6m 19. Political lecture room, one story, wooden building, 10 x 6 m 20. Residence of 0KR (Counter Intelligence) officer, wooden, one story, 10 x 6 m 21. Voyentorg (Px), one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 22. Billets for enlisted men, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 23. Gun storage sheds, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 24. Lavatories for enlisted men 25. Classrooms for enlisted men, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 26. Motorized Rifle Battalion Headquarters, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 27. Radio station, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 28. Secret Documents Section building, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 29. Divisional -lLudium 3o. F.irinU r and;e for heavy Fur,. 31. Officers' 'billets, one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m 32. Roads 33. Repair shop (tailor, shoemaker), one story, wooden, 10 x 6 m SECRET 25 Approved For Release 2004/02/10 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000600010062-8 ?T?'nRl~'T